Project Canterbury


 S. S. C.






A Paper

Prepared from Notes used in the introduction of the above Subject before
the February Chapter of the Society of the Holy Cross, 1878









The Compiler of this Paper, which has been prepared to be printed in obedience to the Vote of the February Chapter, is particularly anxious for it to be understood by the Brethren that he in no ways attempts to lay down any law in the matter discussed. It is only an attempt to shew how far the Ancient and Modern Services of our Church of England seem to coincide in the Use of Collects. The Paper itself is entirely open to criticism, and the whole matter is one in which expediency may often be of greater consequence than technical correctness. It goes out to the brethren simply in obedience to the Chapters Vote.


"The primary use of the Collect is to give a distinctive tone to the Eucharistic service, striking the keynote of prayer for the particular occasion on which the Sacrifice is offered. But by the constant use of it in its appointed place in the daily Matins and Evensong, it also extends this Eucharistic speciality into the other public services of the Church, and carries it forward from one celebration to another, linking these offices on to the chief service and offering which the Church has to render to Almighty God." "It (the Collect) is a constant memorial before God of the great memorial which joins on the work of the Church on earth to the intercession of our Mediator in heaven; and it is also a memorial to the mind of every worshipper of the sanctification which is brought upon all our days and all our prayers by the Sacramental Presence of our Blessed Lord." (Blunt, Annotated Pr. Bk. p. 70.)

These words of Mr. Blunt's are a good introduction to our consideration of the Practical Use of the Collects, especially on occasions when more than one Collect is required. The combination of Collects is of more value than would at first sight perhaps appear: "undesigned coincidences " frequently occur in their combination, full of suggestions for devotion and meditation, and even of instruction. We are more and more turning our careful attention to the observance of octaves and of days for which there is no immediate provision as to their "proper" office in. the Prayer Book.--(Convocation, for instance, in its Ritual Committee, has recommended the keeping of an octave of the Feast of All Saints, and suggested the same for Michaelmas, a perfectly legitimate and right order, and one quite within the authority of Convocation to promote.)--Therefore the use of Collects as to their right combination and order is not an altogether useless subject to discuss at this present time. We can fairly raise the question, "What consistent method may be adopted in the combination of Collects, which shall be at the same time in order with ancient precedent, and also loyal to the Prayer Book?" [There never was any octave to All Saints in the ancient or mediaeval English Church, nor, I believe, in the Gallican Church.]

First, as, to number. The ancient order laid down as to the uneven number of Collects was this: "More than seven Collects are never to be said, for Christ in the Lord's Prayer did not exceed seven petitions. An uneven number of Collects is always to be preserved, except in Christmas week. ... If the number of Collects is naturally even, it is made uneven by adding the Memorial of All Saints." Such is the original order of the Sarum Missal. [See Sarum Missal in English, § xiv. p. xxxi.] This uneveness, Durandus, in his Rationale Divinorum Officiorum, explains, [Lib. IV. cap. xv. § 15.] "quia numero deus gaudet impari," and goes on to give symbolical meanings for the various numbers into which the uneven combinations can fall. "Unum (et iste numerus est ordinarius) ad designandum fidei unitatem ... Tres, ad significandum mysterium Trinitatis et quia Christus ter in passione oravit, dicens: 'Pater, si fieri potest transeat a me calix iste.' Quinque, ad designandum quinque plagas Christi, seu in quinque partitam Christi passionem. Septem, ad designandum Spiritum gratiae septiformis, seu septem dona Spiritus Sancti." And Durandus, in his "De Ritibus Ecclesiae," gives somewhat the same explanation. The Prayer Book seems in no way to have cancelled this ancient rule, and, indeed, it tells us distinctly to use more than one special Collect on some occasions. For example, "then shall follow three Collects"--(Rubric at Mattins and Evensong)--this is, as Durandus says, "numerus ordinarius," but we are well aware that a further rubric breaks in upon this number, as in Advent, when the two Collects of the clay and season are to be used in the daily offices.

We have, moreover, a somewhat ambiguous rubric at the end of the Communion Office, at the heading of the six Collects there printed, to the effect that "by the discretion of the minister these same may be said, as often as occasion shall serve, after the Collects, either of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion, or Litany." Taking this rubric in connexion with the plain rubric of the Sarum Missal, which was, of course, the rule with which the revisers were familiar, we may conclude that these final Collects were a provision to meet the want of an occasional extra Collect to make up the uneven number--"as often as occasion shall serve." We are thus fairly, I think, thrown back upon the ancient principle, although left somewhat in uncertainty by the Prayer Book itself as to how to apply it. Fortunately we have at hand plenty of help, in the careful order of combinations given us in the Sarum Missal, our natural text-book from which to gather information under any uncertainty.

But before trying to apply its rules to our present needs, let me make a distinction, which it is well to notice, between the terms Observance, Commemoration, and Memorial.

Observance is the actual keeping of the feast, fast, or feria, the Eucharist or office being that of the day observed.

Commemoration is the setting apart of some certain days on which to celebrate the office of some special Saint or object (thus every ferial Saturday was set apart for a commemoration of B.V.M., the ferial office being superseded by that of the commemoration; similarly every ferial Tuesday for a commemoration of the "Salus Populi.") Such commemorations have fallen out of use in our present Prayer Book, except in prayers (e.g., the Prayer for all Conditions of Men).

Memorial is the remembrance, or mention of some feast, fast, or feria, not being actually observed.

When two days to be observed fall together within the same twenty-four hours, as a rule the greater is observed, the lesser memorialized. The manner of making this memorial in the ancient offices is twofold:--

A. By a Collect only, as in the Eucharist.

B. By the form, technically called a "memorial," half praise, half prayer, which consists of an antiphon, verse, response, and the Collect of the day to be memorialized. (There are also special supplementary memorials for general use at Lauds and Vespers, e.g., of the Cross, the Blessed Virgin, All Saints, Penitents, etc., cast in the same form.)

As in our Prayer Book we have no provision for this longer form of memorial, we are reduced to the use of the former (A), both in the Eucharist and in the offices of Mattins and Evensong.

Let us now consider how far we may follow the rules given in ancient precedent, by discriminating (i.) what we cannot do, from (ii.) what we can, in the matter of the combination of Collects.

(i.) It does not seem right to turn the observance of any feast into a memorial. For instance, on a black-letter festival which has no "proper" or even "common" Collect, epistle, and gospel, it must suffice to use the Collect of the week without any other. If, as is sometimes done, the All Saints' Day Collect is used in the second place, it at once becomes a memorial, and alters the form of the feast.

The difficulty might be met by using the Collect (and Epistle and Gospel) proper, for All Saints' Day, as the "common" on the day in question, at the Eucharist, and the same Collect at the offices. Then the day would be properly observed, but such an arrangement would seem to require a special permission from the ordinary, similarly as in the use of proper psalms or lessons for special occasions. [I should suppose there would be little or no difficulty in gaining such permission in the case, for instance, of a Church named after a Saint for whose festival no special office is provided in the Prayer Book.] The Observance, however, can be kept as far as is possible by the use of the proper office hymns in the offices, and of the colour.

But (ii.) when we come to I. Seasons, and II. Octaves, there is nothing to hinder a careful and complete memorial, and in thorough accord with the old rules.

I. Let us first consider Seasons.

In Advent the rule was as follows--Three Collects were said in the first week, 1. Advent; 2. of St. Mary; 3. of All Saints (the usual additional Collect when a third was needed); in the following weeks, 1. of the day; 2. of Advent (i.e. the Collect of the First Sunday); 3. of St. Mary.

Our present Prayer Book is exactly similar as to the week, and season; and for a third Collect there is nothing to prevent the continuation of the beautiful idea of a daily memorial of the coming Birth-day by the use of the Annunciation Collect; (or, if preferred, one of the "final Collects" may be used to make up the three). [This word is used throughout the paper to express the six Collects at the end of the Communion Office.]

Christmas will be treated of below, under Octaves.

In Epiphany, after the octave, five Collects were appointed: 1. of the day; 2. of St. Mary; 3. of All Saints; 4. of the whole Church; 5. of peace. Some of these gave way if any Saint's day came in. The order for the season of Trinity was similar to this, except that in Trinity there was always a memorial of the Blessed Trinity (i.e. the Trinity Sunday Collect) on Sundays. The Hereford Use, however, orders only one Collect in both seasons. This seems more in accord with the present intention of the Prayer Book; and as of the five Collects above quoted, the memorials "of the whole Church," and "of Peace" are provided for in other parts of the office, we are left very much to choice, either using one or three. If three, the memorial of the Blessed Trinity, on Sundays in Trinity-tide, as one of the three (in the second place) is as beautiful an addition as it is permissible.

The rule for Lent is very clearly laid down in the ancient order. On Ash Wednesday and till Quadragesima (First Sunday in Lent), there are five Collects, the order of which is--1. of day; 2. of penitents; 3. St. Mary; 4. All Saints; 5. the whole Church. In adapting this order to oar present wants, No. 5 would strike out (for the reason as above), and the old memorial for penitents happens now to be the Collect proper for Ash Wednesday, so that 1 and 2 become 1. This old rubric may help us in deciding a question often raised as to what is the proper Collect (and Epistle and Gospel), for the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday after Ash Wednesday. In the old offices there is a special Collect, Epistle, and Gospel provided for those three days, as for all the other days of Lent, with our present Ash Wednesday Collect in the second place as the memorial of penitents. But in the modern offices, as there is no such special provision, the Ash Wednesday Collect (Epistle and Gospel) naturally stands as the Lenten office proper for the succeeding three days up till the Sunday; and then, after Sunday, the Ash Wednesday Collect takes its old place as the memorial for penitents, and the Sunday Collect (Epistle and Gospel) becomes the "proper" for the week. There is no hint in the modern office as to returning to the Quinquagesima office after Ash Wednesday, and in the ancient there is certainly no such return, each of the days having its own office.

The Sundays in Lent are specially treated--"one Collect only is said." This seems an order as valuable now as then. The Sundays in Lent being not days of Lent, the memorial of penitents seems out of place on those days, and its omission both marks more strongly its use in the week, and also helps to support the teaching so frequently urged that the Sundays are not part of the forty days. These Sundays also, being reckoned as "greater Sundays," follow the rule of great feasts, to have as few a number of Collects as possible. [Sarum Missal in English, § xiv. 6, p. xxxii.] Maundy Thursday follows the same rule, and Good Friday, (with its three special Collects only), both being "principal" feria, and Holy Saturday also.

The use of the Collect for Holy Saturday is in a peculiar position. It is a new Collect, dating only from 1662, and it is certainly a question whether its use does not extend throughout the whole day. The eve of Easter-day--i.e, from nightfall (or, technically, "after None ")--is, in its observance, "sui generis," and unlike any other season. The Church does not seem ever in her least degenerate days to have allowed anticipation of the actual events of that great season. ["In summis festivis tantum modo dicitur una collecta, nisi forte eadem die aliud festum oocurrat."--Durand. Rat. Off. Div. lib. IV. cap. xv. § 16. p. 105.] The ceremonies of that eventful night were glorious, culminating in the night Mass, and the short vespers after it; but yet they were so in preparation for the coming day, rather than in anticipation of it. The Easter-day Collect (the same as at present) was never used before Easter-day itself, the Collect at the Easter-eve night Mass being--

"O God, who dost enlighten this most holy night with the glory of the Lord's Resurrection, keep in the children of Thy new family the spirit of adoption which Thou hast given; that they, being renewed in body and mind, may offer unto Thee a pure service. Through." [Referring to the Baptisms just over.]

And that at the short vespers being--

"Pour into us, O Lord, the spirit of Thy love, that we whom Thou hast satisfied with Thy Paschal Sacraments may by Thy goodness be made one in heart. Through. Who liveth."

Our own Prayer Book Easter-eve Collect is in such close accord with these two, that it seems both by ancient precedent, and by its own present surroundings (i.e., the proper lessons for Easter-eve Evensong) to be the right Collect for use at that Evensong.

This is not the place to discuss the question of the Easter Eve Services, ancient and modern, but in the consideration of the use of its Collect it seems needful to draw attention to this point.

The Easter rule is also clear. Easter week has its own and only Collect; (and it may be said here that neither Observance nor even Memorial seems to have been allowed throughout the week. The substance of the Breviary rule is as follows: "no notice is taken of any feast or fast during this week, because all Saints rose in Christ, and the Feast of Christ's Resurrection is common to all Saints. A double feast so occurring is transferred to the first vacant day after the octave." This order holds good for the octave of Whitsun-Day.") [See "Breviary Offices," 1st ed. p. 164.] On Sundays in Eastertide there seems to have been a distinction between the Resurrection Mass proper (which was always celebrated, at all events in a Cathedral Church, on each Sunday in the season) and the Sunday Mass: but if only the Sunday Mass was celebrated, as might be the case in a parish Church, there would always be a memorial of the Resurrection, and on the weekdays also. So if we desire to apply this rule to our own case, we can quite legitimately do so, and the order from Low Sunday to 5th Sunday after Easter would be 1. of Sunday; 2. Easter Day; 3. All Saints, or one of the final Collects. On Holy-days of any consequence in Easter-tide the rule is thus: " let all be of the Saint's day, and memorial of Resurrection, but not of Sunday."

The memorial of the Holy Trinity during Trinity-tide has been mentioned above.

II. We can next consider Octaves.

There may be clear Octaves of one single Feast, or Octaves which fall within each other and combine. It is in the latter that we have most difficulty in arranging the order of Collects, but one useful rule to remember, is that where festivals, whose Octaves are being observed, are of the same degree, the senior festival, i.e., that which falls first, takes precedence, in the days of the week common to both. [On the actual day of the 2nd Festival no memorial is made of the 1st, viz., on St. Peter's day the service is "all of St. Peter."] Thus, for example, in the Octaves of St. John Baptist (June 24), and St. Peter (June 29), the one day common to both is the 30th June, wherein the senior Octave (that of St. John) would be observed (the Collect for St. John's day coming first, and the Epistle and Gospel for St; John being used), and the Octave of St. Peter would be memorialized, the Collect for St. Peter's day coming in the second place. But supposing the Feast of St. Peter to be the Patronal Festival or Dedication Festival of the Church, that instantly raises the Feast from a Lesser Double to the rank of a Principal Double, and then, of course, the Octave of the Feast of St. John, even though it be the Senior Festival, falls into the second place, and is memorialized only. [The Feast of St. Peter is a Lesser Double in the old English order: a Double of 1st class in the Roman order.]

Under this head of Octaves, falling within each other, we have the quadruple Octaves at Christmas, i.e., Christmas, St. Stephen, St. John, Holy Innocents. Their combination is as helpful as it is interesting, giving us a threefold reflection of the Light of the Incarnation, and their encircling the Collect of the Great Feast does not detract at all from its paramount importance, and there is certainly no rule to be discovered against keeping them and their octave days in toto. Only one thing may seem, at first sight, to militate against this, viz., the rubrics at the foot of the Gospel for the Circumcision: "The same Collect, Epistle and Gospel shall serve for every day after unto the Epiphany;" but the 2nd of January being the octave of St. Stephen, the 3rd that of St. John, and 4th that of Holy Innocents, their Collects, Epistles and Gospels would be respectively used if their octave days are observed; and the question is, does the above rubric at all quash the idea of keeping the octaves? I think not; for if we compare the expression here used, "shall serve," with the similar expression in a before-mentioned rubric, at the head of the "final Collects," which are to be used "as occasion shall serve," I think we may fairly say that the Circumcision Rubric has the same intention, namely, that that Collect, Epistle and Gospel "shall serve" as occasion shall require, i.e., every day, if the octaves are not observed,--on the 5th of January, the unoccupied day (and that day may sometimes chance to be a Sunday) if they are.

Subjoined is a list of the order of Collects in the Christmas Octaves, according to the wish of the Chapter. (See below)

The coincidences of the above-mentioned octaves are easy to observe, as we have their proper Collects given to us: but in cases where it is wished to observe octaves which coincide, where we have no proper office, there is a greater difficulty, and the only way out of it seems to be that of using the Sunday Collect, and treating it according to the general rule of a great feast (viz., of having as few Collects as possible), by using it, and none other.--(See note, above.)

Thus the Feast of the Visitation B.V.M. (2nd July) occurs before the octave of St. Peter is over. "No memorials" is the concise order for that day: therefore, if we take the above plan, the use for that day would be the Sunday Collect (Epistle and Gospel) only, and seeing that the Visitation is a Greater, and St. Peter's a Lesser Double, the Visitation takes the position of Senior Octave; and on days common to both the order would be: 1. Visitation (i.e. Sunday Collect); 2. St. Peter (in memorial); 3. A "final" or All Saints. On the Octave of St. Peter (July 6th) the service would of course be of St. Peter and memorial of Visitation.
There is one Octave which, according to ancient usage, is treated somewhat peculiarly, that of the Feast of St. Andrew. It usually has Advent Sunday intervening, and in that case the Feast and its Octave is observed until the Eve of Advent Sunday. The service on the Eve and Sunday is "all of Advent;" after the Sunday, the Lesser ferias of Advent are commemorated, and the Octave of St. Andrew only memorialized, except on the Octave day, which is treated as usual. If the Feast of St. Andrew and Advent Sunday fall on. the same day, no notice whatever is taken of the Feast, Advent Sunday being a "Principal Sunday," "all Feasts being translated if they fall on Principal Sundays." [Sarum Missal in English, ch. III. p. xxv.]

We have lastly to consider the use of Collects in clear Octaves, which are free of any concurring Octave. Those of Easter and Whitsuntide have been mentioned, and their peculiar condition, viz., that no Feast can be celebrated in them. [Ibid. ch. VII. § 2, p. xxvii. (In this year, 1878, St. Mark's day will come under this rule--if it be thought well to attend to it.] The one idea of the Feast seems to eclipse any other, and each day in each of these great weeks has its own Collect, Epistle, Sequence and Gospel, in the ancient offices. In our own use, we have "propers" so far as the Tuesday in each week, and then we must return to the Collect (Epistle and Gospel) for Easter day and Whitsun day respectively.

In the other great Octaves, i.e., Epiphany and Ascension (and now we may add All Saints, see above)--the use seems to be to use the Collect (Epistle and Gospel) of the Feast throughout the Octave, Sunday only except. In the case of Ascension this is clear enough: in the ancient use there was a special office provided for the Sunday in the Octave just as now (the same Epistle and Gospel, as at present, but a different Collect) with "Memorial of Ascension" in second place, and returning to the office of Ascension-day only, after the Sunday. This seems to be our natural course also: the Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday (Octave day), being "of the Feast," and for Friday, and for Saturday morning, returning to the general rule of the use of the Sunday Collect, Epistle and Gospel. In this way the Octave is duly observed, and then the use of the striking Collect "O God, the King of Glory," coming in again, with correlative Gospel, on the near approach of Whitsuntide, is helpful and instructive.

On the Sunday in Epiphany week we have a little difficulty. We have, what the ancients had not, a "proper" Collect (Epistle and Gospel) for the First Sunday after Epiphany--meaning the very next Sunday. [1st Sunday after Epiphany, in the Sarum Missal, means the Sunday falling after 13th January, the Octave of Epiphany.] Certainly, therefore, it is ours to use on that Sunday in the Octave, with memorial of Epiphany in second place, but returning on the Monday, as in Ascension-tide, to the Collect (Epistle and Gospel) of the Feast only, until the Octave is completed. All Saints would be the same, using on the Sunday falling in the Octave whatever Collect (Epistle and Gospel) might be proper to that particular Sunday after Trinity, and treating it as a Feast falling in the Octave, with memorial of the Feast in second place, but returning on the Monday to the Feast absolutely (i.e. without any memorial of Sunday Collect) until the Octave be complete. And this would seem to be the most consistent way to treat all Sundays falling in Octaves, and most in accord with ancient precedent. There is just one exception, i.e., in the Festival of Dedication or the Patronal Festival of a Church. On these--being "Principal" feasts--it would seem well to continue the "Proper'' Service of the Feast (if there is one), even on the Sunday, memorializing the Sunday only.

In these as in all other cases where the Observance and Memorial make two Collects, a third can be supplied, either by the All Saints' Collect, or from the Finals.

It may be useful to add a few words on the question of singing the Collects (i.e., reciting them with inflections). Archdeacon Freeman [Principles of Div. Serv., Vol. 1, ch. iv. p. 374.] draws attention to the fact that the Collects, being as much praise as prayer, are fitted to be sung: and the correct inflection of this part of the service is a matter of consequence when the service, whether the Eucharist, or Mattins or Evensong, is solemnly performed. It seems natural to follow the division of the Collect, which in a completely formed Collect is as follows:--

a. The Invocation, with the cause on which the petition is founded; in itself a little act of faith,

b. The Petition, with the benefit desired.

c. The Oblation, which ends sometimes with

d. The Doxology.

There are two forms of inflection required, one called the principal point, the other the semi-point.

The Invocation (a) and the Doxology (d) are the two portions of the Collect which may be said to be the portions which are those of praise, and on these the point is used, its notes being (if the recitation is on G), G, F#, E, G.

The place where it begins, is, in (a) on the last emphatic syllable but one; in (d) on the words "Holy Ghost," "Holy Spirit," or "the same Spirit." On the Petition (b) and the Oblation (c) the semi-point is used (a fall of one note, from G to F#), in (b) on the final syllable of the first clause; in (c) on the final syllable, which would usually be the word "Lord."

Thus, for example, the Easter Day Collect would sing thus--

(a) Almighty God, Who through Thy only begotten Son Jesus Christ hast overcome death, and opened unto us
G ...................... F# B G .................................... F#
the gate of ever - last - ing life: (b) We humbly beseech Thee,
that as by Thy special grace preventing us, Thou dost put into our minds good desires, so by Thy continual help we may bring the same to good effect: (c) through Jesus Christ
G F# G ..........................................................
our Lord: (d) Who liveth and reigneth with Thee and the
F# E G.......................................................................
Ho - ly Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

Where there is only an oblation at the end of the Collect, it may be treated as a doxology, and the principal point may be used instead of the semi-point, e.g.,

G F# E G .....................
Through Je - sus Christ our Lord.

In Collects which begin with the Petition and have no Invocation, e.g., "Lighten our darkness," the first principal point is of course omitted. A chapter of valuable information on this subject is to be found in the "Directory for the Versicles and Responses" (p. iii.) by the Rev. J. W. Doran and Spencer Nottingham (Novello and Co., price 9d.)

There is a Calendar published, in which the order of Feasts has been carefully noted--"The Church Calendar," published by Letts and Co., 33 and 34, King William Street, E.G. In sheet, 6d.; as a Diary, 1s.


"An uneven number of Collects is always to be preserved, except in Christmas week."--Sarum Missal.

Dec. 25. E, i. Christmas; ii. St. Stephen.
Dec. 26. M. i. St. Stephen; ii. Christmas.
Dec. 26. E. i. St. Stephen; ii. Christmas; iii. St. John.
Dec. 27. M. i. St. John; ii. Christmas; iii. St. Stephen.
Dec. 27. E. i. St. John; ii. Christmas; iii. SS. Innocents; iv. Stephen.
Dec. 28. M. i. SS. Innocents; ii. Christmas; iii. St. Stephen; iv. St. John.
Dec. 28. E. The same.
Dec. 29. M. i. Christmas; ii. S. Stephen; iii. St. John; iv. SS. Innocents.
Dec. 29. E. The same.
Dec. 30. M.&E. The same.
Dec. 31. M. The same.
Dec. 31. E. Circumcision only.
Jan. 1. M. Circumcision only.
Jan. 1. E. i. Circumcision; ii. St. Stephen.
Jan. 2. M.&E. i. St. Stephen; ii. St. John; iii. SS. Innocents.
Jan. 3. M.&E. i. St. John; ii. SS. Innocents; iii. Circumcision.
Jan. 4. M.&E. i. SS. Innocents; ii. Circumcis; iii. S. Mary (Annunciation), or a "final."
Jan. 5. M. Circumcision only.
Jan. 5. E. Epiphany begins.


With regard to the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for use in the Celebration at the Burial of the Dead, an answer was given at the (February) Chapter that there was good reason for concluding that the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel provided for Funeral Celebrations in the Latin Prayer Book of 1560 might still be used: inasmuch as such variation from the Book of 1559 (together with the Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament for the Sick) was expressly authorized, anything in the Act of Uniformity to the contrary notwithstanding. And it may fairly be argued that such liberty may still be continued under our present Prayer Book, on the ground that the Act of 1662 substantially agrees with that of 1559 in legalizing the Prayer Book, but does not touch variations previously authorized.

The Collect given in the Latin Prayer of Elizabeth referred to, is similar to the one at the end of the present English Office, with the exception of this phrase--"Et in generali resurrectione, extreme die, nos una cum hoc fratre nostro resuscitate, et receptis corporibus, regnemus una tecum.--The Epistle is, 1 Thess. iv. 13--end; The Gospel is St. John vi. 37--40, last day."

The portion of the Preface of the Latin Prayer Book of 1560, referred to above, is as follows:--

"Cui item (i.e. Pr. Bk. of 1560) peculiaria quoedam in Christianorum funebribus et exequiis decantanda adjungi praecepimus, statute illo praedicto de ritu publicarum precum anno primo regni nostri promulgate, in contrarium non obstante."--(Preface to Liber Precum Publicarum, 1560. Published by the Parker Society, in vol. entitled "Liturgical Services of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth," p. 301.)

In the Act of Uniformity, of 1559 (printed out at length in the present sealed copy of the Prayer Book, side by side with that of 1662), provision is made for further services thus:--

"The Queen's Majesty may, by the like advice of the said Commissioners, or Metropolitan, ordain and publish such further ceremonies or rites, as may be most for the advancement of God's glory, the edifying of His Church, and the due reverence of Christ's holy Mysteries and Sacraments."

The year 1560 saw "such further ceremonies" ordained and published, as in the Latin Prayer Book; and it, and all that it contains, is accepted by our present Act of Uniformity (1662), and we are therefore perfectly at liberty to use whatever points in it we please, in the English tongue, of course. It may not be generally known that the Litany and Holy Communion Service from this Prayer Book are used in Latin at the opening of the academical year in the University of Oxford.

Project Canterbury