Project Canterbury

Church in the Colonies, No. VIII.

New Zealand, Part III.

Journal of the Visitation Tour, from December 1843, to March 1844,
Including an Account of His Visit to the Southern Island.

London: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1846.


I WROTE to you from Wellington by the "Glenarm," which sailed from that port on the 28th of December. My letter contained a report of my journey, via Taupo, to New Plymouth, and thence by sea to Nelson and Wellington. I now resume my journal from that date.

December 27 and 28.--I walked from Wellington to Waikanae, Mr. Hadfield's station, near Kapiti; where I found that a beautiful and spacious new chapel had been built since my last visit. The building fully deserves the titles I have given to it. It is about seventy feet long by forty. The ridge pole, hewn from a single tree, was a peace offering, as I have mentioned in a former letter, from a neighbouring tribe formerly at war with Waikanae. The interior is ornamented with white basket-work, interlaced with grey rods in the spaces between the large upright pillars which support the roof; giving the appearance of the most delicate carved work. The upright pillars are painted with the deep red ochre of the country, and the timbers of the root variegated with scrolls of white, after the native fashion. The whole is most thoroughly striking and characteristic, and, with the exception of the windows, is entirely of native workmanship.

December 29.--I examined candidates for confirmation, excluding those who had only been recently baptized; my wish being to place an interval of one or two years between baptism and the first reception of the Lord's supper; during which time the new converts should be in statu pupillari, as candidates for confirmation. After their confirmation they will be admitted immediately to the Lord's supper.

December 30.--A large congregation, in number at least 400, quite filled the chapel, which presented a most beautiful and encouraging appearance. 120 natives were confirmed.

December 31--Sunday.--After the morning service, at which the chapel was again quite full, Mr. Hadfield assisted me in the administration of the Lord's supper to 130 communicants; after which the school began in the manner already described, 300 or more being assembled in classes, for reading and catechizing. In the afternoon we rode ten miles along the, beach to Otaki, where the first persons who met us at the entrance of the Pa, were Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeta; names unhappily now too well known by the fatal affray at the Wairau. I greeted the former chief in a friendly manner, having good information that he had disapproved of the slaughter, and endeavoured to prevent it: hut I did not think it desirable to hold any communication with Rangihaeta, who had certainly taken a part in the death of the prisoners, after the cessation of fighting. The evening service was attended by so great a crowd, that the chapel could not contain more than two-thirds of the people. The remainder crowded round the windows and door. I preached on the translation of Enoch and Elijah, and the ascension of Christ; which seemed to strike Te Rauparaha, as he came to me afterwards, and repeated the heads of the sermon; comparing what I had said with some pointed expressions relating to the resurrection, which Mr. Williams had addressed to him four years before, and which had remained on his mind ever since. After service I held a long conversation with the old chief in Mr. Hadfield's house, and found him full of inquiry after truth, though as yet undecided. Thus ended a year of mercies and blessings.

1844. January 1.--Examined candidates for confirmation at Otaki. Tamahona, the son of Te Rauparaha, came and offered to accompany me to the south; having formerly traversed, as a missionary, the whole of that country, which his father overran a few years back with a war party. I gladly accepted his offer, as he knows all the places and people in the Southern Island.

January 2.--Confirmed 143 natives after an address in the usual manner; and in the afternoon rode back with Mr. Hadfield to Waikanae, and spent my last evening with him, regretting that our duties permit us to see so little of one another, for he is a man whom I value much, and have endeavoured to mark my esteem by appointing him Rural Dean of the district of Wellington and Taranaki.

January 3.--Rode ten miles on Mr. Hadfield's horse to Paripari, thence walked to Wellington, where I found Mr. Cotton and Mr. Nihill intending shortly to sail for Nelson, to visit Mr. Reay.


January 6.--Left Wellington at noon in the "Richmond" schooner, twenty tons--Brown, master--with agreement to be landed at Akaroa, Otakou, commonly pronounced Otago, or Stewart's Island, as I might determine. The vessel was not remarkable for cleanliness or order, and the decks having shrunk since they were caulked, the wash of the sea filtered through upon the blankets of my party of natives, making them very cold and uncomfortable: nor were the cabin berths altogether free from the same nuisance; but in my case it was cured by the never-failing remedy of Macintosh cloth. However we had a fine breeze from the north, and ran rapidly across the straits; at sunset having a grand view of Tapuaenuku, a range of snow mountains, about forty miles south of Cape Campbell, at the place called on the map, "The Lookers on," being the two craggy peaks of the mountain, underneath which, a few miles to the south, is an anchorage for small vessels on either side of a reef; but you may scratch out from Wyld's map the words, "appearance of fine harbour," there being no appearance of any thins; of the kind.

January 7--Sunday.--Calm water. Divine service to English crew and passengers, ten in all, and afterwards to the same number of natives. Made very little progress.

January 8.--In sight of Banks's Peninsula. Fine wind from the north sprang up and carried us on rapidly. Began to think of going at once to Otakou, but was informed that there was a scanty supply of wood and fresh water on board. We therefore determined to put in at some port on the Peninsula for supplies. Pireka, on the south side of the Peninsula, was selected as the most easy for egress to the south. We passed the heads of Akaroa at five P.M., at which time the wind began to come down in fiery gusts from the bays and gullies of the land, making it necessary to have every sail in hand ready to be let loose. At seven P.M. arrived off Pireka, into which the little vessel worked against a fierce N.W. wind.

January 9.--A sultry and stifling wind from N.W. gave us warning of the approach of a wind of exactly opposite character from S.E., which accordingly began to blow about noon. It was immediately proposed to leave the vessel and proceed by land, to which my poor natives, having no reason to be charmed with their accommodations on board, gladly assented; and by one P.M. the back-loads were arranged, food cooked and eaten, and the whole party (viz. myself and ten natives), in marching order as usual. We walked till night over the steep hills of the Peninsula, passing two whaling stations, at one of which Bibles were declared to be of no use, as they would not be read: at the other, where there was a large family of young children, my offer of books was thankfully accepted. At sunset, from the top of the last hill at the S.W. angle of the Peninsula, we obtained a magnificent view over the vast plains of the south. Below us stretched out the apparently interminable line of the "ninety miles beach," a continuous range of uniform shingle, without headland or bay. Within this shingle bank is a great lake, Waihora, filling up the space wrongly marked on the map as a bay of the sea, but really occupied by a freshwater lake, the straight side of which, running from the corner of the Peninsula parallel to the sea, is eighteen miles in length. Beyond the lake are plains of vast extent, bounded by a range of snowy mountains, behind which the sun was setting. To the S.W., the distant hills in the neighbourhood of Timaru closed in the view. At night we encamped at a very small native village, where a little party of nine or ten entertained us hospitably with eels, which form almost their only means of subsistence. The name of the place is Wairewa (not marked on the map).

January 10.--Walked between the sea and the Waihora Lake, over an alluvial bed of dry gravel, partially covered with reeds and dry grass, to a native village, Te Taumatu (eighteen miles from Wairewa), situated at the place where a river occasionally breaks out into the sea from a heavy flood in the lake. We crossed on dry land, the mouth being dammed up. The population of the place was about forty, with whom we conversed and distributed books. The place had not before been visited by a Missionary; but we found some natives able to read, and many acquainted with the Lord's Prayer, the Belief, and portions of the Catechism. Eels were still the principal food of the people; but they had imported considerable numbers of titi, or mutton-bird, from the rocks about Stewart's Island. The titi is so fat, that the native mode of preserving it is to boil it down, and then to tie it up, in its own oil, in kelp bags, formed of the large air vessels of common sea weed.

January 11.--After service with the natives, we walked on from Taumatu till we came to a large river called Kakaia, much swollen with snow water, and milk white. One of my party of natives attempting to cross it near the mouth, was carried into deep water. Happily he had on his back a bag of clothes in a Mackintosh case, which was no hindrance, but rather a support to him in swimming. If he had had the bag of books, or any other of the solid packages, he would have been in danger. We then went higher up, and by fording seven or eight branches of the stream, avoided the deep channel formed by their junction. From this river we had a tract of twenty-four miles to pass without fresh water, over a dry gravelly plain. My Macintosh life-preserver, as usual, did extra duty, being converted, on such occasions, into a water-skin. At night we encamped in the dry bed of a stream.

January 12.--After walking fifteen miles we came, to our great joy, to the Wanganui River, flowing from the snowy mountains through the plain, where we dined, and afterwards walked along the soft shingly beach till sunset; when we encamped by a small rivulet, which supplied me with an eel for supper. The want of water is so unusual in New Zealand, that I think this is only the second or third time that I have been obliged to carry it. This is a pleasing contrast to Captain Grey's account of his surveys in Western Australia.

January 13.--Arrived at a native settlement, Te Wai-a-te Ruati, standing out of the plain like an oasis in the desert. Its lofty Watas (potato stores) standing up against the sky, by the aid of a little imagination suggested the idea of the ruins of an ancient temple.

January 14--Sunday.--Spent at Te Wai-a-te Ruati in the usual services. The village population divided between the members of the Church of England and Wesleyans. No English minister had visited the place before my arrival; but native teachers from other places had duly informed them of the difference between (Hahi) Church, and (Weteri) Wesley. The discussions resulting from this division of opinion took away much of the satisfaction of my visit to the Southern Island, as much of my time was spent in answering unprofitable questions.

January 15,--Registered inhabitants of Te Wai-a-te Ruati, fifty-five men, thirty-nine women, nineteen children. In the afternoon proceeded over the plain to the beach as far as a fresh-water lake (Waitarakao), which forms the end of the ninety mile-beach.

The general character of the rivers of this coast resembles the Sid in Devonshire. The mouths are blocked up by a shingle bank, within which the river expands itself into a small fresh-water lake. Only a few of the larger rivers have an open mouth, as the Eakaia, Wanganui, and Waitangi. On this lake we found the principal chief of this part of the country, Te Rehe, living with his wife in a hut constructed of the bones of whales, with a thatch of reeds. After half an hour's conversation with him, we passed on to our sleeping place near Timaru, a deserted whaling station, exhibiting the usual decorations of such places, dilapidated Try-works, broken boilers, decayed oil barrels, and ruinous cabins, far worse than the generality of native dwellings.

January 16.--Walked along shingly beach, or over easy grass slopes, to a large pool by the side of the sea, in which were swimming a number of Putangitangi, or Paradise Ducks, unable to fly, this being the season of their moulting. The natives immediately threw off their blankets and rushed into the water, which was shallow, and about a furlong in length. After an animated chase of two hours, spent in incessant diving, wading, and swimming, they captured eighteen, which formed a seasonable supply of food in this thinly inhabited country. The Putangitangi is a duck of large size, and beautiful plumage. I have described its manner of imitating lameness, to draw off attention from its young, in my account of the Manawatu River. I have never seen it north of that river. After dining sumptuously on ducks, we walked over a bad stony beach till sunset, at which time, while looking out for a good place to encamp, I espied a small smoke curling up at the distance of about two miles, which I concluded to be from the encampment of Mr. Shortland, brother of the late Colonial Secretary, and Sub-Protector of Aborigines, whom I expected to meet on his way from Otakou. Following the direction of the smoke, I found Mr. Shortland just encamping for the night. He had no expectation of meeting me, and was not a little surprised. We spent the evening very pleasantly together; and I obtained from him an estimate of distances for my remaining journey, giving him my distances in return.

January 17th.--Parted from Mr. Shortland, and proceeded southward, towards a column of smoke, which guided us to a temporary encampment of a native chief, by name Te Huruhuru, who was eel-catching on the Waihao River, with a small party of friends. He entertained us with eels, which I returned by a present of books. His manners were singularly pleasing, though he has scarcely ever seen any more polished models amongst our countrymen than the whalers on the coast. In the afternoon, he accompanied us to the Waitangi River, of which he is the principal Charon. We arrived on the bank a short time before sunset, and found two of the boats of the country (called mokihi) ready for our use. The moltihi is formed of bundles of rushes, bound tightly together in the form of a boat. No kind of boat could be better suited to the river, which is a deep and rapid torrent, rushing through a labyrinth of gravel banks and small islands, and in summer much swollen by the melting of the snow on the mountains in the interior. To cross it, it is necessary to start at some point where the main stream touches the banks, and to keep the same channel, till it winds its way to the opposite bank; in order to which it is necessary sometimes to go down the stream several miles. The mokihin are first built twenty or thirty miles from the mouth, and perform this zigzag course till they reach the sea, where they are turned adrift, it being impossible to work them up against the stream. Te Huru-huru himself took me under his care, with the whole of the baggage, leaving the greater number of my natives to follow in the other canoe. We launched off accordingly, and made a rapid and prosperous passage to the opposite bank, going down about two miles of the river before we could reach it. We encamped for the night in a small copse on the southern or right bank. The Waitangi River runs from west to east, through a vast plain of forty or fifty miles in length, and about twelve in width, stretching east and west, without a tree or shrub.

January 18th.--Walked over a beautiful grass plain, at first altogether without trees, but after twelve miles covered with the Ti palm; from the fibres of which the natives collect an inspissated juice of delicious flavour, by baking the fibres in their ovens. The tender shoot also is eaten by them as a vegetable. At night we encamped by the side of a small pool called Orore.

January I9th.--Stopped to breakfast at an uninhabited native cultivation, in a small wooded knoll. The sight of trees was rather refreshing, as there are none between the Peninsula and this place, Awa Mohiki, (a distance of 170 miles,) with the exception of one clump of trees on the plain near Te Wai-a-te Ruati. After breakfast we walked on to Moerangi whaling station, passing on the way, about two miles from the station, some most remarkable boulders, if such they may be called, which appear to have been formed not by rolling but by crystallization. Several of the balls are of the diameter of five feet; some of the largest have been broken, and disclose the structure of the interior, which is cellular, composed of pentagonal prisms of yellow spar, converging to the centre, the prisms being filled with indurated clay. On the outside of several is a spherical outer casing of the same indurated clay.


January 19th,--Remained at Moerangi, a whaling station, but of a better stamp than those which I had seen on the Peninsula; the men having employed their spare time in agriculture, and having good crops of wheat and potatoes on the ground. I had much conversation with several of the men on their habits of life; and distributed among them some Bibles and Prayer-books. In the evening, walked over to the native village.

January 20th.--Stayed at Moerangi; engaged in examining candidates for baptism. Whole number of natives, about 100, many of whom were Wesleyans.

January 21st--Sunday.--Native services as usual, and a service to the English, at the whaling station, at which eighteen assembled in a barn. This place had been visited by the French Bishop, but by no one else, except Mr. Watkins, the Wesleyan Missionary; so that Bishops were more common than ministers. In the afternoon, I baptized four natives.

January 22d.--Embarked in a large sealing boat, belonging to the natives, to sail southward as far as wind and weather might permit. We were in all about fifteen on board, with an iron pot for a kitchen, and several baskets of potatoes, and some salt pork. The weather was beautiful, and the sea perfectly calm. Another sealing boat, also filled with natives, accompanied us on its way to Ruapuke, in Foveaux Straits. After a little while, a breeze sprang up, which carried us on rapidly, till we came near to Waikouaiti, a Wesleyan Mission station; when suddenly the north wind ceased, the sails flapped, and a strong south-east blast rushed up, blackening the water as it came. Happily we were sufficiently advanced to reach Waikouaiti, otherwise we must have run all the way back (twenty miles), to Moerangi, as is often the case. At Moerangi, for instance, we found a crew, who had run to within a few miles of Akaroa (150 miles), but meeting with a northerly wind, had to return to Moerangi, there being no intermediate boat harbour. In our case we were more successful, as we ran safely behind the headland, and into the little river of Waikouaiti, twenty miles from Moerangi, and ten from Otakou. Here we found a small schooner (the "Perseverance"), belonging to Tuhawaiki, a native chief residing on Ruapuke, an island in Foveaux Straits. I went on shore, and went to the house of Mr. Watkins, Wesleyan Missionary, by whom I was hospitably entertained. In the evening I catechized his natives.

January 23d.--The wind being contrary, I staid at Waikouaiti, and walked over the settlement, visiting most of the English settlers: many of whom had good fields of corn nearly ready for harvest. In the afternoon rode to a large farm belonging to Mr. Jones, a merchant of Sydney, where I saw a noble field of wheat of fifty acres, and a very large stock of cows, sheep, and horses. Here, on visiting a sick woman, I was obliged to call in an interpreter, not (as you might suppose) for the native language, but for pure Irish: the poor woman not being able to speak a word of English. I confess that I felt ashamed, for if any natives had been near, they would not have understood my being ignorant of the language of my own countrymen. Nor indeed can we justify our want of interest in the languages of our own countries, while we take pains to acquire so many others. In the evening, had much conversation with Mr. Watkins on the subject of our respective missions.

January 24th.--At sunrise, the wind being fair, my natives called me to proceed to Otakou, where we arrived in a few hours. Before I left Waikouaiti, I had engaged Tuhawaiki to take me up at Otakou, and carry me to the south. From Moerangi, the, character of the country had changed; the grassy plains which extend from the Peninsula southward having come to an end, and been replaced by bold conical hills, with abrupt cliffs standing out of the sea. Otakou is a small harbour, but good, and well marked from the sea by two patches of very white sand, which can be seen from a long distance. My tent was pitched at a small native settlement, about a mile from the English, from which I visited most of the inhabitants, distributing books, and baptizing their children. One of the adult natives, whom I had baptized at Moerangi, was left here as native teacher, to minister to the Church-of-England natives.

In the evening, the wind being fair, we went on board Tuhawaiki's schooner, but did not sail till the following morning. My native commodore had made preparations for my reception, by carefully cleaning the little cabin (nine feet by five), and spreading a new table-cover, bought on purpose at Otakou. Altogether, the contrast with the miserable Richmond was very creditable to the native flag of New Zealand. The cabin was given up to my use, with the reservation of a right of way for the chief and his wife to pass to their berth in the middle of the vessel. I soon found that I should be very comfortable on board, though I had not much space.

January 26.--Early in the morning, the "Perseverance" worked out of Otakou Harbour, and having cleared the heads, ran to the southward with a fair wind; by which we were enabled to steer along the shore, and note down on the map the native names of the headlands and hills. The whole coast is broken and bold, till the south-east corner of the island, after which the land is level for many miles along the north shore of Foveaux Straits. Our crew consisted of two English sailors, and three natives; but we had four other Englishmen on board, as passengers to the southern whaling stations. These men were acquainted with the whole coast, some of them having been upon it as sealers or whalers for more than twenty years. I could not have been in better hands, for they knew every nook in which a vessel could lie in a gale. Their anecdotes of the early history of the country were very entertaining, and very favourable to the character of the natives, even in their heathen state. In the company of these men, I soon found the whole of that mystery which had hung over the southern islands passing away; every place being as well known by them as the northern island by us. The map of my diocese thus began to be presented to my mind in a practical form; as I ascertained, one after another, the exact position of every inhabited settlement, and the number of its inhabitants. A steady substantial table in the cabin favoured my usual habits of reading and writing, in which I indulged without interruption, emerging occasionally half way up the companion ladder to take my view of the coast, and to write down the names of places on the map.

January 27.--The land being very indistinct, I indulged in uninterrupted reading and writing all the morning. Wind still fair. At noon, the mist cleared away, and I resumed my survey of the coast. At half-past five P.M. we landed one of our English passengers at Tautuku, a whaling station, a few miles south of Molyneux Harbour. At sunset we were off the entrance of Waikawa Harbour, from which the coast bears away almost due west, forming the northern shore of Foveaux, or Favourite Straits.

Sunday, January 28.--In the morning Ruapuke Island, the residence of my native commodore, was full in view; but the wind being light, we did not reach it till the afternoon. In the morning, I held the usual native and English services on board. Afterwards enjoyed the lovely calm of the straits, resembling so many Sundays which I had spent on board the "Tomatin;" but here Iliad the additional advantage of a land view, and land peculiarly interesting to me, as being the furthest point of my diocese. To the west was the island for which we were steering, moderately elevated above the sea, and indented with deep bays, in the form of a Maltese cross, so that the walk round the island is of considerable length.

About five P.M. we tacked into the little cove in which Tuhawaiki's village stands, and went on shore to our evening service, which, however, was not numerously attended, as the greater part of the natives live on the other side of the island.

Monday, January 29.--A congregation of two hundred assembled from all parts of the island to morning service; after which I held a school, and found a large class of more than twenty able to read, though no English Missionary had ever visited the island before my arrival. Their first instructor was Tamahona, the son of Te Kauparaha, whom I have before mentioned as having been sent by Mr. Hadfield on a Missionary expedition to these parts. My lodging while at Ruapuke was in Tuhawaiki's house, which he vacated for my use. It contained two rooms, in one of which was a large fire-place and chimney; in the other, a boarded bed place, which the Countess of Ruapuke had carefully spread with two beautiful new red blankets, furnishing also the room with carpet and looking-glass. I regret to add that another part of the furniture of the room was a large barrel of rum, which the chief kept for the use of his English sailors, and for sale to the whalers: a vile practice into which he has been led by his English companions, and against which I duly remonstrated.

The view from the beach in front of my house was most beautiful. The whole length of Stewart's Island just fills the opening of the bay, forming a succession of wooded hills, decreasing in height till they taper down into a low spit of land at the eastern end; in the foreground, a grand mass of rocks resembling granite, and covered with a red lichen, with other blocks of the same stone standing up like broken pillars among the low brushwood on the hills surrounding the harbour.

In the afternoon, two English settlers came over to request me to marry them to the native women, with whom they had been living many years. They appeared, by all reports, to have conducted themselves well; and one of them, though scarcely able to read himself, had instructed his children in a way which surprised me. I sent them home to fetch their spouses to answer for themselves, and they were afterwards married.

January 30, 31, and February 1.--A violent gale from the south detained us in harbour, and gave me an opportunity of visiting all the small settlements in the islands, and holding reading-classes and services in most of them. In all I found some natives able to read, and in one especially, a very intelligent party under the care of a well-informed teacher. Here, as in other places, there was too much discussion about Weteri and Hahi (Wesley and the Church). We need not wonder at the controversies which are raging at home, when, even in the most distant part of this most remote of all countries, in places hitherto unvisited by English Missionaries, the spirit of controversy, so congenial as it seems to the fallen nature of man, is everywhere found to prevail, in many cases to the entire exclusion of all simplicity of faith. In Ruapuke, as throughout the greater part of the Middle Island, the use of canoes has been superseded by that of English boats, which the natives buy from the traders with whalebone, found in considerable quantities on the beach after a gale. They manage our boats with great dexterity. Ruapuke is a charming little island, containing all the characteristic features of New Zealand in miniature; woods, swamps, hills, lakes, bays, and rocky headlands, with pretty native villages (pretty, I mean, when seen from a distance), enlivening the scene. I was much pleased with my stay, though the advantage of it, in a religious point of view, was much impaired by the dissensions among the natives. February 2.--The wind having abated, we beat out of our little bay; intending to sail either to Stewart's Island, or the Bluff (on the northern shore of the Straits), as the wind might serve. Having cleared the land, we found the wind fair for the Bluff, distant twelve miles; whither we arrived at three P.M., and ran in under a bold, woody headland, rising like an island out of a perfectly flat plain. I found here a considerable whaling station, where I visited, as usual, most of the settlers; distributing Bibles and children's books, and giving them good advice, which in all cases was very patiently, and in some very thankfully received. The foreman of the station, who had just taken to himself a half-caste partner, had already promised to marry her at the first opportunity, and they were accordingly married the next morning. Gave the settlers strong lectures on the subject of the education of their children, and obtained a promise from the two best 'scholars,' that they would collect the children and instruct them; for which purpose they were furnished with books out of the ample supply granted me by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

February 3.--In the morning I married two couples and baptized eight children, and afterwards started, with a fair wind, for Stewart's Island; but a calm coming on, we did not reach it till dusk, when we anchored in Horse-shoe Bay. Two great American whalers floated on the water at the mouth of the bay. Remembering the Bishop of New Jersey's conversation at Eton, on the unity of our Churches, I determined to send in the morning to offer to perform Divine service on board; but they disappointed me by sailing at break of day.


Sunday, February 4.--At eight A.M. I started with my native crew in a whale-boat, to go to perform Divine service at Port William, the principal native settlement, though a small one, in Stewart's Island. I then began to see the extreme loveliness of the shores of this island, with its woods feathering down to the water's edge, and its noble bays indenting the coast at short intervals, with rocky points, interspersed with brushwood, between them; the whole crowned with the wooded height of Saddle Hill, from which the last patch of snow had, as I was told, only just disappeared. The distance from Horse-shoe Bay to Port William is only four miles; but, having wind and tide against us, we were more than two hours on the water. At last we came to the village, nestled in the hollow of the bay, with its little cultivations cut in patches out of the continuous forest, and a small river flowing by them. We found a party of forty natives, under a most intelligent chief. This place had not been visited by any teacher, either native or English; but some of the men knew the Belief, and the children could repeat portions of the Catechism. To this, then, the most distant settlement in my diocese, the Word of God had come, and prepared the hearts of the people to receive gladly the instruction which I gave them, confirming fully an opinion which I expressed last year, that there is no part of New Zealand where the Gospel is unknown. After Divine service and school, I distributed books among the natives, and took my leave; and after visiting another small native settlement, I passed the mouths of Half-moon Bay, Horse-shoe Bay, and Paterson's River (three beautiful harbours in the space of seven miles), and arrived at the Neck, a peninsula forming the east head of the above river, intending to assemble the English settlers to evening service; but I found that they lay so far apart, that there was not time to send to let them know of my arrival. I was, therefore, obliged to content myself with a native service with my own party and a few women, whose husbands were absent.

Monday, February 5.--The whole English population of the neighbourhood assembled early in the morning. Men, 10; native women, 14 or 15; children, 25. The men were all desirous of being married; to which, after special inquiry into the circumstances of each particular case, I assented, and married the ten couples, and afterwards baptized seventeen of their children.

The native women living with Englishmen are in a most unhappy state of ignorance; but, in many cases, the children will be able to instruct their mothers. One little boy, in particular, whom I examined, was remarkably well-informed. As the half-caste children usually speak both languages, they may be of great use in this way, if they can first be well taught. The husbands are generally unable to communicate with their wives, except on the most ordinary matters of daily life.

In the afternoon I returned to Half-moon Bay, with a strong wind, which made our boat dance like a cork over the waves.

February 6.--Calm and misty morning. Set sail, and, after some delay, drifted out of the bay. Sailed to the westward with a light breeze and calm sea. The mist soon melted away, and a bright sunshine lighted up all the hills and deepened the shadows in all the valleys. About noon, came to Murray's River, where, upon our firing a gun, a boat came off to us, with four English settlers, the whole white population of the place. I went on shore and found a tribe of children, one man having eight of his own. The party had built a comfortable house, and had cultivated a considerable extent of land; the produce of which, with an abundant supply of fish, affords them a comfortable maintenance. Like all the settlers on these straits, they were extremely contented. Here I married four couples, and baptized nine children, giving the parents, as usual, much earnest advice, and distributing Bibles. Prayer-books, unhappily, had fallen short, from the great demand; every one almost being anxious to possess one. The children in this place were perfectly clean and tidy in their dress, though they had no notice of my arrival, and certainly could not divine from the appearance of my vessel that any dignitary of the Church was coming among them. I am not certain that my own personal appearance would impress them more than my vessel, after four months of travel, though I try hard to keep up my episcopal costume.

Leaving Murray's River about three P.M., we glided gently along the shore, passing successively some wooded points (having the prevailing shape of the island, namely, a saddle), the principal of which bears the name of Saddle Point. There are no harbours in this part of the northern shore of Stewart's Island. Towards evening the wind died away, and left us drifting with the tide within sight of the fine rocky head, at the north-west corner of the island, called Raggedy Point. Beyond this, Codfish, or Passage Island, was in view, the Ultima Thule of my visitation. I went to bed with the happy thought, that if it should please God to speed us through the night, by the next morning I should be homeward bound.

February 7.--In the morning a clear blue sky, calm and sparkling sea; the peaked and jagged rocks of Raggedy Point close to us; Saddle Hill rising grandly behind them, Passage Island just a-head: to the south, the western shore of Stewart's Island, opening as far as Mason's Bay; to the east, the Bluff, looking like an island, the fiat land near it being below the horizon; to the north-east, the swelling hills about the New River and Jacob's River, as far as the great bay, marked on the map as Knowsley Bay, over which no land was visible; but further to the westward, from the edge of the bay, rose a noble chain of mountains, capped with snow, their serrated outline standing out boldly against the sky. Solander's Islands, dimly seen at the distance of twenty-five miles, closed in the view to the westward.

About noon came to an anchor. Went on shore. Sandy beach, enclosed by wooded hills. Cluster of small houses on the bank of a small river of red water, like the peat streams of North Wales. In front of the houses sat thirteen native women and fifteen children, but the men were out in their boats fishing. I catechized the women and children, and found them less ignorant than others whom I had seen. One young native was able to read, so I gave him some books and appointed him teacher. This was the only place in which the native women seem to have regular prayers, most of them having come to live with their English mates before the introduction of Christianity. It is a humiliating truth that these women have actually been kept back from religious knowledge by intercourse with our countrymen, which has taken them away from their own villages, where the Gospel was fast spreading, to places where, as one settler told me, they had not had a word of religious instruction till my arrival. In the afternoon the men returned with their boats laden with fish. In a moment all the little population was alive--children dragging up cod-fish (hapuka) nearly as large as themselves; ducks, geese, pigs, and dogs, all sharing the joy. After conversation I married three of the men, rejecting one; and another was refused by his native partner, who "kinoed" [The native expression of aversion; literally, bad.] him most resolutely. After the weddings eight children were baptized, and the day closed with an evening service with the native women and children; after which I set sail at sunset, with great joy and thankfulness that my face was now set to the Waimate.


February 8.--In the morning, when the mist cleared up, we found ourselves near Karotonga, or Centre Island; and at 1 P.M. anchored off Wakaputaputa, a native village. Went on shore, and found a large party drawn up to receive me, under Maunsell, a native teacher, baptized by Mr. Hadfield. This is the last of the inhabited settlements on the middle island, and lies about twenty miles to the eastward of the Waiau, or Knowsley River, as it is called on the map. On registering the inhabitants, I found in all one hundred and thirty men, women, and children; of whom fifteen, to my great pleasure, and surprise, were able to read well. Two of them were so apparently qualified for baptism, that I departed from my usual rule of probation, and baptized them. Their manner was most devout and reverential, and one of them was in tears during the whole service. With them were baptized three infants. There appeared to be no dissension in this village, which was a refreshing contrast to the rest of the island. After distributing books, and preaching to them at the evening service, I set sail at dusk, and steered east for Aparima, or Jacob's River.

February 9.--Early in the morning entered Jacob's River, bumping slightly on the bar, it being nearly low water. Anchored off the English settlement, a whaling station, and went on shore. Assembled the English, fourteen or fifteen in number, (twelve more absent,) and explained to them the object of my coming. The sight of two married Englishwomen was pleasant to me, as I had not seen a countrywoman since I left Otakou.

February 10.--Stayed at Jacob's River.

February 11--Sunday.--Performed the morning and evening services as usual, to the natives and English; the latter all attending, and behaving most respectfully. In the course of one of my sermons I happened to speak of the sin of swearing, which led some of them to come to me after the service, and express their sorrow for the bad language which I had heard them use on the former day. At various times I had much private conversation with several of them, and saw reason to hope, that by a kindly and judicious attention to this, as well as other stations, they may be moulded into much more orderly and Christian communities. For this purpose I must have, before long, a visiting Clergyman in the Straits, to live in some central place, and travel from station to station; which he will have no difficulty in doing, as four or five small vessels are kept in the Straits, in which he could take his passage. The great hold upon these men is their love of their children. They were most earnest for schools, and offered to pay considerable sums for their children's education. Their care of their orphans also won my heart. Their business of seal catching leads them into many dangers, by which several lives have been lost; but the children of the dead have always found protectors in the friends of their fathers. Many of these orphans will, I hope, be transferred to the Waimate, to form the foundation of my schools.

I had now completed my circuit of all the inhabited places on the straits, with the exception of a very small native settlement on the New River, O Maui, between Jacob's River and the Bluff; to which I was obliged to content myself with sending a present of books; and I was now most anxious for a speedy return, as I had written to the Governor, to request him to allow the Government brig to meet me at Akaroa, on the 15th of February. It was now the 11th, and I was three hundred miles distant; but to my great joy, on the 12th of February, Monday, at daylight, a south-west wind sprung up, which soon freshened into a considerable gale, before which we ran, almost without shifting a sail, till we entered Akaroa Harbour, at ten A.M., on Wednesday, the 14th of February, having completed the distance from Jacob's River in about fifty hours, and arriving one day before my appointment.

Akaroa is a noble harbour, seven miles in length with rather a narrow entrance, widening into a broad sheet of water, perfectly land-locked; the only drawback is the height of the hills around it, from which furious gusts come suddenly down, endangering small vessels, if the sails are not kept in hand. A French corvette, Le Rhin, and eight French and American whalers, were lying at anchor. As soon as we had anchored, Mr. Robinson, the police magistrate, came on board, bringing me letters, among others one from the Governor, stating that the brig could not call for me at Akaroa, but had gone direct to the Chatham Islands. He thought that I could not be at that place at the time proposed, and was unwilling to delay the vessel. This was a sore disappointment to me for a while, but I consoled myself with a letter from Mrs. Selwyn, giving an excellent account of herself and William; upon which I took heart, and engaged Tuhawaiki to carry me on to Wellington. The wind being now contrary, I stayed two days at Akaroa, and looked over the settlement, where there are about eighty French settlers, and about fifty English, with a few Germans. Some of the French settlers have good gardens.

M. Berard, the Commandant of the corvette, was very polite to me, and placed his house at my disposal. One day I dined on board his vessel, in a style which contrasted amusingly with my mode of life on board Tuhawaiki's "Goelette," as I was received on board with a salute, the crew drawn up in order, and a variety of other formalities.

February 15.--The wind being still contrary, I walked over to Pigeon Bay, on the north side of the Peninsula, having directed Tuhawaiki to bring his vessel round to take me up. In this bay I found some Scotch settlers of the right sort; living in great comfort by their own exertions, making every thing for themselves, and, above all, keeping up their religious principles and usages though far away from any ministerial assistance. The name of the family was Sinclair; I spent the evening with them, and conducted their family prayers.

February 16, 17, 18.--Spent at Port Levy, a port a few miles to the westward of Pigeon Bay. A few miles further to the westward, with only one headland between the two harbours, is Port Cooper, now much talked of for a new colony. A large party of natives had assembled at Port Levy, in hopes of selling land; so that I made acquaintance with most of the principal chiefs of the Middle Island, whom I had not before seen.

Port Cooper is surrounded by precipitous hills, with, very little level ground, but an opening can be made, without difficulty, to the extensive plains which range along the eastern shore of this island from Kaikoura (Lookers on) to Moerangi.

February 19.--Tuhawaiki not arriving, I was tempted by a prospect of fair wind, to embark on board a new schooner just built in Port Levy, and starting for her first voyage to Wellington. Her name was the "Eliza," 35 tons burden. We made little progress during the night.

February 20.--Becalmed all day. Discovered that our crew knew nothing about their business; and wished myself back in Tuhawaiki's vessel. Only one small cask of water on board, and no boat to fetch any more.


February 21, (Ash Wednesday.)--Arrived at noon, at Matanau Island, where we were to unlade some timber for a new whaling station just being formed. This island is forty miles north of the Peninsula. Several boats came off to unlade the timber, to all of whose crews I made the same request, that when they had landed their timber, they would bring off some stones for ballast, instead of returning empty. I might as well have talked to the stones, for not an ounce of ballast would they bring, though we parted with several tons of timber. However, we took on board two large water casks, which made my mind easy on that score. So I made up my mind for a long passage. Happily we took on board a passenger, an old seaman, who afterwards proved to be the only person on board who understood his business. At night we sailed to the northward.

February 22.--Becalmed all the morning. At eleven a strong wind sprang up from the northeast, which soon convinced our good folks that I had been right in asking for ballast, for the vessel could not carry canvass enough to work to windward; and we consequently made much lee-way.

The wind being contrary, they determined to run back to the island for ballast; but just as we neared it, the wind changed to the north-west, and, as we were unable to beat, we were driven off the shore. We then lay to, and drifted back several miles towards the south. At sunset a stormy wind came off shore from the west, which seemed to portend a heavy gale; it was therefore determined to run back to Port Levy, and we steered our course accordingly all night.

February 23.--Went on deck before daylight, and found the vessel gliding steadily along few miles from the mouth of Port Levy. Went and lay down again, but was awakened by a commotion over head, and found that a fierce east wind had suddenly come on, and that every sail must be close reefed. Our head barely lay up to Port Levy, and it was quite clear that the vessel, making so much lee-way, would not fetch even Port Cooper, though two or three miles to the westward. I therefore concluded that we should be driven ashore, on the beach north of the Peninsula, in the deep bay of which we now seemed to be shut in. Our old sailor passenger, as he afterwards told me, was of the same opinion, and had made up his mind, if we failed in reaching Port Cooper, to recommend the master to drop his anchor, and leave the vessel to ride out the gale if it could: we ourselves going on shore in a whale-boat, which we had taken on board at the island.

While we were in this state of suspense, the impossibility of reaching Port Cooper becoming more apparent, we suddenly espied Tuhawaiki, sailing gallantly out of Port Levy with a fair wind, and bearing away several miles to the eastward, under shelter of the Peninsula. Presently afterwards, our wind also shifted to south-east, and we immediately wore, from inability to tack, and bore away after him: most thankful to be thus extricated from the unpleasant position in which we were placed. We soon passed Tuhawaiki, as the wind became fair, and our lightness was then in our favour: and we ran rapidly all day, when the wind died away and left us off Kaikoura (Lookers on).

Saturday, February 24.--Calm night. Tuhawaiki gained six miles upon us in the night; and we both continued in sight one of another all day. Wind contrary. We made, little progress. Tuhawaiki's vessel, being much better worked, left us far behind.

Sunday, February 25.--Services on deck. Light wind, but contrary.

Monday, February 26, at 1 A.M.--A fair wind, but our sailors thinking it contrary, lay to till daylight; when our sailor-passenger came on deck, and took the command. We had then drifted so far to leeward, that the wind was no longer fair for Port Nicholson; and accordingly we stood over into Wairampa, or Palliser Bay, a place notorious for the detention of vessels. Under Baring Head we wore, and sailed back across the Straits towards Cloudy Bay, another schooner, equally ill managed with our own, wearing about from the same inability to tack. Two such discreditable vessels sure never were seen in Cook's Straits at the same time. While in this dilemma, we saw the clouds lighting on the snowy peaks of Tapuaenuku, near Kaikoura: our enemy, the north-west wind, died away, and in half an hour, a breeze from the south increasing to a strong gale, brought us rapidly into Port Nicholson. To my exceeding joy I heard that the Governor and the "Victoria" brig were still there, but ready to sail on the morrow. His Excellency met me on the jetty, and received me most cordially. I afterwards dined privately with him at Barrett's Hotel. Tuhawaiki arrived three hours after us, having gone too far out to sea.

Tuesday, February 27.--Presented Tuhawaiki and Tamahona (Te Rauparaha's son) to the Governor. Afterwards went with the Governor to choose another site for the church, the first chosen being found ineligible. Obtained a grant of the place I most wished for; and hope soon to be able to raise a fund for beginning the chancel. In the meantime, a wooden nave will be begun immediately, funds having been left for that purpose by me in the hands of Mr. Cole, and other managers appointed by me. Cleared up various matters of business, and received numerous visitors; among others, Mr. Justice Chapman, the new judge, who spoke very cooperatively on Church matters. At midnight, went on board "Victoria," which seemed a floating palace after the "Richmond," "Perseverance," and "Eliza."


Wednesday, February 28.--Sailed at sun-rise, with splendid north-west wind.

February 29, March 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, at sea; delightful weather; during which I enjoyed much conversation with the Governor, more, probably, than I could have in several weeks' residence at Auckland. In the evening of the 6th we came in sight of the harbour, but were becalmed outside the heads. The Governor and I, with a crew of four Maoris, took one of the brig's boats, and at midnight landed at Auckland. To my infinite joy and thankfulness I found Mrs. Selwyn and William quite well, and Mrs. Martin decidedly better. Charis to Theo.

During my absence, my little private chapel, on tho allotment adjoining the Chief Justice's, had advanced considerably; and being of solid stone, was a most refreshing sight in the midst of the wilderness of weather-board.

March 13.--Sailed to the Tamaki River, to sec the New Church, of which a stone chancel is nearly completed, on a plan very similar to my private chapel at Auckland. It is a solid venerable-looking building, of grey stone. Mr. Church, Mr. Spain, Mr. Kempthorne, and others, have subscribed, in money and labour, more than £100, which I have promised to meet with an equivalent. The greatest good feeling has been shown by the settlers, who wish, when the chancel is built, to go on upon the same terms of "equivalent," to build and maintain a school, and, if possible, to provide for a resident Clergyman. But I fear that the distress of the Colony will bear heavily upon them, and delay the execution of their good intentions.

Sunday, March 17.--At nine--native congregation of 300 at St. Paul's Church. At eleven--consecrated St. Paul's Church, assisted by Mr. Maunsell and Mr. Churton. The debt is now happily paid off, with the exception of that portion of it which I advanced upon loan as part of the College fund bequeathed by Mr. Whytehead. After service--native School under verandah of Government House.

March 18.--Went on board the "Victoria," at sunset: Mr. and Mrs. Maunsell, and five children, accompanying: in all, twenty-five cabin passengers, including four boys for St. John's Collegiate School. After a most calm and delightful voyage, we anchored at the mouth of the Kerikeri River, in the Bay of Islands, on Wednesday, March 20th, at ten o'clock, and my native crew rowed us up to the station, where we landed at noon. Mr. Kemp's large boat was despatched for our goods, and we were all safely landed, bag and baggage, before sunset.

March 21.--A delicious day in my library. Books all arranged around me. Such a sight is not to be seen in New Zealand, so refreshing and inspiriting. I now purpose to devote a day and a half in every week to quiet reading.

We reached home about sunset, and were met by the members of the college, and all the schools, amounting in all to full fifty souls, who formed a procession and walked before us to our house, the infants singing their "God save the Queen" March to the letters of the alphabet, in excellent style. We found our house completely changed for the better: a new roof, impervious to rain; rooms new wainscotted where it was required, and all in such a state of perfect order that we could not but agree that we must request you for the future not to waste any compassion upon us, but join with us in thankfulness for the many and great blessings which we enjoy.

I have received a most valuable young coadjutor, (Mr. Hutton,) in whose hands the Collegiate School is beginning to assume an order and efficiency beyond my expectations. I am greatly indebted to my brother William for this reinforcement, and to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts for their assistance in forwarding the plan.

Having now taken you through the greater part of my Diocese, and enabled you to form some idea of the nature and state of the country, I shall discontinue my Journal Letters, and confine myself, for the future, to such points of interest as occur from time to time.

Project Canterbury