“MYRRHA ET GUTTA ET CASSIA A VESTIMENTIS TUIS, A DOMIBUS EBURNEIS: EX
QUIBUS DELECTAVERUNT TE FILIAE REGUM IN HONORE TUO.
The ordinary dress of all connected with the Church down to Choristers is (1) the Cassock and (2) Square Cap.
The Eucharistic Vestments are (3) the Alb; (4) the Stole; and (5) Chasuble: in addition to which may be used (6) the Amice (Amictum); (7) the Girdle; and (8) Maniple.
Besides these there are the vestments for the assistant Ministers of the Altar, viz. (9) the Dalmatic for the Gospeller; (10) the Tunic for the Epistoler.
These are also worn together with (11) the Mitre, (12) Gloves, (13) Sandals, (14) Pastoral Staff, and (15) Ring, by Bishops; and with the (16) Crozier, and (17) Pall, by Archbishops.
1. To the Daily Office—(18) the Surplice: the Stole; (19) the Academical Hood, or (20) the Tippet (in the case of non-graduates); and Square Cap. (21) The Amys (Almutium) may be worn instead of the Hood or the Tippet.
2. In Processions, and therefore, strictly speaking, at funerals, (22) the Cope should be worn over the Surplice, and always (23) the Priest’s Cap.
|1. The CASSOCK, or priest’s coat, is single breasted, and fastened from the throat to the feet by numerous buttons, extending the whole length. At the back the Cassock is very full, from the loins downwards, and trails a considerable length on the ground. It has a narrow standing upright collar, and close sleeves. It is bound round the waist with a band three yards long and three inches broad, called a Cincture.|
The ancient English Cassock is sometimes folded over in front, and kept close by the Cincture.
The material of a Cassock may be of either silk, stuff, or cloth.
2. The ACADEMICAL SQUARE, or TRENCHER CAP, should always be used (either worn or carried in the hand) together with the hood and surplice—never with the Albe and Vestment, nor with the surplice and cope, or amyss, with which vestment the Priest’s cap, or “Birretta,” is always used.
The Trencher Cap is a regular part of the clerical dress. At the Universities it was not formerly worn by laymen, who used the round cap, such as the Doctors of Law and Medicine wear on state occasions there. The Hat, worn by clergymen with their gowns (by a very modern innovation at Cambridge) is forbidden by Archbishop Parker (App. to Life, Book ii. No. 28), and Caps are directed to be worn, except in journeys, by the Clergy.
3. The ALB is a vestment of white linen reaching to the feet; the sleeves are tight, in order that the hands of the Priest may be at liberty when celebrating the Eucharist. It should not be plaited into folds, but should fall straight and with a very moderate looseness. It has usually a worked red border and is secured round the waist by a girdle. The apparels should either go round the bottom edge and wrists, which is the most ancient style, or they may consist of quadrangular pieces, varying from twenty inches by nine, to nine inches by six for the bottom, and from six inches by four to three inches for the wrists.
These apparels were not sanctioned by the First Book of Edward VI., but are ordered by our present Rubric, which requires the whole of such “ornaments” of the Church and of the Ministers, as were in use in the second year of Edward VI. by authority of parliament.
As the alb, like the properly-made surplice, is never open in front, the aperture being only large enough to admit the head, the Priest puts it completely over his head, passes through his right arm, and then his left. He then binds it with the girdle round his loins, and adjusts it all round, so that it be a finger’s breadth from the ground.
4. The STOLE is spoken of under the name of Orarium, as early as the Council of Laodicea. It was probably made originally of white linen, afterwards it was made of silk or stuff, and enriched with embroidery and even jewels. The ends are slightly widened to admit of an embroidered cross, and terminate in a fringe. There should also be a cross in the middle.
The Eucharistic stole is three yards in length and three inches in width, it is worn crossed upon the breast of the celebrating Priest at the Holy Sacrifice, the ends appearing below the Vestment, at other Sacraments it is worn pendant. An Archbishop or Bishop wears the stole pendant at celebration.
The Deacon’s stole is worn over the left shoulder and tied under the right arm.
When the short surplice is worn, as will generally be the case, at matins and evensong, the stole should never extend beyond its hem. Consequently this short stole is usually two yards and six inches long.
When the long ministerial surplice is worn, which is the old Anglo-Saxon type, a stole of the Saxon type should be worn, viz., one reaching to the hem of the surplice, a stole of this character will be ten feet long and about two inches and a half wide. A surplice of this character is far more graceful, with its long and ample folds, than the equally correct short surplice.
When the surplice is not the long ministerial one, and yet considerably longer than the short
surplice, the stole should reach midway between the knee and the foot.
The stole—like the maniple—will be of the same colour and material as the vestment of the day.
The stole when crossed on the breast of the Priesthood for the Eucharistic Sacrifice is kept in position by the girdle of the Alb.
With regard to the Stole, it is at present generally worn by the parochial clergy at matins and evensong, seldom in the college chapels of the two Universities during the recitation of the divine services. This diversity of use arises from the fearful neglect of the Holy Eucharist in many parish churches, and the consequent undue exaltation of the Daily Service. Whilst the more frequent celebrations in the college chapels led to the traditional custom of wearing only the surplice and hood at matins and evensong, reserving the stole for the Eucharist. In some cathedrals the stole is worn in choir in singing the Daily Service, in others it is not so worn.
It certainly is not the present usage of the West to wear the stole during the recitation of the divine Office, but it should be remembered that our Daily Service, by one side of its descent, comes from the East and that we may therefore look to Eastern precedents and suggestions. The East is, perhaps, a safer guide on this subject than the West.
Of the identity of the Epitrachelion of the holy Eastern Church, with the stole of the Western, there can be no doubt; and there is every appearance of this vestment being understood in the East, as the proper badge of the ......, as such. It is accordingly worn in all ministrations and prayers, even in those recited preparatory to the public office at home, much more is it indispensable in the recitation of “The Hours.” To this must be added, that when the Hours by being said separately from the Liturgy, acquire the dignity of an independent office, not only is the epitrachelion = “stole” worn, but also the phænolion = “chasuble,” or “principal vestment.” So high does the East raise the vestiary position of the “Hours.”
In the West there are also traces of the Eastern idea of the stole, viz. that it is the very badge of the Priest’s ministry. (See XXVIIIth Canon of Council of Mayence, § 13, under Pope Leo III.) where the stole is ordered to be worn as a badge of sacerdotal dignity. (See Bona, Rer. Lit. i. 24, 6; and Durandus, Rat. Div. Off. L. iii. fol, 25, de stola.)
Again, we have traces of vestiary dignity, beyond the mere surplice, being accorded to the “Hours,” and moreover to matins and vespers in the West. “Formerly,” says Palmer, (Vol. ii. 314,) “the cope was used by the clergy in processions, and on solemn occasions in morning and evening prayers.” And so it is still at “solemn vespers,” when the officiant is vested “in cotta and cope.” He does not, however, wear the stole, according to the decrees of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, September 7, 1816, and September 11, 1847. Now of “the original identity of the cope and casula, there appears,” fays Palmer, (Vol. ii. 312,) “from the writings of Isidore Hispalensis,” (See Gav. Thef. p. 122,)
and Durandus (lib. iii, cap. 9,) “to be no doubt.” And thus we have in East and West a recognition of a decidedly priestly vestment at matins and vespers, viz. in the East phænolion (chasuble) and epitrachelion (stole); in the West cope (chasuble). It should, however, be borne in mind, that though the cope and chasuble were originally identical, the Western Church has from time immemorial used the chasuble as the eucharistic, the cope as the choral and processional vestment.
There then arises, though it is not absolutely necessary, the consideration, that our matins and evensong are something more than the Hours, or at least than the mediæval idea of them. They are said with much solemnity on Sundays and Festivals more especially;—a reason for a liberal interpretation in this matter of vestments. East and West say, give to this office, at any rate on high days (East says always), something more distinctively priestly than the mere surplice. May we not then go back to the probably primitive conception of the stole, as the priestly officiating vestment, bearing in mind the fact of its having been traditionally retained in the English Church at matins and evensong. It would fall below the tradition of even the modern West, as expressed by the cope (though without the stole), at high vespers, i.e. on Sundays and Festivals, to wear the mere surplice on all occasions, high and low. The West originally no less than the East had doubtless some priestly vestment for the “Hours;” but when the daily office became depressed it was analogous and natural that it should lose its stole and cope on ordinary occasions.
To these considerations it may be added, that though there does not appear to be any exact authority for wearing the stole during the daily office, this arises from there not having been formerly any service of grand obligation like our matins and evensong. The stole, however, must be worn at baptisms, and as these may occur in the daily office “upon Sundays and other holy-days,” another reason arises for its use on solemn vespers and matins of festivals, apart from honour due to feasts of obligation, &c. It is, therefore, well to wear the stole always, crossed at the celebration of the holy Eucharist, pendent at other sacraments, solemn vespers, and simple matins and evensong.
5. The CHASUBLE, or CHESABLE, commonly called by way of excellency the Vestment, is the upper or last vestment put on by the celebrant. Its primitive form was perfectly round, with an aperture in the centre for the head, as we find it figured in the Benedictional of S. Æthelwold. In England its shape continued nearly circular, for six centuries after the mission of S. Augustine; even when a change was made, the only alteration seems to have been that the opposite parts of the circumference were made to come to a point. This form of the Vestment was in use for many ages, and is that which is frequently figured on memorial brasses; but from the middle of the fourteenth century to the present time, the Chasuble as worn by the
Priesthood of the Church of England has generally been made in the shape of a vesica piscis, and the ornaments with which it has been decorated during that period, are far more elaborate, and consequently richer and more beautiful.
The Orphreys (bands of gold or rich embroidery) of the Vestment consist of a border, a broad stripe in front, and a Latin Cross on the back, extending throughout the whole length and breadth. The oldest orphrey however was in the shape of a Pallium, and came down in a Y shape from the shoulders back and front.
The chasuble is six feet from point to point, and three feet three inches in its greatest width.
The vestment should be large and pliant, as it will then accommodate itself to the positions of the body, and will afford the most beautiful combination of folds. Plain velvet or silk, with a thin lining, are the best materials for ordinary use, as the chasuble will then fold up without injury, and not tear and fret the antependia when it comes in contact with them.
The embroidery of the Orphreys tells with surprising effect and richness; but when cloth of gold or figured silks are used, the pattern should be small, as the plain surfaces between the Orphreys are necessarily small, and a large pattern cut up has a confused and disjointed appearance. Powdering is better than diapering for a Vestment, the reverse for a cope.
The Vestment like the antependium will be of the colour of the Day.
Where there are not funds for more than one Vestment (a complete set) a chasuble of fine white linen with scarlet Orphreys is recommended. But white or crimson silk or velvet is the general material.
A white moleskin Chasuble with Orphreys of scarlet cloth shaped in the form of a Pallium in front and behind ## is well adapted for a village Church, where the ancient colours sometimes cannot be used on account of the poverty of the parish. A Vestment of this kind is of good quality, as all things should be in the House of GOD, of handsome appearance, and of not greater cost than a surplice of fine linen.
When the moleskin Chasuble is washed, the Orphreys must be taken off—they are sewn on like the apparels of an Alb.
6. The AMICE is an oblong square of fine white linen, and is put on upon the cassock or priest’s canonical dress. It is embroidered or apparelled, as it is technically termed, upon one edge. In vesting, it is placed for a moment like a veil, upon the crown of the head, as an emblem of salvation, (Eph. vi. 17: Take the helmet of salvation,) and then spread upon the shoulders, and secured by means of two strings, one at each end, which are tied cross-wise over the breast. The apparel, which has a cross in the middle, and is sewed upon it, is from two to three inches wide and extends from ear to ear, forming a kind of embroidered collar, which should be arranged so as to leave the neck free and uncovered.
The apparel of the amice cannot be too rich in its ornamentation,
7. The GIRDLE is a cord of white cotton or silk tasselled at the end, with which the albe is girded, and adjusted to a convenient length. It is about three yards long.
The girdle is sometimes red.
8. The maniple is three feet and four inches long and three inches wide, it is of the same colour as the stole and fringed at the ends. Embroidered crosses are added to the extremities, which are very slightly widened to admit of them.
The maniple was originally made of the finest linen to wipe the chalice during communion, in very early ages it began to be enriched with embroidery. It is attached by a loop to a button on the left sleeve of the albe, and varies in colour and character with the vestment.
9. The DALMATIC—the Gospeller’s Diaconal
Vestment at the Sacrament of the Altar— is a loose robe with large sleeves, partly open at the sides. From the shoulders behind and before also, according to ancient custom, are suspended silk or gold cords with tassels, which reach within a foot from the hem of the vestment. The Dalmatic should extend to the apparel of the alb, and the sleeves should be sufficiently short not to cover the wrist apparels. The side openings should extend nearly to the hip. There is of course no opening in front, but only an aperture for the head as in the case of the Alb and Vestment. The Dalmatic has an apparelled collar, and apparels before and behind, in the midst of the open part of the vestment. It has also two straight Orphreys passing over the shoulder and extending to the front and back hem, it has also an Orphrey across the breast and back. It will be seen that this vestment is the same before as behind. The Stole is worn beneath the Dalmatic, and is just visible through the right lateral aperture. The Maniple is affixed to a button upon the left wrist apparel of the Alb. The Dalmatic is of the same colour and material as the Principal Vestment. Where however there is only one Dalmatic, it is correct that it should be made, as originally, of white silk with two purple or scarlet stripes before and behind, with no apparels.
10. The TUNIC—the Epistoler’s Diaconal Vestment at the Sacrament of the Altar—is of the same shape as the Dalmatic, but shorter, less ample, and without Orphreys: the only ornament being the golden cord and tassels from the shoulder (see sub-note to Dalmatic). The Tunic should reach about three inches below the knee, and the sleeves about the same length below the elbow. It follows the same law in regard to colour as the Dalmatic.
Where the colours are not used in regard to the Tunicles (i.e. Dalmatic and Tunic) it is proper to have the Tunic of blue silk.
The Tunic which the Bishop wears beneath his Dalmatic differs only in length from that worn by the Epistoler—it should reach midway between the knee and ankle. The Dalmatic as worn by a Bishop is shorter than that worn by the Gospeller, it should extend not more than three inches and a half beyond the knee.
Whatever may have been the colour of the Chasuble the Episcopal Tunic and Dalmatic were anciently of a bright purple or sky-blue. At the present time they usually follow the colour of the Vestment. The ancient use seems preferable.
11. The MITRE. There are three sorts of Mitres.
The Plain Mitre (simplex) made of white linen, the only ornamentation being red edging or fringe to the infulæ or hanging lappets. This Mitre is used for processions, such as on Rogation Days; for laying the first stone of a Church, School, or College, and by assistant Bishops at Holy Communion.
The Gold Embroidered Mitre (aurifrigiata) has no gems nor plates of gold or silver upon it, but for its ornament a few small pearls, and is made out of white silk wrought with gold, or of simple cloth of gold. The Orphreyed Mitre is used at Celebrations of Holy Eucharist and at Confirmation.
The Precious Mitre (pretiosa) is adorned with gems and precious stones, and often made out of sheets of gold and silver. It was anciently worn on high and solemn festivals, and at synods held in a Cathedral Church.
12. The GLOVES (Chirothecæ). The Episcopal Gloves should be made of silk, and richly embroidered.
13. The SANDAL is in shape like a high half-boot. It is about six inches high and has no heel, properly so called. Sandals are usually of costly materials, embroidered with various devices, and sometimes enriched with precious stones. They are put on immediately after the Buskins, which are made of precious stuff, or cloth of gold. The length of them is usually about eighteen inches.
14. The pastoral staff in form somewhat resembles a shepherd’s crook, an apt emblem of the pastoral office of a Bishop over his flock. The upper end is curved, the lower end pointed to show the authority of the Church over the obedient and disobedient, according to the Latin line,
“ Curva trahit mites, pars pungit acuta rebelles.”
It is sometimes bound with a vexillum or banner of the Cross—sometimes with a sudarium, which is most correct, its true use being to roll round the staff, not only to hinder the gilding of the burnished staff from being tarnished, but to preserve the Episcopal Glove.
The Pastoral Staff is carried by the Bishop in the left hand, for this obvious reason—viz., to keep his right hand free to bestow, whilst uplifting it, his blessing, as at Holy Communion and other Administrations of the Church, or as he walks to and from the Altar in processions.
In processions the Crook is carried forwards, in blessing it is held laterally but still outwards. The crook turned outwards denotes jurisdiction over a diocese.
Several fine and ancient examples are in existence. An excellent design also is given in the “Instrumenta Ecclesiastica,” and one of singular elegance was designed by G. E. Street, Esq., and executed by Mr. Skidmore, for presentation to the late lamented Bishop of Graham’s Town.
15. The EPISCOPAL RING is generally made of pure gold, large and massy, with a jewel, usually a sapphire, but not unfrequently a deep broad emerald, or a ruby, set in the midst; it is often enriched with sacred devices and inscriptions. The ring should be worn over the Episcopal Glove on the annular or last finger but one of the right hand, and should never be passed below the second joint of the finger, as it is so often improperly worn.
16. The CROZIER, or ARCHIEPISCOPAL CROSS, is a Cross borne on a staff—the lower end is pointed as in the Pastoral Staff. The Crozier is seldom of a metal less costly than silver, and is sometimes wrought of gold and sparkles with jewels. The Archiepiscopal Cross is never carried by the Archbishop, but by one of his chaplains chosen to act as Cross-bearer or “croyser.” The crozier ought according to Catholic custom to have a figure of our LORD hanging nailed to the rood on each of its two sides. A double crucifix of this kind is considered to be peculiar to an archiepiscopal, as distinguished from a
processional cross. Thus one figure of CHRIST crucified looks towards the Archbishop as he follows it, whilst another meets the eyes of those in front: if the crosier have only one crucifix it must be turned to face the Archbishop. The cross is always floriated.
17. The PALL (pallium). The correct form of this ensign of jurisdiction may be seen on the Arms of the See of Canterbury. The Archiepiscopal Pall is a circle of plain white lambs’ wool with a pendent before and behind, reaching down to the feet. The Pall is marked with four purple crosses—two on the round part, viz., one at each point whence the pendents issue, and one on each end of these pendents which terminate in a fringe. The Pall is double in a portion of the round part—this double part is let fall on the Archbishop’s left arm. Besides the four purple crosses the Pall is ornamented with three golden pins. These pins, which formerly fastened the Pallium to the Vestment, now pierce neither pall nor chasuble, but by means of little eyes or loops of silk they are fastened to the pall as follows—one on the left arm on that part of the pallium which is double; the second of these pins is stuck in front, at the part whence the pendent starts from the circle; the third behind in a like position. The second and third pin is fixed upon the cross.
In addition to the above “Ornaments of the Minister” is the now obsolete “RATIONAL.” This was an oblong square, and less often an oval, of beaten gold, or silver gilt studded with precious stones. It had given to it the name of the ancient Jewish Rational, the Aaronic breastplate. The Rational was affixed to the breast of the Bishop upon the Chasuble by three silver-gilt pearl-headed pins, and was only worn at the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist. It seems not to have been worn by English Bishops since the fourteenth century. This ornament occurs on the Chasuble of Bishop Gyffard in Worcester Cathedral; also on the effigy of another Bishop in the Ladye Chapel of the same, supposed to be either S. Wulstan or Bishop William de Blois. It may be seen also on a figure of Laurence S. Martin, Bishop of Rochester, (who died A.D. 1274,) in Rochester Cathedral.
18. The SURPLICE is a loose flowing garment of linen, with expanding sleeves, worn by ecclesiastics of all ranks.
The old English Surplice reaches well nigh to the feet, it is very full, and has large broad sleeves widening as they outstretch themselves all down the arms to the hands, from which they hang drooping in masses of beautiful folds. With a round hole at the top, large enough to let the head go through with ease, it has no kind of opening in front, not even a short slit above the breast, thus needing neither tie nor button to fasten it at the neck. Immediately it is thrown on the shoulders, it fits itself in becoming drapery about the wearer’s person, so that this garment is one of the most graceful of those employed in the sacred ministry.
A long ministerial surplice of this character is admirably adapted for the more solemn services, such as that of Matrimony; it is also suitable to be worn by Priests with the choral cope.
The short surplice (cotta) reaches to the knees and sometimes a hands-breadth beyond them— the sleeves of the cotta should extend a hands-breadth beyond the hem of the garment. The short surplice is only a little more ample than the Alb.
The Cotta is admirably fitted for simple Matins, especially when followed by a celebration of the Holy Eucharist.
It is also suitable for lay-clerks.
All surplices should be circular, and never open in front. Nothing can be more unseemly, especially when no cassock is worn, an impropriety
of too frequent occurrence, to see the opening surplice reveal the details of modern full dress. The large aperture of the surplice sleeve readily permits the arm to be withdrawn so that the hand can reach the cassock pocket. With the alb the handkerchief, or other like matter can be carried in the girdle.
The “winged” surplices—that is surplices with the sleeves slit open, and hanging uselessly from the back of the shoulders, are barbarous mutilations of the ample and majestic sleeves and flowing drapery of the ancient surplice. These surplices are much used in France, and the folds are crimped and plaited into narrow divisions— they are both inconvenient, and, as might be conjectured, perfectly unecclesiastical.
19. The ACADEMICAL HOOD, or COWL, when used as an ecclesiastical vestment should not be worn as at the Universities, viz., hanging by a ribbon, and reaching nearly to the ground behind—a custom of questionable taste, as it has entirely altered the character and uses of that garment. At the time the canon was promulgated, the hood was worn over the shoulders like an Amyss or cape, upon this cape the cowl or hood (which gave its name to the whole vestment) was affixed behind at the back of the neck; this cowl terminated in a purse-like strip called its tippet or liripipe. The tippet of the cowl ought not to reach below the cape. This vestment should be either buttoned down in front, or brought to meet in front, by being stitched together down the breast, so that in putting it on the wearer has to pass his head through it. (See Illustration.)
The hoods generally made by University robe-makers for academical purposes ought not to be used in ecclesiastical functions. Messrs. Foster and Co., and Mr. C. P. Pike, of Oxford, and Messrs. Parker and Smith, of Brighton, can make ecclesiastical hoods of the proper shape, having had patterns supplied to them by the compilers of this book.
20. The TIPPET is a cape of black stuff, which clergy who are not graduates are permitted to wear over their surplices when officiating, in lieu of the academical hood: “it shall be lawful for such ministers as are not graduates to wear upon their surplices instead of hoods some decent tippet of black, so it be not silk.”—Canon LVIII. of 1603.
“—Likewise all deans, masters of colleges, archdeacons, and prebendaries, in cathedral and collegiate churches, (being priests or deacons,) doctors in divinity, law, or physic, bachelors in divinity, masters of arts, and bachelors of law, having any ecclesiastical living, shall usually wear gowns .... with hoods or tippets of silk or sarcenet, and square caps, and that all other ministers admitted or to be admitted into that function shall also usually wear the like apparel as is aforesaid, except tippets only.”—Canon LXXIV. of 1603.
The spirit of the Canons is, that non-graduates are permitted to substitute the tippet for the academical hood during divine service only; that all clerics, being graduates, are to wear the hood agreeable to their degrees, not only over their surplice but over their usual habit, the gown; whilst dignitaries, and beneficed clergy, if not of a lower degree than M.A. or S.C.L. may substitute a tippet of silk for the hood, to be worn over their ordinary apparel in public, viz. the gown.
The proctors in the University of Cambridge wear the tippet in place of the hood. But this
tippet at the present day is no other habit than a Cambridge M.A. hood laid flat.
The anomalous “ribbons” are looped up, and the liripipe and folded cape form two stole-like appendages, which are crossed upon the breast and held in position by a hook and eye, whilst the cowl and upper part of the folded cape serve as a capacious tippet. Under this “tippet” is worn what is called by University robe-makers “the Ruff,” it is not unlike an amice of black silk without a neck apparel.
There is no doubt that the Cambridge M.A. hood as worn quasi “tippet,” gives the correct shape of the habit permitted to non-graduates by the Canons.
21. The AMYSS or CHOIR TIPPET (Almutium) is a large fur cape, which entirely overspreads the shoulders and breast, reaching down as far as the elbows, its “tippets,” i.e., two strips of fur in front, fall, stole-like, below the knees, retaining the whole way down the same breadth, about three inches. This vestment had originally a large roomy hood hanging down from all around the neck. The hood portion was early disused, and in its stead a square cap was worn. The Amyss used to be worn over the surplice by Canons and Rectors, according to ancient custom, in choir during the recitation of the Divine Offices, instead of the academical hood. It was also worn under both the choral and processional Cope.
22. The COPE is in shape an exact semi-circle with a border (Orphrey) on the straight side, frequently very rich with figures of faints, and sometimes the whole vestment is covered with diaper-work. The length of the straight side of a cope opened out should be ten feet. It is fastened across the chest by a clasp called a Morse. A hood which might be used was in ancient times attached to the back of it; but at the present time this, with the border or orphrey is only retained that the embroiderer may enrich the dress with tabernacle niches of saints or devices, heraldic and symbolical.
The cope used in penitential processions is of coarse material and plainer ornamentation than the choral cope. This cope is also worn in the Dry Service, which should never be used except on Good Friday—when the colour of the cope is black—and in case of the absolute impossibility of procuring the required number of communicants.
It was an ancient custom in the English Church for Priests to wear choral copes at solemn Vespers. They were worn also by all the assistant Clergy in choir on great feasts. And at High Mass according to the Salisbury Use the assistants and rulers of the choir were required to be vested in copes.
The colour of the cope is guided by the same unvarying law which determines the colour of other vestments.
The copes used at the present time in the University of Cambridge are of fine scarlet cloth,
with a hood that may be worn. Both cope and hood are lined with ermine.
23. The PRIEST’S CAP, is either a skull cap of black velvet, or a quadrangular cap.
This quadrangular cap, or “Birretta,” as it is technically called, is worn with the Chasuble, Cope, or Amyss, when the academical square cap would be out of place, (see Illustration.) The square cap is not to be confounded with the Square College or Trencher Cap. The “Birretta,” is in shape like the lower half of a pyramid inverted; and in the centre of the crown is placed a tassel, the lower edge is often bordered with a band of velvet. It is worn with the point in front.
The Birretta should always be used at funerals.
 A short Cassock of black cloth either single or double breasted is very suitable for clerics when engaged in ordinary parochial work.
 It was an ancient custom to wear in choir the square pyramidal Priest’s Cap, or “Birretta,” over the skull-cap , hence it was usual, for the convenience of taking off the two caps together at those parts of the service, where, out of reverence to the Holy Name or otherwise, the head was bared for a short while, to sew the skull and square cap together; so that out of this grew the celebrated “pileus quadratus;” which time has handed down to us, though somewhat altered, in the present Trencher Cap of our English Universities.
 At the enthronization of Bishop Walton of Chester, A.S. 1661, “All the members of the Cathedral habited in their albs received a blessing from his lordship.” Kennet’s Register, Vol. I. b. 537, fol. 1728.
 “Itaque Diaconus orarium defert in sinistro humero.”
“Subdiaconi vero, ac caeteri inferiores ministri orariis five Stolis uti omnino prohibentur.” Synod. Laodicena, A.S. 360. Canon xxii., xxiii.
“ The Orarium was a sort of scarf, Du Pin calls it a stole, which the Bishop and Priest might have on each shoulder, the Deacon on the left only, the Minister or Sub-Deacon on neither.” Johnson’s Vade-mecum, Vol. II. p. 111.
 The old Sarum term is Service, the Roman Office, for the “Hours.” The common phrase “Divine Service,” (see Rubric after The Absolution, and immediately before the Lord’s Prayer at Matins,) is a direct tradition from the old English Use, in contradistinction to the Roman term “Office.”
 See “The Principles of Divine Service,” by the Rev. Philip Freeman, M.A.
 “We now come to the Epitrachelion which is one form of the Latin Stole .... instead of being thrown round the neck and hanging down on each side, as is the case in the Latin Church, the head is put through a hole in the upper extremity, and it limply hangs down in front. It looks, however, nearly the same as a stole, because it has a seam all down the middle .... it is worn by the Priest in every sacred function.”—Neale’s History of the Holy Eastern Church, (Gen. Int.) p. 308.
 Ibid. p. 313.
 The eucharistic vestments of the Holy Eastern Church are, for the Priest, the stoicharion, which answers to the alb, but is often made of the richest silk or velvet. The epimanikia, which in some degree answer to the maniple, but they do not resemble it in shape, and are worn on both hands instead of on the left only. They hang down, like a kind of cuff, in two peaked flaps, and are fastened under the wrist with a silken cord run along the border, by which they are drawn in and adjusted to the arm. The epitrachelion, a form of the stole, a broad strip of brocade or rich silk, with a hole at one extremity for the head to go through, it hangs down simply in front, and is bound upon the stoicharion by the zone. The phænolion is in all respects precisely the Western chasuble. Instead of the epitrachelion deacons carry the orarion. It is worn over the left shoulder.
 It is true Bona raises the question whether the cassock or any long vestment may not be meant, but there is no certain example of this use. Orarium certainly means Stole in the canon of Braga.
 See Ceremonial according to the Roman Rite, translated from the Italian of Joseph Baldesche, by J. D. Hilarius Dale. Part II. c. iv. p. 63.
 The real origin of the stole is probably that combined with the phænolion or chasuble; it represents, and is derived from the “curious ephod” of the high priest.
 “The forms and ceremonies of their worship resemble those of the Greek Church from which they are derived. Their vestments are the same, or nearly so: and here I will remark that the sacred vestures of the Christian Church are the same, with very insignificant modifications among every denomination of Christians in the world, that they have always been the same, and never were otherwise in any country, from the remotest times where we have any written accounts of them, or any mosaics, sculptures, or pictures to explain their forms. They are no more a Popish invention or have anything more to do with the Roman Church than any other usage which is common to all denominations of Christians. They are and always have been of general and universal—that is of catholic— use; they have never been used for many centuries for ornament or dress by the laity, having been considered as set apart to be used only by the Priests in the Church during the celebration of the worship of Almighty GOD. These ancient vestures have been worn by the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons of that in common with the hierarchy of every other Church. In England they have fallen into disuse by neglect; King Charles I. presented some vestments to the Cathedral of Durham long after the Reformation, and they continued in use there almost in the memory of man.”—Curzon’s Armenia, p. 223.
“ The Altars in Swedish Churches are richly adorned and furnished with candlesticks and crosses; the vestments of the Priests are also handsome and varied: their usage in these details differs little from the Church of Rome.”—Two Summer Cruises in the Baltic, by the Rev. R. E. Hughes, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge, p. 344.
“ In the meanwhile the Priest, kneeling on the Altar-steps, was invested by the Candidatus and Kyrke Sånger (precentor) with the mässe hacke, a crimson velvet Chasuble, embroidered in front with a gold glory surrounding the Holy Name, and behind with a gold floriated cross.”—Rev. Henry Newland’s Forest Scenes in Norway and Sweden, p. 181.
 The “failonhV,” or cloak, mentioned by S. Paul in his Second Epistle to S. Timothy, iv. 13, is considered to be no other than the Vestment which the Apostle used when he celebrated the Holy Eucharist.
 “Item, one Awter Cloth of white fustyan with red roses, with a crucifixe, &c.”—Jacob’s Hist. of Faversham.
 Some Chasubles have a hood attached to them—but the Hooded Chasuble is never used as the Principal Vestment, and consequently may be classed amongst Processional rather than Eucharistic vestments. It is called casula processoria, or a Processional Chasuble. It seems never to have come into general use, and is not so well adapted for ordinary services, ceremonials, and processions as the Cope.
 No shirt-collars, no gloves, or rings should be worn, the hair should be short, and the face shaven.
 “Manipuli usus non ab Aaron, fed ab antiquis patribus Christianis initium duxit.” Martyr. Bedae.
 Formerly the sides of the Dalmatic were made to open over the shoulders to the extent of a few inches, in order to afford a free passage for the head in putting on the vestment. These slits had an unseemly appearance when the Dalmatic was adjusted; and therefore silk or gold cords passing through these apertures were contrived to loop or lace them together, and to the end of these cords tassels were added as well for weight as for ornament. It was soon found as needless to open the Dalmatic on the shoulder as it would be the Alb or Vestment—but the cord and tassel are still attached to the shoulder as a decoration, and diaconal mark.
The Dalmatic denotes the Kingly Power of CHRIST—and is therefore most suitable for the Gospeller.
“Usum Dalmaticarum à Silvestro institutum fuisse prodiderunt.”—Alcuinus, lib. de divinis officiis, cap. x.
 The Epistoler of our canon (XXIV of 1603) is in the place of the sub-deacon.
 “Hyacinthus, quoniam aeris et coeli speciem imitatur, eorundem mentes electorum, omni spe ac desiderio coelestia quaerentes significat. Cujus nobis colons sacramentum commendans Apostolus, ait: Si consurrexistis cum Christo, quae sursum sunt quaerite, etc.” — Beda, de Tabern. Lib. ii. cap. ii.
See also Durand. de tunica Lib. iii. fol. xxvii. Ed.
The Dalmatic and Tunic are frequently expressed by the simple word “Tunacles,” as in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
The Epistoler’s Tunic is often made exactly similar to the Gospeller’s Dalmatic; but this incorrect custom is utterly subversive of a very beautiful symbolism.
It is however perfectly unobjectionable to have the sacred vestments of fair white linen, so long as the shape of them be correct.
 Those which were actually used by the venerable Wykeham are of red silk, embroidered with the Holy Name in gold, and are still preserved at New College, Oxford.
 Bishop Waneflete’s Episcopal Buskin and Sandals are still preserved at Oxford in the College of S. Mary Magdalen.
 “And whensoever the Bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion in the Church, or execute any other public ministration: he shall have upon him, beside his rochette, a surplice or albe, and a cope or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.”—Rubric in first Book of Edward VI.
 In ancient times Mitred Abbats carried the pastoral staff with the crook turned inwards and in the right hand, to denote rule over the members only of their own houses. But this custom was by no means universal.
 The Ring not only symbolizes the temporal dignity of the Bishop, but is a symbol of the Faith with which CHRIST has espoused His Church. The father gave a ring to his prodigal son when he returned to him. From this passage in the Gospel the use of the Ring is supposed to have been adopted in the Church. The Ring worn by the Bishop signifies the faithfulness, with which he should love the Church confided to his care as himself, and present her sober and chaste to her heavenly Spouse. 2 Cor. xi. 2: “I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to CHRIST.” The Bishop therefore being in the place of CHRIST, wears the Ring of the Bridegroom.—V. Durandus, Lib. iii. fol. xxix. Ed. 1683.
 The episcopal Ring of Abp. Lee, of York, (now in the possession of the Rev. F. G. Lee, S.C.L.,) is of silver gilt, with the sacred name engraved upon it, and it contains an amethyst of large size.
 The way for putting on the Pall is to make the two pendents droop, one before, the other behind, directly upon the orphrey of the Chasuble, and the circular part to go round the person in such a manner that it may sit, not about the neck, but over the arms. In the Roman Church it is at present hung upon the shoulders.
The Pall given by the Pope to Roman Bishops is now marked with six black crosses, four on the round part, two on the pendents, which do not reach below the waist.
 These golden pins originally fastened the Pall to the Vestment. In ecclesiastical costume every detail must have a purpose, to be really beautiful; and the moment anything is added simply for ornament, or is made extravagantly large, it is offensive.
 This, however, does not seem to have been invariably the case, for in a picture of The Purification, of the latter half of the fifteenth century, two ecclesiastics wear full surplices reaching almost to the feet, and not fastened at the neck, but having an opening in front, which reaches far down the breast, and displays a crimson cassock.
 “This coat (viz. the High Priest’s coat of the Ephod) he put not on after the ordinary fashion of putting on coats, which were open before; but this he put on like a surplice, over his head; and this hole was edged about with an edging of the same stuff woven in, that the hole should not be rent.”—A Handful of Gleanings out of the Book of Exodus, by John Lightfoot, D.D. London, 4to. 1643.
It would seem from this extract that in the reign of Charles I. the surplice open in front was unknown.
 It is well known in the case of the furred Amess, that at the beginning it was outwardly of black cloth, and inside lined with fur, and that afterwards the fur was worn outside.
The tippet or liripipe is easily recognised in the hoods worn by graduates of Cambridge and Dublin; though less noticeable it is also seen in the Oxford B.D. Hood, and it is also not a little curious that while these hoods have entirely departed from their original shapes in the parts intended to cover the head and shoulders, so that they now serve no other purpose than that of a mere badge, the tippets should have remained comparatively unaltered. In regard to tippets as worn by the laity they were in mediaeval times of considerable length. Peers of the time of Henry VII. might wear tippets a yard and a half long. The gentry were required to wear them a yard long and an inch broad. Attendants, huntsmen, and abigails wore them a minimum length of a few inches. Inferior persons were ordered to have “no manner of tippets bound upon them.”
 This ruff is simply a breadth of silk of about two yards long; it is tied upon the left shoulder, and has a cord under the right arm, forming an armhole. It is gathered round the neck.
 The Amess as worn by Canons and Rectors is made for the former of white ermine, for the latter (usually) of the skin of the gray squirrel—this is the celebrated Gray Amess—“the Amice gray,” as Milton incorrectly spells it; the tails of the ermine are sewn round the edge. It is proper when the Bishop is a “Lord Spiritual” to wear a SPOTTED Amess.
The “tippets” or points of the Amess, especially when worn with the Cope, much resemble a Stole, which however if the Western rule regarding vestments be followed in reference to the saying or singing of Matins and Evensong, or in processions, is not worn on such occasions. It is correct in saying office to wear only Cassock, Surplice, and Hood, the hood being by Canon 25 (vide also the last rubric in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.) in the place of the Amess for ordinary clerics. When these last wear the Amess, it should be black—the fur brown. The “tippets” of the Amess can always be distinguished from the Stole by their rounded terminations, and by small plummets of lead appended to weigh them down.
 The Dry Service is unfortunately sometimes used on Sundays and Holidays, but an early Communion supersedes this objectionable practice at all times.
 Independent of the rubric at the beginning of the Book of Common Prayer, which states that “such ornaments of the Church, and of the Ministers thereof . . . shall be retained, and be in use;” the XXIVth Canon A.D. 1603, enjoins that at the Administration of the Holy Communion “the principal Minister,” i.e., the celebrant, “shall use a decent cope, being assisted with the gospeller and epistoler:” this Canon however has no power to substitute the cope for the vestment (chasuble) when actual celebration takes place.
At a coronation the Archbishop who performs the act is vested in a cope. Vide, “The Form and Order of Her Majesty’s Coronation,” and as may be seen in Hayter’s well-known picture. The Sub-Dean of Westminster wears one also, and copes of cloth of gold are likewise worn by the Canons of Westminster. Copes are also worn by the Bishops who sing the Liturgy.