Project Canterbury








First issued--Feb. 1948. Reprinted--Jan., 1951.



Printed at the Melanesian Mission Press.
138 Smith Street, Summer Hill, N.S.W.


Transcribed by the Right Reverend Dr. Terry Brown
Bishop of Malaita, Church of the Province of Melanesia, 2008



Chapter 1. God's Gift of Health.
Chapter 2. An Enemy for us to fight.
3. The Health Army.
Chapter 4. Moses, a great Captain in the Health Army.
Chapter 5. About Bacteria, the very little things that are our enemies.
Chapter 6. The things that make us weak, and our enemies strong. (Not enough good light,
good food, or good air.)
Chapter 7. How the Enemy goes into our bodies.
Chapter 8. Insects that carry sickness.
Chapter 9. The laws of the Health Army.


Chapter 10. A clean Heart.
Chapter 11. Our Skins.
Chapter 12. Our Hands.
Chapter 13. Our Eyes, and Ears and Hair.
Chapter 14. Our Noses.
Chapter 15. Our Mouths and Teeth.
Chapter 16. Our Food and Drink.
Chapter 17. About Excrement.
Chapter 18. Our Clothes.
Chapter 19. How to make Soap.
Chapter 20. Our Houses.
Chapter 21. Our Villages.
Chapter 22. Our Churches and Cemeteries.


Chapter 23. Why we need Food.
Chapter 24. Our first Food, Milk.
Chapter 25. How different Foods help us.
Chapter 26. The Foods we need.


Chapter 27. Habits.
Chapter 28. Exercise and Work.
Chapter 29. Sleep and Rest.
Chapter 30. Smoking.
Chapter 31. Dancing.
Chapter 32. Betel Nut and Strong Drinks.
Chapter 33. How to use our Money.
Chapter 34. How to use our Time.
Chapter 35. This Book.



Some Suggestions for the Teacher.


We do not want children to wait to learn about Health until they can read all this book in English. Children who cannot read this book yet, and who cannot understand lessons about it in English (that is, children in Village Schools, the lower classes of District Schools, or even of Central Schools) may be taught from this book using their vernacular, or Mota, for the lessons.

Junior Course 1.--Teach about the care of the body, in a way that children can understand, from

Part 2. Law 1, Be clean. Chapters 11 to 18.

Junior Course 2.--Teach about the care of the body from

Part 4. Law 3, Good Habits. Chapters 27 to 32.

Junior Course 3.--Teach about the Health Army from

Part 1. Chapters 1 to 4, and 9;

and about Food and Drink from

Part 3. Law 2, Chapters 23 and 24.

Junior Course 4.--Teach about the enemy of the Health Army from

Part 1. Chapters 5 to 8.

Read about "Insects" in the Easy English Book; also chapters 1 to 4 in this book, and perhaps chapters 6 and 7.

If in any of these Courses the class is able to do so, it would be good for them to copy from Section 1 in the Teacher's Book, page 1, chapter 9; and pages 2 and 3, chapters 11 to 17, the first sentence of the Health Law for each of these chapters.


Senior Course 1.--Class read and study all the book in English. Write the notes suggested in Section 1 of the Teacher's Book, if the class cannot keep their own books.

If the class has done the Junior Courses give special care to the chapters omitted in those Courses.

Part 3, chapters 25 and 26;
and Part 4, chapters 33 and 34.

Senior Course 2.--Class answer questions in Section 2 of the Teacher's Book.

In either of these courses the following may also be read--

The book "Mosquitoes," Parts 1, 2 and 3.
"Farmers Series." Book 3, Part 1 and 3 about Bacteria.
"Air and Breathing," chapters 6, 8, 10 and 11, about Exercise, Breathing and Ventilation.





We read in Genesis 1. 31, that when God had made the World, "He saw everything that He had made, and behold, it was very good." God created man, soul and body, pure and clean, strong and beautiful. God made our bodies worthy homes for His Spirit to live in.

When men disobeyed God, the goodness, the health and the happiness, that He had given, were lost. Many times in the Bible we learn that God wants pure souls in clean, strong bodies. Very many times our Lord gave health to the souls and bodies of men. He told His disciples to preach the Gospel, and to heal the sick. Many thousands of His disciples have obeyed these two commands.


We all know about the great World War. Some of us have seen pictures of the enemy. Some of us saw the enemy here. The Japanese came to our islands. They went from village to village, and from island to island. They were very many. They were very strong. They hid in the dark, thick Bush. They made much trouble. They stole our calicoes. They killed our pigs. They did damage to our gardens. There was not enough food. People were hungry. They were thin, and weak. Some were sick. Some died. Some were killed by the enemy.

[7] There are other enemies for all men to fight in every country, in every generation. When we look round our villages we see many men with old, thin, faces; but they are not old in years. They look old and thin because they have had much fever and sickness.

We know that women give birth to many children; but there are only a few children living in each family. Many babies die before they are two years old. Many children do not grow up to be men and women. Many people are thin and weak, or sick. There are many coughs and sores. There is much fever. There are many deaths.

These people are not killed by a human enemy in a fight, but by other enemies. These enemies are always with us. These enemies we cannot see. They are all round us, in the air, or water, or soil. They go from village to village, and from island to island. They are so very many that no man can count them. They are very strong. These enemies hide in dirty places. They make much trouble. These enemies we must fight if we want to live.


In the World War, Governments called all their men and women to fight the enemy in their fighting armies and their working armies. The fighting armies could not win, unless many thousands of other men and women wanted to learn, and to do, many new things to help them.

All men and women are called to fight another enemy in another army, the Health Army. Doctors, Native Medical Practitioners (N.M.P.s), Nurses and Orderlies, are the fighting Health Army. All other men and women are called to help them. The fighting Health Army cannot win unless we all learn and do many things to help them.

This book is written that, in the Health Army, we may learn to fight the enemy. Remember, the Health Army wants you and all your friends. It is a big army, but it is not big enough.

[8] Chapter 4. MOSES, a great Captain in the Health Army.

In the Bible we read about Moses, the first great captain, in the Health Army. The story of his life is written in the Book Exodus. The story of his teaching is written in the Book Deuteronomy.

Moses is a very good example to us. He learnt many things from the Egyptians, when he was in Pharaoh's house. If he had stayed there he would have been a very rich and strong chief. But Moses loved his own people. He wanted to help them. He was never rich, but he did a great work. God called him to lead his people through the desert to the land that He had promised them.

In the desert Moses taught his people that, "The Lord thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, therefore shall thy camp be holy, that He see no unclean thing in thee, and turn
away from thee." Deuteronomy 23. 15.

In this way he taught that God wanted His people to be good, and healthy and happy. God is with us, and wants us also to be good, and healthy and happy men and women.


The very, very, little, living things that are our enemies.

We cannot fight an enemy unless we know who and where he is, and how to kill him. So all of us in the Health Army must know who and where our enemies are, and how to kill them.

God has created many plants and animals in the World, that our eyes can see. Some are big like trees and cows. Others are little like the moss that grows on stones, and sand-flies.

When a canoe goes away on the sea, it becomes smaller to our eyes. When it is far away, our eyes can only see a little mark on the water. Soon our eyes cannot see this at all. But the canoe has not sunk. It is still there. It is like this with many living creatures. They are very, very, little. They are [8/9] too little for our eye's to be able to see, But they are living, and they are there.

Many years ago some men made a glass called a microscope. This glass makes very little things look big enough for our eyes to see. Many doctors and clever men have worked with their microscopes, and they have found many sorts of very, very, little, living, creatures, in the air, in water, in soil, in dirt, and in the bodies of plants and animals and men.

They have found how these very, very, little creatures live, how quickly they multiply, and how quickly their number increases, making new living creatures. They have found what damage they do and what sicknesses they make. They have found what things they like, and what things they do not like. They have found what they are, where they are and how to kill some of them.

These men have found many things that help the Health Army. They are finding and learning new things every year. These very, very, little, living, creatures are the enemies the Health Army is fighting. These little enemies are called bacteria.


Not enough good light, good food or good air.

Sometimes an enemy wins a fight because the army has not enough food, or guns, or cartridges. When our bodies do not have enough good food, or light or air, our bacteria enemies can begin to win the fight against us.

If we plant gardens in the shade of trees, we shall have weak plants and bad crops. There is not enough good light under the trees to make healthy plants. If we plant corn or kumara on bad soil, the plants will grow slowly, and they will be little and weak. By and by their fruits will be few and bad. There is not enough good food in the soil to make healthy plants. If we put a plant under a glass jar, in good soil, with water and light, it will soon be weak, then it will die. There is not enough good air in the shut jar to make a [9/10] healthy plant. Living things need enough good light, enough good food, and enough good air to make healthy bodies.

When we think about the people in many of our villages we know that many of them have not enough of these things. They eat many kumara, tomago, or yams, but these are all one sort of food. They have to eat very much of these things or their bodies will be weak. In these things alone there are not enough of the foods our bodies need. When our bodies have not enough of the good foods they need they cannot fight the bacteria enemies of health.

We know that many of the houses in our villages are very dark. There is only one little door, and often no windows. Many people work in the sun in their gardens and these people then have the light their bodies need. But when there are bad winds and heavy rains, people sit in their houses all the day. Many sick people lie for days or weeks in dark houses. Our bacteria enemies like dark places. They multiply in number very quickly. They soon have big armies. Not enough light makes our bodies weak, and our enemies strong.

Because our houses are low, and have few doors and windows, there is not enough good air in them. In the night the door is shut. When people sleep their bodies breathe all the time. They take the good air into their bodies, and put bad air into the house. When morning comes the house is full of bad air. The people are breathing bad air. They wake up tired. Their bodies do not feel strong because there is bad air in their lungs.

In the morning, because there are few doors and windows, enough new good air cannot go into the houses. The bad air stays there. Bacteria like bad air. They stay in our houses also. They hide there. They very quickly multiply. They become very strong. Not enough good air makes our bodies weak, and our bacteria enemies strong. When we do not give our bodies enough good food, enough good light, and enough good air, we are helping our enemies to win the fight against health and the Health Army.


Moses taught his people that there must not be any thing unclean in the camp. He knew that unclean things helped sickness. We now know that millions of bacteria live in dirt, in rubbish, and on the excrement of men and animals. Some of these bacteria, are the bacteria that make sickness. They are the enemy the Health Army is fighting.

1. If there is dirt on our food, or in our water, we take into our bodies many bad bacteria, that are living in the dirt. If the air is dirty we take them into our bodies through our noses. If we cut our foot on a dirty tin, we take into our bodies the bacteria in the dirt. The cut becomes a sore full of pus. If our hands are dirty we carry bacteria on them to our mouths and our eyes.

2. Insects carry bacteria also. Flies go to places where there are bad smells. They like to walk on dirt, on rubbish, and on the excrement of men and animals. Then they walk on our food, on our sores, on our babies' eyes, and bring the bacteria of sickness with them. Lice, bugs, and mosquitoes also carry the bacteria of sickness.


Insects lay their eggs in places where there is food for their young larvae (maggots, wrigglers). The larvae change to pupae (a resting or changing time). From the pupae come the insects.

Flies.--From flies' eggs come white worms or maggots. The maggots eat much food and grow quickly. After a few days they dig down into the food, rubbish or soil. Their skins become hard and black. This is the pupa. Inside the pupa skin the maggot changes to a fly. The fly lies in the skin with legs and wings folded. When it is ready the pupa skin breaks. The fly comes out. The wings are wet and weak. The insect cannot fly yet. Soon the wings are dry and strong. The insect flies away. The new fly soon lays new eggs.

[12] Flies are very dirty. They excrete and vomit where they walk. They carry the bacteria that gives us sores, diarrhoea and disentery, on their feet.

Mosquitoes.--Mosquitoes lay very little eggs on the top of water. Soon a little larva comes out from an egg. It wriggles in the water. It eats very little things in the water. It grows quickly.

Soon the wriggler changes into a pupa near the top of the water. By and by the pupa skin breaks, the mosquito comes out. It stands on the pupa skin to dry its wings. Then it flies away. Soon the new mosquito lays new eggs on the top of more water.

When the Anopheles female mosquito bites a man who has malaria fever, it sucks up malaria bacteria with his blood. These bacteria live in the mosquito's body. When this mosquito bites another man it puts the bacteria into his blood. Then this man will have malaria fever also.

Other mosquitoes carry the bacteria that give people filaria, or elephantiasis. (In the book "Mosquitoes" you can read how you can keep your village clean from mosquitoes.) See chapter 21 in this book also.

Worms.--Some worms live in the bodies of men and animals. They do much damage. They put poisons into the body and make it weak and sick.

There are several sorts of worms that live in men. Some worms live in the lungs, others in the stomach, others in the food pipe. They lay eggs in these places. These eggs come out in the excrement. Wind may blow them on to food or water in cook pots. The eggs may go into the body on food or through the skin of the feet.

If pigs eat grass near excrement in which there are eggs of these worms, they will eat these eggs. The eggs will make worms in their bodies. People who eat the flesh of these pigs will have worms in their bodies also. These eggs are not killed when the pig is roasted in an oven. The fire is not hot enough [12/13] to kill them. They are only killed if the pig is boiled in water a very long time. If there are worms in our pigs we must not eat pig flesh.

Hook worms, tape worms, round worms, are some of the worms that live in men's bodies. If any man knows that he has any worms in his body he must try to get medicine to kill them quickly.

Bugs and Lice.--These are very dirty insects. They walk on people's skin and suck their blood. They make the skin itch. Then people scratch their skins and make dirty sores. These insects lay eggs in beds and clothes, in walls and floors, and in hair. They carry bacteria on their bodies.


Every good army must teach its soldiers well. It must give them good laws. All soldiers must obey the laws of their army.

In the Health Army we have very good laws. We must learn these laws and then keep them. These laws are--

The first law: Be Clean.
The second law: Have good Food and good Water.
The third law: Keep good Habits.


[14] PART 2.


Law 1. BE CLEAN.

Chapter 10. "A CLEAN HEART." Psalm 24. 4.

Our Lord teaches us that purity begins with clean thoughts. Our bodies are the houses of our souls. Our eyes and ears are the doorways through which good or bad thoughts can come in.

Our Lord tells us that the "light of the body is the eye", and if our eyes are evil, our whole bodies will be full of darkness (S. Matthew 6. 22, 23). If we look at bad things, we shall have bad thoughts. Bad thoughts lead to bad bodies.

Our Lord tells us for the same reason to "take heed what we hear." Saint Paul tells us to think about the good things. What we look at, hear about, think about, talk about, will make our hearts good and clean, or bad and dirty. S. Mark 4. 24: Philippians 4. 8.

Chapter 11. OUR SKINS.

Our bodies are covered with skin. The skin is thin but strong. It protects the insides of our bodies from dirt and sickness. Where we work or play or rest there is often dirt. Our hands and arms, our feet and legs, our bodies, are soon dirty also. In this dirt there are many bacteria.

Our skin also works to keep our bodies cool and our blood clean. When we perspire, water, oil, and other things come out from our bodies through very little holes in the skin, called pores.

[15] If our skin is dirty this water and the other things cannot come easily through the pores, When we perspire the water is lost into the air. This keeps us cool. But the other things stay on our skins. Soon they begin to make a bad smell.

We must wash all over our bodies with water every day. If we have soap this will help us to make our skins very clean. But we can be clean with only water. The water washes away the dirt, the bacteria in the dirt, and the things that will make a bad smell on our skin. Then our skins can perspire easily, and our bodies will smell fresh and good. Clean skins will be healthy skins Our skins cannot be healthy and clean if we have not any water. We must not build our houses far from water where we can wash every day.

Remember this law: Wash your body every day.

Chapter 12. OUR HANDS.

We are touching things and doing things with our hands all the day. Our hands, fingers and nails are quickly dirty. If we touch clean food, clean pots or plates, clean faces, or any other clean thing with dirty fingers, we make those things dirty also.

We must wash our hands often. We must always wash them before we cook or eat food, before we wash and make dry our plates and spoons, and after work, or play, or excreting, and at all other times when they feel or look dirty.

We must not only wash our hands, we must also clean under our nails. If our nails are not clean we carry a store house of bacteria under them! We cannot clean under our nails if our nails are long. We must also clean and cut the nails on our toes.

Remember this law: Wash your hands often, and cut and clean your nails.

[16] Chapter 13. OUR EYES AND EARS AND HAIR.

We must wash our eyes and ears very carefully. Dirt in our eyes and ears will lead to bad eyes and bad ears. Many babies and children have pus in their eyes because their mothers have not washed them well. Flies come to dirty eyes and ears, and then carry dirt, bacteria and pus to the eyes and ears of other people. We must not put dirty fingers in our eyes or ears. We must not wash our eyes or ears with dirty calico.

When we wash our bodies we must wash our heads also. It is very important to keep our heads clean from lice. Lice are very dirty insects. Any who have lice in their hair must try to get clean quickly. If we cut our hair short, lime it sometimes, wash and comb it often, we shall not have lice on our heads.

Remember this law: Wash your eyes and ears and heads carefully. Keep your heads clean.

Chapter 14. OUR NOSES.

The air we breathe in goes up our noses, and down the back of our throats, to our lungs. If we do not keep our noses clean, there will be bad bacteria in them. The air we breathe in will carry these bacteria to our throats and lungs. We know that very often a "cold" begins in our noses, then we have a sore throat, then we have a cough. We shall not have so many colds, sore throats and coughs if we clean our noses from dirt and blow them often.

Every morning when we get up we should blow our noses well. If a cold is beginning in our nose, it will get better, if we quickly and often sniff a little dilute salt water up through our nose, and down through our throat and mouth. Then gargle to kill the bacteria at the back of our throats also. In this way many colds will get well quickly, and many coughs will not begin. We must not wait until our noses are bad, or our throats are sore.

[17] Remember this law: Blow your nose often, and keep it clean. Do not sniff bad things in your nose back into throat and lungs.

N.B.--We can make dilute salt water if we put one teaspoon (little spoon) of salt sea water into a half pannikin of clean water. It helps if this clean water is warm, not hot. Dilute means weak. If the salt water hurts our noses, or makes us cough, or our eyes water, we have not made a dilute salt water, but strong. We can put more clean water into it, to make it dilute. We shall soon learn how much water we need in the pannikin to make a dilute salt water that our noses like.


In our mouths we have two sorts of teeth. Some teeth to bite with and some to chew with. The outsides of our teeth are hard. The insides are soft. The hard outsides protect the soft insides. If we break or damage the hard outsides the soft insides will rot. Our teeth will give us pain. We cannot then bite our food well. There will be swellings and pus round our teeth.

When we eat, some of our food sticks between our teeth. Soon these pieces of food rot. Bacteria always live in rotting things. The bacteria will make holes in the hard part of our teeth. When the insides rot there will be more bacteria. Bacteria make poisons. Bacteria, poisons and pus will go down into our stomachs. We shall have stomach pains. The poisons will go into our blood. They will make our bodies weak and sick.

We must take care of our teeth. We must clean them every day. Some people always clean their teeth after eating. That is a very good thing to do. Then no little pieces of food can stay between our teeth and begin to rot.

If we cut a little piece of soft wood to a point like a pencil, we can clean our teeth with it. We can make a new point to our tooth 'pencil' every day. Then it will always be clean. The Brahmins, who are very clean people in India, always clean their teeth like this.

[18] We must also wash our mouths with water, and throw out the water. Dilute salt water is good for our gums, teeth and mouths.

In our mouths there is a juice. This is called the saliva juice. It helps to change our foods so that they will feed our bodies. In the mouth there are sometimes very bad bacteria. If people spit they throw out this saliva with its bacteria. They also often throw out dirty things full of bacteria from their lungs. In this way they throw bad bacteria into the air for other people to breathe. If you must spit, do not spit on the floor of your house, go outside the house then cover your spit with soil. If you are sick in your house and you need to spit, always have an old tin or half a clean coconut shell, near you. Spit into this. Put another bigger half coconut shell over your tin or other shell, so that the flies cannot go into it. It is good to put a little clean sand or ash or soil at the bottom of the 'spit cup'. Ask someone to make empty your spit cup morning and evening. They must throw the spit into the sea or into a pit, and cover it. Have a clean tin or new coconut shell very often. Flies go on to spit that is not covered, and then take the bacteria to food and to other people.

Remember this law: Clean your teeth every day. Wash your mouth. Do not spit.


All the food we eat and the water we drink must be clean, and good. If we put food on the floor, on tables that are dirty, in the walls of the house, or in any place where it is not covered, it will soon be dirty, and flies and perhaps rats will come to it. When we eat that food, we shall eat the bacteria, the dirt.

We must always put our food in a clean place. If we have no plates we can put our food on clean leaves. We must always cover our food. We can always cover it with clean leaves. Some boys make little 'safes' or cupboards from boxes, where they can put their food. If we have no box we [18/19] can weave 2 baskets, and put the bigger basket over the smaller basket like a lid. We can put clean leaves in our baskets every day. We must not eat food that looks or smells bad or is dirty.

We must drink only good clean water. If we think our water is not clean or not good, and there is no other good water for us to drink, we must boil our water. We must boil it for 10 minutes. Then we must let it become cold. Bacteria are killed in boiling water.

We must keep all our plates, spoons, and cook pots very clean. We must wash them quickly after we have used them. Flies come to dirty food plates and pots. When we have washed them we should put them in the sunshine to dry, and then put them upside down on a clean leaf on a shelf.

Remember this law: Eat only clean and good food. Drink only clean and good water. Keep every thing for your food and water very clean.


Every one must excrete every day. Just as there will be bacteria and poisons in our mouths if pieces of food stick round our teeth, so there will be bacteria and poisons in our blood if waste food stays in our bodies.

When the people of Israel were in the desert, they could not go into the sea, and they could not dig deep pits because they did not stay long in one place. Moses knew that bad smells, dirt and flies made the beginnings of sicknesses. Moses made a law: all excrement must be buried.

"Thou shall have a place also without the camp, whither thou shall go forth abroad: and thou shall have a paddle upon thy weapon; and it shall be when thou wilt ease thyself abroad, thou shall dig therewith, and shall turn back and cover that which cometh from thee."--Deuteronomy 23. 13, 14.

Moses made this law for his people who only stayed a few days in one place, and were far from the sea. This law is very important for us who stay in one place for many years. Even [19/20] a cat learns from its mother to dig a little hole, and "cover that which cometh from it."

When people live near the sea, and "will ease themselves abroad," it is a very good law if all the people go out side the village into the sea. There are very few sores or sicknesses on the islands where all the people keep this law.

Remember this law: Excrete every day. Go into the sea if you can. If you cannot do this, dig and cover.

Chapter 18. OUR CLOTHES.

In some countries the air is cold. People in these countries need clothes to keep their bodies warm. We do not need clothes to keep our bodies warm.

In hot countries white people need clothes to protect their bodies from the sun. The hot sun does damage to the blood in a white skin man. But God has given to the people who belong to hot countries a black or brown dye in their skins. This dye protects their blood from the damage the hot sun can do to it.

1. Wear clean clothes. Clothes that are dirty are full of bacteria. They smell with the perspiration from our bodies. We must often wash our clothes in water, and then put them in the sun to dry. Sunlight kills bacteria. It is good to wash clothes with hot water if we can. It is very good to boil them in water sometimes. The boiling water kills the bacteria.

If we have soap we should wash our clothes with soap and water. If you buy a one pound tin of caustic soda (if costs about 2 shillings), and if you have coconuts, you can make a very good soap from the white coconut milk, or the oil, with the caustic soda. A one pound tin of caustic soda will make 11 bars of soap!

If sometimes there is not enough water for us to wash our clothes in, we must put them out in the sunlight. The hot sun cannot make them look clean, but it will kill the bacteria, it will dry the perspiration, and it will help the bad smell to be lost into the air.

[21] 2. Wear ALL clean clothes. Some people wear clean clothes over dirty clothes! They put the dirt and bacteria near their bodies. This makes the skin dirty. It makes the body smell bad. It makes bad sicknesses on the skin. All clothes must he clean: the clothes we wear near to the skin, and the clothes we wear over them.

3. Wear dry clothes. If our clothes are wet with perspiration or rain, we must change them when our work, or play, is finished. We should wear few clothes when we go out in the rain, and change them quickly when we come back to our houses.

4. Wear tidy clothes. A clean shirt or singlet, with no holes, looks very nice. A clean body looks very nice also. But a dirty, or torn, shirt or singlet, does not look at all nice, and does not help our bodies in any way.

We should not wear torn clothes. Clothes can be mended when the holes in them are little. Then they will stay good for a long time.

5. Wear few clothes, that are light, and big enough. Many clothes, heavy clothes, or clothes that are too small, are unhealthy. They keep the air from our bodies. They soon get wet with perspiration, and do not dry easily. They do not look at all nice. Trousers and dresses that are too small also tear easily.

6. Do not copy all the clothes white people wear. These clothes are often made for people in cold countries. Many people in these countries do not wear these things in the summer time, or when they go to stay near the sea, or out in the hills and bush. They only wear all these clothes in offices, stores, hospitals, schools and towns.

Remember this law: Wear all clean, dry, tidy clothes. Wear few clothes, but have them light and big enough. Do not copy all the clothes white people wear.

[22] Chapter 19. HOW TO MAKE SOAP.

1. The Coconut Milk (or pig fat).

(1) Scrape about 70 to 100 coconuts.

(2) Pour 1 pint of water over the grated coconut and milk.

(3) Squeeze this until you have 8 pints of milk. (If you use pig fat, melt enough of it to make 7 pints of fat.)

2. The Caustic Soda.

(1) Dissolve the white caustic soda powder in a 1 pound tin in 3 pints of water. This liquid will be very hot.

(2) Wait until it is just warm.

(3) Then pour this caustic soda liquid gently into the coconut milk. (If you use pig fat it should be only warm enough to be liquid.) Stir slowly while you do this, until the two things are well mixed; 2 or 3 minutes is enough to stir.

(4) Pour the thick liquid into a food bowl, which has banana leaves in it.

(5) Leave the soap for one day.

(6) When it is hard, cut it into pieces.

3. Notes.

(1) Do not let the caustic soda powder or liquid get on to your hands, skin, or clothes. Caustic soda burns.

(2) The empty 1 pound caustic soda tin is a 1 pint measure for your water, coconut milk, or pig fat.

[23] Chapter 20. OUR HOUSES.

Our houses should be clean and dry, and tidy; they should have good air and light in them; we should be able to shut out cold winds and heavy rains. If our houses are like this they will be healthy. We must build them with--

(1) High walls.

(2) A door in the front, and a door at the back. The door must be high and wide.

(3) Big windows with big shutters at the front and at the back.

(4) Other smaller windows with big shutters, under the roof on each side of the house.

(5) A floor higher than the ground outside, so that the rain from the roof cannot flow into the house. We can do this with stones, or coral, or trees. If we have not enough of these things, we must dig a deep narrow pit all round the house, so that the water can flow away.

(6) A hut for cooking and for firewood outside the house, but near it.

(7) A verandah (or shelter) in front of the house.

(8) It is good to divide the house into two rooms, with a low wall between them; a big room to sleep in and a smaller room to sit in when it is too cold or wet to sit on the verandah.

The Sleep Room.--We must not sleep on the floor, unless the floor is made with trees and is not on the ground. A soil floor is cold. The wind blows under the side of the house. A soil floor is never clean.

We must make good strong beds. We must keep them clean from bugs and lice. The bed should be narrow so that we can put the top of it out in the sunshine sometimes. We must put our pillows, mats, and blankets out in the sunshine often. We must wash our blankets and the covers of our pillows.

Make a separate little bed, with high sides, for the baby. Every child should have his own bed.

[24] We should put up a stick or a string on which we can hang our clothes when we change them.

We should make a low table on which we can put our boxes.

The Sitting Room.--In this room we should put a table and seats, and some shelves or a cupboard, where we can keep our clean plates, spoons, pots, and small boxes.

How to keep a good house nice--

(1) Sweep all the house, and the cook house, every day.

(2) Open all the doors and windows every morning. Let in clean air and sunshine.

(3) Do not spit on the floor of the house.

(4) Do not let even little pigs come into your house.
Do not let any animal sleep in your house.
Make a fence and a house for your pigs outside the village.

(5) Keep your house tidy. Do not put pieces of food, dirty plates, untidy clothes, in your house.

(6) Keep a cat, or put traps often to catch the rats. Rats make houses dirty and untidy, and do much damage.

Chapter 21. OUR VILLAGES.

Every one in a village should help to keep the village clean and nice. We should make tidy paths and plant flowers and hedges. We should mend our houses before the walls are bad and the roofs leak.

1. Every one must sweep round their houses every day. Every one must help to sweep and weed all the village twice a week. If we all do these 2 things there will not be so many flies in our villages.

2. Every one must cut the grass short between their houses. Every one must help to cut the grass short round the village, and to cut down the bush near the village. If we do this there will not be flies, mosquitoes and dirty rubbish hidden near our houses. Mosquitoes lay eggs in the water between the leaves of banana plants and the sago palm (no-ota). It is not good to put the plants near the village.

[25] Try to get from your District Officer, or a Mission Station, frogs or gambusia fish. These will eat the mosquito eggs if you put them into a swamp or lake.

Collect twice a week all half coconut shells, old tins, bottles, or any other thing that can hold a little water in which mosquitoes will lay eggs.

Fill in with other soil or sand all hollows near the village, or dig little drains so that the water will not stay in these holes.

If all the people help to do these things you will not have so many mosquitoes in the village. This is a very good work for the small children to do when the elder children and people are cleaning the village.

3. Every one must make a pig fence, so that the pigs can not come into the village and bring dirt and flies.

4. We should make shallow pits for the rubbish, and put into them all peelings, pieces of food, dead leaves, grass, weeds, dirt, and pig excrement. We should put soil, or ash from our fires, over the rubbish. If the rubbish is covered, flies will not go to it. If the pit is shallow, the fowls that dig in it cannot throw the rubbish all over the ground. (Fowls eat the eggs and larvae of flies.)

After 3 months the rubbish in a pit will have all rotted. If we plant pawpaws, corn, pumpkins, on the old rubbish pit, these things will grow quickly and well.

5. About Excrement and Latrine Pits.--There must be a place for men and a place for women outside the village. It is best for all people to go into the sea, then there e will not be smells and flies.

Moses gave his people the law, "Thou shall dig . . . . thou shall cover." If the village is not near the sea the people should dig a deep pit outside the village.

(1) Flies will not go down very deep pits.

(2) Animals and fowls will not go down very deep pits.

(3) The pits must not be near the drinking water. They must not be at the bottom of a hill where water can flow into them.

[26] (4) If all the men will not help to make pits for all the people, you can make a pit for yourself and your family. This good example will help others to do the same by and by. If you dig a pit, dig one big enough for 2 months, and then dig another pit. When you have filled the fourth pit (after 8 months) you will find the soil in the first pit quite clean. You can dig out this pit, it will not be hard work, and use it again. In this way the 4 pits will be enough for you.

(5) If for any reason the people cannot make pits, the chief and teacher should mark the Bush where the people may go. They should divide this land into 4 pieces. The people must use only one piece of land for 1 month. After 4 months, when they have used the fourth piece, the first piece of land will be clean again, and they can use it.

(6) Remember that if you use deep pits, shallow pits, or little holes, you must always throw a little soil or ash over the excrement. Ash is better than soil.

(7) It is often not good for sick people to go into the sea, so there should always be a pit near the village for them.

Remember, you cannot have a healthy good village unless all the people will help in the work, and keep these laws.


We should all show our love and reverence for God by helping to keep the Church nice. The Church in the village helps us to remember that "God is in the midst of the camp."--Deut. 28. 15. It is God's House. Every one should help to keep the Church and Cemetery clean.

The roof, walls, doors, windows, seats and desks in the Church must be kept mended.

Torn or dirty Altars covers, frontals, banners, should be burnt. They do not look nice. It is better that we should not have these things, than that they should be torn or dirty. The best frontals, reredos, and screens, are made with plaited bamboos. [26/27] If we like to have a good, clean, calico frontal also, we can put it over the bamboo frontal for holy Communion or Festivals. We can keep it in clean paper or calico in a box at other times. Dirt, dogs, rats, cockroaches, ants, and mildew, quickly damage calico that is on the Altar every day.

In some villages the people can do beautiful shell work for their Altars and Fonts. It is good to give beautiful work to help make God's House beautiful. Do not put too much of this work into your Church. A little done well is very nice.

The big school children should take turns in pairs, for one week at a time, to sweep the church and do the flowers under the care of the teacher. The teacher himself should take care of the Altar and the Font. Smaller children should take turns to sweep their school house. They should also do this in pairs for a week at a time.

The Cemetery is the place where the bodies of Christ's people rest. It is God's Garden. We should try to make it a beautiful place.



Chapter 23. WHY WE NEED FOOD.

We need food to make our bodies strong. When we are young we can see our bodies getting stronger and bigger. The young need plenty of good food because all parts of their bodies are growing bigger, fatter and stronger.

Many things we use get thin and weak. We cannot make them strong and thick again. Our bodies are different. They are living, so they can make fat and strong again the parts that were thin and weak. To do this, our bodies need enough good food each day. Our bodies change this food, so that it can make new blood, bones, flesh, and skin, and make us strong and healthy.


The first food of all babies and young animals is their mothers' milk. In milk there are all the foods their bodies need to make blood, bones, flesh and skin.

We can see that there are different things in milk. If milk stands a long time it divides into water and a thick part called curd. So we see that part of milk is water, and part is something thicker. If we shake milk for a few minutes in a bottle, little drops of fat stick to the sides of the bottle. Butter is fat. It is made from milk. So we see there is fat in milk. Milk tastes sweet. So we know there is sugar in milk. Salts from the mother's body are also in the milk. There are also vitamins. These are like medicines. They help our bodies to use the other things.

In cow's milk there are--

(1) Water.

(2) Fats.

[29] (3) Curd. (This food belongs to a group of foods called Proteins.)

(4) Sugar. (This food belongs to a group of foods called, The Starches and Sugars,)

(5) Salts.

(6) Vitamins.

Older people also need these 6 foods. They get them in other foods.


Water.--All parts of our bodies need water. If a boy weighs 100 pounds, 70 pounds of this is water. Water helps to make blood. Water dissolves our food, so that it can go into our blood. Water takes out from our blood the waste things our bodies do not want. It keeps the blood clean. More than 3 1/2 pints of water are lost from our bodies each day.

We must drink much clean water every day.

Fats.--(Fat makers.) Fats help our bodies to keep warm. They give them the power to work. We eat fat and oil in coconuts and other nuts, in animal fat, and in milk and butter.

Proteins.--(Flesh makers.) There is much nitrogen in the air, but plants, animals and men cannot breathe this nitrogen. Our bodies need nitrogen to make blood, bones, flesh and skin. We call nitrogen foods proteins.

We eat proteins in eggs, fish, crabs, shell-fish, meat (pig, goat, cattle, oppossum, flying fox), and in beans, peas (pea-tree) and corn.

Starches and Sugars.--We eat starch in many things, but it does not help our bodies until it is changed into sugar. The saliva in our mouths, and the juices in our stomachs change starch to sugar. This sugar helps to keep our bodies warm, and it gives them power to work.

We eat starch foods in kumara, yams, tomagoes, potatoes, taro, qeta, bananas, bread, biscuits, rice, and corn. We eat sugar in bananas, ripe fruits, sugar-cane, pumpkins.

[30] Salts.--There are many things called salts. Salt is only one of them. Salts help our blood. They help to make bones. They help to change our food so that it goes into and feeds our bodies. We say that salts help to digest food.

We eat salts in fruits and in green vegetables.

We should eat many oranges, pawpaws, lemons, tomatoes, pineapples, melons, granadillas, custard apples, . . . . , and cabbage, and green bean pods.

Pawpaw is a very good food. It has many things in it that help us to digest our food, and make us healthy.

Vitamins. The word vitamin means life helper. Our bodies must have vitamins. There are vitamins in fruits and vegetables. There are different sorts of vitamins.

Vitamin A. This vitamin is in animal fat, cod liver oil, fish roe. It helps us to grow. It helps us to fight bacteria.

Vitamin B. This vitamin is in peas, beans, and corn, and the skin of corn, wheat and rice grains. It helps our bodies very much. If we have not enough vitamin B we have boils.

Vitamin C. This vitamin is in green food, fruit and milk. It helps our skins to be healthy.

Vitamin D. This vitamin is in eggs, milk and fish oil. It helps our bones.

Our bodies need enough of each of these different sorts of foods, fats, proteins, starch and sugar, salts and vitamins. They need these foods each day. If we want to be healthy we must try to get some of each sort of food each day.

People who have not enough of any of these foods often eat too much of another food. In many villages the people do not have enough protein food, so they eat very much starch food. This is not good for their bodies. The juices in the body that change starch to sugar then have too much work to do. Too much starch food makes people have very big stomachs.

At other times for some big feast people kill many pigs. Then they eat more protein in the pig flesh than their bodies can digest well. It will not help their bodies. Much of it is wasted.

[31] Chapter 26. THE FOODS WE NEED.

If we want to have healthy bodies we must try to have some of each of these groups of food each day.

Fats.--Do not make all your coconuts into copra, but eat plenty yourself, and give plenty to your family. The green coconut and the coconut 'apple' are also very good for children, as well as for older people.

Plant peanuts. They are very full of fat.

Proteins.--1. Plant pea trees and beans and corn in your gardens. These plants grow well and fruit all the year. Cow pea pods are good to eat when they are 4 to 6 inches long. When the pod is bigger, but still green, the green beans are a very good food. They make a nice soup with coconut milk. You can get seeds of these plants from a Mission School or from your District Officer.

In Africa the people break the ripe corn with a heavy stick in a food bowl. This makes a sort of flour. Corn flour makes good soup, porridge, and flat bread, if it is mixed with water. The little breads can be baked on a hot stone.

2. Pigs. It is hard work to make a pig fence and keep it strong, and the ground clean, but if you do not do this you will not have enough pig flesh to eat.

Do not kill your little pigs or your half big pigs. Let them grow big and fat and let them multiply.

If only one family kills a big pig, and shares it with some other families, and after this each of these families in turn kill a pig and share it also, all these families will eat pig often, and not eat too much at one time. This will give you pig flesh and animal fat.

Eat only good healthy pigs. (See Worms, chapter 8.)

3. Fowls. It is good to have many fowls. If you will call your fowls every day in the same place, and feed them with grated coconut, dry corn, or pieces of food, they will soon [31/32] learn to come when you call. Make nests under the trees near this place, and put a cooked marked egg in each nest. Hens lay eggs near the place where they are fed. They will not lay in a nest that is always empty. They will like to see your hard cooked egg there. Then they will think that the nest is a safe place, and they will lay another egg there. You can put a mark over your nests to show that the eggs are yours.

4. Fish. It is good for men and boys to try to get plenty of fish for all the family. Fish is one of the best foods for young and old people.

Starch.--Every one in these islands eats plenty of starch foods. This is good food.

Sugar and Vitamins.--Pineapples and pawpaws make a good edge to village paths. Melons and pumpkins grow well on rubbish heaps. Eat a pawpaw every day. Tomatoes and oranges have many vitamins in them. Plant many tomatoes in your garden. A little lemon in water or on your pawpaw is a very good food.

Salts and Vitamins.--Plant some new toape (edible hibiscus) and some chinese cabbage every month or two, and eat some every day. The young little chinese cabbage leaves are a very good food if you also eat them uncooked.

About Eating.--The saliva in our mouths has an important work to do. It changes starch into sugar. It cannot do this well if we put too much food into our mouths at one time, or if we swallow our food before we have chewed it well. The starch that is not changed in our mouths will mix with a juice in our stomachs. This also changes it to sugar. If we swallow our food too quickly, the juice in our stomachs will have too much work to do. This is why we must eat slowly and chew our food well.

Cooking.--Some years ago our people did not have any pots or tins to cook their food in. They always baked their food on the fire, in a bamboo, or in hot stones. Now many people cook cabbage, corn and potatoes in water. Many of the good salts and other things from these foods then go into the water.

[33] Cook your food in the old way when you can. If you cook potatoes in water, do not peel them until they are cooked. The skin keeps the good things in them. If a potato is big and you must cut it, peel it, cut it, wash it well, and cook in a little water, then drink this water as a soup. The water that cabbage and corn have been cooked in is also very good to drink.

Do not cook your food a long time. Heat soon kills vitamins. Cook or eat food soon after you have peeled it. The vitamins are changed and quickly lost from peeled food.



Chapter 27. HABITS.

When we do some thing each day for a long time, soon we do it without thinking if we will do it or not. Then we call this thing that we do a habit.

It is very important for mothers to teach their children good habits: to wash their bodies each day, to ask before they take any thing, to obey quickly. Men who wash their bodies every day have a good clean habit. Men who only wash some days have a bad dirty habit. This is often because the man is lazy. A man who has a lazy habit will not be happy when he is working. A habit of working happily is a very good habit.

We must teach ourselves good habits, make good laws for our own lives, and always obey them. If we do not do this, many bad habits will begin, and they will grow stronger and stronger as we grow older. We all know if we have a bad habit for a short time, it is easier to change it, than if we have this bad habit for a long time.

Good health habits will help to make our bodies strong and healthy, and our characters good. But bad health habits help to make our bodies weak, and our characters bad. Saint Paul often writes about temperance. Temperance means ruling our bodies well and learning good habits.

[34] Chapter 28. EXERCISE AND WORK.

Our bodies not only need food, they also need exercise, rest and sleep. Our minds need something to think about. Different parts of our bodies do different work. When we use a part we say that we exercise it. Exercise makes our bodies strong.

If some parts of our bodies are not exercised these parts will become weak. We know that if we live a long time in a flat place, and then climb a high hill, our legs will ache, and our breath will be short. This is because we have not exercised those parts of our bodies for a long time. The soldiers in our armies learn to exercise all parts of their bodies well, so that they can walk, run, climb, or swim for a long time and not become tired.

Working in our gardens, walking and swimming are all good exercises. They keep our bodies strong. When we work hard we breathe deep in our lungs. This brings good air to our blood. When we get up in the morning it is good to go out side the house and breathe in the good clean air 6 times with big deep breaths. This exercises our lungs.

If we do some good work every day we shall learn to enjoy it. It will become a good habit. It will help our bodies to be healthy. Lazy people are never happy or healthy.

Chapter 29. SLEEP AND REST.

Our bodies cannot work all the time. All parts of our bodies need rest. The best rest is sleep. When we sleep we not only give rest to our legs, arms, eyes and ears, but we also give rest to our lungs, and hearts. Our lungs breathe more slowly, our hearts work more slowly, when we sleep. God has given us the night for sleep, and the day for work.

In our hot islands it is very nice some times to sit or play in the cool evening air. We like to do this very much when the moon shines. But it is not good if we do not go to bed until it is very late. Our bodies need 8 or 9 hours sleep every night.

Children need to sleep a longer time than this each night. Many children in our islands do not sleep long enough. If we [34/35] make our little children lie down soon after it is dark, they will learn to go to sleep early. They are learning a very good habit. It is good for children to sleep at noon also.

It is a very bad habit to talk late at night. Often you will wake up some one who needs good sleep, ready for the next day's work. Sleep in the day does not help our bodies so well as sleep at night--

God has made the earth and heaven,
Darkness and light;
For our work the day has given,
For rest the night.

--Hymns A. & M. 26.

God has given man Sunday for a day of rest each week. Work well for 6 days and rest happily on Sundays. Refresh your body and your soul this day that you may be strong and happy all the week.

Chapter 30. SMOKING.

In the leaves of the tobacco plant there is a poison, called nicotine. When men smoke, a little part of this nicotine goes into their bodies. Men who smoke very much add a little nicotine to a little nicotine in their bodies many times, until it becomes a lot. In this way a man who smokes much gets much nicotine in his body.

Nicotine makes teeth dirty. It goes down into the lungs and makes them weak. It gets into the blood and makes the heart weak. It is a very bad habit to smoke very much tobacco.

Some men give much money for their tobacco, cigarettes, pipes, and matches. But it would be better to give this money for other things that will help them and their families. Other men give much time to plant, weed, and make tobacco in their villages. It would be better to give this time to plant, weed, and harvest good food.

Rule your body well. If you do not smoke very often, by and by your body will not want it much. If you have a bad habit and smoke very often, it will be difficult to change it. [35/36] Do not let your children smoke at all until they have finished growing. This is the rule for English boys. Children will not grow big and strong if they smoke tobacco while they are still getting bigger.

All the bacteria in a man's mouth will get on his pipe. If a man has tuberculosis there will be many bacteria of this sickness in his mouth, and on his pipe. If you put this pipe in your mouth for only one minute these bacteria will go into your mouth, and from your mouth into your lungs. The bacteria of tuberculosis have gone from one man to another in this way very often in our islands. You do not know who has these bacteria in his mouth. They will be there a long time before he coughs or spits blood. So never put another man's pipe in your mouth, and never drink from another man's pannikin until you have washed it well.

Many women and girls smoke ash in their pipes because they have no tobacco. Smoking ash does not put nicotine into the body, but some smoke from the ash goes down into the lungs and makes them dirty. People with dirty lungs get bad coughs, and the coughs stay with them a long time.

Sticks of trade tobacco have much more nicotine in them than the tobacco that is in tins. But this tobacco costs much money. Tobacco from the garden also has not got as much nicotine in it as trade tobacco, but there is enough in it to be bad for the body if people smoke it very often.

Chapter 31. DANCING.

Some sorts of dancing are good, others are bad. Some dances have heathen teaching in them. Some dances have bad and unclean songs. But dancing is a good exercise for the body, and it can be good play for the mind.

Dance only good dances with good songs. Do not dance for a long time in the night. Your body needs sleep at that time. Dancing all through the night will not make our bodies or our souls strong. Because our bodies are tired with the dancing, we shall not be ready to do our work the next day. Because our minds will be tired also we shall not be ready for prayers [36/37] or school next day. When people have a habit of dancing too much they do not work well in their gardens, and they go away very often from their villages to dance in other places. When people do this, dancing has become a bad habit.


Betel nut juice in the mouth makes the gums soft and rotten. Soon there will be pus in the rotten gums. The pus will go down the throat. Pus is a very dirty thing. Who wants to swallow it? When the gums are rotten the teeth will become loose. When we read about food in chapter 25, we learnt that we must chew our food well. If our teeth are loose we cannot chew our food well. If our gums are rotten we mix pus with our food. This food will not help our bodies. In this way betel nut makes the mouth dirty and the body weak.

People who chew betel nut spit much. This is very dirty. There is a poison in betel nut that makes people's minds dull and stupid. People who begin to chew betel nut will soon want to chew it very often. The bad habit becomes very strong. Do not BEGIN to chew it, then you will not want it. If you have begun stop NOW, before the habit becomes strong.

Strong drinks made from coconut palms, or other plants, or bought in a store, are all very bad indeed. They are bad for our bodies, and bad for our souls. People who drink strong drink cannot rule their bodies. They often fall into sin. NEVER drink strong drink.


Money can help us very much, but if we spend it badly it does not help us. In the parable of 'The Sower', our Lord says that riches are deceitful, and choke His Word (S. Matthew 13. 22). This means that if we think money is the best thing to make us happy, we are deceived because this is not true. We must not let the love of money choke His Word or we shall fall into sin.

[38] Some of the things we can buy are for good health. All the soldiers in the Health Army should try to have these things--

1. You need enough calicoes to be able to change them when they are wet, and to wash them often.

Buy plenty of soap. (Or buy caustic soda to make it, see chapter 19.)

Often wash your body with soap.

Buy needles and cottons for mending your clothes. Buy a good box to keep your clothes in.

These things will help you to keep the first law of the Health Army.

2. Buy tools to help you in your garden, so that you can dig your soil well, and dig in manures and rubbish: axe, spade, hoe. These things will help you to have good food and to keep the second law of the Health Army.

3. Buy a New Testament in a language you can understand, and read it every day. This will help you to keep the third law of the Health Army.

4. If your small children are not strong buy milk for them. It helps a child very much to have one tin of Nestle's Sweet Milk each week. If a child is still a baby, give the milk to the mother. It will help her to have good milk for the baby. If you can buy a goat, goat's milk is better for children than tinned milk.

5. Spend your money on other good things, quinine or atebrin, mosquito nets, blankets. Children need mosquito nets more than older people. If you have enough money, buy cooking pots, plates, spoons, for each of your family. Buy a lantern and kerosene. Tinned meat and fish are also good. Do not spend your money on silly things. Buy other tools, pencils, paper, and good books.

Remember to put part of your money as a thank offering to God, to help the work of His Church. God's law for the Jews was to give one shilling every time they had ten shillings. If you have ten pounds give God one pound.

[39] NEVER buy things unless you can give the money for them at that time. Saint Paul says, "Owe no man anything."--Romans 13. 8. Do not play cards for money. Do not bet. These things waste your money, and are very bad habits.


If you work well every day you will still have some time when your work is finished. Learn to use this time well. It is very good to have some hand-work that you can do sitting down, that will not make you tired. You can do shell work and other things for yourself and your Church.

You can make mats, baskets, bags, combs, for all your family; shell-fish fish hooks, fishing string, spoons, food bowls, graters, and other things to help your home. Some men can make fish nets. This is very useful work. In places where you can grow cotton, it would be very good if you could learn to spin and weave. If you buy a saw, hammer and nails you can make many useful things for the house.

It is good to do some reading every day. Read your Bible. Read your school note books; read other good books if you can get them. This gives you something good to think about and to talk about.

Chapter 35. THIS BOOK.

When you have read this book, begin to do what it tells you. Then tell others about it. Ask them to work with you to make your village a good, healthy, happy place. When people. work together they can do more things, and often do them better than when they do them alone.

If all who read this book will do this, by and by there will not be so many old, thin looking people in our villages, there will be more babies, there will be stronger, healthier and happier children. Perhaps some people will laugh at you. Perhaps others will refuse to help you. They are foolish people. Do not be foolish too.

M. M. Press, N.S.W. 1,000. 1-51.

Project Canterbury