XIV.—RECONSECRATION AND RECONCILING OF CHURCHES.
“If the Altar be taken away, let the church be consecrated* anew. If the walls only are altered, let it be reconciled with salt and water. If it be violated with murder or adultery, let it be most diligently cleansed and consecrated anew.” Excerptions of Ecgbriht.
See also Harrington on the Consecration of Churches, pp. 44, 96, 98, 140,
XV.—THE OIL OF CHRISM, THE OIL OF THE SICK, AND HOLY OIL.
These oils were formerly consecrated by the Bishop on Maundy Thursday. The Chrism is a mixture of oil and balsam; the other two are pure oils. The Chrism was used in Baptism, Confirmation, Orders, also at the consecration of Churches, and at the Coronation of the Sovereign. The other two oils were used for the anointing of the Sick, and for the admission of catechumens.
The Chrism ought still to be used in the consecration of churches.
In the Form of Coronation holy oil has been used since the sixteenth century. The form used in consecrating it has not been published. See Mon. Rit.
* See Office for Reconciling of a Church, note *, p. 192.
Vol. III. xxii. This oil as well as the chrism was used at Baptisms; hence called also the holy oil of the catechumens.
The holy oil of the sick under the First Book of King Edward VI. was consecrated by the Bishop of the diocese according to the rite in the English Pontifical. Since that period it has mostly been the custom of the English Priests to consecrate things used in the service of the Church for themselves. The fact is, that all such matters as licensing Penitentiaries, receiving Vows, or using Benedictions of various kinds, were merely as matter of convenience and discipline reserved to the Bishop in mediaeval times. But they are not, nor were ever held to be, essentially parts of his Office. Our Bishops do not claim to do any of these. Consequently they revert to the Priest as inherently within his province. It is a mere matter of order, not of right. A Priest has an inalienable power to consecrate—for he performs the highest sacerdotal act when he says “HOC EST CORPUS MEUM,” and is therefore fully empowered to execute the Priest’s Office whether in respect of Absolution, receiving brothers or sisters, or using sundry Benedictions.
XVI.—THE SACRAMENT OF ABSOLUTION.
During the lesser Sacrament of Penance or Absolution (as the Homily calls it), the Priest will wear a surplice, violet* stole, and either zuchetto or birretta. The penitent will kneel beside the faldstool, or seat on which the Priest sits. At the Form of Absolution, “I absolve thee from all thy sins,” &c., the Priest should stand up and make the sign of the cross towards the penitent, and lay his right hand on the head of the penitent according to the English tradition; or else he should, according to the usage of the West, make the sign of the cross, and then raise the right hand to the height of the shoulder, with the fingers extended and palm towards the penitent.
“Deinde dextera versus poenitentem elevata dicit.” Rub. de Sac. Poen. Rom. Rit.
It seems preferable in absolving to put the right hand or hands upon the head. The sign of the cross should always be made. See Cope and Stretton’s “Visitatio Infirmorum,” for instances of imposition of hands in the case of sick persons—Introduction, p. xciv.
The Blessing should also be given at the same time in this form:—“GOD the FATHER, GOD the SON, GOD the HOLY GHOST, bless, preserve, and keep thee: the LORD mercifully with His favour look upon thee, and bring thee to everlasting life. Amen.”
* “Superpelliceo et stola violacei coloris utatur, prout tempus, vel locorum feret consuetudo.” Rubric. de Sacram. Poenitent. Rom. Rit.
XVII.—A FORM FOR THE ADMISSION OF A CHORISTER.*
¶ At a convenient time before Morning or Evening Prayer, all the members of the choir assemble in the vestry, robed in their proper ecclesiastical habits: and range themselves on their respective sides, “Decani” and “Cantoris” except that the position of the officiating Priest is at the upper end of the room and facing the choir. The boy to be admitted remains outside; all present kneeling down, the Priest shall say:
Prevent us, O LORD, in all our doings with Thy most gracious favour, and further us with Thy continual help; that in all our works begun, continued, and ended in Thee, we may glorify Thy holy Name, and finally by Thy mercy obtain everlasting life; through JESUS CHRIST our LORD. Amen.
Our FATHER, &c.
¶ Then, as previously instructed, the two senior choristers go out, and bring in the Probationer, who vested in cassock coming in, and guided by them, stands in front of the Priest officiating.
¶ Then there shall be read the Lesson.
I Samuel iii. 1—10; and ii. 18, 19.
¶ The Lesson being ended the Priest shall proceed thus, saying:
¶ And then taking the Boy by the right hand, the Priest shall admit him, using this form, the Boy kneeling:——
N. I admit thee to sing as a chorister in ———— In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
¶ Then shall he pronounce this admonition, at the same time presenting him with the Prayer Book, Psalter, and Hymnal, he will use in the choir:—
See what thou singest with thy mouth, thou believe in thine heart, and what thou believest in thine heart, thou prove by thy works.
¶ Then putting the surplice on the new chorister, he shall say:
I clothe thee in the white garment of the surplice, and see that thou so serve GOD, and sing His praises, that thou mayest hereafter be admitted into the ranks of those who have washed their robes, and made them white in the Blood of the lamb, and are before the throne of GOD, and serve Him day and night continually.
¶ Then laying his hand upon the new choristers head, the Priest shall pronounce the Benediction, the boy still kneeling:
The LORD bless thee, and keep thee, and make His Face to shine upon thee and be gracious unto thee, the LORD lift up His countenance upon thee and give thee peace now and for ever. Amen.
* Reprinted by the permission of the compiler, the Rev. F. G. Lee, F.S.A. London: Masters.
¶ The newly-admitted Boy then rising, retires and takes his place among the choristers, upon which the following Psalms are chanted:—
¶ After which these prayers shall be said, all kneeling, the Priest first pronouncing:
¶ Priest. Let us pray.
¶ Then the Priest standing up shall say:
¶ Priest. Let us pray,
Let Thy merciful ears, O LORD, be open to our prayers, and be pleased to bless this Thy Servant, on whom we have placed the garments of Religion in Thy name, that by Thy Grace he may remain devoted to his work in Thy Church, and may inherit everlasting life. O LORD JESU, bless him with all abilities of mind and body, that he may daily increase in his learning: but above all bless him with wisdom from above, and give him Thy holy spirit to assist and enlighten him: that as he grows in age he may daily grow in grace, and in the knowledge of Thee, and in favour with GOD and man, and every day become more and more conformable to Thy unsinning and divine example, Who livest and reignest with the FATHER and the HOLY GHOST, one GOD world without end. Amen.
Almighty and Everlasting GOD by whose spirit the whole body of the Church is governed and sanctified; receive our supplications and prayers, which we offer before Thee for all estates of men in Thy holy Church, that every member of the same in his vocation and ministry, may truly and Godly serve Thee, through our LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST. Amen.
The Grace of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, and the love of GOD, and the fellowship of the HOLY GHOST be with us all evermore. Amen.
¶ Then all rising, the whole choir enter the church in procession. After Service the name of the
new Boy shall be inscribed on the Register belonging to the church, of the boys approved and admitted to sing as choristers therein. And no Boy shall be admitted by this form until he has passed some time in probation, and the Priest is fully satisfied of his good conduct and aptness for the office.
Great caution should be exercised in the use of natural flowers for temporary decorations. As a general rule their use is questionable in any position in which they cannot be kept in water, as it is impossible to prevent their speedy fading and decay,—the appearance, and not unfrequently the smell of which is as actually offensive, as the idea is itself indefensible.
The best means, therefore, of employing fresh flowers is in vases upon the super-altar, (as previously prescribed on festivals and other occasions,) and in other positions, e.g., the top of the rood-screen, parcloses, &c., and growing naturally in flower-pots, by a tasteful arrangement of which in the sanctuary, and especially in the immediate vicinity of the Altar,* a most chaste and dignified form of decoration is attained,—the general effect of which is pleasing in the extreme. The number of vases upon an altar may of course be regulated by circumstances, but the circumstances are rare in which the symmetry is not impaired by the use of more than four: that number harmonizing best with the other ornaments of an altar arranged for the English rite. The cross is, of course, central; the candlesticks should be distant from the cross two-thirds of the whole distance between it and the corners of the altar, and the vases should be placed one on each side of each candlestick. No other arrangement either of more or less gives such unity and dignity to the grouping of the altar.
Though, however, the present English use adheres to the ancient rule of two lights only upon the altar, and though four vases of flowers only are admissible without giving an idea of poverty to the whole arrangement; this necessity by no means prevents the use of as many vases of flowers and lights, as are desired on a series of receding shelves, or retables—temporary or other-wise—behind, and separate from the altar. The employment of this means of decoration is very desirable in the arrangement of our chancels. The necessity of a passage behind the altar has recently been insisted on by both ritualists and architects, and this passage would sufficiently dissever the super-altar from the additional shelves or platforms here recommended. This separation
* One of the most common, and at the same time satisfactory, dispositions of pot flowers is in groups at the corners of the altar, shelving thence to the edge of the foot-pace; and again in a circular group round the bases of standard candlefticks. Small pieces of oil-cloth should be used to place under the pot and saucer, both of which, if not of an ecclesiastical pattern, should be ornamented with moss.
is of course desirable to avoid the appearance of a desire to conceal any supposed paucity in the “ornaments” of an Anglican Altar, which, when arranged as here prescribed and within the limits suggested, yield to the accessories of no other rite in their severe dignity and beauty.
These, then, are the only means of employing natural flowers wholly free from objection, and such employment of them is by no means incapable of general application as many are apt to suppose. Vases of flowers, and even flower-pots, judiciously disposed may be placed in windows, on a rood-loft, in door ways, on steps, and in most parts of a church, where they produce an effect to which no unnatural twisting of mixed flowers into ropes, sheaves or festoons is in any way comparable, and without any of the disadvantage necessarily attending these latter forms of decoration.
Still there may be circumstances in which such a use of evergreens and flowers is the only one open to a sacristan, and to this use of them—as also in some degree to the arrangement of flowers in water or otherwise—the following remarks apply:—
Never mix flowers for church decoration quite indiscriminately, with reference, that is, solely to the collocation as it appears to yourself the decorator, standing in close proximity to your work, or you will certainly achieve nothing but what will appear at a distance a confused dark mass, occasionally relieved by a solitary red or white flower.
Aim at obtaining masses of colour so far as the materials of your decorations admit, and this is even the more necessary in the construction of festoons and wall decorations, than in the arrangement of vases.
Never adhere strictly to the lines of the architecture, as that system of decoration professes which makes holly and laurel run like ivy and vine along horizontal string-courses and round the hood-mouldings of windows. Such an unnatural abuse of foliage only exaggerates and renders painful the lines it professes to illustrate and relieve. Arches and windows are difficult features to treat successfully with extempore decorations, and in those cases where they have any constructional or other colours, it is better to leave their proper beauty unmolested. In any case evergreens are best employed in spiral bands* round pillars, by which they are evidently supported, rather than in arduous struggles to follow impossible lines which afford them no visible support, and consequently are perpetually threatening to fall, as they frequently do.
Spandrils, between the arches of an arcade, may be very appropriately filled with banners, either supported on poles fixed into the wall, or hung flat against
* If box is used, the branches may be tied together upon a piece of wire, with the leaves in one direction; if laurel, the leaves should be sewn with taste upon a ground of green calico.
it. Similarly shields emblazoned with religious devices,—the emblems of the Passion for example,—either with or without decoration of foliage, or even plain wreaths, or devices, honestly nailed up against the wall, may be employed very preferably to those impracticable coils, which only fill the beholder with wonder as to the means by which they attained their position, and by which they are sustained in it.
A large extent of wall, e.g., that of a sanctuary, or chancel may be effectively decorated by a continuous festoon, depending from nails or pegs at intervals in the wall; or better still from rods resting upon the pavement, or even from regulated points in a horizontal rod, such as those which support sanctuary curtains. It is on the construction of these festoons that some remarks seem necessary:—
It is indispensable for any effect that flowers of the same kind and colour be grouped together; as for instance a festoon might be arranged in compartments (say six inches) of RED (roses or geraniums, &c.) then of WHITE, (lilac, pinks, candytuft, or lilies,) then of YELLOW, (daffodils, furze-blossom, &c.), and so on bordered with a narrow band of green leaves, and varied of course at the taste of the decorator. One chief advantage arising from this plan will be found to be that the gradual fading of the flowers will not be so apparent, when they are bound in compact masses of similar form and colour, as when they are promiscuous and isolated. Still, decorations by natural flowers, not placed in water, should never be carried out to such an extent as to preclude the substitution of fresh festoons at intervals, if the decorations are required for any length of time. Nothing is so unseemly or unsightly, or in extreme cases so positively offensive, as decaying vegetation in a church. Evergreens even should not be so extensively used as they frequently are, if the decorators are not prepared to take the trouble of renewing them during the long intervals between Christmas and Candlemas, or the still longer period between Easter and Corpus Christi.
These suggestions on the grouping of flowers apply, as has been said, to the arrangement of flowers in vases.
Still the fundamental difference in the position they are respectively designed to occupy must be borne in mind. Thus, while juxta-position of colour is as necessary for effect in one as in the other, yet the stiffness and conventional treatment, which is a direct advantage in the one case in consequence of the abnormal and unnatural position which the festoons are required to occupy, is to be avoided in the other, in which as much appearance of ease is to be aimed at as is possible.
The practice of fastening upon small pieces of stick the flowers which are subsequently placed in the altar vases, without their having the benefit of the water, which it is the sole purpose of vases to supply them, cannot
be too strongly condemned. If it be difficult to form bouquets for the altar of a sufficient size, it is easy to place a tall and narrow vase inside the metal one which stands upon the altar, which will then give the required height.
With a view, then, of producing the effect of one or two prominent colours in an altar vase, it is desirable to use for the purpose flowers entirely of the same kind and colour according to particular seasons or festivals. A list of appropriate flowers will be found below.
Before leaving the subject it is necessary to add some brief remarks upon the employment of artificial flowers:
The writer is fully aware that a great prejudice exists amongst many against their use in church; but he cannot conceive it to be otherwise than to a great extent groundless.* In many places in particular seasons it is quite impossible to obtain natural flowers, and the attention of the sacristan—desirous of seeing the altar and sanctuary of the church under his care present that beautiful appearance which it usually wears,—becomes occasionally turned to them for adoption in purposes of decoration. White and crimson roses, without leaves, will be found the most effective, which should be fastened by the wire by which the stem is made to small branches of the box-tree, which is by far the most beautiful evergreen for use upon the altar. These placed with taste in vases or fixed to the upper portion of standard candlesticks or round coronas, will give a most beautiful appearance to a church, and may be used in village churches during the depth of winter, or at other times, when out-door or green-house plants cannot be obtained.
Wax flowers likewise may be pressed into the service of the church,—representations of the Lilium Candidum being very especially effective.
The following list of red and white Flowers, compiled with great care, and with the assistance of a practical gardener, is appended in the hope that it may be found useful in indicating what flowers,—making allowance for the variableness of the seasons—may be obtained for the different Feasts of the Church:—
WHITE. Christmas rose. Helleborus niger.
RED. Common maidenhair. Asplenium
WHITE. Dwarf bay. Daphne mezereon.
primrose. Primula verna.
* The employment of artificial flowers is common in the churches of France and Belgium, as well as in portions of the Eastern Church.
WHITE. Early daffodil. Narcissus pseudonarcissus.
RED. Upright chickweed. Veronica triphyllos.
WHITE. White violet. Viola ordora alba.
Red polyanthus. Primula polyantha pur-purea.
WHITE. White flock gilliflower. Matthiola
RED. Standard tulip. Tulipa Gesneri.
WHITE. Indian pink. Dianthus Sinensis.
RED. Rose (moss). Rosa muscosa.
WHITE. Our Lady’s lily. Lilium candidum.
Corn poppy. Papaver rhaeus.
WHITE. Common thorn apple. Datura stramonium.
RED. Tiger lily. Lilium tigrinum.
WHITE. Laurustinus. Vibernum tinus.
RED. Passion flower. Passiflora
WHITE. S. Remy’s lily. Amaryllis humilis.
Indian fleabane. Mula Indica.
WHITE. Sweet bay. Laurus nobilis.
RED. Common strawberry-tree. Arbutus Unedo.
N.B.—If All Souls’ Day is observed, the church may be decorated with yew Taxus baccata and cypress cypressus sempervirens.
WHITE. Indian tree. Euphorbia Trincalli.
RED. Holly berries. Ilex bacciflora.
(Vide, also, flowers for January.)
N.B.—In the arrangement and decoration of the altar of a village church, where but small sums of money can be expended, it is recommended that the altar cloth be of green colour, in the first instance, and afterwards that separate frontals of the other colours be obtained by degrees. The most important colour, and that which should be the most richly embroidered should be the white frontal, as being used at all the principal feasts of our Blessed LORD. It is suggested that the best effect is obtained in embroidery, if gold be used upon green and crimson,—silver and scarlet upon white, and white upon violet or purple. It is better to use conventional flowers than crosses upon altar frontals, or diapers. Behind and above the altar, a hanging of cloth, silk or damask should be placed. If it is changed according to the colours of the seasons, rings should be fastened to it, and it should hang upon a rod, but if not, it might be affixed in any other way to the wall. If permanent, white, or white bordered with blue or scarlet is recommended, i.e. if the walls around are coloured; but if they are whitewashed, some colour, green or scarlet, should by all means be used. There should always be a super-altar. Its height should, if possible, never be less than eight inches. Upon it should stand two candlesticks with wax tapers, and between them a material cross, of oak, brass, or more precious metal. Flowers in vases should always be placed upon the super-altar.
XIX.—RULES FOR SACRISTANS.
I. Once a month, if possible, the altar should be stripped, that everything may have the advantage of fresh air; at the same time all things connected with it should be well cleaned.
II. Candlesticks, crosses (if of metal), and flower vases should, if possible, be touched with a cloth: not with bare hands. All stains should be removed
before they are put by, and each should be placed in a brown-Holland or calico bag.
III. Every six months the chalices and patens should be washed in water, with soap and brush. This should be done by one in Holy Orders, who will pour the water into the piscina.
IV. The cruets should be rinsed out every week, and thoroughly washed every month.
V. The “fair white linen cloth” for the altar should be washed every fortnight, and especially before the great Festivals. This will likewise apply to the albs, surplices, &c,
XX.—FLOWERS ON THE ALTAR.
“Altare in solemnibus festis floribus seu veris seu fictis exornandum.”— Gavantus, tom. ii. par. 5.
Flower vases should be very carefully wiped out immediately after use, especially those of metal. They should be put away in a dry cupboard, and be occasionally rubbed with washleather. If they are enamelled great care should be taken in cleansing them.
XXII.—FEASTS OF OBLIGATION.
XXIII.—FEASTS OF DEVOTION.
These great Feasts have a proper preface, in addition to Easter Day, Whit Sunday, Trinity Sunday, and with the exception of the last-named, are kept with an octave.
N.B.—The fifth Sunday in Lent is called and Passion Sunday—the sixth, Palm Sunday.
† These Feasts have now no special Collect I or Service.
N.B.—March 17, S. Patrick’s Day, is peculiarly and especially observed in the sister communion of Ireland.
The following Festivals likewise are now specially commemorated by the English Church:—
XXIV.—RULES FOR A SACRISTY OR VESTRY.
I. Strict silence should be observed, except a reasonable cause presents itself, and then whispering only is permitted.
II. The lay-clerks and choristers will take their cassocks and surplices in an orderly and becoming manner, having previously said the usual “Prayer before Service” and “On vesting with the surplice.” On returning from the church they will carefully replace them from whence they were taken.
III. When the signal is given by the sacristan or master of the ceremonies, the clerks and choristers will arrange themselves in processional order so as to proceed to the choir.
IV. No boy will be allowed to vest with soiled hands, face, &c. or dirty shoes.
V. The Clergy should not proceed to vest for any function in soiled clothes or shoes. A brush should be kept in the sacristy, that when necessary they may clean their ordinary clothes before vesting. N.B.—It is also convenient
* These Feasts have now no special Collect or Service.
N.B.—The anniversary festival of the dedication of a church, college, or religious house is kept with an octave as a feast of devotion, though under the patronage of a Saint not so commemorated.
to have a well-stocked pin-cushion, which is often required for a deacon’s stole, &c.
N.B.—There should always be an inner sacristy, into which alone enter the Priest, Sacred Ministers, acolytes, and caeremonarius. It is the duty of the sacristan to close the door, so as to prevent the entrance of any one not authorised to be there. The choir will vest in the outer sacristy.
No females can be admitted into the inner sacristy on any plea whatever. They may speak, on particular business, to the Priest or Sacristan in the outer sacristy, but as rarely and for as short a time as possible.
N.B.—Every inner sacristy should have a platform for the Priest to vest upon.
XXV.—CLEANSING OF CHURCH FURNITURE.
I. Once every quarter the altar should be entirely stripped, so that everything about it may have the benefit of fresh air. And at the same time all the ornaments, linen, &c., connected with it should be well cleaned.
II. The altar vestments should be thoroughly dusted, and hung up in a room to get fresh air, they should all be well brushed with a soft brush, care being taken that the embroidery, &c., be not injured in so doing.
III. The foot-pace and sanctuary should be swept at the least twice in a week.
IV. Candlesticks, flower-vases, altar crosses, &c., of metal should, if possible, not be touched with the bare hands, but with a piece of green baize. If the brass-work be laquered it does not require the application of any powders or rubbing: dusting with a soft dry cloth being sufficient, with the occasional use of a little sweet oil. If unlacquered it is cleaned with polishing paste, and rubbed with wash-leather. Stains may be removed by a little oxalic acid (poison) dissolved in hot water.
V. Every six months the chalice and patens, &c., should be well washed in water, with soap and brush, and then two or three times in pure water. This should be done by one in Holy Orders, who will pour the water into the piscina. Silver or plated work is best cleaned with rouge, whitening, or spirits of wine, and afterwards well polished with wash-leather.
VI. The cruets should be washed out at least once a month, so that no incrustations be formed within them.
VII. The altar candles should be kept in a drawer by themselves, and care should be taken of the ends or refuse wax. Sperm or composition candles should on no account be used for the altar. Care should be taken that the wicks are ready for lighting, and that there are no wax excrescences at the top, otherwise the candles are liable to gutter and waste. If soiled by dirty fingers they may be cleaned with a cloth damped with spirits of wine.
VIII. Gilt wood or stone-work should only be dusted with a soft cloth or a feather brush. Frescoes, mural paintings, &c., should be very carefully dusted with an extremely soft brush.
IX. Encaustic tiles may be cleaned with milk, and rubbed with a dry coarse flannel.
X. Embroidered altar linen, corporals, &c., should be washed in lukewarm water with white soap. Wax droppings may be removed by carefully scraping them with a knife, and then soaking the part in spirits of wine. Wine-stains may be removed by holding the stained portion in boiling milk.
XI. Damask, velvet, or silk hangings should be taken down every two months, and well shaken and dusted. They may afterwards be hung across a line in the air for an hour or two: but not when the fun is too hot, as other-wise they may lose their colours.
N.B. If any of the Precious Blood fall upon a linen vestment, the part must be washed over a chalice, and the ablution reverently poured down the piscina; if It fall on a vestment of silk or stuff, the part must be cut out and burnt, and the ashes disposed of as above.
The following seems to be the most desirable order in which solemn religious processions—such for instance as at the Consecration of a Church, or the Benediction of a College, &c. should be marshalled:—
Verger and Churchwardens in gowns,
If there chance to be many Priests or Deacons, they may be placed in pairs—care being taken that as near as possible they be of equal height, the juniors going first, either according to seniority or to the degree they possess. If the latter, the following list is correct:—
Oxford by custom, takes precedence of Cambridge, Cambridge of Dublin, Dublin of Durham, and Durham of the Theological Colleges, e.g., King’s, London; S. Bees’, Cumberland, &c.
N.B.—On no account should hats be worn in procession. The college cap, the skull-cap, or the birretta should be used. The firft may be used with the academical hood; the birretta (over the zucchetto) always with the cope and is indeed to be preferred at all times to the square cap. The birretta ought properly to be always worn over the zucchetto (skull-cap.)
The Clergy should take off their birretta whenever they stand up, whenever they are saluted by the Sacred Ministers, or others, who enter or leave the choir, and also on all occasions which require an inclination of the head. They should take off their zucchettos in the aft of genuflecting, whilst the Deacon sings the Gospel, at the “was made man,” and from the beginning of the Sanctus to the Communion of the Clergy. The birretta is removed in singing, and when a procession enters consecrated ground. The zucchetto need not be removed.
The same principle of arrangement should, as far as possible, be observed in all places where more than one cleric takes part in the Service. In a procession juniors should invariably precede seniors, and the locus honoris is, of course, always at the end. A procession should on no account leave the chancel in any other order than that in which it came. It is entirely wrong to reverse the arrangement in returning; the choristers and juniors should leave first; the seniors and more dignified last.
In all, especial solemn, functions a director of the ceremonies ought to be previously appointed, who should make himself well acquainted with ecclesiastical order and arrangement, and take time beforehand in learning what number and classes of the Clergy are likely to be present, and in considering the parts of the Service to be assigned to each. If this is not done, disorder
and irregularity are certain to prevail. This important Office is very frequently undertaken by the Sacristan, who will, of course, consult the Priest as to the arrangements to be made.
N.B.—The caeremonarius should be vested in cassock and cotta. When he takes his place among the Clergy in procession to the altar he takes off both zucchetto and birretta. His place is properly before the Sacred Ministers; but no place is precisely assigned to him unless under some particular circumstances, since he ought to be wherever his presence is most useful or necessary. When not engaged in his duties his place is near the credence.
The staves of these should be surmounted by a small cross. They are used to stimulate the devotion of the faithful, especially of the poor, and consequently should have the devices and emblems worked upon them as clearly set forth as possible, in order that they may be easily understood. When not in use they should be detached from the staves, and very carefully put away.
The Verger’s Staff.
This is usually surmounted by an emblem of the Patron Saint of the Church, or some other appropriate design, e.g., a Fleur-de-lys, &c.
The Processional Cross.*
Should be made of oak or brass—the latter is to be preferred—and should be borne before the Priest-celebrant at the Holy Eucharist.
XXVIII.—FORM FOR BIDDING OF PRAYER.
Ye shall pray for CHRIST’s Holy Catholic Church, particularly for that portion of it to which we belong, and herein as well for all Patriarchs and Archbishops as for Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, more especially are we bound to pray for ——— the Bishop of this Diocese and for all the Clergy under him, that they may shine like lights in the world, and adorn the doctrine of GOD our SAVIOUR in all things; ye shall also pray for our Sovereign Lady Victoria by the grace of GOD, Queen, of this realm, and for the rest of the Royal Family, for the Queen’s most honourable privy council, for all the
* In Lent the cross should be of wood, and painted red, according to the ancient English use.
nobility and magistrates of this kingdom, (and for the great council of the nation now assembled in Parliament,) that all and each of these in their several callings may serve truly to the glory of GOD, and the edifying and well-governing of His people, remembering that solemn account they must one day give before the judgment-seat of CHRIST. Finally, let us pray GOD to absolve the souls of all His servants, who have departed this life in His faith and fear, from every bond of sin, beseeching Him to give us grace so to follow their good examples, that finally we with them and they with us, may be made partakers of the glorious resurrection in life everlasting, through the merits of JESUS CHRIST our SAVIOUR. May their souls rest in peace. Amen. Our FATHER, &c.
XXIX.—ORNAMENTS OF THE CHURCH.
1. Altar with
2. The cruets, viz.,
3. || Ampulla, (only used in the consecration of churches, and in anointing the sick, in which latter case it is called the Holy Oil Stock. The ampulla is
* See p. 204, xviii.
† It is well to have one more richly-worked in scarlet and blue for festivals.
‡ Of the colour of the season.
§ The ciborium is sometimes used in communicating the people when the number of wafers or breads is too great to be laid upon the paten.
|| “On the morning upon the day of the Coronation early, care is to be taken that the ampulla be filled with oil, and, together with the spoon, be laid ready upon the Altar in the abbey church.” First rubric in the Form and Order of the Service used in the Coronation of her Majesty Queen Victoria.
“Here the Archbishop lays his hand upon the ampulla.” Ibid. (Rubr. in Blessing of the Oil.)
“The Queen will then sit down in King Edward’s chair placed in the midst of and over against the Altar, with a faldstool before it, whereon She is to be anointed. Four Knights of the Garter hold over her a rich Pall of silk, or Cloth of Gold; the anthem being concluded, the Dean of Westminster taking the ampulla and spoon from off the Altar, holding them ready, pouring some of the Holy Oil into the Spoon, and with it the Archbishop anointeth the Queen in the form of a cross:
“On the crown of the head [on the breast, the orders for Kings Geo. II. and IV.] and on the palms of both the hands, saying, Be thou anointed with Holy Oil, as Kings, Priests, and Prophets were anointed; and as Solomon was anointed king by Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, so be you anointed, blessed, and consecrated Queen over this People, whom the LORD your GOD hath given you to rule and govern, in the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
“Then the Dean of Westminster layeth the ampulla and spoon upon the Altar, and the Queen kneeleth down at the faldstool, and the Archbishop standing on the north side of the Altar, saith this prayer or blessing over her.” Ibid. (The anointing.)
Should any sick person urgently wish to be anointed with oil, in accordance with the Scriptural command, (S. James v. 14, 15,) the Priest would in paying a pastoral visit of this nature, take the oil in an ampulla. This would, of course, be done as a private work of mercy, and (not being at present expressly commanded by the Church of England,) not as a portion of any Office in the Book of Common Prayer.
also used in the Coronation Service.)
4. For the Piscina.*
5. Sedilia, or in absence thereof, a bench, or,
9. Pede cloth.
10. Symbols of our Blessed LORD’s Passion, &c.
11. Communion rails.‡
12. Houselling cloth or towel of silk.§
14. Music and Prayer Books.
15. Organ, Harmonium, or Regal.
17. Low desk for Litany.
* The following utensils are placed on the credence.
† Not used at Plain Service, and, strictly speaking, not at Solemn Service, except when a Bishop celebrates.
When a cushion is used to support the Service-book, it should not be filled with feathers, but with wool or deer’s hair. An altar-desk is, however, much to be preferred to an altar-cushion.
‡ Ordered by Abp. Laud to prevent desecration of the Altar; they are not necessary where there is a rood-screen, but should always be used in default thereof.
§ This is used to cover the communion rails, or to lay on the ground in front of communicants. It may be held by two assistants. “Whilst the king receives, the Bishop [Bishops Geo. II.] appointed for that service shall hold a towel of white silk, or fine linen, before him.” Rubric from Coronation Order of George IV.
18. Eagle desk.
19. Bible of largest volume.
20. Rood-screen,* with cross and lights.
22. Stone font.
23. Table of Commandments.§
24. Table of prohibited degrees. ||
25. Moveable rails for the solemnization of Holy Matrimony, and the “Churching of Women,” otherwise “kneeling rails:” they should be near the entrance of the church.
27. Bells, with ropes.
28. Clocks and chimes, or
29. Brazier, or
30. Royal Arms. To be placed in an unconspicuous place, and of small dimenfions.
32. Funeral palls of various colours.
33. Funeral cloaks.
35. Evergreens and flowers.
36. Table of benefactions.
37. Monumental brasses, &c.
38. Lights—sconces; branches, &c.
39. Hangings, tapestry.
The Sacristy, otherwise Vestry.
40. The parish chest,† with three locks and keys, containing,
* “Is there any partition between the body of the church and the chancel? and if not, when, and by whom, and by what authority was it taken down?” Cosin’s Articles of Visitation, a.d. 1626. See also Hierurgia—Contents XV.
† There should be lectern-hangings of the sacred colours.
‡ This vessel is conveniently retained for private Baptisms, for carrying the water.
§ Canon 82 of 1603/4. See Ecclesiologist, Vol. III. p. 33, which rightly states that there is no authority for placing them east of the chancel. If, however, the table of Commandments is set up at the east of the chancel, it should be distempered in scrolls upon the wall, thus making no construction necessary for them, and allowing them to bear a part in the decorative colouring of the building.
|| Canon 99 of 1603/4.
* Canon 84 of 1603/4.
† By statute law, 52 Geo. III. c. 146; by 6 & 7 Will. IV., c. 86; and 1 Vic. c. 22. Canon 70 is overruled by statute law, (52 Geo. III., c. 146, f. 5,) which directs the register books to be kept in a dry well-painted iron chest, which shall be constantly kept locked in some dry, safe, and secure place within the usual place of residence of the rector, vicar, curate, or other officiating minister, if resident within the parish or chapelry, or in the parish church or chapel.
Register of strange preachers.
41. Chest for Communion plate* and Instrumenta.
42. Bookregisters of the sacred colours.
43. Chests for vestments.
45. Portable altar.
46. Altar bread-cutters.
47. Processional candlesticks.
48. The Church-yard Cross, placed on the north-side
Vestments of a Chorister.
The Vestments of a Deacon.
* If not kept in the aumbry: the proper position of which is on the Gospel side of the Altar.
† A cross of wood, painted red, should be used in Lent.
‡ It would seem that literates may lawfully use stuff tippets over their surplice in lieu of the academical hood, but never over their habit, viz., their “preaching gown,” should they use that robe. See canon 58. Graduates may use silk tippets over their gown, the accustomed apparel of their degree, but never over the surplice when officiating. See canons 58 and 74 of 1603/4. When a graduate preaches in his gown he should always wear the academical hood.
The Vestments of a Priest.
Cope, (on Good Friday in Dry Service and processions).
52. Scarf. There is no authority either of rubric, canon, or constitution for this “ornament” which is not an ecclesiastical one. It is worn by doctors in divinity; and a modification of it by domestic chaplains, over their usual academical habit. It ought never to be worn over alb or surplice.
53. Bands—have no rubrical or canonical authority—and should never be worn but with the surplice and hood, or the private habit of the ecclesiastic. Bands are not peculiarly an “ornament” of clerics, being worn by lawyers, by all graduates, whether in Holy Orders or not, and by undergraduates on special occasions.
The Vestments and Insignia of an Archbishop
The cappa magna.
Vestments of a Sacristan.
The Vestments are divided into—
Besides these there are the vestments for the
N.B.—The Sacred Vestments are “the Vestment” (chasuble), cope, stole, maniple, dalmatic, and tunic. The ordinary vestments are the alb, surplice, amice, girdle, hood, &c.
The parishioners are responsible for what is essential to Divine Service; the Priest for “other decent ornaments” in addition to his liability to maintain
* “From the fact that the presence of the amice cannot be detected in our Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, the illuminations in which were done after the period when we know the Anglo-Saxons employed it, we may presume that here it was worn under the alb, and rather hung low upon the shoulders than about the neck, whilst elsewhere it was, and in some places, Milan and Lyons, for example, still is, put on after and above the albe.” Rock’s Church of our Fathers, vol. i. p. 465.
The old English amice—the statutable amice—has a very rich apparel; the modern Roman amice has none, the want being supplied by the neck apparel of the vestment. The modern amice is most convenient, if not so strictly rubrical.
† According to the old English use the Bishop’s maniple was not put in the missal at the Gospel, and put on at the Confiteor, but the Bishop was vested in it from the beginning.
‡ The maniple and stole are not worn with the cope, which is a Processional and not an Eucharistic vestment. In the Missa Sicca on Good Friday he will wear a black stole crossed over his surplice and no maniple.
§ It would seem from the ad degradandum sacerdotes, from the Exeter Pontifical (Mask. III. p. 324,) that the dalmatic and tunic are among the Priest’s vestments. They are numbered among the Priest’s vestments, on the same principle that they are among the episcopal—the greater order including the lower one. It is to be observed, however, that though dalmatic or tunic are worn by a Bishop fully vested, they are not by a Priest, except when he officiates as a Deacon, and consequently lays aside the peculiar garment of a hierophant. The Bishop represents the Church’s head, and therefore wears the insignia of all orders. The Priest is a consecrator, &c. but when to be degraded, he wears the diaconal vestures as well.
“the principal chancel,” i.e., the parish ought to provide the vestments for the Priest and the Sacred Vessels for the Sacrament of the altar, and other essential matters. But the canon law, which has statutable force, orders the Rector or Vicar not only to provide the other decent ornaments, viz., the altar-lights and altar-cross, but says, he “may be compelled” to do so, by the Ordinary. This then is a distinct answer to a common but erroneous notion—that the clergyman has nothing whatever to do with ordering the ornaments and furniture of the church. As to the “ornaments of the minister,” if the churchwardens have not supplied them, they can be compelled to do so, but they can raise no legal objection if on their refusing to supply them, the Priest in his liberality shall furnish them himself; or if any pious person present them Deo et ecclesiae) the Priest may accept them, and the churchwardens are bound to keep and preserve them; but ordinarily the views of the parochial Clergy and the churchwardens will doubtless coincide on these matters which pertain to the glory of GOD as much as to the edification of the faithful. See Lawful Church Ornaments, pp. 487, 488.
[page 222 continued here]
 “Missale Lugd. a.d. 1510, and a work in French, intituled, La Recueil des Ceremonies de l’Eglise de Lyon, l’an 1702. In the now scarce work, Rationale Caerimoniarum Missae Ambrosianae, its author, P. Casola, a Canon of the Metropolitan Church of Milan, whilst describing the ‘modus missam celebrandi,’ says: Sacerdos praeparando se ad missam celebrandum primo induit camisium dicendo ..... Dealba me, Domine, &c. .... Deinde acci-piendo cingulum dicit. Percinge me, Domine, cingulo fidei, &c. .... Accipiendo amictum dicit hunc versum; Pone, Domine, galeam, &c. ut supra, sig. a, iii.”
The old English amice had a richly-embroidered apparel. See Illustration of Priest vested for Holy Communion. The modern Latin amice has no apparel, and therefore cannot be seen. If the former is used, it is most convenient to wear it over the alb; if the latter, under it.— Ed. D. A.
“Postea exuat capam et induat amictum, albam, et stolam et reliquias circa collum, ac deinceps, tunicam, dehinc dalmaticam et manipulum, et tunc sedendo ciro-thecas manibus imponat et annulum pontificalem magnum, una cum uno parvo strictiore annulo ad tenendum fortius super imponat, et sudarium retortum in manu recipiat ad faciem extergendam . . . .” Exeter Pontifical.