Project Canterbury

Anglo-Continental Association.

From The Christian Remembrancer, No. XCVIII (New Series) (October, 1857), pages 334-360.

Transcribed by the Right Reverend Dr. Terry Brown
Bishop of Malaita, Church of the Province of Melanesia, 2008

[334] ART. III.--1. Ecelesiæ Anglicanæ Religio Disciplina Ritusque Sacri. Cosini Episcopi Dunelmensis opusculum. Editio altera. 1857.

2. Doctrine de l'Eglise Anglicane relative aux Sacrements et aux Cérémonies Sacramentales. 1854.

3. L'Eglise Anglicane n'est point Schismatique. 1855.

4. De la Validité des Ordinations de l'Eglise Anglicane. 1856.

5. Rome; son nouveau Dogme et nos Devoirs. 1856.

6. Erreurs Historiques qui existent dans la Communion Romaine à l'égard de l'Eglise Anglicane. 1856.

7. Della Religione, Disciplina, e Riti Sacri della Chiesa Anglicana. 1854.

8. La Santa Chiesa Cattolica. 1855.

9. La Supremazia Papale al tribunale dell' Antichitá. 1856.

10. Vita della Beata Vergine Maria. 1857.

11. Religione Discipline y Sagrados Ritos de la Iglesia de Inglaterra. 1856.

12. La Supremacía Papal exâminada por la Antigüedad. 1856.

13. Cosin, Bischof von Durham, über Glauben Zucht und Cultus der Englischen Kirche. 1857.

THE first thing that strikes us with respect to the 'Association for making known upon the Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church,' is that it has a very long name. We shall take the liberty of speaking of it under an appellation which we see that its supporters have begun lately to apply to it, the 'Ango-Continental Association.' It is true that the latter title does not mean much, perhaps without some further interpretation it means nothing, whereas the other name excellently describes the purpose of the society; but 'Anglo-Continental Association' is short, 'Association for making known upon the Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church' is long, and any Society which is to live and work must have a short name, even though it be a nickname. The 'Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts' has become the 'S.P.G.,' or at the longest the 'Propagation of the Gospel Society,' and [334/335] the 'Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge' has been cut down to 'S.P.C.K.' The 'Association for making known upon the Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church,' must submit to the same process.

But what is the Society in question, and what has it done? We know that these are early days to make the latter inquiry; for the Society has scarcely been in existence four years, and to be looking for any great fruits and results yet would be premature. 'Cast thy bread upon the waters, and thou shaft find it after many days,' must be the motto of any man or of any body of men whose purpose it is to have an effect upon the minds even of their fellow-countrymen, much more upon the course of the world's thought; and it would appear that no less than this is the purpose of the Anglo-Continental Association, modestly as it veils it at present under the specific proposal of making known upon the Continent the principles of the Anglican Church. Let those principles bear their fruit, whatever that may be, is the idea which evidently underlies the existence of the Society.

That there is room for such an Association is clear. Indeed, it is astonishing, now that the idea is started, that we should have gone on so many years without it. We have the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, by means of which we can deal with our colonies and the heathen. We have the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, the Additional Curates' Society, and others, to battle with home ignorance and depravity; but where is our machinery for affecting the religious mind of the Continent? What agency have we for making ourselves understood whether by Roman Catholics or Protestants in the West, or by the ancient Churches of the East? We have none, none whatever, except the tentative efforts of the Anglo-Continental Association.

The Society consists of a number of churchmen, clergy and laity, who have voluntarily combined for the purpose signified in the longer title of the Society,--for making known upon the Continent the principles of the Anglican Church. It consists of patrons, a committee, a staff of secretaries and editors, and ordinary members. The patrons are all of them bishops. Four are English, viz. Durham, Exeter, Oxford, Salisbury; four Scottish, Argyll; Glasgow, Moray, S. Andrews; five colonial, Gibraltar, Newfoundland, Fredericton, Capetown, Natal; two American, Maryland and Bishop Southgate. Death has snatched away another American prelate who felt warmly for the Society's welfare, the excellent Bishop Wainwright, and an English prelate who gave it his fullest sanction, the late bishop of London. The Committee contains a greater number of honoured and trustworthy names than we often see collected together within the compass of a [335/336] committee. Among the clerical members we may name Archdeacon Churton, Rev. T. Claughton, Rev. E. Hawkins, Rev. J. S. H. Horner, Rev. F. C. Massingberd, Rev. Dr. Moberly, Rev. J. Oldknow, Rev. E. C. Woollcombe, Rev. Dr. Wordsworth. Among the laymen, Lord Robert Cecil, M.P., F. H. Dickinson, Esq., Sir John S. Forties, Bart., Henry Hoare, Esq., A. J. B. Hope, Esq. M.P., J. G. Hubbard, Esq., J. H. Markland, Esq., J. Watts-Russell, Esq., and last, but far from least, Roundell Palmer, Esq. The secretaries are three,--Rev. F. Meyrick, Rev. F. Godfray, and Rev. A. Cleveland Coxe, the last of whom superintends the operations of the Society in America. The editors are as yet six, but we presume that they are to be increased as the sphere of the Society enlarges. Dr. Camilleri, an Italian by birth, and now pastor of the Anglo-Italian congregation in London, under the licence of the Bishop of the diocese, is answerable for correctness of translation in the Italian publications; Archdeacon Churton undertakes the superintendence of the works published by the Society in Spanish; Mr. Godfray, perhaps the best French scholar in England, is French editor; Mr. Kitchin is German editor; and Dr. Wordsworth is Romaic editor. Mr. Meyrick is described as general editor, which implies that he is answerable for the tone and matter of the whole series. The ordinary members of the Association consist not only of donors and subscribers, as is usual, but also of all those who will undertake to pray daily for the blessing of God upon the Society's operations. In the list of members appear the names of Mr. Gladstone, Sir William Heathcote, Mr. Keble, the Marquis of Lothian, the Bishop of Quebec, and others.

So much for what the Society is. Now, What is it doing? First, perhaps, we should ask, What has it professed to do? It has not been a society which has made much profession, from the beginning. We believe that it first entered life, not with a declaration of what it was going to do, but with the publication of a work of Bishop Cosin; that is, by beginning instead of saying that it was going to begin. Contemporaneously with this publication was issued the following paper:--

'It has long been desired to make known upon the Continent, with far greater accuracy than at present, the principles of the English Church, There are few who are not aware of the ignorance and misrepresentation at present rife on this subject in every quarter of the world, especially in those parts of it where the Roman Catholic Church has sway. It has, therefore, been determined to publish works illustrative of the doctrines, discipline, and constitution of the Anglican Church, and the character of its Reformation, which may attract the attention and find their way into the hands of natives of foreign countries, and members of other branches of the Church. It is proposed that some of the intended publications should be in the Latin language, some in the different languages spoken [336/337] by the several nations of the continent, and that they should be offered for sale at low prices in France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, and South America, as well as in the northern and eastern parts of the globe.

'The first of the series has been now published, being a short work of Bishop Cosin on the Faith, Discipline, and Rites of the English Church, together with extracts from Bishops Andrewes, Jewell; Bull, Beveridge, and others, as Crakanthorpe and James I., explanatory of the nature of the English Reformation. This will serve as a specimen of the tone which will run through the rest of the series, the whole of which will be edited or written by members of the English, Scottish, or American Churches.'

This was in the year 1853. No further statement of principles has been made since that time, till within the last week or two. The Society seems to have been satisfied with an annual statement of the publications issued by the editors, together with an account of sales, subscriptions, and such like practical matters. There is, however, a letter which may be regarded as embodying the idea of the Association, written also in the year 1853, by the same gentleman who issued the circular which we have given above, to a brother clergyman in the United States, and there published at the time in the 'Church Review:'--

...... 'You ask for an account of,--l. The origin of the Association for making known upon the Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church; 2. What the Association has effected; 3. What it proposes further to effect. I will answer these questions separately.

'1. You are aware that my countrymen and your countrymen are much given to travelling abroad; and I suppose that every Churchman who has so travelled has been vexed in his soul to find the misconceptions universally entertained in reference to what he holds dearest,--his faith and his Church. In almost every continental country, I suppose, the faith of the Englishman is looked upon as something allied very closely to infidelity. Thus, in Italy I was informed that in England no one was baptized, but that, in place of baptism, a little rose-water was thrown over them. In Greece, I found the English party looked upon as the infidel party, in spite of the good works done by your excellent countryman, Mr. Hill. In Spain, Englishman, Protestant, and non-Romanist, are all identified with non-Christian, and the title Catholic unknown, except as synonymous with Papist. And the Anglican Church fares no better in common estimation. Almost universally, I believe, it is regarded as a sect set up by Henry VIII. in place of the Catholic Church, because the latter would not allow him to put away one wife and take another; and as long as Cobbett is the book to which foreigners have recourse for information on the subject of the Reformation, such an opinion cannot fail of prevailing. Now, there is always something in the human breast which stirs us up to correct what we know to be false, and redress what we know to be wrong; and we are stirred the more deeply when the thing misrepresented and wronged is something very dear to us. Here, then, was one motive for the institution of such an Association.

'To this was added a feeling akin to indignation. The existing ignorance with regard to our claims and position, is clearly not in all cases the ignorance of simplicity. On the contrary, it cannot be doubted that the simple ones are industriously taught calumnies about us for controversial purposes. This is not the case where the Greek Church holds sway; but in the countries subject to the Roman supremacy it cannot be doubted. [337/338] It is so in England. There is no body of men so calumnious towards the Church as the Romanists; and, among them, that class from which we might most confidently have looked for better things. Amidst much suffering and sorrow of heart, amidst many incurable evils, caused by men falling away to Rome, it was thought by some that at least there would be this good,--that the converts would carry with them into the Roman Church a knowledge of the Anglican Church, and cause it thereby to be better appreciated. The result has been the very contrary to this. Nowhere have there been found such sharp and false tongues, nowhere such bitter words against the Anglican Church, as among those who have forsaken her communion. Mr. Faber declares for himself and his co-religionists that all his other fellow-country are infidels.

'Again, there was a feeling of combined pity and zeal. You have read the letters of the Spanish priest, published in the "Practical Working of the Church of Spain." His cry for help and sympathy was one hard to resist. His picture of multitudes of his fellow-country running wild into infidelity and atheism, because there was no system placed before them which they could adopt with a manly intelligent Christian faith, was recognised by those who had visited his native land as true; and the same thing was existing in Italy. Men's souls are bound by an iron bond to accept all or none in those countries where Rome holds swap. That all contains what men of intelligence cannot accept, and so they are driven off into unbelief. Credulity and scepticism are the only alternatives placed before them. It was, then, a work of Christian love to show to these perplexed ones that, because they disbelieved in Sta Philumena and Sta Rita, it was not necessary that they should therefore disbelieve in our blessed Lord and S. Paul, and that, in rejecting what they knew to be false, they might still hold firm to God's Truth. The political position of the countries of the earth seems, too, to call upon us to do the same thing. That the despotisms under which poor Italy and Spain are now groaning can last for ever is impossible; that they will last but a short time seems very probable. With the fall of the despotisms will come the fall of the Church, which has thrown herself into the arms of the governments, and stooped to be the tool of tyranny. How supremely important, then, it is that, before the hour arrives, the stirring spirits of those peninsulas should learn that it is possible for a Church to be reformed without being annihilated, to be Catholic without being Romanist.

'And, besides, such a movement was thought likely to be useful to some among ourselves. You know how the hearts of Anglicans, in their insular state of separation, yearn for unity. Attempts have from time to time been made to combine with the Greek Church from this cause. Nay, the lamentable secessions to the Church of Rome, which we have witnessed, have arisen mainly from the same origin. We were alone in the world, solitary and forlorn. Some tried to ignore the differences between ourselves and Rome, and gentle words were heard about our sister in the faith, with whom we only differed on minor points, which were no hindrance to full communion. This could not last, and then when men gave up that hope, they rushed headlong into Rome, to avoid the loneliness which their souls abhorred. This spirit of yearning is now rightfully satisfied by the intercommunion now so happily existing and energizing between ourselves and you. But still it requires some outlet with regard to the Roman communion. Better that it should take the form of attempting to bring them into unity with us than of sacrificing our Catholicity to their Romanism.

'Such were some of the feelings which were working in the minds of many English Churchmen; and it only required a little intercourse between [338/339] a few of them to make these feelings issue in the Association about which you inquire. Perhaps the immediate occasion of its formation were the applications from Spain, Mr. Cleveland Coxe's publication of Hirscher's Proposals for a new Reformation, and the stories brought from Italy by the impostor De Col. At first it was not known that the latter was in the pay of the Church and State party in Italy, and his tales were credited more than they deserved; but when his character became known, it was still inferred that there must have been a foundation for his tales, or it would not have been worth his while to invent them, or of those whose tool he was to send him to England. And the daily accounts that we see and hear confirm the truth of this conclusion. Thus the Association came into being.'

Having described what the Association had at that time effected, and what it was immediately proposing to do, the writer continues:--

'The Association has not yet formed itself into shape by publishing its committee, officers, and patrons. We have been anxious to be practical before we were formal. Soon we shall make ourselves more public. Good names are not wanting to us from among our Bishops and your Bishops, our presbyters and your presbyters, and our influential laymen. The more that it is known, I doubt not, the more the work will be supported; and just as we have missions to the heathen, in which the Venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the Board of Missions take part, so I hope that the Mother and Daughter Church may combine in the good work of resuscitating the spirit of true Catholicity in the bosom of those continental Churches, where it is now well-nigh extinguished by the accretions of Mediævalism.'

We must pause here to point out one incidental good connected with the Anglo-Continental Association, which we regard as especially gratifying. It does not propose to be an effort of the Established English Church, but of the whole Anglican communion. Thus its patrons are Bishops of the English, Scottish, Colonial, and American Churches, almost in equal proportions; one of its three secretaries is an American clergyman; the incumbent of a parish in New York, and the chaplains or clergy at Malaga, Constantinople, Athens, and Gibraltar are on the committee; the son of the Bishop of Quebec is one of the correspondents of the Society, and in the list of its members occurs the name of Mr. Hugh Davey Evans, the well-known, able, and earnest-hearted layman of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Baltimore. Anything which makes us realize the unity of this far-stretching community is in itself a great good. It is one of the ideas on which the internal constitution of the Anglo-Continental Association is formed, and its external operations are conducted.

The immediate occasion, as distinct from the cause, of the society's origin, was, according to the writer of the above letter, a representation of the state of feeling on the Continent, from Spain, Germany, and Italy. Our readers may by this time [339/340] have forgotten the case of De Col. He came to England, and played the part of the convert and reformer. He made up tales,--and with wonderful cleverness they were composed--of secret assemblies held throughout Lombardy, the purpose of which was to effect a reformation in Italy. He presented addresses from these imaginary congregations to persons high in authority in the English Church, and he even extracted from learned and grave doctors and archdeacons a Latin letter of sympathy and advice to his clients,--a letter, we will say, in passing, which was highly honourable--both to the individuals who composed it and to the Church to which they belonged. After awhile suspicions were aroused as to the truth of the Abbé's communication and his motives in making them, and finding himself uncomfortable in England he decamped, and made his way back to Italy. Then it came out that he was an agent of the Jesuit party in Italy, and in the pay of the Austrian police, and that he had been sent to England for the purpose of ingratiating himself with such persons as were supposed likely to sympathise with foreign reformers, in order that he might discover who the latter were, and hand them over to the tender mercies of his employers, to be dealt with as Jesuits and Austrian police know how to deal with religious and political agitators. Fortunately, M. De Col's benevolent intentions were entirely frustrated, and all that he succeeded, in doing was stirring up a feeling of sympathy for the reality which was proved to exist even by his caricature of it.

Hirscher's 'State of the Church' was probably perused by all our readers at the time that it was made known to the English world by Mr. Cleveland Coxe, in his 'Sympathies of the Continent.' It goes to prove that there is a feeling in Germany, among some, at least, of its learned men, which would respond to a call urging them to reform themselves on the
model of primitive Christianity. Nor is the compulsory retractation of this book, which poor Dean Hirscher has been forced to make, any sign that he wrote lightly at the beginning, or that his convictions are altered now. It only shows that he has not the strength of mind which a man needs to become a martyr or a confessor. The lesson which the large-hearted and learned editor of Hirscher's book gathers with respect to the duty of the English Church, appears in the following extract:--

'If there is to be a revival of true religion and living Catholicity on the Continent, the movement must begin from within the National Churches, . . . Corrupt they are, and with their corruptions we can hold no parley. Still, like the Seven Churches of Asia, there they are, in spite of their corruptions, dear to Christ, and retaining His distinguishable presence among their golden candlesticks. They retain their places, and, as yet, retain [340/341] all the hold upon the popular heart which religion retains at all. Who is so blinded by prejudice, as not to see, that if anything is to be hoped and prayed for, it is that these Churches may be wisely, soberly, and thoroughly reformed, by the Spirit of the Lord, and so made again the light of the world, and the joy of the whole earth? That this blessed consummation is not so hopeless as our supine and wicked want of faith has led us to suppose, is precisely what the spirit of the work thus introduced, and of the accompanying illustrations from other sources, sufficiently demonstrates.

'Such a work, affecting the common interests of the Church of England" and her long estranged and fallen sisters, so far and in proportion as they are still Catholic and Christian together, may possibly be made, by the good providence of God, a harbinger of renewed efforts for a truly Catholic reformation, in the spirit of the Council of Nice, and in utter repudiation of the Council of Trent: at any rate, it will teach British Christians to thank God, that by virtue of their freedom from the disastrous consequences of the latter, they are already far in advance of the foreign Churches, in the means and appliances for immediate action upon the age; that, they hold a vantage ground, to which the Papal churches begin to turn with eyes of longing, and with a struggle, as for life itself: so that theirs is an immense responsibility, if they fail to use their glorious liberty for the common benefit of Christendom.' [1] [(1) Sympathies of the Continent, p. 12.]

And again--

'The English Church owes it to herself and to the dying Churches of Europe to expose the utter falsehoods which have been so long circulated about her by the Jesuits: and thus to afford them the encouraging example of a Church which has not ceased to be Catholic by becoming reformed. . . . . Why should American "Evangelical Societies," and the like, be suffered to disseminate through all the free parts of Europe their well-meant but dangerous principles of reform, with no effort on our part to save the Churches of Europe from adhering to their corruptions, in view of such dangerous novelties; or from adopting the novelties themselves, to the ruin of their existence as Churches, and their consequent decline into infidelity? What vast good might be done to such men as Hirscher, Nuytz, and others, if a true statement of the Church of England's doctrine, Apostolic constitution, and wide-spread relations, were but translated into German, French, and Italian, and sent to foreign universities for distribution! When the writer, as an American Presbyter, presented Hirscher with a sermon which he had preached in a pulpit of the Church of England, the venerable man seemed labouring under a new idea. It was probably the first time he had ever heard of the American Church, or conceived of the Anglican Communion as capable of existing in entire independence of the British Crown! The Romanists of the Continent have no more idea of the Church of England's true character than the Chinese; and they are constantly supplied with fresh lies about it by the most artful and malicious ingenuity. Petty tracts and learned volumes alike propagate the falsehood, unchecked; and Rome and infidelity are the gainers.' [2] [(2) Ibid. p. 15.]

For evidence as to the state of religious feeling in Spain it would be easy to quote many passages from the letters referred to by the writer above, and from the book in which they are published. We will content ourselves with one extract of a letter written six years ago by a priest then officiating in the [341/342] Spanish Church. Having described the state of religion and morals in Spain, he continues:--

'The Spaniards, having all these things before their eyes, laugh at the mission of the Christian priesthood, are losing their faith and morals, and sinking into Atheism. Will you, then, keep them in the way of perdition, in the very mouth of the pit? There is no other way but preaching the true Gospel. Here then is a difficult work, to which all my efforts are directed, and I implore your aid. . . . . It cannot be denied that Spaniards of the present day are generally opposed to Roman practices, and rather agree with you and me in thinking and doing, than with them: such is the force of reason and truth. However, while they are giving up the errors of Romanism, they have no rule of faith and morality to embrace, and, led as by a blind impulse, each has prescribed a liberal and irregular belief for himself, which sometimes he follows, and sometimes relinquishes.

'For unity, then, and stability of faith to be established among us, for the restoration of Evangelical morals, and specially for delivering them from Atheism, into which they are running headlong, the light of the Gospel must, as in old times, shine among them. But how shall they believe without a preacher, and how shall we preach unless we are sent? Let there be raised the voice that cries aloud, and the word of God will not return empty. But as the charity of Christ constraineth us, and His cause here suffers violence, and groans at being surrounded with great dangers, I have determined not to go hence, but to remain and to implore your help for the Spanish nation.

'Will you, then, associate yourselves together for the work of the Gospel in these regions? Will you, in your charity, lead this people to the true faith of Christ? Will you recal them from Atheism, or indifferentism, to the Church of God? Establish Evangelical missions, and support them with your pious alms. The Romanists labour night and day to propagate their errors; they send their fanatical Missionaries to go round the world, and all sort of sectaries run eagerly to the work. But ye who profess the true faith of Christ, will ye leave a thirsty people to perish, and give them nought out of your own abundance when they ask? Nay, my most beloved brethren, for if the Lord hath given you five talents, ye will gain five other talents to be good and faithful servants.' [1] [(1) Practical Working of the Church of Spain, p. 368.]

Other proofs of the existence of similar feelings in Italy, Germany, Spain, South America, [2] [(2) For South America, see Dr. Vigil's 'Defensa de la Autoridad de los Gobiernos contra las pretenciones de la Curia Romana,' published at Lima.] and elsewhere, might, we need scarcely say, be brought forward in great abundance if it were necessary. But these are the special indications referred to by the founders of the Association, and they are quite sufficient. We shall presently have to turn our readers' attention to France.

Granted, then, that there is a great misconception and misrepresentation of the English Church, its principles and its practices, on the Continent--a thing which, unhappily, no traveller can doubt, and which we could illustrate by tale after tale, were it not that the ludicrous character of such stories excites rather pain than amusement, when they have for their subject anything so very dear to us as our Mother Church; and, granted [342/343] that there is a feeling abroad, in Spain, Italy, Germany, South America, and, as we shall presently show, in France, which is stretching itself after something better, purer, holier, more primitive, more Catholic, than that which the Papal idea and system is found to supply--what is the Association doing to remove this misconception and to meet this feeling?

Its first step is to publish tracts explanatory of the principles, constitution, and position of the English Church, or rather, of the Anglican Communion, formed by the English, Scottish, American, and Colonial Churches. It appears that up to this time publications have been issued in Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German, and in modern Greek. Portuguese has been promised for some time, but has not yet appeared; nor does the Association seem as yet to have attempted to prepare anything, according to its original programme, for 'the northern and eastern parts of the globe,' except so far as Greece may be regarded as eastern.

Latin tracts are, we fear, not of much use. There ought to be some, because Latin is still the recognised theological language of Europe, and there are some among foreign priests capable of reading them, and at any rate they carry with them a certain guarantee of learning. But they will not, we should fear, be largely read. The first publication of the association was in Latin, and it has now arrived at a second edition. A better treatise could not have been selected for the inauguration of the Society. It is Bishop Cosin's excellent work which he wrote at the Earl of Clarendon's special request, giving an account of the doctrines, discipline, and ceremonies of the English Church. The Bishop wrote it for the purpose of dissipating the false impressions which then existed in the minds of foreigners on the subject, and two hundred years after his death it has been again twice reprinted in Latin, and translated into French, Italian, Spanish, German, and Romaic, as an earnest of other translations to follow. Bishop Cosin and Lord Clarendon 'cast their bread upon the waters,' and 'after many days' the streams are bearing it into all lands.

The French publications of the Society are as yet five:--the first puts forth the Church's doctrine on the Sacraments in the words of the Catechism and Prayer-book; the second disproves the charge of Schism; the third proves the validity of our Orders; the fourth is the Bishop of Oxford's well-known Sermon on the Immaculate Conception; the fifth, a letter addressed by Mr. Cleveland Coxe to the Bishop of Arras, pointing out a number of historical errors (euphemistically so called) respecting the Anglican Church, which his lordship had stamped with his authority. We shall presently show in what spirit these publications have been received in France.

[344] The next in number and order are the Italian publications. Besides Bishop Cosin's work, already spoken of, they consist of a little volume composed of extracts from Ussher, Bramhall, Taylor, Pearson, Ferns, Cosin, Bull, Hooker, and Jackson, showing the true nature of the Catholic Church, and the meaning of the word Catholic as distinct from Romanist; of a tract disproving the Supremacy of the Pope by the testimony of antiquity, and a Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the words of Holy Scripture, with a short introduction pointing out that this is all the authentic information which we have respecting her.

The two Spanish publications are Bishop Cosin's work, together with (as in other versions) extracts from Andrewes, Beveridge, Bull, and others on the nature of the Reformation; and the above-mentioned tract on the Supremacy of the Pope. In German and Romaic, Bishop Cosin's work with the appended extracts, and, we should add, the Catechism, stands at present alone.

As to the quality of the translations, we may say shortly that all the French versions are excellent. Of the Italian, nothing could be better than 'La Supremazia Papale al tribunale dell' Antichitá;' it is superior in its style of diction to 'Della Religione, Disciplina, e Riti Sacri della Chiesa Anglicana,' and 'La Santa Chiesa Cattolica.' Similarly the Spanish version of Bishop Cosin's work made by Don Lorenzo Lucena, a late Professor of Theology, in Cordova, now officiating in the English Church, is considerably better than the Rev. Mamerto Gueritz's translation of the tract on the Papal Supremacy. The German and modern Greek versions are both remarkably good.

The most important works announce as immediately forthcoming, are French editions of Massingberd'a History of the Reformation, and Wordsworth's Theophilus Anglicanus, Passages from the writings of the Bishops of Oxford, Lincoln, Fredericton, Montreal, Tasmania, S. Andrew's, Dr. Hook, Mr. Gladstone and other living writers, illustrating the true principles of the English Reformation; and from our older standard writers such as Hooker, Taylor, and Bramhall, extracts showing what is the doctrine of the Anglican Church on the subject of the Holy Eucharist.

The first step of the Society, we have said, has been the publication of these tracts and books; the next thing that it has to provide for, is their dissemination. What has been effected in this respect? What is the Society's machinery? In asking for an answer to this question we must remember that the best means of effecting an object, and the best means feasible under given circumstances, are two very different things. We can see at a glance what ought to be in the present case. [344/345]--Every British chaplain throughout the Continent ought to be in correspondence with the Society's Secretaries, every chaplain ought to be supplied with books by the Society, every chaplain ought to be the unpaid agent of the Society in his sphere. In addition to this agency there ought to be travelling correspondents of the Society, one at least in each of the countries of France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Scandinavia, Greece, and the East. But these correspondents would have to be paid, and as yet the Society has no funds with which to pay them. And with respect to the agency of British chaplains, we fear that the character of the British chaplains on the Continent must be much altered before, as a body, they would undertake any such work.

The state of our foreign Chaplaincies is a scandal to the English Church. Who is answerable for the existence of the scandal, whether it be the Bishop of London, or the Bishop of Gibraltar, or the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, or the Foreign Office, or 'circumstances,' we do not pause here to inquire. Whoever it may be with whom the fault rests, he or it, whether it be an individual or a body, has much, very much to answer for. Is it too much to say that very many of our foreign chaplains are men who cannot, dare not, are ashamed to live at home? Are they not men too frequently without zeal and without love? We know that there are exceptions, noble exceptions. We know that some of our most important chaplaincies are now filled by men animated with the Spirit of Christ; but nevertheless as a body our foreign chaplains degrade the name of England and dishonour the English Church. 'Why,' asks an American presbyter, 'why should not the English service be carried out upon the Continent as at home? Why should foreigners be supplied with such caricature specimens of Anglican worship as may be found in divers places?' [1] [(1) Sympathies of the Continent, p. 13.] What earnest-minded traveller has not blushed for shame as he has witnessed stage after stage the buildings that are called churches, the pews blocking up the interior of them, the gigantic pulpits utterly concealing the insignificant altar, the shillings demanded at the doors, the irreverence of the officials, the negligence and too frequently the heresy of the preacher? Our whole system of Anglican worship on the Continent requires a thorough re-adjustment and re-organization, and if the Bishops of London and Gibraltar cannot do this, there ought to be some one who can. How can our chaplains be much otherwise than they are, when they are appointed in the manner in which we know that they are appointed? How can they be faithful officers of the Church of England [345/346] when they are answerable for their doings to a Committee, one third of which probably consists of Scottish Presbyterians, and another third of religionists or non-religionists still more unfriendly to the Church's doctrine and discipline? The authority of the Bishop is only nominal: hardly that, as a chaplain is required publicly to acknowledge that his authority is given him by the powers of the State and by them alone; chaplains are nominated not on the recommendation of the Bishop, nor at the wish of the worshippers, but in accordance with the desires expressed by the subscribers. Men who never enter the doors of the chapels will often subscribe, because though they may not be Churchmen, they are still British subjects. By thus subscribing, a notoriously immoral man, or it may be a Jew, gains a voice in the appointment or removal of a chaplain, while the regular worshipper and devout communicant who may have less money, is as entirely disregarded as the Bishop himself. We have heard of an instance where a committee of subscribers refused the chaplain permission to give a second service on Sunday, and offered the use of their place of worship on a Sunday afternoon to a Dissenting Minister. In another case the power of those subscribers, who were not even nominally members of the Church, was exerted to prevent the removal of an objectionable clergyman and the substitution of another. There is 'utterly a fault amongst us,' and it is time that that fault were amended. As it is, Rome shows best in England, and we show worst in countries professing Rome's creed. In this state of things it is impossible for the Anglo-Continental Association to look to our foreign chaplains for extensive and systematic aid. We are glad, however, to see that some good and active men have been found to put themselves in communication with it.

Unable, then, as yet, to support travelling correspondents, and being only partially able to make use of the machinery supplied by our foreign chaplains, the Society has used such other means as were open to it. It has established depots at important towns and centres of communication, such as Paris, Leipsig, Turin, and Malta, and it makes use of the travelling propensities of our wandering countrymen and transatlantic cousins for its own purposes. Are there any results?

Spain, it appears, has made no sign; since the fall of Espartero every avenue to that unhappy country has been again shut up. The religious and civil officers alike keep watch and ward along the shores of the Atlantic, lest any high thought or noble imagination should by chance creep in and waken up once more the death-struck palsied nation. Germany has not been addressed in its own language till within the last few weeks. We believe that no response has been given beyond a favourable [346/347] notice in a high Lutheran organ at Quedlinburg, and an expression of sympathy from Bonn. In Greece we see that the excellent American presbyter who is chaplain to the British Embassy, Mr. Hill, well known in Greece for his good deeds towards the Orthodox Church, in providing her children with education, shows himself ready to work harmoniously with the Society, by placing his name on the Committee. At Constantinople, the leading Church paper has published a portion of an article which lately appeared in the 'Colonial Church Chronicle,' on the Differences and Agreements between Greece, Rome, and England, written by one member of the Society, and translated into modern Greek by another. From Italy several letters have been received and made public by the Association. We will quote a part of one letter addressed to the Secretary by an Italian nobleman, a member of the Roman Catholic Church:--

'I think I wrote you word before that I had received the book you sent me, "La Santa Chiesa Cattolica." I desire now to add, that I have read it through attentively, and that I think it well suited to the end for which it is designed, namely, enlightening the minds of those who, knowing nothing of what the English Church is able to adduce in favour of her orthodoxy, are acquainted only with the accusations made against her by the Church of Rome and her followers--accusations which aim obstinately at defaming her as heterodox and heretical.

'Books of this sort, that is, books full of real, historical, and theological learning, and written with the dignity and moderation which Truth inspires, contribute far more than violent philippics and bitter diatribes can do to the triumph of justice and truth, and to the awakening of that spirit of conciliation which ought to animate and unite together all Christians, because they are children of one faith, and saved by one redemption.

'I approve, then, (as far as my poor, but frank and sincere opinion goes,) and highly praise your Christian undertaking of publishing works of this kind. It is light thrown upon darkness--upon that darkness which Papal Rome, in its egotism, would desire to keep undiminished, but which the progress of human reason is dissipating daily more and more in Italy, much faster than in France and elsewhere.

'Continue, then, my dear sir, with your associates, to extend light--the light of the Gospel--upon the Continent, and you will deserve well of God and of man.'

We next turn to France. Some very interesting letters have been received from thence. The following is from a French Abbé:--

'I have gained great pleasure and instruction from these publications, after having read and re-read them with great attention. The title of one is "L'Eglise Anglicane n'est point Schismatique," the work of the late Rev. James Meyrick. It is full of logic and learning, so far as so small a frame would allow. I have been delighted at finding there a table of the first Popes, and the letters that have been falsely attributed to them in the Decretals. The other is called, "Della Religione, Disciplina, e Riti Sacri della Chiesa Anglicana; opuscolo di Cosin, Vescovo di Durham." This last work appears to me even far superior to the first. It is not possible, in my opinion, to show with greater conciseness, method, force, and clearness, the nature of the true Church of JESUS CHRIST, and prove, at the same [347/348] time, that the Anglican Church deserves, in an eminent degree, to be considered such. I cannot better state the impressions which I have received from reading it, than by saying that I find it equal, in theological respects, to the "Apologia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ," by John Jewell, but far more useful still to religion. It is my belief that a great service would he rendered to the holy Gospel, by scattering the greatest number of copies possible among persons of education, in those nations which are subject to the Pope, and particularly in France and Italy. . .

'Of all the reformed Churches, the Anglican Church, without doubt, approaches nearest to the primitive Churches of Christianity, in all that concerns the hierarchy, discipline, form of worship, &c. This is the reason why it is also the object of my preference.'

The following letter, apparently from the same Abbé, raises a question on which we shall presently offer some considerations. The writer first states that he had long been hoping against hope for an internal reformation of the French Church; but that he is now convinced that any movement in France would rather be toward the rejection of Christianity altogether, than a moderate and 'Gospel' reformation. Consequently, that he has now come to the conclusion that he must act by and for himself. He then declares, that the way in which he had become convinced of the unscriptural and unprimitive character of Romanism, was the study of the books which Rome herself put into his hands as an ecclesiastic, and the thoughts raised in his mind by the consideration of those books. He continues and his words ought to be deeply weighed by English Churchmen:--

'It is after these considerations, and others no less important, that I have resolved on my separation from Rome, and that I have fixed my choice on the Anglican Church. I have not done it, however, without reading and meditating seriously, for some years past, over the religious books of the principal Christian Churches which have separated from that of the Pope, such as Du Moulin's "Bouclier de la Foi," Calvin's "Christian Institutes," the Prayer-book of the English Church, and the "Apology" of the same Church, by Jewell, and some others, which I began to examine six years after my ordination, and which I have continued to study till the present time; so that my last considerations have served only to justify and confirm the first. It is, then, with full conviction of heart, and after full and ripe consideration, that I judge that it is the will of God, in order that I may secure my own salvation and labour for that of others, that I should leave the Roman Church, and enter the Anglican, which, of all Christian Churches, has, undoubtedly, continued the most faithful to the Word of God, and to the institutions of the Primitive Church.

'Thus convinced, after a thorough scrutiny, that I have to work out my salvation--that salvation which is freely offered me by the mercy of God, in the Church of Jesus Christ, and that I cannot realize this salvation but in the Anglican Church, I will follow the counsel, or, rather, the command of the Gospel. I will knock so long at the door of this Church, that, at length, it will be opened to me. These are my aspirations for the future; I have not others; I will only repeat that I cannot and will not remain longer a member of the Church of Rome--of a Church which begins its career of iniquity by cutting short the two first commandments of God's [348/349] law; for which the Word of God is worse than nothing--the merits of Christ null; and which, forsaking the God of heaven, has made for itself and followers an earthly God; that I feel myself called by God to labour usefully for the holy Gospel, if those Christians who profess it in its full purity and simplicity will admit me into their communion, and furnish me with the means. And how can the means be wanting if they are willing? And if they are willing, quid prohibet? I will say as Queen Candace's eunuch said to Philip, "What doth hinder me to be baptized?"

'Ah, believe me, indeed, I feel all the prudence of the counsels which your kindness gives me; but the reflections which you suggest to me, I have already made, and made them fully in all their different aspects; the prayers that you suggest to me I have long addressed to the Father of Lights, and I renew them daily. What, then, remains for me to do, but to importune your charity, after the example of the friend in the Gospel, who continued to ask his friend for bread, until it yields to my importunities. Undoubtedly--I wish to repeat it in concluding--your sympathy, as well as that of Mr. ------, and his pious friends, touches me much. I am very gratified for it; . . . . for it is good for me to feel, by my own experience, that a Christian is not so entirely exiled, in the midst of an unbelieving world, as to be unable to find in the more remote, as well as the nearer portions of the globe, other Christians who sympathise with him in the Lord Jesus. But do I not owe it to this very friendship to acknowledge frankly that, pleasing and edifying as your sympathy is to me, it will in vain have poured on my wounds the oil and the wine of the good Samaritan, unless, after the first help, it puts me in a state to receive more by taking me out of the road, and bringing me to the inn? Truth constrains me to tell you, that if Providence and your generous sympathy do not inspire you with the thought of charitably receiving me among you, that my conscience may be suffered to rest in our Lord, and my zeal to be sanctified by contact with that of His labourers in the Gospel, notwithstanding all the soothing of the balm, my wounds will not cease to bleed, and to bleed painfully all the rest of my life.

'I have received the last two pamphlets that you sent me; the preceding has not reached me. I read with attention and interest "Liturgica quædam," in order to write you my opinion of it. All that Bishop Cosin says of the Holy Supper, of Penitentiary Priests, of the Sacraments, is very exact, and entirely in conformity with the Liturgy of the Primitive Church, and accords with the conclusions which I had drawn from passages of S. Paul relating to them, and from others in the Holy Gospels, and with the reflections suggested to me by Fleury's Ecclesiastical History, &c. The few lines, 'De animis fidelium,' answer in the main to my own thoughts; only, either I do not rightly understand some words, or it seems to me that they go perhaps a little too far. They are these,--"Ideo fructus hujus deprecationis, quam pro mortuis in Christo facimus, prorsus nullus esse non potest." They may give room for the errors of Rome concerning purgatory, and all their fatal consequences; but after all, by the context, especially the words which follow immediately, I see that the author may be taken in a sense which does not offend against the faith.

'His reflections, with the text of Scripture to support them, on the blessedness, in some sort incomplete, granted to the souls of the righteous after their death, and on the extension and completion of this blessedness after the great day of judgment, as well as those on the nature and object of this judgment, caused me the greater pleasure, because they are altogether new to me, and have, in a manner, removed a bandage from before my eyes. Truly, notwithstanding my ignorance, I can hardly understand how a part of Holy Scripture, which the explanations of Bishop Cosin [349/350] now render so plain to my eyes, could pass up to this time unperceived, not to say misunderstood. For this pleasure in particular permit me to render you double thanks.

'I take occasion, from the beautiful prayers at the end of this little book, to tell you that I have always been struck and edified by the prayers of the English Prayer-Book, and to beg you once more to help me, that I may soon recite with you that which I find at p. 79 of the book:--Domine Deus Pater luminum et fons omnis sapientiæ . . . . . te rogamus ut qui ad amussim Sanctæ Reformationis nostræ, corruptelas et superstitiones hic grassantes tyrannidem que papalem merito et serio repudiavimus, Fidem Apostolicam et vere Catholicam firmiter et constanter teneamus omnes; tibique rite puro cultu intrepidi serviamus per JESUM CHRISTUM Dominum et Servatorem nostram. Amen, Amen.'

This letter raises a question which must be answered. What effect do we intend to produce by 'making known' Anglican principles amongst people belonging to Churches in communion with the Church of Rome? What is the purpose of this Association, or, as we should rather put it, what ought to be the purpose of an English Churchman in so doing? Is it to proselytise, in the common sense of the word? Assuredly not. It is not right in principle, it is not good in policy, to attempt to draw away an individual here and an individual there from the communion in which God has placed them, and which He has intended that they should edify by their conversation and learning. With respect to the principle at issue, we entirely agree in the doctrine laid down by a paper lately issued, (whether in connexion with the Anglo-Continental Association or not does not appear,) proposing to renew or originate intercourse and correspondence with the Churches of the East:--'The broad principle,' it is said, 'on which such efforts will be made, may be thus stated. It is, as we believe, most accordant with the will of God, the spirit of Christianity and the rules of Church-fellowship, that we should endeavour to benefit the members of the various Christian communities in the East, in and through their own organization, rather than by proselytism, and the encouragement of divisions among them. On the other hand, the Association will not be required to ignore or deny the existence of corruptions in practice and of errors in doctrine in those communions. . . Its principle will be that reforms or improvements may, with God's blessing, be best expected to arise from within.' [1] [(1) Footnote: See next paragraph.]

[(1) Footnote: The following is the paper referred to,--

'Proposed Association with a view to intercourse and correspondence with the Churches of the East.

'It has been a matter of deep regret to many members of the Church of England, that notwithstanding occasional attempts have been made to open a friendly correspondence with members of the. Greek Church, and of other communities of Eastern Christians, there exists, at this moment, no distinct machinery, by which Englishmen can prove their earnest desire to show Christian fellowship and love towards their Eastern brethren.

[351n] 'There is reason to believe that this feeling exists extensively among English Churchmen, and that the state of the Christians in the East has called forth considerable interest in the minds of many officers in our army and navy, as well as of the chaplains of both our services, during the late war.

'At present, however, there is no organization by which they can carry their wishes into effect.

'In the meantime, the Christianity of the West is almost exclusively represented, in the eyes of the Eastern Christians, by the teaching and practices either of Roman Catholics or of American Dissenters.

'It is submitted, that, in consideration of our own past neglect, the humblest and least ostentatious mode of undertaking this office of Christian fellowship towards long estranged brethren will be the best.

'It is proposed, therefore, that as a commencement an Association be formed with the special object of assisting the CONSTANTINOPLE MISSION recently founded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. This mission, established primarily to supply the wants of our own people, affords a natural opportunity for cultivating intercourse with the Oriental Churches.

'The object of the proposed Association may be generally stated as follows:--

'1. To support and encourage the English Clergy in Constantinople and other Eastern cities in which they are engaged.

'2. To circulate information by the translation of Liturgies, Catechisms, &c. respecting the principles and present condition of the English Church on the one hand, and of the various Eastern Churches on the other.

'3. To seek all opportunities of cultivating friendly relations with the Churches of the East.

'It is proposed that this attempt be made in the same spirit as that in which the Greek Schools, in Athens, have been for many years so successfully carried on. The Rev. J. Hill has conducted them in such a manner as to raise the tone of religious education throughout Greece, and at the same time to gain the confidence of the Bishops and Clergy of that country.

'The broad principle on which such efforts will be made may be thus stated. It is, as we believe, most accordant with the will of God, the spirit of Christianity, and the rules of Church-fellowship, that we should endeavour to benefit the members of the various Christian communities in the East, in and through their own organization, rather than by proselytism, and the encouragement of divisions among them. On the other hand, the Association will not be required to ignore or deny the existence of corruptions in practice or of errors in doctrine in those communions, or to come to any decision with respect to disputed points of belief.

'In all such matters its principle will be that reforms or improvements may, with God's blessing, be best expected to arise from within, and that while we seek to make for peace, and for the things whereby we may edify one another, we shall not be held responsible either for the existence or for the amendment of evils which must be removed or cured in God's good time by the guidance of His grace, rather than through external dictation or intrusive proselytism.'] [End of footnote.]

[351] This is well said; and in like manner the object of the Anglo-Continental Association ought to be, and plainly is, not to proselytise individuals, but to spread information and to sow seeds which may lead the different National Churches of the Continent to reform themselves upon those true and Catholic principles on which the Church of England reformed herself in the sixteenth century, and which appear to be the only means of ever restoring unity, if God should vouchsafe such a blessing, to the Catholic Church. 'We ourselves,' writes Bishop Bull, 'after the Holy Scriptures, have a singular regard and reverence for primæval and pure Antiquity, and we urge all others religiously to follow its consentient judgment where it can be [351/352] found, (and that is on all points that are of importance,) for we are persuaded that this is the best, nay, that this is the only way of bringing to an end the unhappy controversies which have split the modern Church into so many parts." 1] [(1) Apologia pro Harmoniâ, sect. i. § 3.]

The object, then, of the Association is something far higher, nobler, better than the petty game which Romanism is playing in England. The revivification of whole National Churches is the idea on which it is based, not the withdrawal of a certain number of individuals from those Churches. But what if there are men in those Churches who have groaned over evils which they have been long witnessing and been compelled to share in, and feel that they can hear them no longer? What if in their souls they are convinced that to them it is sin to remain longer where they are? What if zeal for God's Truth and Holiness will not let them rest there? What if they have borne long and been patient, and can bear no more? What if they feel assured that they cannot attain salvation where they are? We have no hesitation in saying that to them it is sin to stay behind. They must, with the French Abbé, go forth and seek to 'become a member of a Church, where they will be at last allowed to serve God according to their conscience.'

That such persons exist, and exist in large numbers, cannot be doubted. We read constantly in the newspapers, 'Five Italian priests excommunicated for declaring that their faith is founded on Scripture.' 'Four Austrian priests imprisoned for denying the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.' 'A large body of laity in Hungary has renounced the Catholic Church, and declared themselves Protestants.' These people are not led by persuasion from without to leave the Roman Church, they are driven by pressure from within. The very French priest whose letters we have quoted became convinced that his position was untenable by means of the books which Rome put into his hands. It is Rome herself which unsettles men's minds by her unwarrantable claims, her new inventions, and her additions to the faith; and when she has thus unsettled them, the only choice that she gives to them in their distress is submission without conviction, or uncontrolled scepticism; in other words, secret or open infidelity. It is impossible to doubt that the writings of English Churchmen would serve to build these men up in the Christian faith if anything could do so,--to point them a way out of the dark valley into which they have descended, which might lead them to a spot where they could find a firm standing--ground for their feet and light for their eyes.

But still again,--for we must face every possible case-- [352/353] suppose that it should be by the instrumentality of these publications that a man was brought into a state of disquiet, suppose that a man, who might have lived and died quietly acquiescing in the Tridentine decrees, were roused by their perusal to doubt the safety of his position, that his doubts led him on to conviction, that his conviction imperiously compelled him to come forth from the communion to which he belonged, and that he acted upon that conviction; should we be prepared to accept the responsibility entailed upon us by such a step? Undoubtedly we might do so without the slightest hesitation or scruple. We should imagine that the person authorized to speak in behalf of the Association would say, 'Stay where you are,--work for an internal reformation of your country's Church,--strive to cast off the burden of the Tridentine creed and council from off her neck,--try to model her doctrines and practices according to the doctrines and practices of the Primitive Church, and possess your own soul in patience.' But if, after all, the reply should be, 'I must flee for my life, I must come forth or I die,'--then we ought to be ready, nay, thankful, to receive that weary soul, and become the medium of placing it where it can find pasture and live in peace of conscience. This opens up a large sphere of work for the Society, of which we have yet said nothing, and of which we see no report as yet among its operations. It ought to have its Colleges and Schools, French, Italian, Spanish, where men might be received for awhile as into harbours of refuge, and where, too, it might be tested whether they were worthy to labour in the ministry of the Church. There would be abundance of work for them to do among the foreigners who swarm in the streets of London, utterly neglected by the Church, and most of them sunk in infidelity and practical heathenism.

We return for further indications of what the Society is doing in France. Our readers are probably many of them acquainted with the 'Observateur Catholique,' at least by name. [1] [(1) Messrs. Williams & Norgate have become agents in London for this publication.] It is the organ of the high Gallican party, it appears twice a month, and is written with great vigour and ability. This periodical has noticed, in the most friendly terms, each of the French publications as they have appeared; and we find the following general estimate of the Association:--

'A Society has been founded in England, under the patronage of a great number of Bishops, for the purpose of making known on the Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church. The works which it has hitherto published are distinguished by their learning and moderation, They are well suited to do away with many prejudices respecting this Church, which is [353/354] wrongly represented simply as a branch of Protestantism, and on which the "Univers" heaps its calumnies.' [1] [(1) No. 28, Nov. 16, 1856.]'

The 'L'Eglise Anglicane n'est point Schismatique' is noticed shortly (vol. iii. p. 20), and an article of four or five pages is given to the Bishop of Oxford's sermon on the Immaculate Conception. The writer quotes, with the highest approbation, the passage in which the Bishop excellently points out the difference between an explication of the ancient creed and an addition to it (p. 126), and also his eloquent warning against the uncatholic corruptions of Romanism (p. 129). 'The orator,' writes the reviewer, 'says right well that the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception directly attacks that of the Incarnation' (p. 127). 'The English Church has in its bosom a great number of learned men who love Christian Antiquity' (p. 128). 'The sermon of the Bishop of Oxford is full of learning, reason, and eloquence' (p. 129). Indeed, this sermon, and its powerful protest against the new dogma of 1854, is exactly adapted to meet the feelings of those honest Gallican Churchmen who are making a stand against the overflowing tide of Ultramontanism on the principles of Bossuet. It is to these men, and such men as these, that the Association must address itself. To earn the patronising and contemptuous approbation of the Ultramontane party, as such, would not be possible, and if such approbation could be had, it would only be degrading and shameful to those on whom it was bestowed.

The same authority makes the following remarks on the 'Erreurs historiques qui existent dans la Communion Romaine à l'égard de l"Eglise Anglicane:'--

'The author of this pamphlet is the Rev. Cleveland Coxe, Rector of Grace Church, Baltimore. The work is written with moderation, and the reasoning is good. The chief object of the Rev. Cleveland Coxe is to prove (in opposition to the author of a life of Father Clever, a Jesuit, approved by M. Parisis) that people on the Continent know very little of the doctrine and history of the Reformation in England. As to the historical question, he maintains and proves that Henry V III. was always much opposed to the Reformation, in spite of his disputes with Rome, and that he persecuted those who showed themselves partisans of that Reformation. As to the dogmatic question, the author declares that it is a mistake to confound Anglicanism with Protestantism. The English Church, according to the Rev. Cleveland Coxe, acknowledges as the basis of Catholicity:--1. Holy Scripture; 2. The preservation of the apostolic succession; 3. The profession of the Nicene Creed; 4. The reception of the definitions of the four first general Councils. It also acknowledges as a rule of faith, what has been so well expressed by S. Vincent of Lerins, Quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus. From this the conclusion must follow, that the Anglican Church is not Protestant. The dispute between it and the Roman Church concerns only matters of fact; namely, whether [354/355] in the sixteenth century it did not on several points depart from the traditional Catholic faith, universally received during the first centuries, and still held by the Roman and Eastern Churches. The chief questions to be debated would be those of the Sacraments, and of the Primacy of the Pope. Is the Bishop of Rome only the Patriarch of the West? Had he not in the first centuries a primacy of honour and jurisdiction, such as is ascribed to him by the Gallicans, over the whole Church? As to the Sacraments, were there not seven acknowledged in the Primitive Church, as they are still acknowledged in the Roman Church, in the Greek and Armenian Churches, and generally in the whole Christian Church, except by Protestants since the sixteenth century? Does not the Anglican Church admit the doctrine of Calvin concerning the Sacraments, and is it not Protestant on that point? These are the subjects on which there ought to be a serious, charitable, and truly Christian discussion between the Roman Catholics and the Anglicans. We regret that there is an omission on these subjects, in the pamphlet that we are examining.

'We shall have occasion to return to this subject when we examine other works in favour of the Anglican Church published by the Association for making its principles known on the Continent. The Rev. Cleveland Coxe's pamphlet belongs to this collection.'--Vol, iii, p. 249, Feb. 1857.

In a later number appear notices of 'Doctrine de 1'Eglise Anglicane relative aux Sacrements et aux Cérémonies Sacramentales,' and of 'Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Religio, Disciplina, Ritusque Sacri':--

'These two little works are some of the tracts that have been published to make the doctrine of the Anglican Church known on the Continent. We have observed, especially, what they declare concerning the Sacraments.

'The English Church admits of only two, Baptism and the Eucharist; but it acknowledges, under the title of sacramental ceremonies, Confirmation, Penance, Extreme Unction, [1] [(1) The Visitation of the Sick is here referred to.] Orders, and Marriage. These sacramental ceremonies are means by which grace is conferred on souls properly prepared for it; they are therefore true Sacraments in the Catholic sense of the word. The English Church appears to refuse them this title because they are only of apostolic or ecclesiastical institution. Can it be believed that the Apostles would have conferred confirmation on the newly baptized of Samaria, immediately after the Ascension of Jesus Christ, if that ceremony had not been instituted by Christ Himself? The five sacramental ceremonies of the English Church are found in the most ancient monuments of the history of the Church, under the title of Sacraments. The Eastern Churches, like that of Rome, admit seven Sacraments. The distinction between the five sacramental ceremonies and the Sacraments is nowhere to be found but in the English Church; we think, therefore, that that Church ought to reject it. This sacrifice world be the easier, because its doctrine is orthodox at the bottom, and because there is nothing in the prayers which accompany the sacramental ceremonies that is not in conformity with those used by the Roman Church in the same ceremonies, to which, in common with all ecclesiastical Antiquity, it gives the name of Sacraments.

'With respect to the Eucharist, the, English Church does not admit Transubstantiation, but it, nevertheless, believes in the Real Presence. . . Its doctrine on Orders is perfectly correct, with the exception of the words sacramental ceremony.'--Vol. iv. p. 98, May, 1857.

[356] The article from which these extracts are taken created considerable sensation; and on the 16th of last month (September), the editors of the 'Observateur Catholique' recur again to this subject. 'We have received,' they say, 'a great number of letters written in opposition to our statements.' They proceed to give one, sent them by one of their constant readers, M. Perue. 'Are you quite sure,' he writes, 'that the authors of these works or treatises for making known the doctrines of the Anglican Church are really faithful representatives of the Church of which they are ministers?' So incredible does it appear to a well-informed Frenchman, that the English Church does really hold the doctrines attributed to it in the 'Doctrine de 1'Eglise Anglicane relative aux Sacrements et aux Cérémonies Sacramentales,' although that little tract consists wholly of extracts from the Prayer-book, and contains nothing which could startle the most cautious and scrupulous English Churchman. In the same paper the 'Observateur' prints a letter received from the Rev. R. S. Hunt, incumbent of Edell, in Kent, explaining shortly and simply in what sense the word Sacrament is confined to Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and in what sense it may be used more loosely, not only for Confirmation, Absolution, and Holy Orders, but for a multitude of other things. The editors repeat that they think the English Church wrong in acknowledging only two Sacraments properly so called, and in rejecting transubstantiation, but 'for the present' put off a full discussion of the subject. 'We will only now say,' they conclude, 'that the doctrine of the Roman and Eastern Churches on the Sacraments, would soon be 'admitted by the Anglican Church if Ultramontanism were not there to shackle the re-union with its demands. Some words of explanation would be enough to dissipate the misunderstandings which at present exist, and to remove all obstacles.' [1] [(1) Vol. iv. p.325, September, 1857.]

'The rise of a Primitive School among Romanists themselves has been the most desirable, and, at the same time, the most hopeless of all imaginable blessings,' says Mr. Coxe. [2] [(2) Sympathies of the Continent, p. 34.] The 'Observateur Catholique' does represent such a School; and although they may not and do not accord on all points, we hope that the English clergy and laity who form the Association, and the French clergy and laity who support the 'Observateur Catholique,' will cordially cooperate together. Our next quotation will be from the organ of a very different school of thought, the 'Revue de Paris.' We need scarcely say that the [356/357] Society does not enjoy such distinguished direction as that which the 'Revue' attributes to it:--

'We think the time well chosen for the publication that the English Church has just undertaken. An Association patronized by the chief Bishops of England, and directed, unless we are mistaken, by Mr. Gladstone, proposes to make the fundamental Principles of Anglicanism known on the Continent. Pamphlets, translated into all the different languages of the Continent, will enable sincere minds to know the doctrines of a powerful Church far otherwise than by the insults of the "Univers," and the declamations of the other Ultramontane journals. We have read many of these pamphlets with real interest. One of them, entitled, "L'Eglise Anglicane n'est point Schismatique," is an historical abridgment, very well done, of the successive encroachments of the Bishop of Rome. The author, Mr. F. Meyrick, remounts to the origin of the papal power, and follows its progress through successive centuries. He shows what was long the constitution of the Church, the supremacy of some Bishops, the legislation of Councils. It was a Republic, and not a Monarchy. This work is instructive in every way. W e need not add that the importance which we attach to it is purely historical. Whether the form that the Church has taken at different times has been republican or monarchical, there is an authority here which we cannot acknowledge. Any government over consciences, whatever be its outward character, whether exercised by the authority of an individual or by that of an assembly, ignores the very constitution of human nature. As it does not depend on me whether I believe or not, no dogma, even if it were recognised by unanimous suffrage, ought to be imposed on my reason. Evidence alone has power over it; the assent of enlightened minds is a grave presumption in favour of a dogma, but it is nothing more. However this may be, this little book is worth reading; it is full of facts and of curious extracts.

`We have also remarked another pamphlet, entitled "Rome et son nouveau Dogme." It is a sermon against the Immaculate Conception, preached by the Bishop of Oxford. It is a calm discussion, a lesson on theology and history, rather than a sermon such as they preach on this side of the Channel. . . . . Violence of language is very rare in these different publications, and especially so in this discourse of the Bishop of Oxford. What distinguishes these little books from those of our Ultramontanes is the union of much learning, moderation, and dignity. The translation, due to the practised pen of M. F. Godfray, has a purity of style which does not exclude elegance and vivacity. We do not think it likely that these publications will produce many conversions among us, for after reading the profession of faith of the Anglican Church, we do not see wherein the Catechism of Anglo-Catholics differs essentially from that of the Gallicans.'-Tom. 37, p. 158, May, 1857.

From this and other evidence which might be brought, we may conclude that the Society has certainly done something--more indeed than could reasonably be expected of it, considering the short time during which it has been in existence--towards 'making known upon the. Continent the Principles of the Anglican Church.' And this is its primary object. Let the Society make known the Principles of Anglicanism, and let the knowledge of those Principles bring about its own result, whatever that result may be. In the estimation of some, the [357/358] natural result of our Principles being better known, would be a greater readiness on the part of foreign Catholics to accept us as Churchmen, and acknowledge us as brethren. If such is the result, so be it. In the estimation of others the knowledge of Anglican Principles will be likely to lead to a desire after Anglican practices, to a dislike of those doctrines and practices which are distinctly Roman, and to a wish among members of the different National Churches of the Continent to break from off their neck the yoke of Rome, after the precedent of the Anglican Church. Again we say, if such is the result, so be it. If we honestly believe and trust in our own position and doctrines, like true-hearted Churchmen, we cannot fear any result whatever which can ensue from that position and those doctrines being fairly set forth in the sight of all the world. Be the consequences what they may either to ourselves or to others, no one but the most arrant coward could on that account draw back or hold his hand. Provided that we have a loyal confidence in Anglican Church Principles, we can have no kind of fear for the results of an intelligent appreciation of them by foreign Christians, either with respect to others or to ourselves.

Whether that unity which has been forfeited by the sins of men shall ever be vouchsafed to Christians by the great Head of the Church, it is not for us to say. But of one thing we are sure--that every Anglican Churchman who prays for the unity of Christ's body, and attempts anything, however small, to bring it about, must do it professedly and distinctively upon Anglican Church principles. He must not dream of compromising Truth for the sake of conciliating either Rome or Geneva. He must not acknowledge a false centre of unity with the followers of the Pope, nor mistake an unorganized and unsubstantial agreement in differences for Catholic unity with the members of the Evangelical Alliance. Union in the Truth is the means and the only means of producing unity of spirit, and from unity of spirit flows unity of organization. It must be on the solid platform of Primitive Truth that Greece, Rome, England, German Protestantism, and English and American Dissent, must take their stand together, and reconcile their differences, if ever that is to take place; and the Principles of the Primitive Church are in a special manner the Principles of the Anglican Church. Those words of De Maistre, which have been chosen for the motto of one of the Society's publications, are most remarkable, and, considering the person from whom they emanate, astonishing:--'Si jamais les Chrétiens se rapprochent, comme tout les y invite, it semble que la motion doit partir de 1'Eglise d'Angleterre . . . Elle peut être considérée comme un de ces intermèdes chimiques capables de rapprocher des éléments [358/359] inassociables de leur nature.' [1] [(1) Considérations sur la France, p. 27. Ed. 1852.] 'So,' says Mr. Cleveland Coxe, 'wrote the Count De Maistre, a close observer of Continental Protestants and of the Russo-Greek Church; but one of the most bigoted Ultramontanists that ever strove to make the worse appear the better reason in behalf of Rome. Perhaps he said it "not of himself." It was written before the present century opened, and what sign of such a movement existed then? But now, when we find deep calling unto deep, religious movement characterizing the whole Church, and all that is not unreal and reactionary setting towards one result, it becomes England and English Christians to recognise this noble mission of their Church.' [2] [(2) Sympathies of the Continent, p. 48.] 'Among the Continental Primitivists,' continues the American presbyter, the writer cannot but think that things are ready for an important influence from England. Let them know that there are English sympathies and English prayers for them: let many run to and fro, and let knowledge be increased. Yes--the knowledge of each other! Is Christ divided? Are we not one body in Him? And should anything but their own fault separate us from truly pious and Catholic reformers at such a time as this?' [3] [(3) Ibid,] 'Why,' cries a preacher in the University pulpit at Oxford, 'why will we sit still and do nothing towards displaying to the Continental Churches the true character of the Anglican Church? Why will we allow that which ought to be dearest to each one of us--our Faith and our Church--to be misrepresented and misunderstood, and not utter one word to silence calumny and enlighten ignorance? Why will we not show to weary-hearted men who are stretching out their hands if haply they may find the Truth, a living example, as far as may be, of the Church of S. Augustine which their souls long for? Why will not we set an example before their eyes whereby they too may work out their own reformation upon Catholic principles, instead of burying themselves in one of the two abysses--Infidelity or Superstition?' [4] [(4) Two Sermons preached before the University of Oxford, on May 29th and Nov. 5th, 1854, by Rev. F. Meyrick, p. 44.] 'It is not now for the first time,' writes the French Abbé whose letters have been already quoted, speaking of the 'Validité des Ordinations de l'Eglise Anglicane,'--'it is not now for the first time that I have learnt to believe that God has done a special grace to the universal Church in allowing the sacred hierarchy of the Church to have been present in all its integrity and legitimacy, at the stormy time of the Reformation, in the bosom of that noble nation which has now become the first nation of Europe and of the globe, [359/360] and appears destined by Providence one day to recall all the peoples of the earth to the purity of the Faith, and the holiness of the morals of the Gospel.'

Whether such anticipations as are shadowed out in these quotations are the result of ardent aspiration, or whether they are sober probabilities, time will show. Meantime we wish God speed to the Association whose operations we have been considering. Whatever may be the further results of its labours, its work of setting forth Anglican Church principles fairly and honestly is a good work, and can produce nothing but good. The directors of the Association have, we think, taken the best means that were in their power of accomplishing the task which they set before themselves. But they have scarcely as yet taken a step or two along the one course which they have opened to themselves. They have before them not only the labour of preparing many more books of Anglican divinity, small and great, for perusal in all parts of the Continent and in all languages, but they have also to organize a system of dissemination of their publications better than that which at present exists. The state of our foreign chaplaincies and congregations, again, opens a sphere of labour which is in itself enormous. And the foreigners in London demand a supply for their religious needs in the shape of Churches, Colleges, Schools, Clergy, Catechists. The Society is right to confine itself at present to its publications and their distribution, but this is not all that it has before it. It is evident, however, that it must be supported much more largely and much more liberally if it is to rise to its needs, and to take a recognised place among our great Church Societies as occupying ground which is not covered by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, or any other of the Home or Foreign Societies which act as the organs of the Church.

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