THE FRANKLIN PRESS COMPANY, PRINTERS.
EVERY Northern historian, characterizes New England as "the land of conscience," and describes the first-settlers of Massachusetts "as the chosen emissaries of God; out-casts from England, yet favorites with Heaven; destitute of security, of convenient food and shelter, and yet blessed beyond all mankind, for they were the depositaries of the purest truth, and the selected instruments to kindle in the wilderness the beacon of pure religion, of which the undying light should not only penetrate the wigwams of the heathen, but spread it's benignant beams across the darkness of the whole civilized world."--l Bancroft, page 348.
Every historian of the Valley of Virginia, represents so much of it's first settlers as were Scotch-Irish, as being "a profoundly religious people, bringing the Bible with them, whatever they had to leave behind;" Waddell's Annals of Augusta County, p. 14. It is usual to represent them, as travelling with a Bible in one hand, and a rifle, for the Indian, in the other.
And it is gravely asserted "that the colonial government encouraged the settlement of the valley as a means of protecting the lower country from Indian incursions." Id. p. 13.
It will be very difficult, if not impossible, to find any historian, of either, or of any class, who will be charitable enough to admit, that Religion had anything to do with the settlement of Jamestown. The reverse of the picture has been, so often, presented with such doleful shades, and eloquence of assertion, that the Episcopalians have been alarmed at the dreadful noise that has been made, and have shut their eyes to the patent facts, of, at least, equal piety that lie upon every page of our early colonial history. The fact, that the Church went down, down, down, under the savage, and multitudinous, attacks, that so rudely assailed her, by friend and foe, from 1760 to 1802, disheartened and dispirited her; and she has not yet gained the courage to assert her pristine virtues, to answer her defamers with the sober facts of history, and to reclaim the [3/4] honors, to which she is, so justly, entitled. This, I, cannot do. I can only drop a hint, or two, and leave to others who may follow me--to write that history, which every consideration of justice and necessity demands, should be written. As a feeble contribution to that subject, let us, briefly, consider, the Religious Element in the Settlement at Jamestown.
There is no name connected with the settlement of Virginia, that deserves higher honor, than that of Sir Walter Raleigh; and there was no friend of Sir Walter Raleigh, who was such an enthusiast for colonial venture, as the Rev. Richard Hackluyt, the author of Hackluyt's voyages and discoveries, who, when a youth, became deeply interested in the discovery of new countries, and in the carrying the Gospel to the heathen.
"I do remember," says he, "that being a youth, and one of her Majesty's scholars at Westminster, that fruitful nurserie, it was my happe to visit the chamber of M. Richard Hackluyt, my cousin, a gentleman of the Middle Temple, well known to you, at a time when I found lying open upon his board, certeine books of Cosmographie, with an universal mappe. He, seeing me somewhat curious in the view thereof, began to instruct my ignorance by showing me the division of the Earth, into three parts, after the olde account; and, then, alluding to this latter, and better, distribution into more: he pointed with his wand to all the known Seas, Gulfs, Bayes, Straights, Capes, Rivers, Empires, Kingdomes, Dukedomes, and Territories, of each part, with declaration also of their special commodities, and particular wants, which, by the benefit of traffike and intercourse of merchants, are plentifully supplied. From the mappe he brought me to the Bible, and turning to the 107 Psalm, directed me to the 23 and 24 verses, where I read that they which go downe to the sea in ships, and occupy by the great waters, they see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep, &c. Which words of the Prophet, together with my cousin's discourse, (things of high and rare delight to my nature) tooke in me so deepe an impression, that I constantly resolved, if ever I were preferred to the University, where better time and more convenient place might be ministered for these studies, I would, by God's assistance, prosecute that [4/5] knowledge, and kind of literature, the doores whereof (after a sort) were so happily opened before me. Anderson's History of the Colonial Church, Vol. 1, pp. 157-8.
He was preferred to the University, and by God's assistance, he did prosecute that knowledge and kind of literature, and gave to the world "The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation" in 3 Volumes, which have been styled, the "prose epic of the modern English Nation." (London 1598-1600).
As early as 1587, he wrote to Raleigh, and "expressly declares that the glory of God is the great end to which the extension of the borders of a Christian state should be subservient; and that each step made in that extension should be regarded as a fresh summons to promote it. Upon this ground, and with reference to this lofty aim, he urges Raleigh to persevere in the work which the acquisition of Virginia had placed before him, no grander monument, he assures him, could be raised, no brighter name could he leave to future generations, than the evidence that he had therein sought to restrain the fierceness of the barbarian, and enlighten his darkened mind by the knowledge of the true God." Id. Page 159.
These views he never failed to urge, and impress, upon all with whom he came in contact; and, he so impressed them upon Sir Walter Raleigh, that when in 1589, he assigned his patent, he gave £100 to the planting of the Christian Religion in Virginia. Brown's Genesis p. 20. To further, and to promote them, Hackluyt gave to the world in 1606, his three Volumes of Voyages, &c. He was then the Prebendary of St. Augustine in the Cathedral Church of Bristol. Id. p. 156. In 1605 he was a Prebendary of Westminister.
On the 10th of April, 1606, he was one of the four parties to whom King James granted the first Charter of the Virginia Colony.
The third article of that Charter, says, "We greatly commending, and graciously accepting of their desires for the furtherance of so noble a work, which may, by the providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the glory of his divine [5/6] majesty, in propagating of Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness, and miserable ignorance, of the true knowledge and worship of God, and may in time bring infidels and savages, living in these parts, to human civility, and to a settled and quiet government: Do by these our letters patents, graciously accept of, and agree, to these humble, and well intended, desires." 1 Henning Stat. at Large, page 58. Brown's Genesis p. 53.
The instructions, which accompanied the charter, specially "ordained, charged, and required, the said presidents, and councils, and the ministers of the said several colonies, respectfully, within their several limits and precincts, that they will use all diligence, care, respect, doe provide, that the true word, and service of God and Christian faith be preached, planted and used, not only within every one of the said several colonies and plantations; but alsoe, as much as they may, amongst the savage people which doe, or shall joine with them, or border upon them, according to the doctrine, rights, and religion now professed and established within our realme of England," &c. 1 Henn. p. 69.
The second Charter was issued on the 23" of May, 1609, and in the 29" article it is asserted, that, because the principal effect, which we can desire or expect of this action, is the conversion and reduction of the people in these parts unto the true worship of God, and Christian religion, in which respect we should be loath that any person should be permitted to pass, that we suspected to effect the superstitions of the Church of Rome, &c. 1 Henn. p 97. 1 Brown's Genesis pp.
The third charter was issued March 12," 1611-12. It chiefly extends the boundaries and admits additional adventurers.
In the second charter, besides the Rev. Richard Hackluyt, there were, James Montague, Lord Bishop of Bath & Wells, and the following ministers: Dr. Mathew Sutcliffe, William Crashaw, George Proctor, Francis Bailey, Richard Shepherd, and Dr. John Andrews.
In the third charter of March 12th 1611-12 there were admitted George Abbot, Lord Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, [6/7] William James, Lord Bishop of Duresne; Henry Parry, Lord Bishop of Worseter; John Bridges, Lord Bishop of Oxenford; Dr. George Mountaine, Dean of Westminster, "and Francis Bradley, Francis Burley, Richard Buck, John Prockter, Alexander Whitaker, Thomas Frake, Sr., Thomas Frake, Jr., ministers." 2 Brown's Genesis, pp. 541 to 549.
Under the first charter of June 10" 1606, Captain Christopher Newport, in command of the Sarah (or Susan) Constant; Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, in command of the Goodspeed (or Godspeed); and Captain John Ratcliff, in command of the Discovery; with Captain John Smith, Edward Maria Wingfield, the Rev. Robert Hunt and the other adventures left Black-Wall on the 19" of December 1606, and landed at Jamestown on the 13" or 14" of May 1607. Arbers Smith p. 386, and lxvi. Brown's Genesis, pp. 76 & 85.
Robert Hunt, was, at the special instance and request, of Edward Maria Wingfield, and of the Rev. Richard Hackluyt, sent by the Archbishop of Canterbury, as the spirituall pastor of the colony. Wingfield, in his "Discourse of Virginia," written in 1608, says, "for my first worke (which was to make a right choice of a spirituall pastor) I appeal to the remembrance of my Lord of Canterbury, his grace, who gave me a very gracious audience in my request. And the world knoweth whom I took with me (R. Hunt); truly, in my opinion, a man not any waie to be touched with the rebellious humors of a popish spirit, nor blemished with the least suspition of a factious scismatick, whereof I had special care." Arber's Works of Captain John Smith, p xci.
John Smith says, "Richard Hackluit, Prebend of Westminster, who, by his authority (Archbishop of Canterbury) sent Master Robert Hunt, an honest, religious, courageous, divine; during whose life our factions were oft qualified, our wants and extremities so comforted, that they seemed easie in comparison of what we endured, after his memorable death." Id. p. 959.
In 1608, Thomas Studley wrote that, "on the 19" of December, 1606, we set saile, but by unpropitious winds were kept six weeks in sight of England; all which time Maister Hunt, our preacher, was so weake and sicke, that few expected his recoverie. [7/8] Yet, although he were but 10, or 12 miles from his habitation, (the time we were in the Downes,) and, notwithstanding the stormie weather, nor the scandalous imputations (of some few, little better than Atheists of the greatest ranke amongst us) suggested against him; all this could never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leave the business; but, preferred the service of God, in so good a voyage, before any affection to contest with his godlesse foes, whose disastrous designs (could they have prevailed) had even then overthrowne the businesse; so many discontents did then arise: had he not, with the water of patience, and his godly exhortations, (but chiefly by his true, devoted, example) quenched those flames of envie, and dissention." Arber's Works of Smith, p. 90. He also tells us, that it was "the good doctrine and exhortation of our preacher, Maister Hunt" that "reconciled them, (the warring factions) and caused Captaine Smith to be admitted to the Council," on the 20" of June 1607. Id. p. lix. In the terrible fire which occurred at Jamestown on the 7" of January, 1608, when, "every house, but three were burnt" to the ground "Good Maister Hunt, our preacher, lost all of his library, and all that he had, but the cloathes on his backe, yet, (did) none ever see him repine at his losse." Id. p 103 & lxxxvi. and Brown's Genesis p 175.
In September 1609, John Smith, whilst returning from the "Falles, (of the James at Richmond) to Jamestown by the accidental firing of his powder bag," through the carelessness of some "one, whilst he was asleep," had "his flesh torn from his bodie and thighes 9 or 10 inches square, in a most pitiful manner." His utter helplessness, and the want of medical attention, more than all other causes combined, forced him to leave Virginia, on the 4" of October 1609, and he died, on the 21" day of June 1631. But he never lost his love for Virginia. Time, and time again, he spoke of her as his "child, as dear to me as my wife, my hawks, my hounds, my cards, my dice, and in total my best content, as indifferent to my heart, as my left hand to my right." Arber's Smith pp 265, 770.
In October 1630, in the very last work he ever wrote,--his "Pathway to erect a Plantation,"--written "at the house of that worthy knight, Sir Humphrey Mildway, in Essex, in the [8/9] Parish of Danbery," with his mind fondly turning to the scenes of the past, he said, "when I first went to Virginia, I well remember wee did hang an awning, (which is an old saile), to three or four trees to shadow us from the sunne; our walls were rales of wood: our seats unhewed trees, till we cut planks; our Pulpit, a bar of wood nailed to two neighboring trees. In foul weather, we shifted into an old rotten tent; for we had few better; and this came by way of adventure for new. This was our Church till we built a homely thing, like a barne, set upon Cratchets, covered with rafts, sedge and earth: so, was, also, the walls: the best of our houses (were) of the like curiosity; but the most part, farre much worse workmanship, that could neither well defend from, wind, nor raine." 1 Arber's Smith p 165.
This was the first Protestant Church to the living God in America, and, to my mind, no more beautiful Church has ever been erected than the old sail "to shadow us from the sun," with its walls of rail, and its pulpit nailed to two neighboring trees. Nothing could emphasize the religious character of the people more than this first-extemporized Church upon the banks of the James.
"And yet, wee had daily Common Prayer morning and evening, every Sunday, two sermons, and every three months, the holy communion, till our minister died; but our Prayers daily, with an Homily on Sundaies, we continued two or three years after, till more Preachers came: and surely God did most mercifully heare us, the continuall inundations of mistaking directions, factions and numbers of unprovided Libertines neere consumed us all, as the Israelites in the Wilderness." Arber's Smith pp 950, 957-8 also p 36.
We learn from the Relation of Gilbert Archer, written in 1607, that they had Communion in that grand first Church as early as Sunday June 21st, 1607, five weeks after their landing upon the hostile shores at Jamestown--twenty six days after they had been murderously assailed by four hundred Indians,--the day after John Smith was by the untiring efforts of Robert Hunt, admitted to the Council; and the day before Newport sailed for England. Id. lv.
 If the Episcopal Church has either poet or painter, this glorious scene ought to be immortalised in glorious verse or on speaking canvas for the benefit of those who have not imagination enough to see the piety of their ancestors in the dull recitals of the prosaic page.
We learn from the Discourse of Wingfield, written in 1608, that one of the grievances objected against him, the President of the Colony, whom they deposed on the 11th of September 1607 was, "that I ame an Atheist, because I carried not a Bible with me," when he went to Virginia, and he alleges in excuse "that I sorted many bookes in my house, to be sent up to me at my goeing to Virginia; amongst them a Bible;" that they were sent in his trunk to London; that he left it with Maister Croft; that being in Virginia, he understood it was broken open, and many things taken and "whether amongst them my Bible was so you beasiled, or mislaid by my servants, and not sent me, I knowe not as yet." Arber's Smith lxxxviii.
In "the Newes from Virginia," written by Captain Smith, in May or June 1608, we learn that of the 16 or 18 Indians they had captured "the President released one. The rest we brought well guarded to morning and evening Prayers." Id. P 36.
In a few days afterwards, Powhatan sent Pochahuntas for them, and "in the afternoon, they, (Opecham Kanough's messengers) being gone, we guarded them (the captured Indians) as before to the church; and after prayer gave them to Pochahuntas, the King's Daughter in regard of her father's kindnesse in sending her." Id. p 39.
The Phoenix left Jamestown on the 1," or 2," of June 1608, on her return to England. John Smith, with 13 companions, went with her as far as Cape Henry, and then began, "in an open barge of two tunnes burden:" that wonderful discovery of the Chesapeake, the Potomac, the Patuxent, the Susquehannah, the Rappahannock, the Elizabeth, the Nansemond and their branches, that employed him, in a navigation of three thousand miles, from the 1" of June to the 7' of September. In the description of that tour, written by Dr. Russell, Anas [10/11] Todkill, and Nathaniel Powell, we learn that "our order was, dayly to have prayer with a psalm, at which solemnitie, the poor savages much wondered: our prayers being done, awhile they busied with a consultation, till they have contrived their business." Arber's Smith p 118.
Captain John Smith, sent over to England, by Captain Nelson of the Phoenix, on the 2" of June 1608, The True Relation, which was published in August of that year, the first printed production of the Captain and the first printed account of the James River Settlement, (Arber p 2). It is a monograph of some thirty six pages and is as conspicuous for the piety of the author, as it is for a frank avowal, of the purposes of the settlement; "that it may be pleasing to almightie God, honorable to our Gracious Soveraigne and conspicuous generally to our whole Kingdom." Id. p 40.
This man, who has been called a "braggart and a liar," by some recent Puritans, and by some who have been dominated by their literature, recognizes, that it was God, and "God alone, who rescued that part of the colony that Smith and Newport had left at Jamestown, whilst they pursued their discoveries to the Falls of the river, from the furious assault of Four Hundred Indians on the 26" of May 1607, 12 or 13 days after they landed, when most of the council, and thirteen or fourteen of the men, were wounded, and a boy was slain in the Pinnas" (Id. p 7): that it was "God, who was angry with them," for the divisions and dissensions in the Council, and therefore, inflicted upon them, that terrible sickness in the summer of 1607, when "the living were scarce able to bury the dead" (p 8); that "it pleased God, (in this, our extremity), to move the Indians to bring us corn" (p 8): "that it is God, who is the absolute disposer of all hearts (p 10): that it was by God's assistance, (in the Fall of 1607) we got good store of corn notwithstanding some bad spirits, not content with God's providence still grew mutinous" (p 12): that it was by his mercy, he was able to explain "our God to Opechancanaugh in the wilderness of the Chickahominie" (p 16): "that it pleased God, to send Captain Newport, on the 8" of January 1608, to rescue and relieve him in the midst of his miseries," caused by Martin and Archer, for the death of Robinson and Emery in the [11/12] Chickahominie expedition (p 23): that it was the same divine spirit, that led him to bring the thieving Indians, in May 1608, well guarded, to morning and evening prayers (p 26): and that induced him later "after prayers to give them to Pochahuntas, the king's daughter, in regard to her father's kindness in sending her (p 39).
The religious spirit of the man, and the religious habits of the colony, clearly appear throughout the whole narration.
Just before John Smith undertook that wonderful expedition, the pulpits of old England began to resound with appeals to man, and invocation to God, in behalf of the success of that plantation. The first sermon ever preached on this subject, was, by Richard Crakanthrope, a Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, at Paul's Cross on the 24" of March 1608. "Let the honorable expedition now intended for Virginia be a witness, enterprised, I say not, auspiciis, but by the most wise and religious direction, and protection, of our chiefest pilot (King James), seconded by so many honorable and worthy personages in the State and Kingdom; that it may justly, give encouragement with alacrity and cheerfulness for some, to undertake: for others, to favour so noble, and so religious an attempt, I may not stay, in this straightness of time, to mention, much less to set forth unto you, the great and manifold benefits, winch may redound to this, our so populous a nation, by planting an English colony in a territory as large and spacious, almost as England; and in a soil so rich, fertile, and fruitful as that: besides the sufficiency it naturally yields for itself, may with best convenience supply some of the greatest wants and necessities of these kingdoms. But this happiness which I mention, is a happy and glorious work indeed of planting among these poor and savage, and to be pitied Virginians, not only humanity instead of brutish incivility, but religion also--This being the honorable, and religious intendment of this enterprise, what glory! What honor to our Sovereign! What comfort to these subjects who shall be the means of furthering of so happy a work, not only to see a New Britain in another world, but to have these, as yet heathen barbarians, and brutish people, together with our English, to [12/13] learn the speech and language of Canaan," Brown's Genesis, p. 255. Neil's Virginia Vetusta. p. 36.
Not only the charters, but every paper, ever published by, or for, the London Company contained the strongest appeals to the religious sentiments of the people. The Nova Britannia, (New Britain) written by Robert Johnson--a leading member of the Company, and published on the 18" of February 1609--is a noble appeal "to all subjects, some in their persons, other in their purses, cheerfully, to adventure and take hand in this high, and acceptable worke, tending to advance, and spread the kingdome of God, and the knowledge of the truth, among so many millions of men and women, savage and blind, that never yet saw the true light before their eyes; to enlighten their minds and comfort their soules; as also for the honor of our King and enlarging of his kingdome; and for the preservation, and defence, of that small number of our friends and countrymen already planted there, &c." These three points, (1), "The advancement of the kingdome of God, by reducing savage people from their blind superstition to the light of religion;" (2), "The honor of our King;" and (3), "The relieving our men already planted," are elaborately treated, and as the two first reasons are prominent in the charter, the three are deliberately, and clearly proclaimed, in this elaborate, and powerful, paper. Force's Tracts, Vol. 1, No. VI.
Exactly the same sentiments are expressed in The Good Speed to Virginia, published by Robert Gray, on the 28" of April 1609, in which, feeling the force of the preceding paper, he says: "But it is, demonstratively, proved in Nova Britannia, that the charges about this plantation will be nothing; in comparison of the benefit that will grow thereof. And what notable thing, I pray you, can be brought to passe without charges? Without question, he that saves his money, where God's glory is to be advanced; Christian religion propagated and planted; the good of the commonwealth increased; and the glorious renowne of the King enlarged, is subject to the curse of Simon Magus; his money, and he, are in danger to perish together. Let none therefore find delaies, or faine excuses, to withhold them from this employment for Virginia, seeing every opposition against it, is an opposition against [13/14] God, the King, the Church, and the Commonwealth. Browns Genesis, p. 301.
On the 25" of April, 1609, "the Rev. William Symonds, Preacher at Saint Saviours, in South-Warke, preached at White Chapple in the presence of the adventurers and planters" in Virginia, a sermon of 20,000 words, in advocacy of that planting. It is full of the sentiments that actuated the Company, and the ministers of that day. This is the same Dr. Symonds that edits that History of John Smith with which we have been familiar from childhood. It is important to remember the eminence, the zeal, of this man, his perfect familiarity with all the affairs of the London Company in estimating the character of John Smith, and in determining, whether he is a liar, and a braggart, or one of the noblest men that England has ever given to the world of action, and of letter's. Brown's Genesis, p. 283. Since the days of William Symonds, no man has done as much to fix the character of John Smith upon an impregnable basis of un-impeachable truth, as has Edward Arber, in his "Works of Captain John Smith"--a work from which I have frequently quoted, and one I should be happy to see in the hand of every citizen of Virginia.
On the 28" of May, the pulpit was again invoked, and this time, it was "Daniel Price, Chaplaine in ordinary to the Prince, and Master of Arts of Exeter College in Oxford," who "preached a sermon by command at Paule Cross upon Rogation Sunday, being the 28" of May 1609."
On the 21" of February 1609 (O. S. 1610 N. S.), the Rev. William Crashaw, Bachelor of Divinity, and Preacher at the Temple, preached in London before Lord De La Warre, Lord Governour, and Captaine General, of Virginia, and others of his Majesty's Counsell, for that Kingdome and the rest of the adventurers in that plantation, on the most memorable of all occasions, considering the crisis, and the consequences; and as the one, was full of the deepest gloom, and the other, resulted in the life, in the perpetuation of the Colony,--as it reflected both the sentiments of the company and of all previous and subsequent sermons, it will be inexcusable not to quote a few brief passages. "And to you (right honorable and beloved) who engage your lives, and are therefore deepest interested [14/15] in this businesse, who make the greatest ventures and beare the greatest burdens; who leave your ease and pleasant homes, and commit yourselves to the seas and winds for the good of the enterprise: you that desire to advance the Gospel of Jesus Christ, though it be with the hazard of your lives, goe forward in the name of the God of heaven and earth, the God that keepeth covenant and mercie for thousands; go on with the blessing of God, God's Angels and God's Church; cast away fear and let nothing daunt your spirits: remembering whom you go unto, even to the Englishmen your brethren, who have broke the ice before you, and suffered that which with God's blessing you never shall; remembering what you goe to doe, even to display the banner of Christ Jesus, to fight with the divell and the old dragon, having Michael and his angels on your side; to eternize your own names, both heere, at home, and amongst the Virgineans (whose Apostles you are): and to make yourselves most happy men whether you live, or die; if you live, by effecting so glorious a worke: if you die, by dying as martyrs or Confessors of God's religion: and remembering lastly whom you leave behind you, even us, your brethren, of whom many would go with you that yet may not, many will follow you in convenient time, and who will now go with you in our hearts and praiers; and who will second you, with new and fresh supplies, and who are resolved, (by the grace of that God, in whose name they have undertaken it), never to relinquish this action: but though all the wealth, already put in, were lost, will againe, and againe, renue and continue their supplies, until the Lord give the hoped harvest of our endeavors."
"And thou noble Lord, who God has stirred up to neglect the pleasure of England, and with Abraham, to go from thy country, and forsake thy kindred, and thy father's house, and to goe to a land which God will show thee, give me leave to speak the truth. Thy ancestor, many hundred years ago, gained great honour to thy house: but by this action thou augmentest it. He tooke a king prisoner in the field in his own land; but, by the Godly managing of this business, though shalt take the divell prisoner in the open field, and in his owne Kingdome. Nay, the Gospel which thou carriest with thee, shall binde him in [15/16] chaines, and his angels in stronger fetters than iron, and execute upon them the judgment that is written: Yea, it shall lead Captivity Captive, and redeeme souls of men from bondage. And thus, thy glory and honour of thy house, is more at the last than at the first--Look not at the gaine, the wealth, the honour, the advancement of thy house that may follow, and fall upon thee: but look at those high and better ends that concerne the Kingdome of God. Remember thou art a Generall of Englishmen, nay a Generall of Christian men: therefore, principally looke to Religion. You go to commend it to the heathen: then practise it yourselves; make the name of Christ honorable, not hateful to them. Suffer no Papists; let them not nestle there; nay, let the name of the Pope, or Poperie be never heard in Virginia. Take heed of Atheists, the Divel's champions; and if thou discover any, make them examplaire. And (if I may be so bold as to advise) make Atheisme, and other blasphemie Capitall, and let that be the first law in Virginia. Suffer no Brownists, nor factious Separatists: let them keep their conventicles elsewhere; let them go and convert some other heathen, and let us see if they can constitute such churches really, the ideas whereof they have fancied in their branes; and when they have given us such example we may then have some cause to follow them. Till then, we will take our patterne from their betters. Especially suffer no sinful, no leaud, no licentious men, none that live not under the obedience of good laws: and let your laws be strict, especially against swearing and other prophaneness--Let the Sabbath be wholly, and holily, observed, and public praires daily frequented, idleness eschewed, and mutinies carefully prevented" &c. Brown's Genesis, pp. 371-2-3.
As a consequence of the heroic efforts made by the company at the date of the Crashaw sermon, and ever since, strenously, continued, Lord Delaware, under the 2nd charter of May 23rd, 1609, was appointed Governor General for life with Sir Thomas Gates as Lieutenant General; Sir George Somers, Admiral and Christopher Newport as Vice Admiral. As Lord Delaware could not leave England until after January 1610-11, Gates, Somers and Newport, were dispatched from [16/17] Falmouth, on the 8" of June 1609, with seven ships and two pinnaces carrying five hundred people (500) people. Gates, Somers and Newport, each having a commission to supercede the old one, being unable to settle the order of precedence between them, if they should reach Jamestown at different times, to prevent this jealous point of precedence, they determined to sail, and did sail; all on the same vessel,--The Sea Venture,--with her hundred and fifty persons. Amongst these were the Reverend Richard Buck, William Strachey, Ralph Hamor Jr., and John Rolfe--men destined to have large influence upon the subsequent history of Virginia. (Arber's Smith, p. 478, Hamor's Book & Strachey's Travels, Brown's Genesis p. 347. Force's Tracts, Vol. 3. The True Declaration and Anderson's Colonial Church p. 201.)
The balance of the fleet with Smith's old enemies, Ratcliffe, Martin, and Archer, was commanded by Nelson, Adams, Moore, King, Davis, Wood and Webb. (Arber. xcv. p. 479.)
"On the 23" of July, a terrible storm overtook them, and scattered the whole fleet," so that, each was absolutely lost to all the others. On the 7", the 11", and on subsequent days in August, that portion of the fleet containing Ratcliff, Martin, Archer and others reached Virginia on different days, in detached sections, and in wretched condition. They brought, "and landed near four hundred people:" but the Sea Venture, with Gates, Somers, and Newport, "with her hundred and fifty men" was totally missing.
A new charter having been granted, new officers having been appointed, the commission of Smith was, of course, superceded. The absence of Gates, Somers, and Newport, left Virginia without an official head, that all would be compelled to recognize, and obey. Ratcliffe, Martin, and Archer, fresh from England with a thorough knowledge of the 2nd charter, and of the revocation of the first, made the life of Smith miserable with their factions and denials of his authority. The awful accident to him in September, (when he was blown up with gunpowder and terribly lacerated,) made it necessary for him (as his authority to govern was revoked), to leave Virginia, and seek surgical aid in England. He left on the 4" of October 1609, and then began that fearful reign of Ratcliffe, Martin, [17/18] and Archer, which culminated in "The Starving Time" of the winter 1609-10.
Gates, Somers, and Newport, separated from the balance of the fleet by the storm of the 23d of July, were wrecked upon the Bermudas on the 28th of July, with their "one hundred and fifty men," amongst whom was Buck, Strachey, Hamor and Rolfe as before mentioned.
They remained upon the Bermudas until the 10" of May 1610--a period of ten months--and then left in their two cedar vessels, the Sea Venture and the Patience. They reached Virginia on the 21" of May; and all of the "490 and odde persons" (Arber p. 167) whom Smith had in the preceding October, left in peace and plenty, they found only sixty miserable wretches, scarcely able to stand, who "had eaten the very skins of their horses," dead and buried Indians, and a murdered wife (Arber's Smith, p 498 Brown's Genesis, p. 408. Force's Tract.)
"The first place which Gates--the Lieutenant General--visited upon landing, was the ruined and unfrequented church," where they had services by the Rev Mr. Buck--the faithful and worthy successor of the Rev. Robert Hunt.
As the condition of the Colony, was vastly different from that which Gates and Somers and Newport, expected to find, as they had, on starving rations, only fourteen days' supply, they held a consultation with the walking skeletons of Jamestown, "and being in dispaire of any present supply," they determined to abandon the country, and to seek food at Newfoundland until they could return to England. So on the 7" of June he (Gates) caused every man to repaire aboard, "and was himself the last of them, when, about noon giving a fare well with a peale of small shot he sett sayle, and that night, with the tide fell down to an island in the river, which our people here call Hogg Island, and next morning, the tide brought them to another island, which they have called Mulbery Island, at which time they discovered the long boat" of Lord Delaware; who had, on the 1" of April, "departed the Cowes in the Isle of Wight with three good shipps and one hundred and fifty persons to leave as planters in Virginia." Brown's Genesis, p. 406.
 On the 8", Gates, with his fugitive colonists, returned to Jamestown, and "on the 10", says Lord Delaware, "being Sunday, he brought up his shipp, and in the afternoon went ashore, where after a sermon by Mr. Buck, Sir Thomas Gates, his preacher, I caused my commission to be read." Id. p. 407. This was all that the modesty of Lord Delaware would allow him to say, but from Strachey, who was secretary of the state, and of the council under him, we learn that he landed at the South gate of the palisado; that Gates, the Lieutenant Governor, and the few remaining survivors, were drawn up under arms to receive him: and before he showed any token, or performed any act, of authority, he fell down upon his knees, and, in the presence of all the people, made a long and silent prayer to himself; after which, he arose, and marching in procession to the town, passed on into the church, where he heard a sermon preached by the clergyman whose name has already been mentioned; and whose services, both at Bermudas, and upon his arrival at Jamestown, have been noted. At the conclusion of divine service, the commission by which his Lordship was to act as the Captain General of the Colony was read: the seals of his deputies were surrendered to him; and he addressed to the assembly a few words of admonition, and encouragement. Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 215.
He adds, "The Captain General hath given order for the repairing of (the church), and at this instant many hands are about it. And as it is the successor of the ones described by Smith, it specially deserves our attention. First it was an old saile hung to three or four trees to shadow us from the sun; then "it was a homely thing like a barne," but now, as Strachey describes it, "It is in length threescore foote, in breadth twenty-foure, and shall have a Chancel in it of Cedar; and a Communion Table of Blake Walnut; and all the pewes of Cedar, with faire broad windows, to shut and open; as the weather shall occasion, of the same wood; a pulpit of the same; with a font hewn hollow, like a Canoa, with two Bels at the West-End. It is so cast, as to be very light within, and the Lord Governor and the Captaine General doth cause it to be kept passing sweete, and trimmed up with divers flowers, with a sexton belonging to it; and in it every Sunday we have sermons [19/20] twice a day, and every Thursday a sermon, having true preachers, which take their weekly turns; and every morning, at the ringing of a bell about ten of the clock, every man addresseth himself to prayers, and so at four of the clocke before supper. Every Sunday, when the Lord Governor and the Captaine General goeth to church, hee is accompanied with all the Counsellers, Captaines, other officers; and all the Gentlemen, with a guard of Holberdiers in his Lordship's Livery, faire red clokes to the number of fifty, boath on each side, and behinde him: and being in the church, his Lordship hath his seat in the Quier, in a green velvet chaire, with a cloath, with a velvet cushion spread on the table before him, on which he kneeleth, and on each side set his Counsell, Captaines, and officers, each in their place, and when he returneth home againe, he is waited on to his honse in the same manner." Anderson's Colonial Church, pp. 216-17. Purchas, iv. 1754.
The preacher, who preached before him on his arrival, was the Rev. Richard Buck, (the successor of Robert Hunt) a graduate of Oxford, and recommended to the Bishop of London "as a faithful and zealous minister of the Church of Christ." Id. p. 201.
In 1613, William Crashaw wrote of him, "There is also, (besides it may be some others that I do not know of,) Master Buck, an able and faithful preacher: of whom I can say the lesse, because he was of Oxford, and unknown to me: but of whom I have heard Sir Thomas Gates give a good and worthie testimonie; and he came to the Counsell, and this employment, with the commendation of the Right Reverend Prelate (Dr. Ravis, Lord-Bishop of London). But no matter, though I say nothing of him: seeing, I doubt not he will shortly give notice to the world what he is, and what the country of Virginia is, and what hope there is of that plantation, for the service whereof he hazarded his dearest life, and the rather do I expect it from him, because he is a man now of long experience, having been there so long a time, and was himself, in person, in the danger and deliverance at the Bermudas." Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 209.
The same sentiments of Nova Britannia, and of Crashaw's sermon, are proclaimed in "A True and Sincere Declaration [20/21] Set Forth by the authority of the Governors and the Councellors established for that plantation," on December 14" 1609.
It declares, that "it is reserved, and onely proper to Divine wisdome to foresee and ordaine both the endes and the ways of every action. In humaine prudence it can only be required, to propose Re1igious and Noble and feasable ends"-- The Principal and Maine ends--were first to preach and baptize into Christian Religion, and by propagation of the Gospel to receive out of the arms of the Divell, a number of poore and miserable soules, wrapt up unto death, in almost invincible ignorance: to endeavor the fulfilling, and accomplishment of the number of the elect, which shall be gathered from out all corners of the earth; and to add our myte to the Treasury of Heaven, that as we pray for the coming of the Kingdome of Glory, so to express our actions, the same desire, if God have pleased, to use so weak instruments, to the ripening and consummation thereof."--
"We have concluded, and resolved, to set forth the Right Honor: the Lord de la Warr by the last of January, and to give him all the liberties and privileges which we have power to derive upon him, and to furnish him with all necessaries fit for his quality, person, and the business he shall undergo and so, by God's grace, to persist until we have made perfect our good and happy beginnings." Brown's Genesis, pp. 339 & 350.
It was, in this Declaration, that they advertised for "Foure honest and learned ministers." Id. p. 363.
The True Declaration of the Estate in Virginia, written, evidently, by a clergyman, who came with Lord Delaware, and published "by order of the Councell in Virginia in 1610," is another elaborate appeal to all the best and highest motives that can actuate man. It says, "Never had any people more just cause to cast themselves at the foot-stoole of God, and to reverence his mercy, than our distressed Colony; for if God had not sent Sir Thomas Gates from the Bermudas within four daies, they had all been famished; if God had not directed the heart of that worthy Knight, to save the Fort from fire at their shipping, they had been destitute of a present harbor, and succor: if they had abandoned the Fort any longer time and had not so soone returned, question lesse the Indians [21/22] would have destroyed the Fort, which had been the means of our safety among them, and a terror to them. If they had set saile sooner, and had launched into the Vast Ocean, who could have promised, that they should have encountered the Fleet of Lord La-Ware; especiolly, when they made for the New-found land, a course contrary to our Navies apsroaching. If the Lord La-Ware had not brought with him a yeares provision, what comfort could those soules have received to have been relanded to a second destruction" Force's Tracts, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 19. "And he that desireth to purchase infallible hope of private utility: he that aimeth at the honor and wealth of his native country: he that esteemeth his own repute as deere as his own eyes: he that endeavoreth to enlarge the dominions of his Prince, and the Kingdome of his God; let him remember what he had already spent, which is all buried: let him consider the consequences of state which are all vanished into smoke; let him conceive what a scorn we shall be made to the maligners of our state abroad, and our ill-affected at home: let him meditate the external riches of other Kingdomes, able to buy and sell the monarch of the West; let him heare the triumphant boasting of the Beast of Rome, as though God would not suffer our schismaticall and hereticall Religion to be infused into a new converted Religion. O all ye worthies, follow the ever-sounding trumpet of a blessed honour: Let Religion be the first aim of your hopes and caetera adjicientur and other things shall be added unto you: Your names shall be registered to posterity with a glorious title: These are the men, whom God raised up to augment the state of their countrey, and to propagate the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Id. p. 26,
The circular letter, that was sent forth by the Virginia Council, in London on February 10" 1610 (O. S.), said "The eyes of all Europe are looking upon our endeavors to spread the Gospell among the Heathen people of Virginia; to plant our English nation there; and to settle at in those parts which may be peculiar to our nation, so that, we may, thereby, be secured from being eaten out of all profits of trade by our more industrious neighbors."
" All of which we leave to your judicious considerations, [22/23] and only importune your speedy resolutions, that according to warrants of our duty we may either wash our hands from further care, or cheerfully embrace strength from you to the furtherance of this action, that tends so directly to advance the glory of God, the honor of our English Nation and the profit and security, in our judgment, of this Kingdome." Brown's Genesis, p. 465.
William Box, writing in 1611, describes the daily habits, and service, with particularity. He said, "they worked from six o'clock in the morning until ten, and from two in the afternoon till four; at both which times they are provided of spirituall and corporal reliefe. First, they enter into the Church, and make their praires unto God; nexte they return to their houses, and receive their propotion of food." Thus having divine services twice a day, at 10 A. M., and at 4 P. M. Id. p. 502.
We have seen the acts of John Smith in 1607; we have seen the acts of Sir Thomas Gates, Lieutenant Governor, May 21st, 1610; we have seen the acts of Lord La Warr, Governor-General, June 10th, 1610. We shall now see the Acts of Sir Thomas Dale, High Marshall of Virginia, May 12th, 1611.
Lord Delaware, on account of ill health, left Virginia about the 2" of May 1611; and on the 12" of May, Sir Thomas Dale, high Marshall of Va., landed at Old Point, and "being Sunday in the afternoon when I landed and first repairing to the church (the company thither assembled) Mr. Poole gave us a sermon." On the 21", he went "up unto the Falls wards to search and advise upon a seate for a New Towne, which was afterwards known as Henrico or Henriopolis. Brown's Genesis, pp. 491-2. He brought with him to Virginia, and carried with him to Henriopolis the Rev. Alexander Whitaker, who was, as we are told, by William Crashaw in 1613, "a son of the reverend renowned Dr. Whitaker; a master of arts of five or six years standing in Cambridge: was seated in the North Country where he was well approved by the greatest; and beloved of his people; and had competent allowance to his good liking; and was in good possibility of better living, as any of his time:" "who was a scholar, a graduate, a Preacher well borne, and friended in England, not in debt, nor disgrace, but competently [23/24] provided for, and liked, and beloved where he lived, not in want, (but for a scholar and as the days be), rich in possession, and more in possibilitie, of himself without any persuasion (but God's and his own heart) did voluntarily leave his warme nest, and to the wonder of his kindred, and the amazement of them that knew him, undertooke this hard, but in my judgment, heroicall resolution to go to Virginia, and help to beare the name of God unto the Gentiles." Brown's Genesis, p. 614.
On the 9" of August 1611, Whitaker wrote to Crashaw from Jamestown "Only I think that the Lord has spared this people, and inriched the bowells of the country, with riches and bewty of nature, that, we, wantinge them, might in search of them, communicate the most excellent merchandise and treasure of the Gospell with them. God hath, heretofore, most horribly plagued our countrimen with famine, death, the sword and so forth, for the sins of our men were intolerable. I marvell that God did not sweepe them away all at once, then that he did in such a manner punishe them."--As for me, God hath dealt mercifully with me, beyond my friends opinion, and my owne hopes. My coming hither was prosperous, and my continuance here hath been Answerable. I think I have fared better for your prayers and the rest. If there be any Godly and learned ministers, whom the Church of England hath not, or refuseth, to sett a worke, send them hither. Our harvest is froward and great for want of such. Younge men are fittest for this country, and we have noe need of ceremonies, or bad livers. Discretion and learning, zeal with knowledge would doe much good." Brown's Genesis, p. 500.
In 1613, his "Good News from Virginia"-- a long, learned, able, and enthusiastic paper, with a dedicatory epistle by Wil-Crashaw, was published by the London Company. It closes with a noble appeal to the "right wise and noble adventurers" of Virginia, "whose hearts God hath stirred up to build him a Temple, to make him an house, to conquer a Kingdome for him heere; be not discouraged with these many lamentable assaults that the divell hath made against us; he now rageth most, because he knoweth this Kingdome is to have a short end. Goe forward bodly, and remember you fight under the banner of Jesus Christ, that you plant his Kingdome, who [24/25] hath already broken the Serpent's head. God may defer his temporal reward for a season, but he assured, that, in the end, you shall find riches and honor in this world, and blessed immortality in the world to come. And you, my brethren, my fellow laborers, send up your earnest prayers to God for his Church in Virginia, that since his harvest here is great, but the laborers are few, he would thrust forth his laborers into the harvest; and pray also for me, that the ministration of his Gospell may be powerful and effectual by me to the salvation of many, and the advancement of the Kingdome of Jesus Christ, to whom with the Father, and the Holy Spirit bee all honor and glorie for evermore. Amen." (Brown's Genesis, p. 588.)
In 1614, he wrote his "very deere and cozen Master George," Master of the Black Friars, in London, "But I much more muse, that, so few of our English ministers, that were so hot against the Surplis and the subscription come hither, where neither are spoken of. Doe they, either, wilfully hide their tallents, or keep themselves at home for fear of loosing a few pleasures? But, I referre them to the Judge of all hearts, and to the King, that shall reward everyone, according to the gaine of his talents. But you, my cozen, hold fast that which you have, and I, though my promise of three years service to my country be expired, will abide in my vocation here, until I be lawfully called hence. And so, betaking us all unto the mercies of Christ, in God, I rest for ever." (Brown's Genesis, p. 747. Smith's History of Va., Vol. 2, p. 22. Neil's Va. Co. of London, pp 75-6. Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 241. Purchas, iv. p. 1770.)
In 1616, Whitaker was at Bermuda Hundreds, William Wiekham was at Henrico, Richard Buck was at Jamestown, and William Mease (or Mays) at Kignotan. (Brown's Genesis, p. 782. Meade's Old Churches, Vol. 2, p. 432, Rolfe's Letter.)
Glover, who was with Gates in 1611, lived only a few years. Crashaw says of him: He endured not the sea sickness of the countrey, so well as the younger and stronger bodies: and so, after zealous and faithful performance of his ministeriall dutie, whilst he was able, he gave his soule to Christ Jesus (under whose banner he went to fight: and for whose glorious name [25/26] he undertooke the danger) more worthy to be accounted a true confessor of Christ, than hundred that are canonized in the Pope's martyrologie. (Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 225. Brown's Genesis, vol. v., p. 619.)
Whitaker, was, according to the statement of John Rolfe, living in 1616; and, according to the report of Argall, he was drowned in 1617, in the James, near to the Bermuda Hundreds. (Neil's Virginia Co., pp. 82 & 110, and Rolfe's Letter to the King, Meade, vol. 2. p. 432.)
Crashaw, speaking of the early ministers, says: 'So that, now we see to our comfort, the God of heaven found us out, and made us, readie to our hands, able and fit men, for the ministeriall function in this Plantation; all of them Graduates, allowed preachers, single men, having no Pastorall cures, nor charge of children; and, as it were, every way fitted for that worke. And because God would more grace this businesse, and honour his owne worke, he provided us such men as wanted neither living nor libertie of preaching at home: more in my judgment have they to answer for, who wanting both, will not only go themselves, but disparage and deprave them that go. Hereafter, when all is settled in peace and plentie, what marvell, if many and greater than they be willing to goe? But, in the infancie of this Plantation, to put their lives in their hands, and, under the assurance of so many dangers and difficulties, to devote themselves unto it, was certainly a holy, and heroicall, resolution; and proceeded, undoubtedly, from the blessed spirit of Jesus Christ, who, for this cause, appeared that he might dissolve the works of the divell. And though Satan visibly and palpably raignes there, more than in any other knowne place in the world: yet be of courage, blessed brethren, "God will treade Satan under your feet shortly;" and the ages to come will eternize your names as the Apostles to Virginia.' (Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 238.)
[* In the Puritan Church we hear a great deal of John Robinson, William Brewster, Cotton Mather, and any College graduate they can lay their hands on:
In the Presbyterian Church we hear a great deal of William Robinson, Samuel Davies, and the Log College or the Tennants: But who ever heard of a minister of the Church of England in America who had ever seen Oxford or Cambridge, or any thing more dignified than a bowl of brandy and a pack of cards?]
 The "New life in Virginia," declaring the former successe and present estate of that plantation, being the second part of Nova Britannia, and published in 1612, by authority of his majesty's Counsell of Virginia, is an expression of all of the sentiments of the earlier publication. [Force's Tracts, Vol. 1, No. VII.]
Ralph Hamor, Jr., John Rolfe and William Strachey, and Richard Buck, were wrecked, with Gates, Somers and Newport, upon "the stormy Bermudas;" and, they came with them to Virginia. Hamor and Rolfe, in all probability, resided at Henrico; and Strachey, after his appointment, by Lord Delaware, as Secretary of the Colony, and the Rev. Richard Buck, resided at Jamestown. Hamor, the second secretary of the Colony, in his book giving the affairs of the Colony down to the 18" of June 1614, besides his own narration, gives the letter of Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale on his proposed marriage to Pochahontas; Dale's letter to a minister in London, and Whitaker's letter to his cousin, M. G., minister of the B. F. in London.
All of these are full of the sentiments that we have been considering.
Hamor says, "What is more excellent, more precious, more glorious, than to convert a heathen nation, from worshiping the Devil to the saving knowledge and true worship of God in Christ Jesus? What more praiseworthy, and charitable, than to bring a savage people, from barbarity, into civility? What more honorable, unto our country, than to reduce a far, disjointed, foreign, nation under the due obedience of our dread sovereign, the King's Majesty? What more convenient, than to have good seats abroad, for our over-flowing multitudes of people at home? What more profitable, than to purchase great wealth, which most, nowadays gape after over greadily? All which benefits are to be had, and obtained, by well and plentifully upholding of the plantation in Virginia."
Sir Thomas Dale, in his letter of the 18" of June, 1614, from Henrico, to his minister friend in London, says, "I have undertaken, and have as faithfully, and with all my might, endeavored the prosecution (of the work in Virginia) with all alacrity as God that knoweth the heart can bear me record. [27/28] What recompense, or what reward, by whom, or where I know not where to expect, but from him in whose vinyard I labor, whose church, with greedy appetite, I desire to erect.--
"Powhatan's daughter I caused to be carefully instructed in the Christian religion; who, after she had made some good progress therein, renounced publicly her country's idolatry; openly confessed her Christian faith; was, as she desired, baptised, and is, since married, to an English gentleman of good understanding (as by his letter unto me containing the reasons for his marriage of her you may perceive), another knot to bind the peace the stronger. Her father and friends gave approbation to it; and her uncle gave her to him in the church: she lives civilly, and loving, with him, and I trust will increase in goodness, as the knowledge of God increases in her. She will go to England with me, and were it but the gaining of this one soul, I will think my time, and toil, and present stay, well spent."
Alexander Whitaker, in his letter of June 18," 1614, "to his very dear and loving cousin M. G. minister of the B. F. in London" says, "Sir, the Colony here is much better. Sir Thomas Dale, our religious and valient Governor, hath now brought that to pass, which could never before be effected. For by war upon our enemies, and kind usage of our friends, he hath brought them to seek for peace of us, which is made, and they dare not to break. But that which is best, one Pocahontas, or, Matoa, the daughter of Powhatan, is married to an honest, and discreet English gentleman, Mr. Rolfe; and that, after she had openly renounce her country's idolatry, confessed the faith of Jesus Christ, and was baptised, which thing, Sir Thomas Dale had labored a long time to ground her in."
Sir Thomas Dale, (with whom I am) is a man of great knowledge in Divinity, and of a good conscience in all his doings: both which be rare in a martial man. Every Sabbath day we preach in the forenoon, and catechise in the afternoon. Every Saturday, at night, I exercise in Sir Thomas Dale's house. Our church affairs be consulted on by the minister, and four of the most religious men. Once, every month, we have a communion; and once a year, a solemn Fast. For me, (though my promise of three years' service to my country be [28/29] expired,) yet I will abide in my vocation here, until I be, lawfully, called from hence. And so betaking us all unto the mercies of God in Christ Jesus, I rest forever."
Pocahontas was captured by Argall in April 1613. An instant demand was made upon Powhatan, to ransom her, with the surrender of the eight Englishmen he held in captivity; and the delivery of the "swords, guns, and tools treacherously taken." She was not ransomed, and in March 1614, Dale, with one hundred and fifty men, in "Argall's ship, and other vessels," sailed up the York to enforce compliance with previous demands. Rolfe and Pochahontas accompanied him on the expedition. At Matchcot--the White House now--Rolfe and Sparks were dispatched to Powhatan to deliver the ultimatum of Dale, whilst two of Powhatan's sons were held as hostages for Rolfe and Sparks. At that moment, Hamor put Rolfe's letter in the hands of Sir Thomas Dale, who in consequence of it, granted an armistice till the Fall. Before the Fall came, Rolfe and Pochahontas were married, the grim and savage monarch of the forests was mollified, and peace was proclaimed throughout the dominion of Powhatan. Rolfe's letter to the Governor, is an elaborate presentation of his reasons for desiring to marry Pochahontas, showing that it "was for the good of the plantation, for the honor of our country, for the glory of God, for my own salvation, and for the converting to the knowledge of God, and Jesus Christ, an unbelieving creature, namely Pochahontas, to whom my hearty and best thoughts are, and have a long time been so entangled, and enthralled in so intricate a labarinth, that I was even wearied to unwind myself thereout.--I never failed to offer my daily, and faithful, prayers to God for his sacred and holy assistance." He was moved "by her appearance of love to me, her desire to be taught and instructed in the knowledge of God; her capableness of understanding, her aptness and willingness to receive any good impression, also the spiritual."--And in conclusion he says, "I humbly submit myself for the glory of God, your honour, our country's good, and the benefit of the plantation, and for the converting of one unregenerate to regeneration, which I beseech God to grant for his dear son Christ Jesus' sake." [29/30] (Hamor's Book. Arber's Smith, p. 512, and Brown's Genesis, p. 640, et. seq.)
In the relation of Samuel Argall, and John Rolfe, describing the habits of the colonists in 1618, we are told that on the Sunday following the killing of Killingbeek by the Chicahominies, one Fairfax, that dwelt a mile from the towne, (Jamestown) going to church, left his wife and three small children safe at home, as he thought; and a young youth, she supposing praier to be done, left the children and went to meet her husband; presently after, came three or four of those savages, entered the house, and slew a boy and three children, and also another youth that stole of the church in praier time, meeting them, was likewise murdered. [Arber's Smith 558.] Those people were not afraid to worship God, with the Indians at their doors. The men that shattered the power of Powhatan and Opecancanough, not only drove the Indians from the York, and the James, the Rappahannock and the Potomac; but, also, so entirely from Virginia, that when in 1716, Spotswood and his knights of the Golden Horse Shoe, first beheld the valley of Virginia it "was then entirely uninhabited by the Indians." (Waddell's Annals of Augusta Co., p. 6.)
Not only was that true, but, "when improvements were begun to be made in the Wilderness of North-western Virginia, it had been almost entirely deserted by the natives; and excepting a few straggling hunters and warriors, who occasionally traversed it, in search of game, or of human beings, on whom to reak their vengence, almost its only tenants were wild beasts of the forest." (Border Warfare, by Withers.)
But this was not the case when John Smith and Robert Hunt planted the Church of England upon the James, right in the face of, and surrounded by, the powerful Powhatan, his (32) thirty two Kings, and his ten thousand confederates. Then it was, that the widow, and the child, were slain right under the very shadows of the Church and the peaceful citizens by the 347, (March 22" 1619) and the 500 or 600 a day (April 18" 1644).
The Pilgrims landed in New England on the 21st of December 1620, and they never saw an Indian (except at a safe [30/31] distance) until 16th of March 1621, when Samoset, a peaceful Indian, greeted them in broken English, and bade them welcome (The story of the Pilgrim Fathers, by Arber, p. 450).
The power of the Indians was so broken in Virginia, in 1644 by Berkeley, and again, in 1676 by Nathanael Bacon Jr., that there was not an Indian in the Valley of Virginia, when it was settled, except a stray one; and yet, what historian of Puritan, or Scotch-Irish descent ever mentioned these facts, to the credit of those brave men, who settled Tide-Water Virginia, and gave to her, all of the history, all the civilization, and all the religion, she had prior to about 1740-45? (Waddell's Annals, p. 23-36.)
The arrival of a few Huguenots in 1700 (some 500), and the settlement of some Scotch Irish, chiefly in two counties, Rockbridge and Augusta, [*The German people generally located in the region now known as Shenandoah, Page and Rockingham. (Waddell's Annals, p. x.)] about 1740 or 1745, [*The grant to Beverley was not made until Aug. 12th, 1736, and the County Court of Augusta was not organized until October 30th, 1745. (Waddell's Annals, p. 14 and 26.) The Vestry Book of Augusta County begins on the 7th of April, 1747. (R. S. T.)] has led to the claim of all religious and civil liberties, in 1776, as due to them; but, there was a religion as pure and undefiled at Jamestown in 1619, as there ever was at Manakintown or Staunton, or Lexington, at the date of their settlement, or since.
Their sentiments are reflected in the enactments of the first legislative assembly that ever convened on this continent, viz: at Jamestown, on the 30th of July 1619, whose laws were and are an everlasting honor to this colony.
The record asserts that "that the most convenient place we could finde to sit in, was the Quire of the Church [what Church?--that cedar Church of Lord De La Warr]--where Sir George Yeardley, the Governor, being set down in his accustomed place, those of the Council of Estate sat nexte to him on both handes, except only the Secretary, then appointed Speaker, who sat right before him. John Twine, clerk of the General Assembly, being placed next the speaker, and Thomas Pierce, the Sergeant, standing at the barre, ready for any service the Assembly should command him. But for as much as men's affairs do little prosper, where God's service is neglected, [31/32] all the Burgesses took their places in the Quire, till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the minister, that it would please God to guide, and sanctifie, all our proceedings to his own glory; and to the good of the plantation. Prayer being ended, to the intente, that, as we had begun at God Almighty, so we might proceed with awful and due respect towards the Lieutenant, our most gracious and dreaded Sovereigne, all Burgesses were entreated to retire themselves into the body of the church; which, being done before they were fully admitted, they were called in order, and name, and so every man, (none staggering at it) took the oath of Supremacy, and then enterred the Assembly," and then began to enact laws suitable to the state and condition of the colony. Besides enacting laws concerning Idleness, Gaming, Swearing, Drunkenness, Excessive Apparel, Christenings, Burials, Marriages, Incontinence, "or, any other enormous sins," it was also enacted that all ministers shall read devine service, &c.
"Be it also enacted that "All ministers shall duly read divine service, and exercise their ministerial function according to the Ecclesiastical laws and orders of the Church of England; and every Sunday, in the afternoon, shall catechize such as are not yet ripe to come to the communion, and, whoever of them small be found negligent, or faulty, in this kinds, shall be subject to the censure of the Governor, and Council of Estate."
"The ministers, or church-wardens shall seek to present all ungodly disorders, the committers whereofe if, upon goode admonitions, and milde reproofe, they will not forbeare, the said scandalous offences, as suspicions of whoredomes, dishonest company, keeping with women and such like, they are to be presented, and punished accordingly."
"All persons whatsoever, upon the Sabbath days, shall frequent divine service, and sermons both forenoon and afternoon, and all such as beare arms shall bring their pieces, swords, powder and shot. And every one that shall transgress this law, shall forfeite three shillings a time to the use of the church; all lawful and necessary impediments excepted. But if a servant, in this case, shall wilfully neglect his master's commands, he shall suffer bodily punishment."
 "No injury, or oppression, be wrought by the English against the Indians, whereby the present peace might be disturbed, and antient quarrels might be revived."
"That, for laying a surer foundation of the conversion of the Indians to Christian Religion, eache towne, city, burrough, and particular plantation, do obtaine unto themselves, by just means, a certaine number of the natives' children, to be educated by them, in true religion and civilized course of life--of which children, the most towardly boyes in witt and graces of nature, to be brought up by them in the first elements of literature, so to be fitted for the College intended for them, that from thence they may be sent to that work of conversion."
All of these subjects had long been matters of the deepest concern to the London Company, and they had, to their utmost, promoted them in every possible manner.
They even solicited, and engaged the interest of the King, to such an extent, that he, about this time, addressed the following letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury. (Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 255.)
"Most Reverend Father in God, right trustie and well beloved Counsellor, We greet you well."
"You have heard, ere this time, of ye attempt of diverse Worthie men our Subjects to plant in Virginia, (under ye warrant of our L'res patents) People of this Kingdome, as well as for ye enlarging of our Dominions, as for propagation of ye Gospell amongst Infidels; wherein there is good progresse made, and hope of further increase; so as the undertakers of that Plantation are now in hand with the erecting of some Churches and Schooles for ye education of ye children of those Barbarians, which, cannot but be, to them, a very great charge; and above the expence which, for the civill plantation, doth come to them. In which we doubt not but that you and all others who wish well to the increase of Christian Religion will be willing to give all assistance and furtherance you may, and therein to make experience of the zeal and devotion of our well minded subjects, especially those of ye Clergie. Wherefore wee doe require you, and hereby authorize you to write your Letters to ye severall Bishops of ye Dioceses in your [33/34] Province, that they do give order to the Ministers, and other zealous men of their Dioceses, both by their owne example in contribution, and by exhortation to others, to move our people within their several charges, to contribute to so good a Worke in as liberall a manner as they may, for the better advancing whereof our pleasure is that those Collections be made in all the particular parishes, four several tymes, within these two years next coming: and that the severall accounts of each parish, together with the moneys collected, be returned from time to time, to ye Bishops of ye Dioceses; and by them be transmitted half yearly, to you; and so be delivered to the Treasurer of that Plantation, to be employed for the Godly purposes intended, and no other."
Under this letter, fifteen hundred pounds (£1500) sterling were collected for the purposes mentioned; and Dr. King, the Bishop of London, collected, and paid in, one thousand pounds (£1000) ster1ing in addition. This is £2500, and when we remember that a pound sterling is about equal to five dollars in our money, and that a dollar then was worth about five times what it is now, it makes the amount collected equal to about $62.500 in our money--a very handsome collection by the Church for the College in Virginia." (Anderson's Colonial Church, p. 255. Stith's His.of Va., p. 173. Va. Vetusta, p. 167. Perry's Collections Virginia, etc.)
On October 13", 1618, Mrs. Mary Robinson gave, by her will, for a church in Virginia, the sum of £200 (Va. Vetusta, p. 169.)
On July 21" 1619, an unknown person gave for the college in Virginia: A communion cup with cover and case, a luncher plate for bread, a carpet of crimson velvet, and a linen damask cloth. (Va. His. Collections, Vol. 7, p. 13.)
In the same year, the Company gave 10,000 acres of land for the University to be planted in Henrico, and 1,000 acres for the college, for "the conversion of infidels." (Id. p. 22.)
In 1620, a person who signed himself "Dust and Ashes," but who was, afterwards, ascertained to be Gabriel Barber, gave £550 in new gold for the College, and later offered £450 more. (Id. pp. 42-5, 163.)
 In the same year, another person unknown gave £10.
In April, 1620, Mr. Nicholas Ferrar gave by will the sum of £300 "to converting infidel children in Virginia," (Id. pp. 54-68.) and in addition £24 yearly.
In November, 1620, "a stranger" gave books to the college in Virginia. (Id. p. 94.)
In the same year, another party, unknown, gave £75, and afterwards £25 in gold. (Id. p. 165.)
In 1621, Rev. Mr. Copeland collected on his ship, the Royal James, the sum of £70 towards "the church, or school in Virginia," and an unknown person also gave £30 to the same purpose. (Id. pp. 46-7.)
In April, 1620, Mr. George Thorpe, a cousin of Sir Thomas Dale, was selected as the manager of the college. He was "a gentleman of his Majesty's privy chamber, and one of his council for Virginia." (Id. p. 54.) "He was a worthy, pious, religious gentleman, and both in command, and in desert, one of the Principal in Virginia." (Stith, p. 211.) He was the President of the first College the world ever saw for the education and conversion of the Indian, and he sacrificed his life to their good.
The ministers who came to Virginia, up to the time we have been considering, are so far as known to me: Robert Hunt, came in 1607, Richard Buck, ---- Poole, ---- Glover, Alex. Whitaker, William Wickam, successor to Whitaker, William Mease, or Mays. (Va. Co. of L., p. 139.)
Jonas Stocklin, came in 1621, successor to Stocklin. Francis Bolton, came in 1621, successor to Stockton [Id. p. 222.]
Thomas Bargrave, came in 1617, nephew to the Dean of Canterbury. George Keith, came in 1617. Samuel Macock, came in 1619, Cambridge scholar. David Sandis, came in 1620 [p. 139].
Haut Wyatt came in 1621, "Brother of Sir Francis Wyatt, master of arts and a good divine" [p. 222.]
Thomas White, came in 1621 [p. 248.]
---- Paulett, came in 1621 [p. 311.]
 ---- Pemberton, came in 1621. ---- Launce, came in 1621. ------ Hopkins, came in 1621 [p. 314].
With the Virginia Company of London proclaiming its sentiments upon the subject of Religion in its charters, and in every paper it ever published, or inspired; with the Church of England engaged in as pure missionary work as the world ever saw; with ministers as learned and as zealous, as ever followed the banner of the Cross in any land: with Colonists worshipping God on sea and on land, in the open air, in churches of sails, of sedge and earth, and of cedar; with the General Assembly of Virginia invoking the blessing of God on our labors, and expressing in solemn enactments, its sense of its duty to God, and to man; I leave it to you to say, whether your earliest ancestors were, in the main, as religious a set of men as ever settled any colony or state, from 1607 down to the present day; or, whether they were the base, the abandoned, and the dissolute and the godless set of men that they are usually represented to be.
R. S. THOMAS.