DELIVERED AT THE
WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA,
TUESDAY, AUGUST 9, 1842,
BY GEORGE UPFOLD, D. D.
AN OUTLINE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY,
Transcribed by Wayne Kempton
Archivist and Historiographer of the Diocese of New York, 2012
At a Meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Western University, on Friday, August 19, 1842,—
Resolved, That the thanks of this Board be tendered to the President for the Address delivered by him on Commencement Day; and that he be requested to furnish a copy for publication, under the direction of the Standing Committee.
Extract from the Minutes.
A. W. BLACK, SEC'Y PRO TEM.
TRUSTEES OF THE WESTERN UNIVERSITY
REV. GEORGE UPFOLD, D. D., PRESIDENT.
THOMAS LIGGETT, JR., Esq., SECRETARY AND TREASURER
REV. FRANCIS HERRON, D. D.; REV. ROBERT PATTERSON; HON. HENRY BALDWIN; HON. JOHN KENNEDY; HON. ROBERT C. GRIER; HON. HARMAR DENNY; HENRY D. SELLERS, M. D.; JOSEPH P. GAZZAM, M. D.; WILLIAM BELL, Esq.; REV. DAVID H. RIDDLE, D. D.; REV. JOHN T. PRESSLY, D. D.; WALTER H. LOWRIE, Esq.; CORNELIUS DARRAGH, Esq.; ORLANDO METCALF, Esq.; THOMAS WILLIAMS, Esq.; WILLIAM F. IRWIN, M. D.; WILLIAM H. DENNY, M. D.; REV. JOSEPH R. KERR; REV. ANDREW W. BLACK; JOHN S. RIDDLE, Esq.; ANDREW BURKE, Esq.; SAMUEL W. BLACK, Esq.; THOMAS F. DALE, M. D.; ABNER L. PENTLAND, Esq.; JAMES R. SPEER, M. D.; THOMAS M. HOWE, Esq.; ROBERT WATSON, Esq.; WILLIAM O'H. ROBINSON, Esq.; JAMES THOMPSON, Esq.
REV. ROBERT BRUCE, D. D., PRINCIPAL,
AND PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
REV. HEMAN DYER, A. M., DEAN OF THE FACULTY,
AND PROFESSOR OF MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL PHILOSOPHY.
DANIEL STONE, ESQ.,
PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT LANGUAGES.
* VACANT—PROFESSOR OF RHETORIC AND BELLES LETTRES.
** VACANT—PROFESSOR OF MODERN LANGUAGES.
* The duties of this Professorship will be discharged for the present and until a permanent arrangement is made, by the Rev. DR. UPFOLD, And WALTER H. LOWRIE, ESQ., gratuitously.
** This Professorship is expected to be filled in the course of a few weeks, by Professor BARBIZAT, who formerly occupied the Chair.
The Assistant Instructors will not be appointed until after the commencement of the session.
THE age in which we live, distinguished for a succession of extraordinary events, may, in some respects, be denominated with propriety a golden age. For an unusual period "wars have comparatively ceased throughout the earth," and peace in all her loveliness hath overspread the civilized world. With the exception of occasional outbreaks, and temporary collisions of no general consequence, a political calm hath succeeded centuries of almost continual convulsion and storm.
But with this general tranquillity, there has been no stagnation of human energies. On the contrary, they have been elicited in an unprecedented manner, and employed with extraordinary vigor and activity; and concentrated on nobler and holier objects, have branched out in a vast variety of channels, all tending to one grand and beneficial end—the bettering of the social, intellectual and moral condition of the great family of man. In the pacific, yet busy and stirring scene which the last quarter of a century has exhibited, besides various philanthropic enterprises and numerous plans of Christian benevolence, originating and pursued in a spirit of enlarged and enlightened charity; an increased activity in every branch of science and the arts has characterized the period. Some of the sciences have undergone an almost entire revolution; in others, new and valuable discoveries have been made; and all have been greatly extended and improved, and brought to a high degree of perfection.
Among the several departments of useful knowledge, education has received unexampled attention; and for the most part with the happiest results. Formerly restricted to the few, it has been a distinguishing aim of this enlightened age, to promote its general diffusion and bring it within the reach of all. Instead of being left, as heretofore except in its higher branches, very [5/6] much to chance, or to the whim and caprice of the teacher, it has been made the subject of careful investigation; its principles have been developed and defined; and its details simplified and settled. From an incongruous mass of crude, indigested and conflicting notions and practices, the plastic hand of genius has moulded it into symmetrical shape, with regular, distinct and fair proportions. Treatises, didactic and illustrative, have been written and published to a great extent; and the press has teemed with elementary books and manuals of instruction, arranged in new and improved forms, on more certain and judicious principles, and adapted to the capacity and circumstances of every class of learners. Periodicals devoted to its elucidation and improvement have been extensively circulated; and many of the ablest and most celebrated scientific reviews, have, in addition, engaged earnestly in its promotion, and bestowed upon it elaborate investigation.
Nor has education been an object of attention to men of letters alone, nor within a literary circle. Statesmen and legislators have thought it not unworthy of their notice; nay more, have regarded it as a powerful instrument of good government, and essential to the furtherance and stability of the public welfare; and, as such, have studied it with especial interest, encouraged and cherished it with all the weight of their official influence, and patronized it by beneficial legislative enactment.
In this laudable undertaking, the Old World, especially the continent of Europe and the British Isles, as might be expected from their position and advantages, have taken the lead. Under the munificent patronage of their respective governments, and the zealous exertions of some of their mightiest minds, education has attained the rank of an important science. And as such, it is marching onward, with an accelerated step, bearing precious fruit, and fraught with hope and promise to distant generations.
Nor is the new world, that portion of it at least which we are privileged to call our country, in any considerable respect behind in this intellectual enterprise. American citizens have not been insensible or indifferent to their duty and interest in this great particular, and in general have endeavored to discharge [6/7] it to the full extent of their means and opportunity. In every part of the Republic, education is a subject of deep and increasing interest among all classes of the community. It has always engaged the especial attention, and elicited the zealous efforts and liberal aid of the thinking and intelligent; and now, all acknowledge its importance, and they to whom its advantages have been denied, appreciating its benefits, desire and seek them for their children, and are ready to assist in every practical plan for their general diffusion. And the progress of education among ourselves is proportioned to the zeal that has been displayed and the efforts that have been put forth, and is creditable to the public spirit and the intellectual character of our country. Our exertions have been eminently successful. The light of transatlantic discovery and experience, which has shone across the wide expanse of waters, has been cordially received and diligently improved, and not infrequently has been reflected with increased brilliancy on its far distant source. European systems have been carefully studied, their principles investigated, their details in some instances materially improved, and all have been embodied in practical plans adapted to our peculiar condition and circumstances. Nor have the friends of education, and the literary portion of the community, been left to work single-handed. Government, here as well as abroad, particularly that of the several states of the Union, has interposed its paternal sanction and aid, afforded facilities for carrying on the enterprise, and bestowed on it, and on those engaged therein, a judicious and liberal, and in some cases, a munificent patronage. And well is it for our country and its citizens, that education is thus estimated and encouraged; that the popular voice is so generally lifted up in its favor, the popular sympathies enlisted in its behalf, and both are met and cherished to so great an extent by the constituted authorities. For it is confessedly one of the principal supports of our political fabric; one of the strongest bulwarks of that justly boasted liberty, civil and religious, wherewith God, in his good providence, hath made us free. Besides its intrinsic advantages, therefore, it is, and ever ought to be, an object of patriotic solicitude and concern; the value of which cannot, and ought not to be measured by any sordid calculations; but be carried into effect in all its length and breadth, [7/8] with a zeal and devotedness proportioned to its importance, and cherished and sustained by a noble, generous, and efficient liberality public and private.
The purpose of this address, however, is not to discuss the value and importance of education generally, nor its especial value and importance to the American people: and although an interesting and fertile theme, I must turn from it to the specific object for which I have reluctantly consented to take part in the exercises of this day. And that is, to announce to this respected audience, and through them to our citizens generally, the reorganization of the Western University, or more properly, the extension of its present facilities for education, and explain the plan adopted for carrying the same into effect—a duty devolved on me, as their presiding officer, by a resolution of the Board of Trustees.
Ever since the unfortunate result of a former attempt to place the Institution in a condition the best fitted to fulfill the purpose of its incorporation, and meet the just expectations of the public;—a result brought about by causes which the Trustees were unable to foresee, and when discovered, to remedy or control, except by discontinuing the arrangement;—their attention has been directed from time to time to an efficient reorganization; and several plans have suggested themselves to their consideration. The subject, however, has been so exceedingly embarrassing and full of difficulties, in consequence principally of their limited finances, which were very much exhausted by the previous experiment, that they have not been enabled, until recently, to come to any definite conclusion. In the mean while, though much perplexed and discouraged, they have not been unmindful of their important trust, nor disposed to shrink from the responsibility they had assumed. Immediately on the breaking up of the previous arrangement, they placed the Collegiate Department of the University, as the best and indeed the only plan they could then devise, under the sole care of the able and learned Principal, the Rev. Dr. Bruce; committing to him its entire management; allowing him in consideration of the responsibility which he assumed, a share of their income, with the free use of the building, in addition to the remuneration he might receive from the pupils; conditioning only as to the number of [8/9] assistant Professors to be employed and paid by him in a certain specified contingency; and reserving to themselves a general control and supervision. The English Preparatory School was also continued very much in the same way, in the University building, under its late instructor. The Institution was thus kept open, and prepared to fulfill to as great an extent as possible, the purpose of its incorporation. And this, more than could at first have been anticipated considering the disastrous state of affairs at the period alluded to, was a point gained of no small importance. This the result has fully established. The confidence which was placed in the talents and learning of the Reverend Principal has been ably sustained, and under his care and management, and that of his associates, there has been signal and efficient progress. An education as thorough and as extensive as is afforded in most other colleges, has been afforded here; and the advancement and proficiency of the pupils have been equal to every reasonable expectation. This plan is now in operation, with the exception of the English Preparatory School, which has been voluntarily withdrawn by its conductors; and it will be continued until the new organization, or rather, as was before remarked, the extension of the system, can be entered upon, which it is hoped may be done at the opening of the next session, on the first Monday in September, and at the latest by the first of January. [* The Session commences on the 12th September.]
The Trustees have thus done what they could, in the embarrassing circumstances in which they found themselves placed. And that the plan, though limited, has been of no little efficiency; and its results such as ought to, and with the candid and charitable, will, exonerate them from any imputation of indifference or inattention to their high trust, and the Institution itself from the reproach of failure and incompetency, they confidently appeal to the annual increase of students, this year about seventy, to the previous and recent examinations, and to the highly interesting and satisfactory exercises of the young gentlemen who have addressed you this morning, and have just received their well-earned diplomas.
 Thus much in explanation of the past. And now to a brief exposition of the plan determined for the future, which is the extension of the course of instruction, and its adaptation to the peculiar circumstances, and the "educational wants of this community." It is the wish and intention of the Trustees to make the University, as much as may be, what its name strictly implies, an institution of general education, affording instruction in all the useful departments of learning, from the simple and elementary, to the higher and more extended branches. They propose a system, which in the language of the able report of the committee having the business in charge, "shall embrace the most ample and thorough collegiate course, rewarding after its faithful and successful prosecution, the student with its diploma, as an honorable testimonial to his moral character and literary and scientific attainments; and at the same time, receive all, who, though not seeking the usual collegiate honors, shall, in the desire to attain a practical and extended education, apply themselves to the acquisition of sound knowledge in any one or more departments of literature and science." The course of study, therefore, it will be their aim to make eminently practical, so as to qualify students to enter with advantage on any of the pursuits or occupations especially belonging to a manufacturing and commercial community; meeting amply the cases of those who do not design to pursue an extensive course, and at the same time provide for the thorough moral and intellectual education of those whose views are directed to scientific or professional employments. In the collegiate department, the plan contemplates four professorships: viz., of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy—of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy—of Ancient Languages—and of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, including History and Political Economy;—with such assistant instructors in each branch as the number of students may require; the remuneration of all to depend on the fees for tuition, the amount of which per annum will be graduated to the scale of the general ability of the community; together with a small stipend to each professor from the limited resources of the corporation. It includes also a professorship of Modern Languages, such as the French and German, the incumbent of which [10/11] will receive his remuneration wholly from tuition fees. Besides this, and it will be made a prominent object, the plan contemplates a Preparatory School in this city and in the city of Allegheny, connected with the University, and under the special supervision of the Faculty, for the education of boys of a tender age, in the elementary branches; to be conducted by teachers appointed by the Faculty and approved by the Trustees, and on the same general principles with the system of instruction in the University proper. In addition to the ordinary course, facilities will be afforded for lectures on the various branches of science, particularly those more immediately connected with the peculiar occupations of this community;—such as, Mineralogy, Chemistry in its application to the arts, Practical Mechanics, and Constitutional and Commercial Law. As soon as competent lecturers in these and kindred branches offer, they will have the use of the University Hall for the delivery of their lectures free of rent, and of the scientific apparatus of the Institution; their remuneration to depend on the patronage they may receive.
Negotiations are now pending, and with a prospect of being immediately concluded, [*These negotiations have been concluded and a Faculty appointed.] with gentlemen every way competent, including the Reverend Principal, who it is expected will take the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy,—to fill three of the professorships; and instructions will be given in the branches appropriated to the fourth, until a permanent occupant is engaged, by a friend of the Institution, gratuitously.
The discipline of the University, with the details and regulation of study in its several departments, will be committed to the Faculty, of whom the Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy will be the Principal, and the Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, the Dean, having special charge of the internal police of the Institution and its business matters. In each department, and upon each branch and subject, the instruction will be minute and accurate, and THOROUGH PROFICIENCY to be determined by a strict and impartial examination, and that without regard to any definite period of previous study [11/12] in the University or elsewhere, will be the condition on which collegiate honors will alone be bestowed.
Such is an outline of the system which the Trustees have adopted, and which they are preparing to carry into effect. It provides for an extensive and eminently practical education, adapted to the peculiar wants and circumstances of the community. It aims to instruct our youth in all the higher branches of literature and science; or in any particular branch or branches they may select. And it contemplates, in addition to the studies strictly collegiate, instruction in the higher and more practical branches of an English education, as well as in its elementary subjects;—in a word, in all that is useful to a young man in the several pursuits and employments of life, as well as in those which are more immediately required to prepare him to enter advantageously on the study of one of the learned professions.
In this attempt to afford an education at home, equal to any that may be obtained abroad, and to enable parents and guardians to bestow upon their children or wards, instruction in such branches as they may regard most advantageous and best adapted to the occupations they may design them to follow; the Trustees indulge the hope, they will meet the approval of an intelligent and discerning public. And public approval and patronage, extensive and permanent, are essential to enable them to carry their plan into effect. They respectfully and earnestly invite, therefore, the co-operation of the citizens of Pittsburgh, Allegheny, and the vicinity, for whose particular benefit the plan is proposed. Their corporate funds are insufficient to afford anything like an adequate remuneration to the instructors. And in the present financial condition of the commonwealth, even were it deemed advisable to apply for legislative aid, there is little hope of a favorable response. With the assistance heretofore received from the public treasury, which has enabled them to erect the present spacious and commodious edifice, and with a reasonable patronage from the community whose interests they desire particularly to consult, they believe they can succeed independent of such additional aid. And they have that confidence in the good sense of their fellow citizens, as to anticipate that the advantages which they propose and offer, [12/13] have only to be stated, to be sufficiently appreciated and adequately embraced. It would be a reflection on the intelligence of this community to suppose that these advantages should fail of being perceived, and on the civic attachments and predilections of the inhabitants of the two cities and the vicinity, that when perceived, they should be neglected.
These advantages must be obvious on the most cursory examination. Who would not prefer a home education for his children, if it can be obtained equal to an education abroad? There are various considerations in favor of such a preference. Time will allow only the notice of some of the more prominent and these with as much brevity as possible.
A home education is preferable on the score of economy, no small consideration at any time, and certainly not at the present time, and amid the general existing monetary embarrassments of the country. There is less expense incurred, even should the price of tuition at home exceed that abroad. At home, a certain sum annually for instruction is nearly or quite all the necessary actual expenditure. Abroad, in addition thereto, there is board, which at the very lowest rate at which it is usually obtained, is greater than it can be under the parental roof; and this must be paid in cash. Besides this, a very considerable sum is required for travelling expenses, to and fro, washing and mending, extra clothing and of extra quality, pocket money, and a host of items too well known to parents who send their children to a distance to be educated, under the name of contingencies. Supposing, therefore, the price of tuition in a collegiate institution at home, to exceed by one-third or one-half the price of the same abroad, when the amount of board and lodging, and the various incidental expenses just enumerated, requiring an actual outlay in cash, are taken into account, there would be, under the most favorable circumstances, and where a rigid economy is practised by the pupil, a large balance in favor of home.
But this, though by no means an unimportant consideration to any parent, is of less account than another; and that is the greater security which a collegiate education at home affords to correct morals and proper religious influences. This, though of necessity a question of comparative advantage, is a momentous [13/14] consideration, and ought to have preponderating influence with all parents, who may be so situated as to avail themselves of the decision, in determining the place of education for their children. And parents so situated, I am now addressing, and on them I would press this consideration as one which involves the dearest and most precious interests of their offspring:—a consideration which lies at the very foundation of a right education, and is essential to the value and stability of the superstructure; and which ought to be kept constantly in view, and faithfully acted on, from the very start and throughout all the subsequent progress, as the "last priceless element by which education becomes perfect." Are your children intellectual beings? And are they not immortal and accountable beings? Are they created and are they to be educated for the present world alone? Are they not the intelligent creatures of God, bound to reverence and serve Him, to know and do His will, and destined to another and an eternal existence? And of what avail is the most brilliant genius, cultivated talent, and the most extensive intellectual acquisitions, without correct morals and proper religious principles and impressions? Will the flattery of parental pride, the praise of admiring friends, and the fullness of popular applause, compensate for vicious habits, cold indifference to religion, perhaps lurking and germinating scepticism, perhaps settled and unblushing infidelity, in the children of your love? And where are virtuous affections and habits, salutary religious sensibilities, and right religious principles, most likely to be fostered and preserved? Abroad—where a youth is left very much to his own guidance and control, and is besides exposed more constantly and with less restraints, to temptations, and the solicitations and example of corrupt companions? Or at home—where for a large portion of his time he is subjected to domestic restraint, privileged with parental counsel and remonstrance, and experiences undiminished and immediate, all the tender and endearing associations and influences, the strong ties, the winning attractions, the persuasive example of the well-regulated family circle? Where is it most likely that the fruits, the precious fruits of a father's admonitions and a mother's prayers, will ripen and come to perfection? [14/15] At a distance? among strangers—where parental inspection cannot extend, nor parental warning promptly reach; where filial reverence soon becomes impaired and weakened, from distance and absence alone, if from no other cause, and not infrequently, particularly if the separation be protracted, terminates in greater or less filial alienation? Or under the parental roof—where the slightest aberration from moral rectitude is sure to be noticed, where the vigilance of a father's affectionate solicitude, and the eagle eye of a mother's love, detects the first germ of vice, and friendly hands are always ready to crush it in its bud; and where besides, there is commonly the unobtrusive but salutary inspection and restraint of brothers, sisters and domestics? Is the question a doubtful one? Can there be any difficulty in coming to a decision? The advantage must be allowed to be materially in favor of home.
In respect of moral discipline and religious culture, the parental office, where its exercise is practicable, cannot be delegated without a dereliction of duty; and it can never be supplied by the most conscientious, diligent and attentive instructors. Send a youth abroad to a public seminary, and his condition as to morals is very much a sort of lottery, with more blanks than prizes—nay, with all the chances preponderating against his retaining his integrity, and coming out of the ordeal unscathed. From the very nature of the case it must be so. The assertion is made without intending to disparage any of the distant collegiate institutions of our country. And it ought not to be regarded as reproachful. For it is incidental to the very condition of such institutions, and is their misfortune rather than their fault. Their Faculty may promise, and intend strict moral supervision and rigid discipline, but they cannot perform, at least to an extent adequate to the emergencies. In a crowd of young men, amounting frequently to one, two and three hundred, and brought to the particular notice of the Faculty, except by a system of espionage as revolting as it is inefficient, only during the hours of recitation, (and this is the case in most colleges where students from abroad congregate,) what opportunity is there for detecting and controlling the vicious? What chance for the most faithful and attentive instructors, except in a general way, to watch over the [15/16] morals of their youthful charge—to watch individuals— to watch with anything approximating to the closeness of a parent's oversight—nay, to watch at all? The practical nature of college discipline, and to what it amounts, even in the best regulated institutions, is well known to all who have been conversant with it. How partial, ineffectual, and easily evaded! How much a matter of pride and a proof of spirit to resist, and circumvent, and triumph over it! And how seldom, except in the case of flagrant delinquents and gross offences, is it pushed to an extreme by those to whom it is committed! Now, if the college be situated in the place of the student's residence, or even where he can return to the shelter and cognizance of home only once a week, though its discipline may be evaded or resisted, it can only be so to a certain extent, and in relation to matters of less moral importance. Its evasion and resistance are directed chiefly to the enforcements of the ordinary routine of study, and to assiduity and obedience during the hours of daily attendance. It seldom or ever involves vicious indulgences and dissipated habits. And when it does, as well as in less heinous instances, the remedy is nearer and more accessible. The offence cannot make the same alarming progress undetected and uncontrolled. The college is not the student's home. He is not encouraged by the presence of vicious associates. The homestead is visited daily, and his offence is promptly and efficiently met by parental watchfulness and discipline, and the general oversight and restraining influences of the family circle.
But it is often objected to a collegiate education at home; and it is an objection which has had weight with many parents so situated; that admitting the course of instruction to be in all respects equal or even superior, and the instructors fully competent to the discharge of their duties, there are more and stronger temptations to students in a city, than in a secluded country town or village. If there are, there are, as has been just shown, greater and more direct restraints. Is this the case? Is the objection well-founded? This is exceedingly problematical. Admitting it to be true, however, for the sake of argument—are not these alleged greater temptations to vice and dissipation, met by equally great counteracting influences, not found [16/17] in secluded places, and especially by the sacred influences and example of home? And what is there to hinder these secluded students from visiting and that frequently, a populous town or city, if it happens to be, as is very generally the case, and particularly since the increase of facilities for intercommunication—if it happens to be within a convenient and accessible distance? And when visited, will village simplicity, and the bashfulness arising from a country residence, shield them from temptation? Alas! no. There are few over-burthened with these commodities, be their collegiate residence ever so secluded. There is generally far too much of the opposite, and that very much as a consequence of their seclusion and their exclusive association with one another. And instead of being deterred by shamefacedness and modesty, they are emboldened by the circumstances in which they find themselves placed, and with appetites sharpened by abstinence, they too often rush more madly into the pernicious vortex, and the temptations which meet them become more deadly, because being strangers, they feel less restraint.
But are country villages free from temptation? This will hardly be affirmed. They may be different from those of a city, but equally pernicious, frequently of a coarser and more degrading nature, and, from the very want of excitement alone, and the sameness and stagnation incidental to a secluded and sparsely populated place, much more alluring and much more apt to ensnare and injure. [* The following extract from a communication in one of our journals, giving an account of the commencement of a college situated in a small and retired village, will show that such places are not altogether free from temptations to dissipated habits on a small scale at least, and to indulgence in unnecessary and extravagant expenses. The writer appears anxious to commend the institution in question to additional patronage, and to afford an answer to some specific complaint touching the points which he notices. After stating the "encouraging prospects" of the college—and that "valuable additions have been made to the Philosophical and Chemical apparatus"—he says—"The Trustees have passed strong resolutions forbidding students to contract debts at confectionaries, or for horse-hire, &c., and parents are requested in no case to pay bills contracted by minors, without permission from the parent, guardian or agent."]
 Will it be objected, as has been strongly objected to city colleges, that a home education affords less facilities for study,—that there is more to divert the attention of the student, interrupt his application and involve him in indolent habits, than abroad and in a place of comparative seclusion? The truth of the assertion is much to be doubted. Observation and experience will scarcely sustain it. If a youth be studiously disposed there can be no difference: or if there be any, it is in favor of the city student, who pursues his studies at home, free from the noise and confusion incident to a large gathering of young men, and particularly from the obtrusion of loiterers and idle associates so annoying to the occupant of an apartment in a college edifice or student's boarding-house. And in a general way, there are as many temptations to indolence and wasting of time in the country as in the city. There is as much to divert attention and dissipate the mind. The chances for application indeed are greatly on the side of the home student. In this respect, as well as in others, he is subjected to parental vigilance, and its efficient and controlling influence. If he becomes listless and inattentive, if he neglects to apply himself, if he attempts to idle away his time, his delinquency is at once known, and known where there is a powerful motive and decided authority to check and correct it. Besides, in the immediate supervision of a parent, and particularly in parental encouragement, there is a stimulus to exertion unknown to the student abroad. The child feels that there is an eye continually watching his progress, which both duty and affection incline him to respect and fear; and an approving smile, bringing joy to his young heart, ever ready to reward his application and cheer him onward in his arduous course. And under these incentives, he grapples difficulties with greater courage, presses forward with a freer and more buoyant step, and with surer and brighter hope of ultimate success.
Youth, it is argued again, must be sent from home to be educated, in order that they may get rid of childish habits and feelings, and acquire self-dependence and manliness. This is a very common, but at the same time a very erroneous and mischievous opinion. Alas! how much do our youth who are subjected [18/19] to this experiment suffer in the anticipated exchange! A boy may become a man far too soon for his own good, or for the satisfaction and comfort of his friends. And the habits he acquires, when cut loose at an early age from the proprieties and restraints of home, are oftentimes the reverse of manly—are such as to bring the blush of shame and mortification in a parent's cheek, and sometimes to wring his heart with anguish. He may divest himself of bashfulness, but it is too frequently to become self-conceited, overbearing and impudent. He may lose his timidity, but it is at the expense of ingenuousness and simplicity. He may acquire self-possession, and imbibe a spirit of independence, but these are too often obtained by the loss of filial reverence and the alienation of filial affection and confidence. Home feelings, and home influences are sacred, salutary, conservative, and they ought not to be soon shaken off, or their hold on the young heart loosened; but retained and cherished as long as possible. It is time enough for a youth to keep company with men, and mingle in general society, when his education is completed. He will then see as much of the world, imbibe as much of its spirit, acquire as much of its habits and manners, as are necessary to enable him to "play well his part in life;" and frequently much more than is either salutary or safe. To turn him adrift prematurely, before his habits are fixed and his principles settled, upon such "a rolling sea, is unfatherly and imprudent." It is cruel to the child, and in its results oftentimes equally, nay more fearfully cruel to the parent. Love by absence is chilled into respect, and sometimes into a sentiment far colder and more deplorable. The affections of the kind-hearted and ingenuous boy are more or less alienated from their natural and legitimate objects, with the breaking off of what are called and derided as childish attachments and foolish fondness. And the tender ties of home and kindred prematurely and rudely severed, before the judgment is matured, and the habits formed and settled, his lacerated feelings if they do not seek an assuaging balm in vicious indulgence, become callous, and lead to fearful estrangement;—
"—and thus estranged, thou cans't obtain
By no kind arts his confidence again;
But here begins with most that long complaint
Of filial frankness lost, and love grown faint,
Which, oft' neglected, in life's waning years
A parent pours into regardless ears."
The theme of home education is fertile, and would admit of additional considerations in its favor. But I have already trespassed on your indulgence, wearied more or less by the protracted exercises of the morning, and by prolonging the discussion I fear I might exhaust your patience.
The system of instruction which the Trustees of the University have adopted, and which at their request I have attempted, very imperfectly indeed, to explain and commend to your attention, affords advantages equal to any that may be obtained abroad; and adapted as it is to the peculiar educational wants of this community, may in that respect be said to offer superior advantages. To those who appreciate the salutary influences of home, moral and otherwise, an opportunity is now presented to secure this great benefit and at the same time give their children as good an education as can be acquired elsewhere. The Trustees have no personal or private interest to consult, in commending the plan to the patronage of their fellow citizens. They earnestly invite such patronage, however, because their own corporate resources are inadequate, and the public patronage is indispensable to carry the plan into effect and establish it on a permanent basis. And pledging every proper effort on their part, they respectfully submit the plan to the consideration of an intelligent community, in the anticipation of its characteristic liberality, in aid of the important enterprise.
 COURSE OF INSTRUCTION
MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.
Algebra, with application to Geometry.
Trigonometry, Plane and Spherical.
Calculus, Differential and Integral.
General Properties of Matter.
MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL PHILOSOPHY.
Evidences of Christianity.
Cicero de Amicitia.
 Cicero de Senectute.
Cicero de Oratore.
Latin Composition and Exercises.
Greek Composition and Exercises.
RHETORIC AND BELLES LETTRES.
General Principles of Grammar.
History of Literature.
Philosophy of History.
In the French and German Languages instruction will be given whenever classes can be formed. For each of these branches there will be an extra charge.
Persons of good moral character will be received into the Preparatory Schools and College Classes at any period of the year; but not for a less time than one term, unless under special circumstances. Students not desirous of pursuing the entire course will be permitted to attend such portions of it as they may select. There will be a general public examination at the close of each session. The degree of Bachelor of Arts will be conferred annually, without regard to any specific period of previous study, upon such students as on examination in the entire course shall give satisfactory evidence of thorough proficiency.
The course of study, method of instruction, and general management in the Preparatory Schools, will be under the supervision and direction of the Faculty.
The fee for Tuition will be FIFTY DOLLARS per annum—TWENTY DOLLARS for the session commencing in September, and THIRTY DOLLARS for that commencing in January, always payable in advance. No deduction will be made for absence or other cause, except at the discretion of the Faculty.
There will be two vacations in the year, viz., one during the Christmas Holidays of a week; and one after the Annual Commencement, including the months of July and August.