Project Canterbury


S. S. C.





A Paper

Read before the May Synod of the Society of the Holy
Cross, 1885







Privately Printed for the Society.




Before I speak of the Honour due to our Lady, I wish in the first instance to express my thanks for the opportunity which has been given me of advocating the claim which our Blessed Mother Mary has upon our love and reverence: and especially before this solemn assembly of clergy, who have for many years past, and who I hope for many years to come, will continue to direct to a great extent the religious thought of this country.

In the second place, with respect to any practical results which I cannot entirely refrain from suggesting, I wish most distinctly to state that, since they must in all cases be carried out in subjection to the great Christian duties of prudence and forbearance, and in each case be ordered by the proper authority, I only indicate some general habits and usages as the consequence of my observations.

I propose to consider the subject of the Honour due to our Lady, in seven parts:--

1. A short statement of the position of the Virgin-Mother in the scheme of Redemption.

2. A short summary of passages in the Holy Scriptures relating to the Blessed Virgin, and some special notice of four of them.

3. A statement of the titles given to the Blessed Virgin in the Apostolic Liturgies and by the Councils of the Church:

4. A notice of the later development of this, and a special extract from Bishop Pearson On the Creed.

5. A short consideration of the results of neglecting the honour due to our Lady in the last two centuries, as tending to Deism.

6. The warning of unfulfilled prophecy in this matter.

7. Some practical suggestions on the whole subject.

I. In the scheme of Redemption the Blessed Virgin holds a most prominent place, as Eve does in the Fall.

Before Adam and Eve were driven out of the Garden of Eden, the promise was given that the Seed of the Woman should braise the head of the serpent; and as time rolled on the Prophets confirmed and enlarged that promise, singing of the glory of the undefiled Virgin-Mother, and of the happy birth-place of Bethlehem, a carol which echoed through the winter of the world, until the Angel Gabriel ("the strength of GOD") made the first salutation to Mary, "Hail, thou that art highly favoured! the Lord is with thee; I blessed art thou among women." It was also said in the Annunciation, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee."

Therefore we say in the Creed of our dear Lord, " He was Incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made Man," From these words we learn that our Lady was selected from all other women for the most exalted position which a human being could fill-to be the all-pure Mother of an all-pure Son; to have every part and course of her physical and spiritual nature made perfectly free from all stain of sin before the Conception of our Blessed Lord Jesus; and more than this, it was equally that this immaculate condition should be maintained during the period between the Conception and the Nativity.

May I not go one step beyond this, when we remember that the Infant JESUS was nourished from the breasts of His Mother; and that the office of a mother is carried on beyond the birth of a child, not only in the matter of food, but also in the secret transmission of energy and character, which are apparently as indelible as the germ of life itself.

"My beloved is mine, and I am His; He feedeth among the lilies. Thou art all fair, my love; there is no spot in thee. A garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed."

St. Elisabeth therefore, full of the Holy Ghost, teaches us to say, "Blessed art thou among women Fruit of thy womb." Saluting Mary as the Mother of GOD, "Whence is this to me, that the Mother of my Lord should come to me?"

Here we may pause, and be assured that if no more mention of the Blessed Virgin were in Holy Scripture, and no utterance of her name by the Fathers and in the Councils of the Church, we are bound to honour her by every feeling of love, gratitude, as the Mother of our GOD and Saviour.

II. We pass on to my second division-a short consideration of the passages in Holy Scripture in which mention is made of our Lady.

There are about twenty-two or three places in all. Of these the greater number are simply statements of her presence in the narrative, and require no comment. Others indicate the wonderful humility and faith in the words of our Lord, and of the events of His Birth: as we read in St. Luke, "Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart."

Four of these passages seem to demand special attention--

(i.) The answer of our Lord in the Temple (St. Luke ii. 41).

(ii.) 'The Miracle at Cana of Galilee (St. John ii.)

(iii.) The reply of our Lord to the woman who pronounced His Mother blessed (St. Luke xi. 28).

(iv.) The words to St. John from the Cross (St. John six. 25).

The answer which our Lord made in the Temple to His Mother was, "How is it that ye sought Me? Wist ye not that I must be about My Father's business? This has been called a rebuke by some commentators: I cannot so consider it.

I must say, before I proceed, of the passages I have selected, that an unnecessary harshness has been given in the translation-not, I suspect, without intention.

Dr. Burton pointed out more than thirty years since, that en toiV tou patroV mou should be rendered "in My Father's house;" a very important variation from the received text, thus making the answer point to the place of search, not to the search itself. I observe that this is the rendering in the text of the last Revision.

Now when we remember that our Lord was twelve years old at this time, and probably took up the Tephillim, with the privileges and responsibilities of an Israelite, we may consider this answer as a very simple and natural one.

The second passage of Holy Scripture I propose .to examine occurs in the history of the Marriage at Cana (St. John ii.), "The Mother of JESUS saith unto Him, They have no wine. JESUS saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? Mine hour is not yet come.''

Let us notice the wording of the request, if it can be called a request; and the instructions given by our Lady to the servants, as already sure of her Son's aid. But especial care must be given to the response, ti emoi kai soi gunai; happily expressed in the Latin, "Quid mihi et tibi est mulier."

The phrase is Hebrew, and occurs several times in the Old and New Testament. I have considered the passages Josh. xiii. 24; Judges xi. 12; 2 Sam. xvi. 10; and xix. 22; as also St. Matt. viii. 29; St. Mark v. 7: and although much may be said for the present rendering, it is quite possible, and here probable from the context, to translate it, "What has that to do with Me and you?"

With respect to the word gunai, all scholars know that it does not imply any want of affection, for in the last address from the Cross, when our Lord spoke to His Mother in her agony, and when we may be sure that His speech was full of deep love, He said, "Woman, behold thy Son." The translators of the Greek poets invariably render this word by "Lady," because it is addressed as a title of respect to ladies in the highest social position, by servants and messengers.

I should not dwell upon this history so long if it were not for the theories which are drawn from it, for in considering a verse or phrase we must be guided by the general sense of oar Lord's conduct to His Mother; nor can we allow the whole tenor of that conduct to be affected by the doubtful issue of a single speech. Strangely enough, I find the modern objection to the honour of our Lady mentioned in the Questions and Answers to the Orthodox, which, if not the work of St. Justin Martyr, are generally published under his name. In Question 136, this singular objection is made, "If the Scriptures forbid us to despise our parents, how is Christ free from sin Who does so? For in the marriage at Cana, when He said, ti emoi kai soi gunai, He reproached His Mother. And when His Mother wished to see Him, He called those His mother and brethren who did the will of GOD: and again, when the womb which bare Him and the breasts which He sucked were pronounced blessed, He called those blessed who did the Will of GOD."

The following answer is worthy of attention:--"This ti emoi kai soi gunai was said by the Saviour to His Mother, not as a reproach, but to point out a fact. 'It is not we,' He says, 'who have undertaken to look after the wine consumed at the wedding. Nevertheless, out of great love, if you wish it, to prevent their lacking wine, tell the servants to do what I bid them, and you will see that they shall not want wine:' and so it came to pass. And in the other utterances He speaks not to deprive His Mother of the honour due to her, but He points out according to what kind of motherhood the Virgin is to be called blessed. For if the man who hears the word of God and keeps it, is the brother and sister and mother of God, and His Mother did both these things, clearly according to this motherhood it was right for His Mother to be called blessed: for to hear the Word of GOD and keep it, is a mark of virtue and of a pure soul which altogether looks to GOD. And since GOD did not choose any chance woman to be the Mother of Christ, but one who surpassed all women in good qualities; for this reason also Christ, because of this goodness through which a Virgin was deemed worthy to be a mother, was willing that His Mother should be called blessed. But Luke the Evangelist is a witness that Christ nowhere is shown to have done anything to dishonour or disobey parents, when He says of Him, that, He went down with Joseph and Mary from Jerusalem, and was subject unto them."

Observe, if you please, the interpretation placed upon these texts in the second century (or at a period not much later), on which I wish to remark that there is most clearly a warrant for the assertion that a possible rebuke to our Blessed Lady is involved in them.

Therefore I am led to the belief that this is the intention of an All-wise Being, not without its object throughout the ages of the Church of Christ, in the trial of our faith and reverence.

The third passage of Holy Scripture we have to consider is in St Luke xi. 28. "Blessed is the womb which bare Thee, and the paps which Thou hast sucked. But He said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of GOD, and keep it"

Here I cannot accept the rendering as given in the text: it seems unnatural and strained. On the other hand, it may be translated;--"And He said, Yes verily, and also blessed are they that hear the Word of GOD, and keep it." menounge has this affirmative meaning elsewhere, as in Phil iii. 8, where it is translated "Yea doubtless;" and in the Revision, "Yea, verily." The Vulgate is "Quinimo beati."

The fourth and last passage I wish to notice is the third word from the Cross--"Woman, behold thy Son. Behold thy Mother."

There is no difficulty here in the text. We simply have to answer the question how far our dear Lord in so addressing St. John gave over to him, and in the second degree to all of us, the precious love of such a Mother.

With regard to St. John, I suppose no one will deny that she became a mother to him, living with him, and sharing the earthly necessities and duties of life at Ephesus with him; and the words quoted in themselves are sufficient to attest this.

But with regard to ourselves the question is somewhat more difficult. There are theologians who deny the title of universal Motherhood to Mary, because the Church, in Gal. iv. 26, is called the Mother of us all.

Such a reason appears to me simply monstrous in its absurdity, and would much more reasonably forbid children to call their parent father; for it is distinctly commanded (St. Matt xxiii. 9), "Call no man your father upon earth."

The mystical Bride of Christ, the Church, cannot be regarded as apart from the Blessed Mother; much less can we for a moment consider it as opposed to her in any manner; for the glorious Mother of GOD is the very Crown and Splendour of the Saints, Queen of them all both by grace and merit.

If the hope and joy of those who love and serve JESUS in this world ceases with their death--as a wretched analogy from the condition of Queen Victoria and the Duchess of Kent, her mother, brought forward by one writer, goes to prove--I can only say with St. Paul (1 Cor. xv. 19), "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable." in the order of nature, new life may be developed from the destruction of the decayed germ; and in the kingdoms of this world the reign of one sovereign may cast into shade the name and power of others.

Far otherwise do I believe in the Communion of Saints, and rejoice to say with St. Elisabeth, that Mary is now as ever the Mother of my Lord, and, as such, my Mother too: for we can no more separate Eve our mother in nature from Adam in the Fall, than we can separate Mary our Mother in grace from our Lord JESUS in the regeneration of the world.

Much has been written about the scant mention of our Lady in the Bible; but this seems to me equally true of the mention of most of the Apostles. If it were not for the Acts of the Holy Apostles--which might be called the Acts of St. Peter and St. Paul--what record have we of those glorious Saints and Martyrs, the foundations of the Church, and the princes of the New Jerusalem?

And so I think we may sing that strum of a hymn, given to us in these latter days-

"Shall we not love thee, Mother dear,
Whom JESUS loves so well;
And in His temple year by year
Thy joy and glory tell!"

III. My third point is the testimony of the Liturgies and of the Councils of the Apostolic Church on this subject.

The Liturgies of the Apostolic Age may more than any other writings be considered the shrine of Christian devotion and the expression of Christian faith.

In the Liturgy of St. Mark (if we admit the assertion that the Salutation and some other passages were inserted in subsequent days), we find some wondrous expressions of reverence to the Blessed Virgin--panagia, acranthV, euloghmenh, despinh hmwn, qeotokoV, aeiparqenoV Maria, several of these in later times becoming part of the determined dogma of the Church Catholic.

In the Liturgy of St. James we find the following Antiphon, though probably of a later date than the main part of the Office. "It is very meet to bless thee, the Mother of God, the ever-blessed, the entirely spotless; more honourable than the Cherubim, and infinitely more glorious than the Seraphim; Thee, who didst bear without corruption GOD the Word: thee, verily the Mother of GOD, we magnify."

In the Office of Prothesis, the second oblation is offered "In honour and memory of the most excellent and glorious Lady, the Mother of God, and Ever-Virgin Mary."

In "the later Western use we may notice that part of the Canon, "Communicantes et memoriam venerantes imprimis gloriosae semper Virginis Mariae, genetricis DEI, et Domini nostri JESU Christi," hallowed as it is, by so many centuries in England, and seeming to me, with the consequent mention of the Apostles and other Saints, to be the fulfilment in the New Covenant of the title, "The Lord GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; not the GOD of the dead, but of the living."

From these and other Isapostolic records, we shall see that the Council at Ephesus (A.D. 431) only re-affirmed with authority the right of the Blessed Virgin to be called qeotokoV, especially against Nestorius. For Bishop Pearson quotes St Gregory Nazianzen (A.D, 370), and St. Basil (A.D. 370), as using the word; and indeed Julian the Apostate objected to it in A.D. 362. And so of all dogma, the denial of truth has brought about the most powerful declaration of the same. This is true also of the anathema of the Sixth General Council against the disparagers of our Lady--the Anti-dico-Marianitae.

From these records, which could be much longer if necessary, we may fairly affirm that the honour of our Lady was fully and specially cared for by the Christians who lived during the first five centuries of the Catholic Church: also that the titles given to her were of the most solemn and reverend character, and used in the most holy Service of the Divine Sacrifice.

IV. I do not intend to give any statement of the reverence shown to our Lady in the following period: it is quite unnecessary. Perhaps many of those present, who have had the opportunity of examining the original Sarum Missals, will recall the rubricated insertions in the Service, and especially in the Gloria in Excelsis. Also we may find some "obiter dicta," which perhaps can only be called more loving than wise; for it is true of our poor humanity, even in matters of faith, "Incidit in Scyllam, qui vult vitare Charybdem."

But I proceed to quote a passage from Bishop Pearson, whose Exposition of the Creed is a recognized authority in the Church of England, and recommenced to students for Ordination by most of our Prelates. In the Article "Born of the Virgin Mary," an Article wonderfully expounded, and furnished with most copious quotations from the Fathers and Councils, he says--

"In respect of the Blessed Virgin, it was necessary that we might perpetually preserve an esteem of her person proportionable to so high a dignity. It was her own prediction, 'From henceforth all generations shall call me blessed;' but the obligation is ours to call her, to esteem her so. If Elisabeth cried out with so loud a voice, 'Blessed art thou among women,' when Christ was but newly conceived in her womb, what expressions of honour and admiration can we think sufficient now that Christ is in heaven, and that Mother with Him? Far be it from any Christian to derogate from that special privilege granted her which is incommunicable to any other. We cannot bear too reverend a regard unto the Mother of our Lord, so long as we give her not that worship which is due unto the Lord Himself. Let us keep the language of the primitive Church;--let her be honoured and esteemed; let Him be worshipped and adored."

So far speaks the good Bishop. The experience of my own life in town and country for many years has not shewn me a reverence to our Lady even amongst ecclesiastics worthy of this great teacher, or any expression of love to our dear Mother approaching to that which is indicated in the extracts from the Ancient Liturgies and Fathers of the Church already quoted.

Alas! I ought in honesty to say more. In addition to the shameful ignorance of those honours which have once for all been given to her by the Church, it has been my sad lot to discover instincts of envy, and an inclination to disparage, as far as can be, the most glorious creature of GOD'S creation and grace.

Such instances, of old, belong only to the followers of Nestorius and Julian the Apostate.

V. My fifth point is to consider the result of neglecting the honour due to our Lady in a retrospective view, as tending to Deism.

Our religion may be considered as consisting of two parts--that which was given to the world before the Incarnation, and that which was given in the New Testament. All natural religion, all the moral code of Judaism, all the gradual teaching of the Prophets spiritualizing the great ceremonial acts of worship--this is the first part. But the Incarnation of our Lord JESUS, the foundation of the Catholic Church, the succession of Holy Order, and the supernatural grace of the Sacraments--this is the Crown and Glory of the New Law.

Without a special personal love of our Lord JESUS--and without an outward and wide-spread exhibition of this--there will always be a relapse from Christianity to Deism, greater or less, manifested in the neglect and contempt of the Sacraments and of the unity of the Church.

It is wisely ordered that we should make a reverence at the words, "He was made man," and not at the very solemn ones, "He was crucified for us," because the demand on our faith in realizing the fact of the Crucifixion is small compared with that of the Incarnation. Thus, if we look back at the religious thought of the XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries, we can detect in the sermons, prayers, and essays of that time a great decline in faith, as instanced in the matter of the Communion of Saints, and the Resurrection of the Body, the dead, and in all supernatural matters generally.

The pious turns of the Spectator; the books of daily meditation, gradually following more and more the secular year in order, instead of the Church Seasons; the sermons on subjective merit, quite independent of any external or sacramental aid; either indicate a return to the religion of nature, or a scheme of salvation in which JESUS falls into the place of Moses: with two important changes--a belief in the Atonement of Christ instead of the Old Law; and a complete abrogation without its proper fulfilment of the Jewish ceremonial.

Speaking as a man, and excepting the Gospel history of the life of JESUS, and His blessed words, this religion, without a living faith, and a constant realization of the Communion of Saints, appears to me to place us farther from GOD than an Israelite was of old. To him at any rate there was a fold, a priesthood, and a GOD; the yearnings of the human heart were satisfied with love; religion was a fellowship, and not a philosophy.

The honour of our Blessed Lady is not only the bulwark of the Doctrine of the Incarnation, but by far the most simple and powerful manner of teaching it. In practice it fortifies the soul in its faith, as it most certainly springs from a full reception of that faith.

It has been said that a man must doubt before he can steadfastly believe. We may at any rate safely say that theologians ought to know the doubts which surprise and trouble young believers. When the human heart has the great mystery of the Incarnation brought before it--a mystery supernatural in its depth--surprise and doubt assail it, because there is no induction from the natural objects around to support it. And as in natural trial we look around for help from our fellow men; so in this the soul goes forth for comfort to our brethren in Christ.

In the ages of faith the appeal went not forth in vain; the true instinct of love to JESUS placed our dear Mother on a throne of glory higher than the thrones of the twelve Apostles; in answer to the bell the Angelus was repeated from the lips of the faithful all around; the honour of Mary was publicly proclaimed in dedications, in festivals, in carols, and in hymns; and thus the seed of faith was nurtured and developed by every surrounding of religion.

Need we wonder that faith often fails a weak believer in our cold age, and that with so little help from the Church in its living action of song and teaching he lets go the Holy Inspiration of a divinely-whispered truth. Looking back from our standpoint we see a wondrous spectacle in the history of the Church of England for at least two centuries: robbed of her Canon Law, and subject to enormous oppression on the part of the Civil power, with a regenerating influence only in the Universities and in the Cathedral cities, the Prayer Book has come through this period, a glorious witness to the Catholicity of our divinely-protected Liturgy and Offices.

But although we cannot be too thankful for our Prayer Book, we must remember that other influences around us make up the result of its use, as certain variables do with a constant quantity in mathematics: and the Magnificat affects us very differently when sung under the joyful or sad key of changed Antiphons. Mr. Baring-Gould, in his preface to Mr. Chope's Carols, gives a most interesting account of St. Francis of Assisi, who recalled the people of his time and neighbourhood from Manicheism, by introducing into the churches at Christmas the surroundings of our Lord's Birthday at Bethlehem,
From this I suppose we may date our Christmas Carols, songs which, sung in Church, were also more frequently sung in the houses of the faithful: and which were a link between the humanity of our Lord in His Infancy, and the human love and family ties of Christian homes,

VI. My sixth point is the warning of unfulfilled prophecy in this matter.

Although mistakes have been made in the interpretation of prophecy which has its fulfilment in these latter days; and although a large part of the Church has been regarded by mistaken enthusiasts as the enemy of Christ; yet I think all who consider the matter must admit that these prophecies were not given to us without cause. It is not my intention to do more than make a general statement which students of the subject would accept. This is, that the world-power is always typified under the image of a savage beast; and that the tyranny of Antichrist will be the result of a State-ordained scheme of comprehension and amalgamation, such as might easily satisfy the adherents of the various sects now so numerous amongst us, but be incapable of reconciliation with the special consequences of the Incarnation as held by the Catholic Church.

Listen then to St. John the Divine:--"Every spirit that confesseth not that JESUS Christ is come in the flesh, is not of GOD, and this is that spirit of Antichrist whereof ye have heard that it should come, and even now already is it in the world."

We have seen enough in the practical outcome of the many-headed monster of heresy and self-will to apply the simple rule of our Blessed Lord to this in the past, "By their fruits, ye shall know them."

Beginning, as many of the heresies of the first three centuries did, with seeming devotion to GOD, and a life too strict for ordinary Christians, we have witnessed in recent sects a degradation and worldliness which is almost beyond parallel in the worst ages of the Church; and, excepting some more happy separatists, we know that a large number of so-called religious people are actuated by hatred of the Church in their ceaseless activity, and beyond this by simple political and temporal objects.

Let me draw your attention to a remarkable expression in the last words of St. John's Epistle, "Little children, keep yourselves from idols." When we consider what the essential condition of idolatry consists of, namely, a perverted representation of GOD, may not the multitude of heretical books in our time create more idols, many of them being mis-shapen and grotesque, and than ever were sculptured of old with mallet and chisel or the art of the founder.

The unity of the Church depends upon the human Head, JESUS Christ, and the human transmission of Order, and this depends upon the great doctrine of God made Flesh, which cannot be held in its completeness without the honour of our Lady.

The scheme of Antichrist cannot exist in the atmosphere of Christian faith and love where the Mother of God is venerated as she deserves to be.

VII.--In conclusion I have a few practical suggestions to make.

We have to preach and assert the honour of our Lady, for an ignorant prejudice exists in many places where we might least expect it; when the proper titles which have been proclaimed by the Church are used to our Lady, even ecclesiastics, who ought to know better, and at any rate feel more lovingly towards her, begrudge her this honour.

I am convinced that the perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the immaculate condition of her physical nature before the Nativity of our Lord (not to enter into the question at any other period of her life), are not understood or believed by many otherwise well-taught Christians; and that their ordinary habit of thought is so far removed from what good Bishop Pearson says of our obligation to call her blessed, that they would prefer to call her a wretched sinner.

We want teaching of a very distinct kind against this, and no mere preaching will be of permanent use without some outward acts of reverence, such as the Church has ordered in our daily life as preservative of the faith.

First amongst these we may consider the Festivals of our Lady, which we should celebrate with befitting dignity and reverence. There are the two greater Feasts, with Collect, Epistle, and Gospel--the Purification and the Annunciation. Then we have the Visitation, the Nativity, and the Conception.

Secondly, there is the Magnificat at daily Evensong, which indeed is the great unchanging feature of that Office. We have an alternative Psalm added in King Edward's Second Book, bat we are not compelled to use it; and in instances where I have known it used the motive has been simply an evil love of variety, and of displaying fresh organ changes. The Antiphons where they are in use give additional meaning to the Magnificat in the Christian year.

In the third place comes the use of the Angelus, which may be regarded as a private devotion, although often invited by a bell at a certain hour. This devotion, the first part of which is taken from St. Luke's Gospel, and completed by the Collect out of the Office of the Annunciation in the Prayer Book, seems in the way of recollection to be unexceptionable; and I trust that what has been said of our obligation, that which ought to be felt as an instinct of love, and the prophetically declared danger of the latter days, will recommend it to those who have not yet made it part of their daily use.

I need not speak of Carols at Christmas, or of that beautiful little Hymn Book for Children, full of holy teaching--as in the Hymn,

"Once in Royal David's city
Stood a lowly cattle-shed,
Where a Mother laid her Baby
In a manger for His bed."

Nor can we thank GOD, and the saintly author, sufficiently for the "Christian Year," so wondrous an aid as it has proved in our home life; and especially for the Hymn--

"Ave Maria! Mother Bless'd!
To whom caressing and caress'd
Clings the Eternal Child;
Favour'd beyond Archangel's dream,
When first on thee with tenderest gleam
Thy new-born Saviour smiled."

All these seem to have been given us in our day for the preservation and extension of the faith.

I abstain from other matters, although the love which many here or elsewhere have to our Lady might expect me to say more. If the Communion of Saints, in glory, in patience, and on earth, be a reality; surely the Blessed Virgin, the Queen of Saints, and the highest and last link between GOD and man--between JESUS and His Church--can never be out of our thoughts, and without our constant love and veneration.

I conclude in the words which have found a place in the Liturgy of St. James:--

"In thee, O full of grace, all creation exults, and the hierarchy of Angels and the race of men: in thee, sanctified temple, spiritual paradise, glory of virgins, of whom GOD took flesh, our GOD that was before the world became a Child. Honour be to thee!"



For those who are anxious to consult authorities on this subject--Dr. Heurtley's extracts in his recent work, "De Fide et Symbolo"--the work of St. Epiphanius--and the very copious Notes of Bishop Pearson, are recommended; and, upon a broader basis, an excursus by the Bishop of Durham on "The Brethren of the Lord."

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