Celebration of the Holy Eucharist.*
“VIDI CIVITATEM SANCTAM JERUSALEM NOVAM DESCENDENTEM DE CŒLO, PARATAM SICUT SPONSAM ORNATAM VIRO SUO.”
The celebration of the Holy Eucharist is the principal act of Christian Worship, inasmuch as it calls directly into action the office of our great High Priest, not only to present our prayers to the father, but to plead anew the merits of His own adorable Sacrifice. It should therefore have all possible dignity imparted to it by a carefully observed Ritual. It is well when the LITURGY†
* “Commonly called the Mass.”  — First Prayer Book of Edward VI.
† “The traces of the form of worship used by the Christian converts, which we find in the New Testament, refer to the Eucharist, as being emphatically the Christian Service. Hence naturally arose the ecclesiastical use of the word Liturgy,  to designate the form employed by the Church in celebrating that Office.”—Procter. History of the Book of Common Prayer, p. 281.
can be used by itself;* and it should not be begun without the intention of going through the whole. As there is one Altar, so can there be but one Priest, (acting in that capacity,) whose place is to stand at first at, i.e., in front of, the Altar at the north side, and after the Gospel in medio altaris, (see Par, 21), facing the east. He is never to leave the foot-pace except when communicating the faithful. Clergy acting as Gospeller† and Epistoler, whether Priests or Deacons, should stand below the foot-pace, facing eastward. The parts which should be said by them are the Gospel and Epistle, the Exhortations, and the Confession.‡ Where there is only one assistant, he should read the Epistle and Gospel on the proper fides. When the Priest (being without Epistoler or Gospeller) reads them, he ought to go off the foot face.
For this Service there is required,
1. An ALTAR.§
* “It has always been held that the Holy Communion should not be celebrated unless the Office of one of the Hours had been previously recited ; whether of Tierce, Sext, or the Ninth Hour.”—Maskell. (See Anc. Lit. pp. 153, 154. 155, for the English positive Rule.)
† The Gospeller or Deacon, even though he be in Priest’s Orders, should wear his stole (under his dalmatic) as a Deacon, (see p. 13, sect. 4,) being about to fulfil a diaconal function, for “it pertaineth to the office of a Deacon .... to assist the Priest in Divine Service, and especially when he ministereth the Holy Communion.” (The Ordering of Deacons). The Epistoler or Subdeacon, if the ancient Sarum Rule be followed, should wear no stole at all.
Both Gospeller and Epistoler wear the maniple. In the old English Ordinals this vestment is given to the Subdeacon as his especial badge. See Pont. Sarisbur. Apud Maskell. Mon. Rit. iii. 182, and Pont. Exon. Apud Barnes, p. 84.
The Canon (XXIV. of 1603), allows of two assistants—Deacon and Subdeacon in old times, now simply Gospeller and Epistoler. Ancient custom assigns to the former a place on the south side (ad latus Epistolæ) on the step next to the platform, to the latter a place on his own step behind the Gospeller, a little towards the right. Both stand facing the east. For the position of the Sacred Ministers, when directly assisting the Priest, see infra Parr. 16, note * ; 20, note †; 72, notes *, †, ‡; and Appendix, p. 169, ii.
If at Church Festivals, &c., or on occasions where many are present who purpose communicating, an additional cleric to the Gospeller and Epistoler be required to help the Priest in the distribution of the Sacrament, he should stand at some distance.
‡ The greater part of the Rubrics of the Book of Common Prayer only contemplates one Priest2  —assistants very rarely. It was needful strictly to order the Service for the Celebrant only—for, where there were assistant Ministers, the Catholic rule would of course be followed.
§ The table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered has been called an Altar “from the beginning.” The Prophet Malachi  speaking in prophecy of the Eucharistic Sacrifice terms “the Table of the LORD,” in reference to IT an “Altar.” S. Paul tells the Hebrews  that “We have an Altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle.”
It is to be observed that the same Apostle calls the Christian, Jewish, and Gentile Altars, tables ; thus defining an Altar to be a Table whereon a Sacrifice was offered.  And so, Bishop Andrewes:  “The holy Eucharist being considered as a sacrifice, it is fitly called an Altar, which again is fitly called a Table, the Eucharist being considered as a Sacrament.”
In the first century we find S. Ignatius  assert that “In every church there is one Altar.” In the second century S. Justin Martyr  alludes to the passage in which the Prophet Malachi calls the Table of the LORD an Altar. And Origen  and S. Cyprian perpetually refer to the Altar of the Christian Church. In the fourth century we have a cloud of witnesses. The historian Eusebius,  S. Optatus Milevitanus,  S. Ambrose,  S. Jerome,  S. John Chrysostom,  and S. Augustine,  and to these may be added Prudentius, who flourished in Spain in the fourth century, and Sidonius Apollinarius in France during the fifth century.
The length of the altar will vary according to the size of the church or chancel, but it should not be less than six feet.* The width about two feet six inches. It should be three feet six inches high, and raised as much as possible above the level of the nave. In all cases the slab or mensa of the
* The dimensions of the altar of the church of Perranzabuloe, near Truro, were five feet three inches, by two feet three inches, and its height four feet. When taken down, the headless remains of S. Piran, the patron saint, were discovered immediately beneath it, the feet of the buried saint pointing as usual to the east; it was, in fact, both Altar and Tomb: and hence the remarkable peculiarity of its position, lying lengthwise east and west. About sixteen miles from S. Piran’s a similar ancient church has been more recently discovered, at Gwithian, so named from an Irish saint there martyred. Here also the Altar was of stone, but placed in the usual position, standing north and south, against the middle of the east wall.
The original high Altar remaining in 1844, in S. Mary’s, Forthampton, Gloucestershire, is five feet three and a half inches long, and two feet ten inches high; its breadth is two feet three inches, and the thickness of the mensa five and a half inches.
In the first part of the Ecclesiological (late Cambridge Camden) Society’s Transactions, will be found a paper on Chantry Altars, by Mr. Bloxam, in which eight of these Altars, still remaining, are described. Five of these were solid masses of masonry, surmounted by a slab of stone, varying from three feet three inches to six or seven feet in length, and from one foot four inches to three feet in breadth; the height rather more than three feet; and the thickness of the slab six inches.
Altar should be of one stone* without fracture or blemish; and the thickness of the slab about six inches. The mensa, the part of the Altar on which the Eucharist is consecrated, being either of stone or marble, is supported on a wooden frame which consists of either four sides, or of four or six low pillars of wood.
The Altar should not be imbedded, or fixed to the wall. In many places it will be found extremely convenient to have a passage behind it. Behind it
“Of Altars, that they be of stone.”—(Lanfranc) Canons of the Council of Winchester, A.D. 1071. (Johnson’s Collection.)
Elizabeth’s Injunctions permitted wooden Altars, and the Canon of 1571 (never in force), speaks of a table “ex asseribus composite junctam.” These “asseres” however might be of any material, iron, stone, zinc, as well as wood. But these, and such like Injunctions, Canons, and Articles, it is a notorious legal fact, have not a shred of authority belonging to them. The only document which can claim any weight is the 82nd Canon of 1603—4, now in force, though subject to the act of Uniformity. This Canon limply speaks of the Table as “decent and convenient” but makes no mention of the material, and even if it did, it would be of no force, as the Canon would be overruled in this particular, as it is in the matter of the Altar being moveable. For the Rubric inserted at the last review directs the communicants, not the Table, to be conveniently placed for the receiving, implying plainly that the Altar was not to be moved for their convenience. The Altar is therefore a fixture, “not moveable” but “to be removed only by authority,” as the font, pulpit, or other fixture.
The Book of Common Prayer made by the Act of Uniformity part of the statute law of the land, orders such ornaments to be retained and be in use as were in this Church of England by the authority of parliament in the second year of King Edward the Sixth. Therefore whatever was the law of the Western Church in this matter before the Reformation is the law of the English Church now. The Canons of Archbishop Ecgbriht, of the Council of Winchester, are the statutes in which it is embodied. The more we multiply cases of stone Altars pulled down and sold in the later years of Edward VI. and Elizabeth, the more abundantly shall we prove that they were the ordinary and legitimate “ornaments of the Church” in the period to which our Rubric refers us.
should be a Dossal Cloth,* Reredos, Painting, or Triptych, in front of which stands the Cross. (See Altar-Cross.) There should be no Niches unless filled with statues, nor Tables of Commandments.† The Altar is raised on a platform, which forms a footpace extending from three to four feet from the east wall, and in length not reaching more than six or eight inches beyond the Altar. The ascent to it should be by at least two steps, each of the same height with the platform, and about fifteen inches in breadth. From the lowest step to the septum or sanctuary rail, there should be at least twelve feet in collegiate churches, and never less than six.
The slab of the Altar should be covered with the cere-cloth,‡ which in its turn is covered by the superfrontal, which hangs down about ten inches below: whilst the Frontal, or antependium, which with the superfrontal makes up the covering or vestment of the Altar, hangs down in front. The Frontal and superfrontal should each have a fringe. The ends of the Altar need not be covered, save by the “fair white linen cloth,” (see infra.) They were, however, often vested in ancient times, as, indeed, they usually are at the present day. As the Altars of the English Church are not affixed to the eastern wall, the back of the Altar may be vested. The extract below§ from the Monasticon Anglicanum shows from the phrase “frontlets of the same,” in an inventory of Altar Vestments that the Cloths were intended to hang over the back of the Altar. The superfrontal and the cere-cloth should fit closely.
Along the back of the mensa extends a ledge from six to twelve inches in height, and from five to seven inches in breadth, according to the size of the
* There should be no Cross embroidered on the Dossal where the Altar-cross is in use.
Where no Altar-cross has been provided—a metal Cross of rather large size affixed with a pin to the Dossal is to be preferred to an embroidered one.
† The proper place for the Tables of Commandments is at the east of the Nave.
‡ A waxed cloth extended over a consecrated Altar-stone to protect it from damp, dirt or irreverence. It should be made of strong linen, and close at the corners; a quantity of virgin wax should then be melted in an iron vessel, and applied to the cloth while held a short distance from the fire.
§ “Imprimis, a costly cloth of gold, for the high Altar, for principal feasts, having in the midst images of the Trinity, of our Lady, four Evangelists, four angels about the Trinity, with patriarchs, prophets, apostles, virgins, with many other images, having a frontlet of cloth of gold, with scriptures, and a linen cloth enfixed to the same; ex dono Ducis Lancastriæ. Item, a purpur cloth, with an image of the Crucifix, Mary and John, and many images of gold, with a divers frontlet of the same suit, with two Altar Cloths, one of diaper. Item, a cloth of gold, partly red and partly white .... with a frontlet of the same suit, having in the midst the Trinity .... Item, a cloth of white, with troy-foils of gold .... having a frontal of the fame.”
Item, a cloth for the hie Awtr of blew baudekin, with the picture of our LORD, Mary and John, and a front of the same. Item, an one Awter Cloth of white fustyan, with red roses, with a Crucifixe, Mary and John, broydered, and front of the same, and two curtains.—In the Inventory of S. Paul’s, in capella carnariæ. Jacob’s Hist. of Faversham.
Altar; it is called the super-Altar: upon it are placed two Lights, and between these a cross of metal, with the addition of flower vases on festivals.
On the top of the super-frontal are placed the three linen cloths,* the two under ones not to exceed the length of the mensa, but the uppermost should hang down at each end, nearly to the platform, and should hang down in front not above ten inches below the slab. This “fair white linen cloth,† as well as the two under ones, should have five crosses worked upon it, corresponding to the five crosses on the Altar-stone, in the centre and four angles, with borders of various patterns. All the Altar linen as well as all the vestments of the priests should be marked with a cross.
Many of the old English Altars were provided with curtains.
A curtain may hang at each end of the Altar. These hangings are either suspended by rods projecting from the walls or reredos, or else they rest on detached pillars generally of brass, erected by the ends of the Altar.
The only niches that are desirable are those of which the Reredos or Altar-screen not unfrequently consists. The reredos is very often formed of panels filled with sculpture called Tables ; these should be of alabaster, with a series of small figures in relief, painted and gilt, usually representing the principal events in the life of our Blessed LORD.
2. The CREDENCE‡ is a small side-table for the reception of the elements previous to their oblation, and is provided to enable the celebrant at the Holy Eucharist to place the Bread and Wine reverently upon the Altar as required
* The cere-cloth, super-frontal, and the three linen cloths should always remain upon the Altar. It is usual during the Daily Office, and at all times when the Liturgy is not being celebrated, to cover the “fair white linen cloth,” as a protection against dust, etc., with a strip of green silk, hemmed and marked with five crosses. This covering should exactly fit the mensa.
† See Gavanti Thesaurus Sacrorum Rituum. Pars I. Tit. xx. Ed. Venetiis, 1792. Where it will be seen that in the west it is permitted to use two linen cloths, so that the under one be large enough to fold twice over the mensa. “Duplicatam unam concedit Rubrica, ut sint tres: non ergo duae, tuta conscientia sufficiunt.”
It was anciently the custom of the English Church to spread a purple pall  upon the mensa, and over this the three linen cloths. The cerecloth now performs the function of the purple pall,  but the beautiful symbolism of its colour, which typifies blood, as well as kingly power, is still retained in the superfrontal, which always may be, and generally is, purple or red.
‡ See Ecclesiologist, Vol. vii., pp. 178—218, and Vol. viii., pp. 9, 92—147, for elaborate papers on the Credence.
by the English Rubric, the Credence is sometimes supported on a shaft or bracket, termed at the bottom of a niche, or consists of a shelf over the Piscina.
Where no Credence exists as part of the Sanctuary, it is customary to use a small movable table for receiving the elements before they are consecrated, or in fact any expedient may be adopted so as to prevent the elements being placed on the Altar until the Oblation takes place.
3. The PISCINA is a stone bason with an orifice and drain to carry away the water which has been used at the Washing of the Priest’s hands in accordance with Psalm xxvi. 6, and for rinsing the chalice after the Purifications, and is one of the appurtenances of an Altar which in ancient times was never dispensed with. It is generally constructed at the bottom of a small niche on the Epistle side of the chancel, eastward of the sedilia, and these frequently constitute a portion of the same design.
Where there is no Piscina a bason of metal is the usual substitute.
4. The AUMBRYE, or LOCKER, is a little cupboard for the preservation of the Sacred Vessels, and is generally constructed in the north or east wall of the chancel near the Altar: the door is usually elaborately carved in oak, or ornamented with floriated iron-work and is always furnished with a lock.
5. The SEDILIA are three seats for the Priest, Gospeller, and Epistoler, during the Celebration, and they consist of arched recesses constructed in the masonry of the south wall of the chancel within the sanctuary, and are frequently surmounted by rich canopies delicately groined. They are either level, or graduated, following the steps of the Altar, the highest seat being nearest the east end. The Sedilia may be furnished with embroidered cushions. They are only occupied during the Sermon. At all other times the Clergy kneel or stand.
Where Sedilia do not exist a bench, or stall, or stools, should be placed in a similar position against the side Wall of the Sanctuary.
It is perhaps needless to add that no chairs should under any circumstances be placed at the north and south ends of the Altar, whether facing the congregation or otherwise, except on the north side (facing the south, a little below the platform) for a Bishop when present.
The proper place for the Bishop’s Throne is below the Sanctuary, at the extremity of the stalls nearest to the septum, on the south side, and is moveable, except in cathedrals.
THE FURNITURE OF THE ALTAR.
The CHALICE—there are four parts in a chalice. The foot, the stem, the knop, and the bowl.
The foot should extend considerably beyond the bowl, to prevent the possibility of its being upset. On one division of the foot it is usual to engrave the LORD’s Passion: this should be always turned towards the celebrant. The stem unites the foot to the bowl, and on it is fixed the knop for the convenience of holding the chalice. The knop is variously enriched with enamel, jewels, tracery and tabernacle-work, whilst the stem is frequently engraved or enamelled.
The height of the stem is generally about four inches, and seldom exceeds six. The bowl should vary from three to six inches in dimension, and of a proportionable depth ; it should have a plain rim of about an inch below, that it may be enriched with engravings, inscriptions, and chasings.
The Chalice should never have turn-over lips, which are extremely liable to cause accident in communicating the faithful.
Chalices are made of silver either whole, or parcel gilt, occasionally of pure gold and jewelled.
The PATEN is made to fit the top of the Chalice. Legends and jewels are admissible on the outer rim only. If the whole surface of a silver paten cannot be gilt, it is usual to gild the middle.
The CRUETS, or FLAGONS must be entirely of hammered metal.
The BURSE. See infra p. 27, note.
The OFFERTORY BASIN, is a vessel of pewter, latten, or precious metal. It should not be large, as when removed from the credence to receive the velvet purses, and placed upon the Altar by the Priest, it would occupy too much space.
The ALTAR-CROSS* is a plain metal cross with a foot to it. Usually
* “He (Paulinus) also brought with him many rich vessels of king Aeduini, among which were a large gold cross, and a golden chalice, dedicated to the use of the Altar, which are still preserved and shown in the church of Canterbury.” —V. Bede, Hist. Ecc. lib. II., c. xx. § 148. A.D. 633. Stevenson’s ed.
“The Altar in the Queen’s (Elizabeth) chapel was furnished with rich plate: two fair gilt candlesticks, with tapers in them, and a massy silver crucifix in the midst thereof.”—Heylyn Hist. Ref. p. 124, fol. 1661.
To prove that in the order to destroy images, crosses could not have been included, the following facts may be of importance. That in almost all ancient illuminations (all that the compilers have ever seen) of Altars, a cross and not a crucifix is displayed; moreover, the present Roman rule is obeyed, if a cross—a simple cross—is placed on the super-Altar. Thus, a cross can scarcely come under the category of “images,” and was consequently retained.
it is between two and three feet high. It is often jewelled, and not unfrequently has upon it an engraved representation in alto relievo of our LORD’s Passion. The foot of the Cross should be on a level with the bowls of the Candlesticks.
Two* Altar Lights. These lights symbolize that CHRIST is the very true Light of the world; he is so, because he is the god-man, and possesses two natures in His own Person. And the lights are two on the Altar, because they symbolize the same union of Divinity and Humanity in the blessed Sacrament.
Altar CANDLESTICKS† are made in gold, silver, or silver parcel gilt, copper gilt, latten, brass, crystal or wood.
* The Syriac, probably the oldest form of the Eastern Rite, has two candles to this day:
“Et cum (Sacerdos) accendit cereum, ad latus dextrum dicit: In lumine tuo videmus lumen.
“Ad latus sinistrum dicit: Pius et sanctus, qui habitat in habitaculis lucis.”—Renaudot, tom, ii., Lit. Or. Coll. p. 12.
† The Altar candles ought never to be lighted except at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. To use them at Evensong for the purpose of lighting the Sanctuary is to convert “GOD’s board” into a stand for lights. 
“In the earliest times, the fourth Canon of the Apostles, so praised by Beveridge, mentions ‘lamps at the holy Offering.’ Beda speaks in one of his homilies  of the ‘walls of the Church being carefully adorned, and many lights being lit’ at the Divine service. A pharus, or candelabrum, hung over the Altar of the Cathedral Church at York, in the beginning of the eighth century, which Altar was decked with silver and gems.  King Edgar’s Canons enact, ‘Let a light be always burning in the Church, when a mass is sung.’ The poem of the monk Ethelwolf on the abbots of Lindisfarne, speaks of the numerous candelabra in the church glittering like stars.  By the Constitutions of Giles de Bridport, Bishop of Salisbury,  anno 1236, the parson was to provide the candelabra, but the parishioners the ‘wax candles in the chancel, and also sufficient light throughout the whole year, at Matins, Vespers, and the Mass, and blest bread, with candles, in every church in the Christian world.’ By a provincial constitution of Archbishop Reynolds, which embodied the then existing custom, A.D. 1322: ‘Let two candles, or one at the least, be lighted at the time of high mass.’  And Lyndewode, commenting on this Constitution, adds, ‘ Note, that the candles to be burned at the celebration of the mass, must be of wax rather than any other material. For the candles so burning signifieth CHRIST Himself, Who is the brightness of the eternal light.’ In which he repeats the ancient observation of Isidore of Seville (in the seventh century):  ‘Under the type of this corporeal light, that light is shown forth of which we read in the Gospel, He was the true light which lighteneth every man.’ As we have already proved in extenso, this, and all other Canons, where not expressly avoided by some subsequent Parliamentary authority, or contrariant or repugnant to the then laws, statutes, and customs of the realm, or to the King’s prerogative, ‘are now still to be used and executed as before,’ by the 23 Henry VIII., c. 19. That this Canon was in universal force throughout England up to Henry VIII.’s death, we know by the illuminations in the MSS. Service-books and the prints in the Missals, Breviaries, Antiphonaries, and other printed books published up to the last year of his reign, which invariably represent the Altar with two lighted candles upon it, and no more ; so also by the Inventories of church goods before and hereafter referred to.
“Beside this, the first Injunctions of King Edward, of May, 1547, the authority of which I have discussed already, repeat nearly totidem verbis Archbishop Reynold’s Canon, and the reason of it: ‘No torches or candles, tapers, or images of wax were to be set before any image or picture, but only two lights upon the high Altar before the Sacrament, which, for the signification that CHRIST is the very true Light of the world, they shall suffer to remain still.’  This last Injunction was enforced by Archbishop Cranmer in his Visitation Articles of the second year, one of whose inquiries was this: ‘Whether they suffer any torches, candles, tapers, or any other lights to be in your Churches, but only two lights upon the high Altar.’ And in his Communion Book in force till Whit-Sunday in the third year, the Priest was ordered to go through the service ‘without varying any other rite or ceremony in the mass,’ of which we know the two lights formed one. This Canon, therefore, and usage, was in force up to the end of that second year, and beyond, and was not either ‘contrariant or repugnant’ to the statutes or customs of the realm, or to the King’s prerogative, but in harmony therewith.”—Chambers’ Legal Argument.
There are five parts in an Altar candlestick. 1. The foot. 2. The stem. 3. The knop, which for convenience of lifting is put in the middle. 4. The bowl to receive the droppings of wax. 5. The pricket terminating the stem on which the taper is fixed.
It is convenient also when the Service Book does not contain the Action on one page, to have a Card containing the Canon or Prayer of Consecration in large type, though there is no mediæval authority for this practice.
It is a symbolical and cleanly custom to perfume churches with incense previous to Divine Service. This custom continued all through the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and indeed we find its occasional use down to the time of George III. (See Hierurgia Anglicana.)*
|* Where it will be seen that incense was also used at the Coronation of George III. |
By the express command of GOD incense was very frequent in the service of the Jewish Temple, (Exod. xxx. 1, 3, 9, xl. 5; Levit. xvi. 12, 13; S. Luke i. 10, 11.)
It will be remembered that frankincense was presented to the new-born JESUS. (S. Matt. ii. 11.) S. John particularly mentions (Rev. viii. 3, 4) how “another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer ; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, which came up with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before GOD out of the angel’s hand.” It is considered that S. John adapted his wondrous language to the ceremonial of the Liturgy then followed by the Christians in celebrating the Eucharistic Sacrifice, at the period the Evangelist committed to writing his mysterious revelation.*
The primitive Christians adopted the use of incense at the Celebration of the Liturgy from the Jewish Service. In the second of the Apostolical Canons we find it ordered thus: “let it not be allowed to present any thing on the Altar, but oil for the lamps, and incense for the time of the Holy Oblation.”
It seems most primitive, where incense is used, to burn it before the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. The Liturgy of S. James commences with burning of incense.†
* Incense is symbolical of the prayers of the faithful, which are so often described in Holy Scripture to be an odour of sweetness before heaven. “The four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints.”—Rev. v. 8.
† See “Euch tou qumiamatoV thV eisodou thV enarxewV.”—Neale’s Tetralogia Liturgica, p. 5.
 It bore this name even in the 3rd of Elizabeth, 1561: –”paid for 4lb. of candles on Christmas-day morning, for the Mass, 12d-”—Illustrations of Manners and Expenses of Ancient Times in England, 142, 4to. 1797.
The word “Missa,” or Mass, has no connection whatever, with the doctrine of transubstantiation. All the world know it has several meanings. First, the words of dismission at the end, “Ite Missa est.” Secondly, the word was applied to any offering or sacrifice sent up to GOD. Thirdly, it was frequently applied to any festival. It is a trite remark by many of the English Divines, that nowhere was the doctrine of transubstantiation necessarily inculcated in the unreformed service. It remains, therefore, in substance, what it was before; viz., The celebration of the Eucharist.
The term Eucharistia was preserved much more in the English than in the Roman Use. E.g. “Post introitum vero missæ unus ceroferariorum panem, vinum et aquam quæ ad Eucharistiæ ministrationem disponuntur, deferat.”—Sarif. Rubr. See Maskell’s Ancient Liturgy, Ed. 1846, p.32
“Moneantur laici, quod reverenter se habeant in consecratione Eucharistiæ, et flectant genua ; maxime in tempore illo, quando, post elevationem Eucharistiæ hostia sacra dimittitur.”—Concilium Dunelmense, 1220. Ibid. p. 94, note 26.
See also ibid. p. 108, note 52. The Gallican Church also used the term Eucharistia frequently.—See Mabillon, De Liturgia Gallicana, p. 52.
Mass: this title for the Holy Eucharist is still preserved in the English names, Christmas, Michaelmas, Lammas, Candlemass, Roodmass, Martinmas, Childermass, &c. With regard to the frequency of celebrations the English Church orders it on all Sundays and Festivals, and contemplates it daily by directing that “the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for the Sunday shall serve all the week after, where it is not in this Book otherwise ordered.” In S. Cyprian’s time it was certainly daily:
“Episcopatus nostri honor grandis et gloria est pacem dedisse martyribus, ut sacerdotes, qui sacrificia Dei quotidie celebramus, Hostias Deo et victimas præparemus.”—Epis. liv. ad Cornelium
 “In classical Greek, leitoupgia denotes any public service, religious or secular. In the LXX translation it is used for the ministry of the Levites (e.g. 1 Chron. xxvi. 30, eiV pasan l. KurioV); in the New Testament, for the ministry of prophets and teachers (Acts xiii. 2); and in ecclesiastical writers, for any sacred function, and in an especial and strict sense for the Eucharistic Office. Thus we speak of the Liturgies of S. James, S. Mark, S. Chrysostom, &c. for the service used in celebrating (the Sacrament of) the LORD’s Supper, in the churches of Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, &c.” leitoupgia is also used for the whole action of sacrifice in the account of Simon, son of Ozias, in Ecclesiasticus, ch. l. ver. 14, 19.
 No stress can be laid upon the word “Priest” in the Rubrics, when defining the duties of his assistants. See for instance the Versicles after the Creed at Matins and Evensong.
 Malachi i. 7, 12.
 Heb. xiii. 10.
 1 Cor. x. 18—21, and ix. 13.
 Answer to Cardinal Perron, Minor Works, edit. 1854, p. 20.
 En qusiasthrion pash th ekklhsia.—S. Ig. in Epis. ad Phil.
 Dia tou onomatoV toutou qusiaV aV paredwken IhsouV o CristoV ginesqai, toutestin epi th eucaristia tou artou kai tou pothriou, taV en panti topw thV ghV ginomenaV upo twn Cristianwn, prolabwn o QeoV marturei euarestouV uparcein autw. —Justinus M. Dial, cum Tryph.
 Orig. Hom. iii. S. Cyp. Epis. passim.
 Hist. Ecc. lib. x. c. 4. Ef apasi te to agiwn agion qusiasthrion, en mesw qeiV.
 Lib. vi. contra Parmen. “Quid est altare, nisi sedes et Corporis et Sanguinis Christi?”
 “Ille super altare, qui pro omnibus paslus est.”
 Hieron. lib. contra Vigilan. “Christi altaria.”
 S. Chrys. Hom. xx. in 2 Cor. ix. touto qusiasthpion men gar qaumaston dia ten epiqemenhn en autwqusian.
 Civ. Dei. l. viii. cap. ult.—”Quis audivit aliquando Fidelium stantem sacerdotem ad altare etiam super sanctum corpus martyris ad Dei honorem cultumque constructum, dicere in precibus: Offero tibi sacrificium Petre vel Paule.”
 “The C.C.C.C. MS. justly makes this a distinct Canon; with this title Canon Epaonensis, and it is the sense of No. XXVI. Canon of Epone, in the year 517.”
 In continental Churches it is usual for a small piece of stone to be let into the middle of the mensa to consecrate upon.
This inserted Altar-stone was called “ara,” (See Gavantus, P. I., Tit. 20,) in contradistinction to altare, i.e. the slab and whole structure of the Altar. The same name is also applied to a consecrated Altar-stone of jasper or marble, set in gold or silver, laid upon an unconsecrated Altar of stone or wood. “Domina Petronilla de Benstede dedit sumto Albano unum super-Altare rotundum de lapide jaspidis, subtus et in circuitu argento inclusum, super quod, ut sertur, sanctus Augustinus Anglorum apostolus cele-bravit.”—Monasticon Ang. t. ii. p. 221. The jasper in Christian symbolism indicates Faith, “jaspis fidei” porphyry or any red marble was used in default of the symbolical jasper. It was formerly the custom in cathedrals to place this Altar-stone upon the ordinary consecrated stone mensa, either causa reverentiæ to the blessed Eucharist, causa honoris to the greater festivals, or causa dignitatis of the celebrating bishop.
This “ara” was also styled the “super-Altar” the term now technically used for the ledge at the back of the Altar, whereon stand the cross and candlesticks.
The “ara” was sometimes made of oak wood, covered with plates of precious metal, and sometimes laminæ of ivory.
“Ara” is also the correct word for the portable Altar (tabula itineraria) for “The Communion of the Sick.”
Messrs Neale and Webb in their translation of the First Book of Durandus’ “Rationale Divinorum Officiorum,” p. 41, have the following note: “The true ecclesiastical distinction between altare and ara is, that the former means the Altar of the true GOD, and is therefore alone used in the Vulgate answering to the Greek qusiasthrion, as opposed to ara (bwmoV) an Altar with an image above it. See Mede, folio 386.”
 In S. Æthelwold’s Benedictional there is an Altar covered with a purple pall.
Bishop Leofric gave to Exeter Cathedral, ‘v. paellene weofod sceatas,’ five purple palls.—Cod. Dip. Ang. Sax. t. iv. p. 275.
 Queen Ælgive gave to Ely Cathedral, amongst other ornaments, a purple pall, “Desuper bissus sanguineo fulgore in longitudinem altaris ad cornua ejus attingens usque ad terram cum aurifriso, altitudinem habens, spectaculum decoris magni pretii administrat.”—Thomas Elien. Hist. Elien. in Anglia Sacra, tom. I. p. 607. See also, Epistola Gildæ. Ed. Stevenson, p. 51, “Sub fancli abbatis amphibalo, latera regiorum tenerrima puerorum, inter ipsa ut dixi, sacrosancta altaria nefando ense hastaque pro dentibus laceravit (Damnoniæ tyrannicus catulus Constantinus), ita ut sacrificii coelestis sedem purpurea ac si coagulati cruoris pallia attingerent.”
 If light is required in the Sanctuary at late Service, it should be provided by Standard Candlesticks placed on the ground. Candles in Coronas and Branch Candlesticks may and should be lighted about the Altar.
 Lingard’s Anglo-Saxon Church, p. 291.
 Poema de Archiepis. Ebor., Gale, ii.
 Act. SS. Ben. vi. 331.
 Wilkins’ Conc. i. 714.
 See Johnson’s Can. ii. 338.
 Orig. vii. 12,
 “It seems clear this cannot be referred to the light before the pyx, because that was never more than one, and that only in Churches possessing considerable means. (Constit. of W. de Cantilupe, Wilk. i. 557. Cardinal Pole’s Constit. 1555.) Cromwell’s Injunctions, 1536, forbid all but one light before the sacrament of the Altar, meaning the pyx, or tabernacle; the Proclamation of Henry VIII., in 1538, and the Injunction of 1539 (Wilkins, iii. 842—847,) authorise candles on Easter-day before Corpus Christi, showing they were not there before. The reason given in Reynolds’ Constitutions, which refer to the celebration of the Mass by name, and in Edward’s Injunctions, is precisely the same; both must refer, then, to the same thing. In the Private Prayers of that date, some of which are given in the Sarum Missal, to be used at the time of communion, the celebration is frequently called the Sacrament; and Cranmer, in his Injunctions of the second year, refers the lights to the Altar, not to the pyx. And the doubtful Injunctions of 1549-50 speak of the candles on the LORD’s Board. The authority of Cosin must be considered as decisive, who speaks of them as two lights on the Communion Table ; and, finally, the continued practice of the English Church.”
 Incense in Churches. S. Mary the Virgin, Cambridge:
“1562 For frankincense to perfume the church, 1d. For do. 2d.
1575 Item, for perfumes and frankincense for the church, 8d.”
All Hallows, Steyning, London:
“1563 In the time of sickness, item, for juniper for the church, 2d.
1625 The time of GOD’s visitation, item, paid for 10 lbs. of frankincense, at 3d. per lb. 2s. 6d.’’
Jesus Chapel, Cambridge:
“1588 juniper to air the chapel on S. Mark’s Day.”— Transac. of the Cambridge Camden Society, P. iii. p. 271.
Incense in churches recommended by the “Divine” Herbert:
Circa 1631. “The country parson takes order .... secondly, that the church be swept and kept clean without dust or cobwebs, and at great festivals strewed and stuck with boughs, and perfumed with incense.”—Priest to the Temple, ch. xiii. The Parson’s Church.
Form used by Abp. Bancroft for the Consecration of a Censer:
1685. So likewise when a censer is presented and received, they say: While the king sitteth at his table, my spikenard sendeth forth the smell thereof. (Cant. i. 12.) Let my prayer be set forth before Thee as incense ; and let the lifting up of my hands be as the evening sacrifice. (Psalm cxli. 2.)—The Form of Dedication and Consecration of a Church or Chapel.