THE DECLARATION OF JOHNSON AND HIS FRIENDS; STRUGGLE BETWEEN FEELINGS AND DUTY; DEBATE BEFORE GOVERNOR SALTONSTALL AND ITS RESULTS; EXTRACTS FROM NOTES OF DAYS; VOYAGE TO ENGLAND FOR ORDINATION; ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION; PRIVATE JOURNAL. A. D. 1722-1723.
THE formal declaration of Johnson and his friends, made by request of the Trustees, recited that "some of them doubted the validity, and the rest were more fully persuaded of the invalidity of Presbyterian ordination in opposition to the Episcopal." They asked for "satisfaction," and time was allowed for further inquiry and consultation, in the hope that they might get rid of their scruples, or at least be quiet and contented in their positions.
Johnson entered in his Notes of Days, September 17, immediately after the Commencement, this account of his feelings:--
Being at length bro't to such scruples concerning the validity of my ordination, that I could not proceed in administration without intolerable uneasiness of mind, I have now at length (after much study and prayer to God for direction), together with my friends (Mr. T. Cutler, Mr. J. Hart, Mr. S. Whittelsey, Mr. Jared Eliot, Mr. James Wetmore, Mr. Daniel Brown), after some private conferences with ministers, this Commencement, made a public declaration of my scruples and uneasiness, and am advised to suspend administration for the present. It is with great sorrow of heart that I am forced thus, by the uneasiness of my conscience, to be an occasion of so much uneasiness to my dear friends, my poor people, and indeed to the whole Colony. O God, I beseech Thee grant that I may not, by an adherence to Thy necessary truths and laws (as I profess in my conscience they seem to me) be a stumbling-block or occasion of fall to any soul. Let not our thus appearing for Thy Church be any ways accessory, though accidentally to the hurt of religion in general or any person in particular. Have mercy, Lord, have mercy on the souls of men, and pity and enlighten those that are grieved at this accident. Lead into the way of truth all those that have erred and are deceived; and if we in this affair are misled, I beseech Thee show us our error before it be too late, that we may repair the damage. Grant us Thy illumination for Christ's sake. Amen.
The General Assembly was to meet in New Haven the ensuing October, and at the suggestion of Gurdon Saltonstall, the Governor of the Colony, a debate was held in the College Library, the day after the session commenced, for the purpose of discussing the whole subject, and disposing of questions that had created serious alarm in the public mind. "He moderated very genteely" on the occasion; but the "gentlemen on the Dissenting side" had not directed their studies this way, and hence when they came to the debate they were not so well prepared to cope with their opponents and answer their arguments. They rested their chief objection to Episcopacy on the promiscuous use of the words bishop and presbyter in the New Testament; but this objection was met by citing such Scripture facts as the evident superintendency of Timothy over the clergy and people at Ephesus, of Titus in Crete, and of the angels of the seven churches in Asia. The history of the first and purest ages of Christianity was also appealed to, and "at length," says Johnson in his Autobiography, "an old minister got up and made an harangue against them in the declamatory way to raise an odium, but he had not gone far before Mix. Saltonstall got up and said he only designed a friendly argument, and so put an end to the conference."
Eliot, Hart, and Whittelsey were unable to withstand the alternate fury and entreaties of their friends, and leaving their scruples behind, they quietly settled back into their former relations, and continued to the end of their days in the service of the Congregational ministry. [Chandler, in his Life of Johnson, p. 31, says: "Amidst all the controversies in which the Church was engaged during their lives, they were never known to act or say or insinuate anything to her disadvantage."] But the others were more resolute, and followed their convictions. Johnson made a private record of the reasons which influenced him in the step they were about to take. They are worth producing here in full:--
Oct. 6, 1722.--In the fear of God setting myself now upon the serious consideration of the great and urgent affair now under my hand and a deliberate examination wherein my duty lies, I now set down the motives which lie before me on both sides of the question, whether I shall now go over to England and offer myself to the service of the Church?
1. That which I propound to govern myself in general in this affair is the awful account which I expect to give of all that I do in this world, before the dread tribunal of God, where the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed, and every one shall receive according to his work.
2. Though I have been a grievous sinner, and deserve to be left of God, yet as those instances wherein I have offended bear no relation to any of these controversies, and therefore cannot be supposed to have any influence, by way of temptation, to the present undertaking, but (if anything) the contrary; so I do renounce and abhor them, judge and condemn myself for them, and humbly purpose to continue forever in watchfulness against, and war with them,--and to make business of mortification, by God's grace, imploring his pardon and mercy in Jesus Christ, and therefore I hope in God He does not, and will not abandon me to err in anything of great consequence.
3. God's glory, the good of his Church in general and the safety of precious souls in particular, are the ends I would always and particularly in the present case have in my eye.
4. Upon the most deliberate consideration I cannot find that either the frowns or applauses, the pleasures or profits of the world have any prevailing influence in the affair.
One week later, and three days before the discussion in the College Library he made another record thus:
Oct. 13.--Now therefore to consider particularly what lies against,--
I. In the first place, and here are several particulars.
1. Some few seeming texts of Scripture and a possibility of interpreting all on the side of and in favor to Presbytery.
2. Breaking the peace of the country in general and my own people in particular, which are great things.
3. Danger of the stumbling of weak brethren and the damage of precious and immortal souls, and grieving good men. Now these considerations are indeed of great weight, and it is not a little thing should be sufficient to balance them.
II. On the other hand I consider, --
1. Sundry texts of Scripture there are which seem to me plainly to intimate that Episcopacy is of apostolical appointment, which together with the unanimous witness of the Church immediately after the Apostles' times and downward in the purest ages of Christianity, seem as much at least (if not more) to oblige my conscience to submit to Episcopacy as a divine appointment, as to observe the first day of the week, and therefore do as much oblige me to declare in favor of Episcopacy in this country as for the Lord's day, supposing I am in a seventh day country.
2. If this be therefore a divine or at least apostolical institution (as I am fully persuaded it is), fear of breaking peace should not shut up my mouth in a matter of so much consequence.
1. Considering first that this country is in such a miserable state as to church government (let whatever hypothesis will, be right), that it needs reformation and alteration in that affair.
2. The least I can say is, that I was in so much doubt whether my ordination was lawful, that it utterly hindered my devotion in administration.
3. I am indeed forced to think (comparing my case with what I find in ancient authors, and especially in S. Cyprian) that had I lived and administered without and in opposition to Episcopacy, I should have been excommunicated for a schismatic in the purest ages.
4. That peace without one of Christ's institutions is a false peace, and it is best being on the surest side.
5. There may be offense taken where there is none given. If others are damnified by my doing my duty I cannot help that, however I endeavor the contrary.
6. There may be more souls damnified for want of Episcopal government in the country and that by far at length, than by my making this appearance.
7. If I am, by what ordination I have had, consecrated to God, yet I am not on this account guilty of sacrilege for that I design yet to devote myself, my whole life to the service of Christ and his Church, and so promote the good of precious souls, and this (if I might be allowed, and so far as I am allowed) in this place [West Haven].
These considerations all laid together, it seems to be my duty to venture myself in the arms of Almighty Providence to cross the ocean for the sake of that excellent church, the Church of England; and God preserve me, and if I err, God forgive me. This transcript of his feelings is a proof that he did not expect any new light to rise from the debate in the College Library, and shine through his doubts. His convictions had settled into a definite plan of action, and the 23d day of October found him and his two friends, Cutler and Brown, on their way to Boston to embark for England. It was a slow journey, and reaching Bristol, in Rhode Island, on the 28th, he made a note thus,--"We were most kindly entertained at Bristol, at Colonel Mackintosh's. Here, being Sunday, I first went to church. How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts. Mr. Orem preached." Taking with them a letter from this gentleman to the Secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, they proceeded to Boston where they were warmly welcomed by friends interested in their movement, and spent a few days before embarking in the ship Mary, commanded by Captain Thomas Lithered. These friends had engaged their passage in this vessel, and very kindly at their own expense they provided everything necessary for the voyage. The last day in Boston' is mentioned by Johnson in his private journal as follows:--
November 4.--Sunday. Mr. Brown and I read the Earl of Nottingham against Whiston. This day, by God's grace I first communicated with the Church of England. How devout, grand, and venerable was every part of the administration, every way becoming so awful a mystery! Mr. Cuthbert of Annapolis Royal, preached. To-morrow we venture upon the great ocean for Great Britain. God Almighty preserve us!
The voyage across the Atlantic one hundred and fifty years ago was a momentous and awful undertaking. It was not attended with as many comforts as now, and a sailing vessel was the only mode of conveying passengers. Business rather than pleasure impelled men to attempt it, and strong health was needed to bear its hardships. In these days of steam navigation, when quick passages in large floating palaces are confidently anticipated, we are apt to forget the sacrifices and trials of those, who in the close and narrow cabins of sailing ships, were tossed for weeks and months on the ocean, and entirely dependent upon favoring gales to waft them to the point of their destination. Johnson in a fine hand, which it must have required the sharpest eyesight to have written as it does now to read, kept "a journal of his voyage to, abode at, and return from England," and some idea of his perils and of the manner in which he employed his time, may be formed by liberally extracting from its pages. His entries during the outward passage are thus made:--
November 15.--We have been even "ten days now upon the great ocean, and have had much contrary wind, made small progress, were once in danger. God preserved us. To whom be glory. May He send us a good and prosperous gale of wind for Christ's sake. I have just finished reading, since I came on board, the Abp. of Cambray's demonstration of the existence of God.
20th.--We are, through God's goodness, safe after an other grievous storm.
23d.--Just finished Mr. Kettlewell on the Sacrament, now finished Mr. Herbert's 1" Temple."
26th.--We are safe, by God's goodness, after a storm. Just finished Mr. Nelson's'" Practice of True Devotion."
29th.--Finished Dr. Taylor's "Golden Guide, or Guide to Devotion and for the Penitent," and "Hudibras."
Dec. 3d.--Yesterday, Dec. 2, a grievous storm. Thanks to God we are yet safe! Three last week. Finished Dr. Bray on the Baptismal Covenant.
5th.--This week tolerable weather, only the wind too southerly.
Finished Osterwald's Catechism.
12th.--This day we came to soundings. Finished reading "The Gentleman instructed in the conduct of a virtuous and happy Life." Truly an excellent piece. Dedicated by Dr. Hicks.
14th.--This day, blessed be God, we first came in sight of land. The first we made was the Isle of Wight, having been ten days without an observation. We were marvelously conducted by the good hand of Providence through the fog thus far up the channel: cui laus.
Read a short answer to a Popish Catechism. Anon.
Thus ends our boisterous and uncomfortable voyage, after five weeks and four days.
N. B.--We read prayers Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
It was purely for religious purposes that they encountered such perils on the sea. A conscientious regard for what they believed to be the truth, and not ambition or the spirit of adventure, led them to great self-sacrifices. The cordiality of their reception in England, where the knowledge of their affair had preceded them, and the interest and enthusiasm with which they viewed everything connected with the strength and glory of the Church, are best shown by extracts from Johnson's private journal.
December 15.--This day we arrived safe, by God's goodness, at Ramsgate, in the Isle of Thanet, were kindly entertained at Capt. Lithered's house, whence we took horse and came to Canterbury that night, being Saturday.
16th.--This day, being Sunday, we went to church (Dr. Cumberland read service) at the magnificent Cathedral of Canterbury, where we heard one Mr. Archer preach on the story of the Ethiopian and St Philip. In the afternoon we were by mistake directed to a meeting. After which we viewed the ancient magnificence of the Cathedral and heard evening service there. 84 Ps. was sung.
17th.--This day we went to service again at the cathedral, where we had opportunity for further view of that stately building, 500 feet in length, and by 275 steps we ascended the tower of it, where we left our names. In the afternoon we waited on Dean Stanhope, who was pleased to take a very gracious and friendly notice of us. After evening service we viewed the walls of the city and other instances of ancient magnificence.
18th.--This day we waited on Dr. Wilkins, one of the Prebendaries,--after which we went to service; which ended, we took a further view of the city, especially the churches, walls, and Tower, then dined with Dr. Grandclorgh, who showed us the Library of the Cathedral, etc. After evening service we were invited by Mr. Norris to his house, and spent the evening there in company with Mr. Hughes, Mr. Gosling, Senr. and Jun., who expressed great civility and kindness.
19th.--This day we took coach and came to Rochester and Chatham, and there lodged.
20th.--This day from thence by coach we came to London.
21st.--This day we provided our lodgings at Mrs. Wyldman's, in Fetter Lane, after which we were at the Exchange and N. England Coffee House, after which we waited on Mr. Hay.
23d.--This day, being Sunday, in the forenoon we went to service at the famous Cathedral of St Paul, where we heard Mr. Bralnston on 21 Mat. 9 v. Hosanna. In the afternoon we were at St Mary's, Aldermary, where we heard Mr. Jno. Berriman on I Tim. i. 15, with whom, after service, we conversed at Mr. Buckridge's, from whence we went to Mr. Hay's.
24th.--This day we went to Mr. Hay's, where we had opportunity with Dr. Win. Berriman, the Bishop of London's chaplain, from whom we had a letter to Dr. Ibbotson, the Abp. of Canterbury's chaplain, wherewith we went to Lambeth, but his Grace was indisposed. After which we went over from Lambeth to Westminster and viewed the Abbey and the Hall, and sundry ancient monuments.
25th.--This day, being Christmas, we went to church at St Dunstan's, where we heard Dr. Jenks from 85 Ps., 10, 11,--"Mercy and Truth," etc.,-from whom we received the Holy Eucharist, after which we took coach and went to dine with Sir Edw'd Blacket (having been invited by the Lady Blacket), from whence, in our return, we were at evening service in St Ann's church.
26th.--This day we conversed with Mr. Th. Coram.
27th. -This day we were at service in the morning at St Andrew's, Undershaft. Dr. Win. Berriman read service, who after prayers informed us when to wait on the Abp. Afternoon, went to Westminster and St James's.
28th.--This day we went in the morning to Westminster, where we conversed with Dr. Fr. Astry, Treasurer of St Paul's, from whence we came to the N. England Coffee House, where we conferred with Mr. Bridger and others of our acquaintance. I was at Evening Prayer. St Dunstan's.
30th.--This day in the morning we were at service at the Cathedral of St Paul, where we heard one Mr. Seagrave from Heb. ii. 16 - not the nature of angels. In the afternoon we were at the Old Jewry, where Mr. Trapp preached from Heb. iii. 13--of the Deceitfulness of Sin--with whom we conversed afterwards.
31st.--This day we went with Mr. Coram through St James's Park and Chelsea (where we viewed the fine Hospital) to Parsons' Green at Fulham to dine with Mr. Hall, who treated us very kindly and generously; coming home, we saw the place of K. Charles' execution.
January 3d.--This day in the morning we were introduced by Mr. Bridger to wait on Sir William Dawes, the L'd Archbishop of York, who treated us with great kindness and condescension, and took notice of our affair. After which I went to Dr. Astry and conferred with him. In the evening Mr. Checkley (just arrived from N. England) came to our lodgings to visit us. [Johnson wrote on the fly-leaf of his private journal thus:--"N. B. I speak in the plural number to comprehend Mr. T. Cutler and Mr. D. Brown, who were constantly my fellow-travellers; and after Mr. Brown's death, Mr. Checkley; and after his arrival, Mr. Wetmore."]
4th.--This day I went in the morning to confer further with Dr. Astry about going to Lambeth, after which I was at Smithfield and St Andrew's, Holborn, thence home, and read the orders and papers of the Society and the Bp. of Bristol's and Carlisle's sermons.
5th.- This day in the forenoon we (attended with Mr. Bridger, Mr. Sanford, and other gentlemen) waited on Dr. W. Wake, his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, at his Palace at Lambeth, introduced by Dr. Ibbotson. His Grace treated us like a Father of the ch'h, very courteously, and took notice of our affair; we returned on foot round by Southwark, where we viewed the most ancient church and monastery of St Mary Overie.
6th.--This day (being Sunday) we were in the morning at St Martin-in-the-Fields, where we were entertained with a most amiable and profitable sermon by Sir Wm. Dawes, the most excellent Abp. of York, a most wonderful preacher! His text, Gen. xviii. 19,--"For I know him that he will command," etc. In the afternoon I was at the Cathedral of St Paul, where one Mr. Bowers preached. Jno. i. 14."Full of," etc.
7th.--This day we were at Dr. Lovel's at Westminster.
8th.--This day we waited on Dr. Willis, the Bishop of Sarum. After which we were to visit Mr. Rawlins, and dined at Dr. Lovel's in company with Mr. Cummin. In the evening we received Mr. Honyman's letters, and after Evening Prayer conferred with Mr. Hay.
11th. -This day we went in the morning to wait on Dr. Nicholson, the Bishop of Londonderry; after which we were with Mr. Humphreys, the Secretary to the Society, thence to Mr. Massey's, from thence in the afternoon we went to wait on Dr. King, the Master of the Charter House, with whom we conferred on our affairs; after which we viewed Guildhall, and spent the evening with Mr. Massey.
15th.--This day, after walking about the city and conversing at the N. E. Coffee House with Mr. Sanford, etc., we went in the afternoon (having been invited) to visit Mr. Dommer, a Printer by Gray's Inn (which we took a view of, and of the fields and walks by the way), where were Mr. Cambel and Mr. Whiston (Arians with whom we had a great deal of talk and dispute), as also Mr. Massey and Mr. Rawlins.
18th.--This day in the morning we were first with Dr. Astry, with whom we went (by him introduced) before the Hon. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Sir William Dawes, Abp. of York, was in the chair, who with the whole body of the clergy present received us with a most benign aspect, and treated us with all imaginable kindness. From thence we went with Dr. Berriman, chaplain, before Dr. Jno. Robinson, Bp. of London, who received us very graciously, and took a kind notice of our affair.
20th.--This day (being Sunday) in the morning we were at SI; Bride's, where we had a charity sermon from Deut. xv. 11, 12, preached by Dr. Th. Biss; in the afternoon we were at St Mary le Bow, where we heard Mr. Smith on Death, from Job xvii. 13; in the evening we conversed at home first with Dr. King, Master of the Chapter House (who gave us a kind visit), after that with Mr. Checkley and Dr. Jones.
21st.--This day Mr. Brown and I were with the Bishop of London, with whom we conferred further upon our affair; he treated us with great benignity; from thence we went to dine with Dr. Astry, who after dinner took coach with us and came to the Chapter House by St Paul's, where we were kindly treated by the Committee of the Society, who granted our desire; we spent the evening with Mr. Massey, Lewis, and Humphreys.
22d.--This day, alas! Mr. Cutler falling sick of the small-pox, Mr. Brown and I thought best to remove, and we took to our lodgings at Mr. Gregson's at the Two White Fryars by the Bolt and Tun in Fleet Street; after which we were at the Coffee House and Mr. More's.
23d.--This day we were in the morning with Mr. Hay for his advice, from whom we went directly to the Bp. of London to Fulham (to his Palace), where we were kindly entertained by Dr. W. Berriman, with whom we had a very free conversation.
25th.--This day in the morning we were at Dr. Astry's, with whom and Dr. Berriman we came to wait on the Society at Bp. Tenison's Library, who granted our requests and made way for our ordination. After which we were at Mr. Bridger's and at evening service at St Paul's Cathedral.
27th.--This day (being Sunday) we were in the morning at St Paul's, where were present, besides the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, Sir Peter King and the rest of the Judges; one Mr. Wheatly preached from 1 Tim. iii. 16. The mystery of godliness. In the afternoon we were at Westminster Abbey, where were present Sundry Bishops. One Mr. Mandevil preached from Matt. v. 8. Pure in heart, etc.
31st.--This day in the morning we went to wait on Dr. Grandorgh, upon whose invitation we took'coach with him and went to Westminster Hall (it being Term time), where we saw the several courts and judges sitting. We viewed likewise the Houses both of Lords and Commons. In the afternoon we, with Mr. Checkley, were in company with Mr. Hendley and Mr. Lewis, two clergymen, and Mr. Wood and others.
February 1st.--This day in the afternoon we were at Mr. Hay's, and spent the evening at the Sun Tavern with Messrs. Lewis, Humphrey, Vaughan, Powel, Vincent, Wait, Scullard, etc., clergymen.
4th.--This day we were to dine with Mr. Hendley at Islington, in company with Mr. Lewis, Mr. Checkley, and Mr. Wood. After we came home we were in company with Philips and Calwel, and read Irene, a play.
5th.--This day we were at Sion College, where we had the benefit of two or three hours' use of the Library to examine commentators on our texts.
6th.--This day we were not out, but at the Theatre in Drury Lane in the evening, where we had a Tragedy.
7th.--This day in the morning we were at service at St Paul's Cathedral, where Dr. Chishul preached in defense of the Trinity against the Arians from Matt. xxviii. 19,--"Go ye therefore," etc.; after which, with Mr. Checkley, we took a view of that stupendous fabric, ascended to the top of the dome by five hundred and fifty steps, which with the Cupola and Cross make four hundred feet in height. W e were in the Library also, and sundry other parts; viewed the cells, etc. It is perhaps one of the finest buildings in the world--an amazing mass of stones! In the evening also we were at service there, and afterward waited on Mr. Jennings.
9th.--This day in the morning we were first with Mr. Dummer, the agent; after that we went to wait on Dr. Grandorgh, who presented us from an unknown hand (whom God bless) with ten guineas apiece; in the afternoon finished reading a book called the "Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence," and after that I finished composing my sermon for probation.
10th.--This day, being Sunday, in the morning I heard at St Mary's, Aldermary, Dr. Kennet, Bp. of Peterborough, preach from I Thess. iii. 11, 12,--"Now God and the Father,"' etc. After which I saw him ordain Mr. Usher and another man. We dined with Mr. Negus; in the afternoon we heard Dr. Watson from John i. 11,--"He came unto his own," etc.
11th.--This day we were not out. I read Dr. Hoadly's Sermon on the " Kingdom of Christ," and his "Preservative Against Non-jurors," with Snape's and Law's answer.
12th.--This day in the morning we were at service at the church of St Lawrence Jewry, where Dr. Moss, Dean of Ely, preached a Lecture from Rom. iii. 8,--"Let us do evil," etc. Afternoon we were at the Coffee House N. E., and in the evening we were at the Theatre at Lincoln's Inn, where we had a Comedy--The Drummer. N. B.--This same day after dinner we visited the good people of Bedlam.
13th.--This day we were not out, but I read Dr. Woodward's "Young Man's Monitor," and wrote letters to my friends in N. England.
15th.--This day we were at the anniversary meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at St Mary le Bow, where Dr. J. Waugh, Dean of Gloucester, preached from 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20,--The spirits in prison, etc. We were at evening service at St Paul's, and in the evening I was at the Sun Tavern Club, where, Besides those who were there before, were Messrs. Hill, Bridger, Lewis, and another or two.
20th.--This day in the morning we were at service at Westminster Abbey, after which we went to visit Mr. More, a young clergyman, on the affair of Baptism; he was very courteous.
24th.--This day, being Sunday, we were at service all day at St Dunstan's, West; in the morning Dr. John Wilcox, Bishop of Gloucester, preached from 1 Pet. iv. 10,--"As every man hath received," etc. Afternoon, Dr. Nath. Marshall preached on Matt. xix. 14,--"For of such," etc.
27th.--This day (being Ash Wednesday) we were at service at St James', Clerkenwell, where Dr. Jno. Potter, Bishop of Oxford, preached from 2 Cor. i. 12,--"For our rejoicing is this," etc. We dined with Dr. Massey.
March 2.--This day not out but to buy books. We saw a wondrous clock that performed all sorts of music.
3d.--This day (being Sunday) we were in the morning at St Andrew's, Undershaft, or St Mary Ax, where Dr. Wm. Berriman preached from Jer. xiii. 23,--"Can the Ethiopian," etc.; in the afternoon at St Martins, Ludgate, where Mr. Crow preached from Luke xiii. 5,--"'I tell you, Nay; but, except," etc.
4th.--This day we heard Esquire Boyle's Lecture at St Mary le Bow preached by Dr. Burrough from Phil. iii. 8,--"Yea, doubtless, and I count," etc. After that we took a walk with Mr. Jno. Berriman, Mr. Scullard, and Mr. Wats, through Moorfields out to Ash Hospital, and so out of town through the pleasant meadows. In the evening received a visit from Mr. David Yale.
5th.--This day we went to Kensington to confer with Dr. Berriman; we were admitted to my Lord of London; there we dined; after which we drank a bottle with the Doctor and Secretary, and then viewed the Royal Palace and Gardens.
In the evening at St Paul's, at Sir Christopher Wren's funeral. Statues.
7th.--This day we were at service at St Paul's, where Dr. Chishul preached again against the Arians in defense of the Holy Trinity from Matt. xxviii. 19. It was his fourth Lecture. After that we waited on Dr. Knight to confer on the affair of Baptism. He treated us very kindly. We visited Buckridge.
8th.--This day in the morning we were at service at St Paul's, where one Mr. Bearcroft preached from 2 Pet. i. 10,--Calling and election, etc. I came home and read Dr. Delaune's sermon on Original Sin, Whiston's argument about the validity of ministries and the appendices. and the spirit of some late writers about the Bishop of Rochester's commitment.
9th.--This day we were at service in the morning at Westminster Abbey with Mr. Checkley, with whom afterwards we went to confer with Dr. Knighl-t on the affair of Baptism, and (nobis tribus an legitimum sit apud Presbyterianos Baptisma susceptum graviter dubitantibus) hora 4 pomeridiana in ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, Testibus Dom. Johanne Jones, Isaaco Cardel, et Dom. Dorothea Nightingale et ministrante Jeremia Nicholsono, Doctori Knight curato, privatum, Baptisma hypotheticum recepimus. Si rectum hoc, Deus agnoscat, et si alitercum sit simpliciter actum ignoscat. [We three, having grave doubts whether Baptism received among the Presbyterians is valid, at 4 o'clock P.M. in the church of St. Sepulchre--Mr. John Jones, Isaac Cardel, and Mrs. Dorothy Nightingale being witnesses, and Jeremiah Nicholson, curate to Dr. Knight, ministering--received private hypothetical baptism. If this be right, may God approve it; and if otherwise than sincerely done, may He pardon it.]
11th.--This day we heard Mr. Usher at St. Antholin's, after which Mr. Lazingby invited us to his house with Mr. Oliver and Mr. Scullard, etc., clergymen; then we with Mr. Checkley took coach and went to Hampstead to wait on Mr. Cutler home, who (I thank God) is recovered. We walked about to view that town, and then returned and went to the Theatre at Lincoln's Inn, where we had the comedy of the, Merchant.
13th.--This day we went to Mr. Bridger's, and from thence to Kensington to confer with my Lord of London on the affair of ordination. We drank a bottle with Dr. Berriman, Mr. Sherlock, etc., and had letters to the Archbishop of Canterbury; in our return were in the Royal Gardens.
14th.--This day in the morning we first waited on Governor Shute and then on the Earl of Clarendon at Somerset House. After that we were at prayers at St Stephen's, Coleman Street, where Mr. Hay catechised and preached a lecture on the Catechism; in the afternoon we were at Mr. Bowyer's, the Bookseller, with whom we drank a bottle; after that we went up to the top of the glorious Cathedral of St Paul and viewed the town.
18th.--This day I was at Kensington to confer with Dr. Berriman on the affair of ordination, by whose application to the Bishop of London, and by order from William, Lord Apb. of Canterbury, we had letters dimissory to Thomas, Lord Bp. of Norwich. In the evening I read the "Modern Protestant."
19th.--This day in the morning we went to wait on the Right Reverend Dr. Thomas Green, the Bishop of Norwich, for ordination, who received us favorably. Thence we went to see Mr. Rawlins and Lady Blacket. After that we were at the N. England Coffee House.
20th.--This day in the morning we were to wait on Mr. Jennings to discourse on our affairs; from thence we went to wait on the Bishop of Norwich, who examined us in order for ordination, which also did Mr. Ellotson, the gentleman who is to present us; then we signed the Articles. Afternoon we were at St Sepulchre, where Mr. Brown and I with Mrs. Dorothy were witnesses for Mr. Cutler at his baptism. After that we were about town to provide robes, etc., for ordination.
21st.--This day we were before the Society at the Archbishop's Library at St Martin's upon our affairs, and were in the evening at the Half-moon Tavern, Cheapside, with the gentlemen of the club before mentioned, besides whom were others.
22d.--This day in the morning, 10 of the clock, we waited on the Right Revd Thomas, Lord Bishop of Norwich, and at the parish church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, after morning Prayer, we were first confirmed and then ordained Deacons. In the afternoon I was at Prayers at St Paul's, and then at Mr. Jonah Bowyer's, Bookseller.
24th.--This day (being Sunday) we were all day at St James's Church, where in the morning Dr. Samuel Clark preached from Heb. xii. 16, 17,--of Esau's selling his birthright. Afternoon, Dr. Ibbotson preached from Luke ix. 23,--"Let him deny himself," etc. In the evening I finished Abp. Dawes, etc., sermons.
26th.--This day we had the honor to dine again with Dr. Francis Astry, and spent the afternoon at his house, with Mr. Carter, a clergyman, our benefactor. After that we waited on Dr. Nath. Marshall, with whom we drank a bottle in company with Dr. Grey and Mr. Wheatly, clergymen, and Mr. Martin and Dr. Walker, in both which conversations we had great kindness.
28th.--This day we were in the morning to wait on the Bishop of Norwich. Afternoon we were at Clerkenwell; from thence we went with Mr. Checkley to see the Tower, where we viewed the armory, both horse and foot, the artillery and regalia, and the trophies of Sir Francis Drake, and everything to be seen there; after that we ascended the monument, one hundred and two feet high, by three hundred and forty-five steps. Glorious things!
29th.--This day in the morning I was at service at St Clement Danes, where Mr. R. Leybourn preached from Job vii. 16,--"I would not live alway," etc. Otherwise not out.
30th.--This day in the morning we were to wait on the Bishop of Norwich, whose chaplain, Mr. Clark, examined us. The Bishop gave us his fatherly advice, and we subscribed the XXXIX. Articles, in order for ordination. We dined and spent the day with Mr. Dummer in company with Mr. Massey and Mr. Low.
31st.--This day at 6 in the morning, Sunday, at the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, at the continued appointment and desire of William, Lord Abp. of Canterbury, and John, Lord Bishop of London, we were ordained Priests most gravely by the Right Revd Thomas, Lord Bp. of Norwich, who afterwards preached an excellent sermon from Rom. ii. 47--"Or despisest thou," etc. I dined with Mr. Massey in company with Mr. Godly and Mr. Bull, clergymen. Afternoon I preached for Mr. Massey at St Alban's, Wood Street, on Phil. i. 27. We all spent the evening with Mr. Low.
April 1.--This day in the morning we were at the Bishop of Norwich's house with the Secretary for our orders. Afternoon we were at St Paul's Chapter House and the Chapter Coffee House.
3d.--This day we dined with Mr. Carter (our benefactor), with whom we took coach and came into town. We spent the evening at Mr. Massey's with Mr. Price.
The errand on which Johnson and his associates appeared in England served as an introduction to remarkable persons and places. Wherever they went they were sure to be welcomed; and the interest evinced in their entertainment was only exceeded by the desire to send them back to their country prepared to meet the new responsibilities laid upon them, and to engage in a struggle which they could hardly hope to avoid with the steady foes of Episcopacy.