THE breaking up of the Indian Mission did not leave the worker inactive. Almost at once, new plans were formed, new work undertaken, and a new, and still flourishing, Institution was founded at Faribault. The first allusions to this appear in the following letter:
(September 28th, St. Paul.--To Miss Edwards Your most kind letter, my dear Sister, written on the 12th, inst., has come to hand, and I thank you for its many comforting words. The late communication to the Church papers, on the subject of the Church's work in the Indian field, will, I trust, meet with your approval, for it contains much the same sentiments now expressed by yourself. Another short letter is mailed to-day to the same Church organs, in order to acquaint our friends with our movements in the Red and White fields. The result we have arrived at, will, I trust, be a comfort to them, and reinspire them with the importance of the work we have undertaken.
The Rev. Mr. Peake and the Rev. Mr. Manney (late Chaplain at Fort Ripley) have associated themselves along with me in a work for both the Red and the opening White field of Minnesota. We have chosen a thriving and highly-important interior town to the West of the Mississippi River, by name Faribault, as the centre of a Mission such as Nashotah was in 1841 to the surrounding country of Wisconsin. We also locate at the centre a School of the Prophets, which would have been done long since at St. Paul, where with your offering we bought lands, had not the clergy at Nashotah objected to it, on the ground that both Theological Schools could not at that time be maintained, and in which the Bishop sustained them. We were therefore required to desist; but now the Rev. Dr. Cole is established in the affections and confidence of the Church, and hence the fear of 1850 has no longer any force. The further necessity of a School of the Prophets is made evident by reason of the inadequate supply of Nashotah for this field. Only one graduate of Nashotah has, in all these seven years, entered the field of Minnesota. And when it is considered that Nashotah has had five of Minnesota's Divinity students, of which three are in the Ministry, but serving the Church in other parts, the importance of nursing our own is the more apparent. We intend to open our doors in the White field to the admission of the baptized children of the Chippeways, and there train them apart from the vices of the Whites, and of the Red men of their wilderness home. The land I purchased for the Associate Mission in 1850 remains unsold, and is now held by the "Minnesota Church Foundation," which is a body corporate belonging to the Diocese, and sanctioned by the Convention of the same, to receive all manner of floating Church property, and to apply the same to the uses of their several ends. Among five trustees your Brother Lloyd is one, and he will try to preserve the original intention of the donors intact. This property is now valued at $30,000. The city of St. Paul has been laid out, and is built up, far beyond the Mission-House grounds. An Orphan House will probably be located upon a portion of them, and our future Bishop will probably occupy another part. We have now sixteen working clergymen in Minnesota3 and, notwithstanding a Diocese has been organized, a Bishop cannot be consecrated for us, until we are received into union with the General Church, which can only be done at a General Convention. Hence we are to struggle on in quietness until the Spring of l859- The Romish Church has had a Bishop here for five years; and had there not been the usual obstruction in the way, such as has been so constantly manifested in the history of the Church in this country, we should have had a Bishop in 1853. Seven years will have passed away this Winter since I visited the East, and now, in the interim of our work in the White and Red fields, it is my intention again to go out, and see you all once more. During these last, one beloved sister has been taken to her home from out of your midst, and one of my dear brothers has been called to the same place. In the next seven years, it is most likely that others, if indeed not ourselves, will be called hence. Shall we not then see one another (D. v.) in this life again, to take sweet counsel together and to walk in the House of GOD as friends? Mrs. Breck, our darling and promising Missionary boy "Muhlenberg," and a little Chippeway girl, will accompany me. The last named goes to assist Mrs. Breck in the care of the babe, as well as appear a gem of a child from the woods before our friends. Our new Association will be called the St. Columba Mission, whilst the Church at Faribault will be the "Church of the Good Shepherd."
(September 30th, 1857, St. Columba Mission.--To William Chauncy Langdon, Esq., Washington, District of Columbia.)
Dear Sir: Yours of the 3d September is received, and I comply most cheerfully with your wishes. I have now been laboring five years in the Chippeway field, and have had the civilization as well as the religious culture of the Red Man in direct view. Let me also preface my remarks by acquainting you with these following circumstances of our field of labor, and with the facilities afforded us by the Church for the labor:
The ground we entered upon at Gull Lake, near Crow Wing, in 1852, had never been preoccupied by any one. We were the first to break ground there in this work. We were not under the patronage of the Government, though later in our history we enjoyed the benefit of the Mississippi Indian School fund for the space of somewhat less than a year. These Chippeways had never been taught to labor, nor had their children ever been within a school-room, prior to our going amongst them. The principal chief, Onewascushish, or The Bad Soy, told me, that I was the first White Man he had ever addressed in public. The band, in council, invited me to come amongst them to be their Missionary and Teacher. My own experience for this calling had been peculiarly great, by reason of the work I had been -pursuing at Nashotah, Wisconsin, and on the frontier, for the previous eleven years. There was also with me one of the best native interpreters in the Chippeway nation, besides both male and female assistants for the school-room, for the domestic department, for the shop, and the field. During these five years, there were $25,000 afforded me by the Protestant Episcopal Church for carrying on the work.
The success we met with for the first three years was remarkable. Men, including Chiefs and braves, went to work with the ax, the hoe, and other implements used in agriculture and carpentry. Women rapidly learned sewing, cookery, washing, ironing, etc. Mission Houses were built, and as many as thirty-five children at one time admitted within their walls for education in the arts and duties of life, as well as in book-learning. These, with many others, had adopted the civilized dress, and manner of life, of the Whites. We had also become the physicians of the nation, whilst the pagan "grand medicine" arts had faded silently away. In a general council they had told me their firm intentions to adopt the civilized life, and to become Christians. Nearly one hundred men, women, and children were already baptized and habited as the Whites. In 1856 the Indian Department offered me the school, &c., at Leech Lake, Minnesota, and another valuable Missionary joined me in my labors.
Up to this period, our work had been in the nation and in the country peculiarly as Indian; that is to say, mixed with the White Man. He was independent of the Whites. But now his country was sold, and only small reservations left to him. The White Man had come in, and brought along with him quantities of fire-water. Neither the Indian Agent nor the whole garrison at Fort Ripley could keep it away from the poor Indian. The lands, before Indian, had become ceded, and the Whites had access in their length and breadth, saving the here and there small reservations of twelve miles square, and even these were traversed by the White Man's roads, much at his will. The Agent and the military were powerless, because no action could be effective against the whisky sellers, unless a civil process were entered upon, and no jury could be found to convict where all jurors were interested men, which has been notoriously the case on our Chippeway frontier.
Now what is the issue? Even that which has ever been, and must ever be, where no law obtains force. The Indian has none, and the White Man will not exercise any for him. The result is therefore quickly to be seen, and terribly felt, by the Missionary and his whole work. Those who have adopted, in their simplicity, the White Man's life, find that they have no redress for injuries done to either their persons or property. Revenge is the Indian's only law. The civilized and Christian Indian, under this, finds a small hope indeed left him. He appeals first to the Missionary for help. His house has been broken up, whilst he has been attending church with his family; or his little farm has been plundered. He knows the offenders, and so does the Missionary. Now for the redress. Where is it? Revenge will not do. It is wholly one-sided in its operations. The wild Indian in fact has nothing to lose. But here is the Agent. Come, let us go to him. But he is not the arbiter between the Indian and the Indian. The Christian and civilized Red Man is the Indian still. Our Government has bound him eternally so, in his tribal and sovereign relationship. The Agent sends him back to his people, and tells him to settle it there. But there is no law, and in consequence no redress. The poor White Indian is henceforth an object of distress and of the deepest commiseration. He must either go back to the wild life, or live on in remorse at his sad lot.
This, Sir, is no overdrawn picture. It is the experience, if men would speak it, of every effort to Christianize and civilize the Red Man beneath our Government. Count me not an enemy in saying this. I am a friend of the Government and of the Red Man too. And if the Government is the friend of the Red Man, she will pursue a policy which will save and not destroy him. It is the absence of law, which is doing the work of destruction. The Indian, in no true sense, either is, or can be, a sovereign people. He is, and can be, nothing beyond a simple ward of the Government, until he is brought into the privileges of our nation. I will not ask these for him in his wild state; but I do entreat of the Government that which alone can make education of any worth to the Red Man, namely, the presence of law. The Red Man cannot originate law; neither can he live without it, if we give him civilization and education. He cannot live neighboring to the White Man without law, even though he should be left utterly savage. He must depart again into the interior.
Now these are the things that more rapidly destroy the Red race than the sword or pestilence. The English Government saves the Indian by bringing him, without treaties, under its roof, where support during his pupilage, and protection by law, are guaranteed to him, and the result shows a thousand to one in its favor over our course. I do not say that We can, or at this late day ought, to change our policy of treaties. But, Sir, if you ask me to afford you "information, either statistical or general, relative to the operations of the Church m the Indian field, as may lie in my power, and also to afford you the benefit of any suggestions which may occur to me in this connection," I do not think I have gone wide of the mark in either what I have written, or in what I shall now close my paper with.
I do say, that after treaties have been made with Indians, and plans for their civilization and education been adopted in the bodies of these treaties, to make them worth anything for the end aimed at, there should be annexed thereto a simple code of laws and an executive. This is far more necessary for the Indian who improves, titan it is for the White Man who lives amongst them as their teacher. At Gull Lake, the vast results obtained, as above written, are now almost destroyed, because there has been no law to build the Indian up in his new life. And at Leech Lake, the Missionary and his whole staff of teachers and-laborers have been ruthlessly driven away, because there has been no security for life in the least semblance of law on the part of either Red Man or White Man. There having been no troops at the time in the whole Chippeway nation, and, if there were, too distant to exercise any ordinary restraint upon a people who were offended with their Chiefs for selling their country, they then rose up against us, because, in carrying out the terms of the treaty, we had made ourselves partisans with their Chiefs. These last have had to conceal themselves up to the present time from the assaults of their own people.
I have now laid before you, Sir, the first and the last evil, which must be the ruin of any civilized and educated people. And forasmuch as our Government aims, in her treaties, at these great objects, in order to benefit and save the Red races of our country, I intreat of her to lay this vast desideratum to heart. Law is, and must ever be, the first principle of the being and self-preservation of any tribe or nation on earth. In the migratory life of the North American Indian, wherein but two or three families go forth together, and only on rare occasions do many of them come together, and then but for a very short season, it may be possible that even a savage race can exist without law. In 1852 I gave my life up to the North American Indian. But the preservation of my life has been a duty more sacred with' me, than the cause that has neither justice nor equity to sustain it. It is my intention to visit Washington during the coming winter, and there to lay this grievance fully before the Great Fathers of the Red Man, who will, I hope, listen to my- entreaties. With the hope that this paper may serve you and your noble cause right well, I am, Sir, &c.
(November 13th, Lansingburgh, N. Y.--To his Uncle Samuel.)
.....On Monday, the 16th inst., it is my intention to reach New York; and, after devoting a week to the Church there, I shall leave for Bristol; and then in a few hours I shall be with you in Philadelphia. My precious wife and son "Muhlenberg," and a little Indian girl, five years of age, constitute my traveling suite. We shall all come and see you at your house, and then our long-cherished wishes will have been consummated. I intend writing to-day to the Rev. Drs. Dorr and Coleman, with request that they make appointments for me on Sunday, the 29th November, which I desire to spend in your city. I am engaged constantly in preaching everywhere amongst our many friends in Western New York and in the Diocese of New York. You will be gratified to know that I am received with a cordial welcome by all the brethren and by the faithful everywhere.
He had been driven from his new Mission among the Indians; and now, before going East, he had visited Faribault, in company with Brothers Manney and Peake, holding Divine Service and administering the Holy Eucharist. To the people of this small village of but a few hundred inhabitants, and so recently settled as not yet to be able to supply themselves with bread--sending trains for almost every thing to Hastings, a place on the Mississippi, which received its supplies of every kind by the steamers--to these people they proposed the founding of a college; and sought to stir up in them the spirit to take an interest in this laudable enterprise, and to aid it up to their ability.
Then the clergy left,--Mr. Breck going to the East, at the same time leaving the interests of the contemplated work in the charge of Brother Wilcoxson.
For months he was absent, seeking to stir up the members of a vast number of congregations in the work of extending the Gospel to the two great fields, the White and the Red, and of educating both for the furtherance of the Kingdom. During all his labors, his heart and mind were upon the work awaiting his return to be begun. His visit was a perfect ovation, fully up to, if not beyond, that extended to him on his first visit. The best of the clergy, of the men and women of the Church, welcomed and greeted him with enthusiasm. And, what shall we say of the students in our seminaries--of young men and maidens in schools of learning, and of the tens of thousands of children in all quarters of the land--who hailed his coming with great delight, and listened to his addresses with the liveliest interest?
On his return, he resolved to make Faribault the centre of his Mission. If there is one thing in his life that brings out the greatness of his Faith, it is the styling his Institution--or his mere beginning of an educational department--"The Bishop Seabury University!" With most men it would have been the height of presumption. But, in his case, all recognized the man of GOD-the Minister of the Blessed JESUS, whose life-aim had been unequalled singleness of purpose. His faith stirred up the hearts of old and young to imitate his virtue, and, by their gifts, to labor with him for CHRIST and the souls of men. His faith moved mountains.
(March 22d, 1858, New London, Connecticut, on board steamboat.--To the Rev. Mr. Wilcoxson.)
.....I have been visiting all our friends, old and young, in the length and breadth of the East and South, as far as Savannah, Ga. Every day I have been occupied with Missionary work, as truly of this character as any I have ever done in the far West. My visit has been one of the highest delight, and in five months' Sunday and week-day services I have not met with an unkind word or look, not even at Alexandria and the Theological Seminary there, which I have visited.
Now, my dear Brother, I am unable to abandon the Indian, whilst a lingering hope remains. I am convinced that the fault is with the policy of our Government, and the unprincipled character of our frontier Whites, that the Red Man cannot be improved. There is hope that the Government will change its policy; and we must abide our time, in the hope of taking advantage of it for the poor Indians' sake. I have therefore determined to remain in the North, and to join unto it the White field, from Swan River northwards.
My visit to Brother Coxe afforded me the greatest delight. We spoke of you with great pleasure, and he was evidently proud of the man whom he had been instrumental in interesting in behalf of Western work. I am now making a "visitation" of Connecticut.
Faribault has done nothing for a Mission College, so far as I have heard. I do not know whether it will be occupied by any of our Association. The subject will be determined upon, doubtless, before the next Convention. I have not been making collections in the churches,--simply diffusing missionary intelligence.
(April 10th, New York City.--To the Rev. Mr. Wilcoxson.)
.....We have not given up Faribault as a White Mission and I desire you to write at once to those interested there, to the effect that a visit may be expected from us in the month of May.
(Fourth Sunday after Easter, Hastings, Minnesota.--To the Misses Edwards.)
It is with the utmost thankfulness that I write again from the far West. Wonderful has been the mercy of GOD, that has preserved me and mine through all this lengthy journey, begun in October last, and but just completed. Not the least accident has befallen us, and everywhere, wide have been the arms that have greeted us. After having kept a number of appointments on the way out, and gathering our forces at Niagara, we took our journey from this last-named point, directly through to Minnesota.
We arrived at Hastings on Saturday, the Feast of St. Philip and St. James, and a beautiful coincidence, without previous arrangement, here met us immediately upon landing. The day before, whilst aboard the steamboat of the Upper Mississippi, I talked about an opening service for our Missionary work, little realizing that it was to be already prepared for us. Hastings had been fixed upon as our best landing, in view of the first work which we had in hand, viz., the location of the White Mission. It was the first spot of Minnesota whereon >we had placed foot at this time. We had but just left the boat to go to our lodgings, when the full notes of the church bell fell upon our ears. It was by previous appointment of the Rector, and it was the churchly custom of this new town, to call these people to keep the Feast. How glad were our hearts to recognize, in this timely service, the provisions of Holy Church for her children everywhere, and the sympathetic chord which vibrated through the whole body of the faithful, by reason of the Spirit, who hath been imparted unto it. The Rector of this parish and neat church was one of my Associates in 1850, the Rev. Mr. Wilcoxson.
(Monday Morning before Breakfast)--To-day we go into the interior, to look for the location of the White Mission. I must therefore bring this word of tidings from the Far West to a close...... I trust, before this reaches you, the likeness of myself will be sent from Philadelphia. Also, a picture of the St. Columba Mission House will be sent through the mail from the West.
(May 10th, St. Columba Mission.--To his Brother Charles) I have deferred replying to yours of the 14th ult., until I could inform you of our safe return into the woods. I thank you very heartily for all your kindness through my late visit. I shall remember it with gratitude and affection during many a weary tramp in these extreme parts of the country. I have already begun these by walking out to St. Columba from Fort Ripley, only the short distance of twenty-two miles, before a proper breakfast had been taken. Give my love to dear Lloyd and to your daughter. Could they have witnessed the affection of these poor people in greeting my return, they would have felt repaid for what they have done in their behalf.
(June 15th, Faribault.--To the Misses Edwards)
I am sure that had you, my dear sisters, been in our church-room to-day (forty feet by twenty-two feet), and had you witnessed the crowded house, but better than this the spirit manifested by all, old and young, and had you heard the responses on this, the fifth Sunday only of our services, you would have felt yourselves repaid I will not say, but encouraged anew in the great work of Church extension. This is the more remarkable, for whilst we have but six communicants in Faribault, and the Romanists have at least 500 baptized out of a population of but 2000, the Puritan descent making up the balance, yet at once we find a body of people, who have for five Sundays, steadily attended our services, nor only so, but have taken the most fervid part in them. Now this spirit has struck me so favorably as to the great future of this central White training school, that I ask your permission to apply the $300 (which you contributed to Kesahgah) here upon a church-room which we intend building the present season. The future church is to be called by the same name as the one we had intended at Kesahgah, the "Church of the Good Shepherd."
Let me say to you that already the ladies of this place are meeting together to work for the future church building, which we hope to erect of stone. We have a day school also begun, taught by one of our female Missionaries, and a candidate for Holy Orders. Our Sunday School has about twenty children in it, and a Bible class numbers eighteen persons, several of whom are married people. Thus you have a glance at our central station. The church-room has in it a bi-daily service of "prayer and praise" for the children of the school and for our three Divinity students. Also the blessed weekly Eucharist, and our dear weekly Brotherhood Office, are spiritual treasures of grace to us here, which is the highest comfort to a frontier Missionary.
But I am not writing you a missionary letter now. Such letters may come along at odd times as I have opportunity for writing. Yesterday Brother Sanford went to one of our stations, fifteen miles distant, and, like a good soldier, simply took his staff in hand and knapsack on back. Next Saturday I go in the same way eighteen miles to Owatonna, where I hope to find at least one Churchman. These times remind me of good old Nashotah in her primitive days. We have Clara and another Chippeway child with us in our family, and expect shortly some Sioux children also to come beneath our roof, and we think they will not scalp one another.
(August 11th, Faribault.--To the S. S. children of the Churches in New Haven. Also in Fair Haven--Rev. Mr. Vibbert; Rev. Mr. Milford--Rev. Mr. Carder; Rev. Mr. Meriden--Rev. Mr. Deshon; Rev. Mr. Stamford--Rev. Dr. Todd.)
My dear children, perhaps you have all heard of the Missionary work of the Church done at Nashotah. When we began there in the year 1841, we were only Deacons, and Wisconsin was but a young Territory. Nashotah was but a little wooden house which we built in the midst of a great and almost uninhabited country. But before even this house was there, the three Deacons that went forth to the work, had knelt upon that virgin soil, and had consecrated themselves afresh to the work which they had undertaken far away from friends and home. They also commended the work itself to GOD. That prayer of consecration, beneath the clear blue sky, evidently ascended to Heaven, and hath ever since obtained the most gracious hearing. Your beloved pastor will be able to tell you all about Nashotah,--what she has done in the field and in the Mission House.
Now, my dear children, in every few years new fields open for similar work, and it is the great wisdom of the Church to enter them with strong hands and stout hearts. The time has fully arrived for such a School of the Prophets, and for the work of another Associate Mission in the field, to the Northwest of Nashotah, nearly 500 miles. We are West of the Mississippi River, and are occupying one of the most fertile and already quite thickly settled portions of Minnesota. The Mission is an Association of clergymen and teachers, as well as students of Divinity. This band of Missionaries, both clerical and lay, occupy both the Indian and White fields.
We are at present twelve Missionaries. Some are clergymen, some candidates for the Ministry, and others are female Missionaries. We have Mission Houses in which children are taught, and where these Missionaries live. At St. Columba, there is such a Mission House, wherein a number of children live along with the Missionaries. In the White field, at Faribault, we have Mission Houses in process of erection. These are intended mainly for the accommodation of Divinity students along with the clergy.
Around about the Mission centre lies the Missionary field, which is fifty miles in diameter. This, my dear children, we call our itineracy, because, as itinerants, we travel over it into all parts on foot, with knapsack on our back, and wherever we can assemble the people together, we preach the Gospel to them. This is the work of the children to do, as well as the clergy who go forth as Missionaries. Within the bounds of this Mission, there had never before us been a resident Missionary. We are here, then, to make known the blessed Gospel in a land, wherein even yet no church has been built. We are here, dear children, and you with us, to carry the Gospel to the very doors of its inhabitants.
And now let me ask you to go with me to a new portion of our itineracy, where prior to Saturday last, the 31st July, no Church clergyman had ever been. I will not take you to the extreme boundary of our Mission. It is but eighteen miles away from Faribault we are going. The name of the little town is Waterville. Now in visiting parts that we have not before been at, we go forth two by two, according to the manner in which our adorable LORD sent forth the Seventy. Thus in the mouth of two witnesses shall every word be established. Besides, in traveling unknown regions and solitary parts, it is a great comfort to have a companion along with you. Now, my dear children, I am going to tell you a true story about what has just taken place. I could tell you many such stories of things which have happened in my Missionary life, and even since I was with you the past Winter. But I tell you this one, because it is fresh in my mind:
On Friday last (30th July), we had a most severe hail-storm, such as has scarcely ever before been known. There were with the hail large masses of ice, which fell from the clouds, measuring ten to twelve inches around, and weighing over a pound. I had such like in my hands. The poor farmers, in places, lost all their grain, which in a few days would have been ready for harvest. It was the day after this great storm, that we went forth to meet an appointment for a Sunday service at Waterville, eighteen miles from the Mission centre. A Divinity student accompanied me. We were on foot, sometimes going through thick woods, and sometimes over prairies. We had each a knapsack upon his back. In these, besides a little change of raiment, we had prayer-books, tracts, and Sunday-School books. We also take a little lunch with us, so that when we become hungry and faint through hard traveling, we can stop by the bank of some refreshing stream of water and eat with gladness and singleness of heart. Also, at certain hours of the day, as we journey, we find it very comforting to our souls to retire to some private spot, it may be by a river or lake side, and there offer up some psalms and short prayers, thereby maintaining a communion with the Saints of GOD in a land hitherto pagan.
In the middle of the day we approached a stream, whose waters had swollen so much as to overflow their banks for several rods. Here we had to denude ourselves in part and wade through, being very careful all the time where we might tread. We crossed the stream safely, and were about putting on our stockings and boots again, when a stranger, passing along, told us that another water was just ahead of us, at the entrance to a village hard by, where we had sent before us an afternoon appointment for the morrow. We accordingly went on just as we were, and, after crossing this water, a number of men, near by, told us that we had another stream to wade through at the other end of the village, and "that the people here were not particular" by which we understood, it would not be thought strange to see a person going through town barefooted.
The village had but about fifteen houses in it. Accordingly, after inviting them to the morrow's service, we took our boots in hand and knapsack on back, and passed along, as perhaps even Apostles sometimes walked, with naked feet. We stopped at a well to drink, for the day was very hot and sultry; and here, finding a number of settlers gathered together, we repeated our appointment for the service. Never before had a Church clergyman been in this place. The goodly congregation of plain people, the next day, showed clearly that our having consented to the necessities of the journey, had not detracted from their respect for our office. We were now seven miles from Waterville. The road lay through woods which were full of water. But ere nightfall we had reached our journey's end in safety.
We were now kindly received by a Churchman of old England's Church, with a heartiness that told plainly that his love for the good old paths had not become dead, notwithstanding that, during twenty-five years, as he afterwards informed us, he had had but one opportunity, before this, of attending the services of the Church. Mr. C------'s desire for a prayer-book of a larger print than his old one, testified strongly to the passing of time, which had thus brought along with it a change of eyesight. The hospitalities of his house were opened to us, and ere we had left him, he freely offered six town lots for Church purposes. A congregation, large for the place, assembled at half-past ten o'clock, in an upper room, and few of our Eastern friends would have believed, had they been present, that the general and hearty response sustained throughout the regular Morning Prayer, was the first occasion on which the Church had ever celebrated her services here. At their conclusion a young man sought us out and said, that for this Church he would give all the saw-logs necessary for a Church building, also two town lots for a church and school-house, besides five acres near by for a parsonage and grounds. Another, a lady, said that she had heard of us, but never expected to see us. I told her we would come to see her at her house. "No," said she; "I live too far back from the settlement, and you cannot find me; but should you come, my only child (pointing to an intelligent-looking boy) will say the Catechism to you."
After greeting and encouraging others in their spiritual destitution, and partaking of a lunch, the young man who had accompanied me now shouldered his knapsack, and we were off for Morristown, the village we had passed through the day before. We had a warm time of it, for the wind was on our backs and much of our way lay through the woods, but we accomplished the seven miles in about two hours, and we had half an hour to rest in before the afternoon service.
The congregation which now assembled was proportionally as large as the one of the morning; but, unlike it, there was not a Churchman present. But we had the service nevertheless, and the people responded too. We rubricated, paged, and explained, as we went on. When all was through, I informed them of our Mission and of its circuit of twenty-five miles in every direction around Faribault, and of our intentions respecting themselves. The Prayer-books, I told them, would be left at one of their houses, until the next appointment; but that if any of them were desirous of taking them home with them to read during the interval between the services, they might do so.
I am happy, my dear children, to tell you, every book was borrowed.
Thus the work of the Mission in the White field spreads, and, were there time, I could tell you as much more of its working at the centre, where we are planting again a School of the Prophets, in which to raise up Missionaries for Minnesota. Another letter might be written to you about the Chippeway Mission at St. Columba; but I forbear taxing your attention any longer. I must close with thanks most sincere, for your past remembrance of us, and with the assurance that you are remembered also by ourselves in our addresses at the Throne of Divine Grace.
(September 3d, Faribault.--To the Ladies of the Seabury Society.)
.....You have been now, for many years, following me up in my frontier life. We rejoice in having co-laborers, which are thus always with us. It tends greatly to relieve our loneliness, and adds greatly to our faith. The two barrels of clothing which have now been received from you, have helped us in both the White and the Red fields. The dressing gowns were very acceptable to the Brethren, and the anonymous one was given in your name to the Rev. Ezra Jones, a Missionary at St. Peter's, fifty miles from us.
He had come over on foot to preach for us the opening sermon of the Mission School House, for we cannot yet aspire to a church, although this building looks very church-like, and might be pronounced, from without or within, to be a very pretty village church. It is twenty-one feet by fifty feet in dimensions, with steep roof, and thirty feet additional are now being put to its length. It is designed, also, that a tower and belfry shall adorn the side of the building, covering the present side door. There is at the east end a triplet window of stained glass. Rising from a platform of three steps above the floor there are also an Altar, a lectern, a prothesis, stalls, &c., all of which are closed in from the school portion of the house by movable screens, which, upon Sundays, are put aside. The windows of this chancel were a present, and an Altar is coming out from the "Church of the Good Angels," Brooklyn. The building itself is situated on the west side of a public square, where we bought two lots for $700, and a third worth $300 was given to us.
But to return to the barrels. All the contents were useful and suited for the end aimed at. The socks and stockings for the little ones were prized to their full value by the ladies. The shirts were appropriated to my own use, and I owe a debt of special thanks for them, as well as for the white cravats. I might well go through the entire supply and pronounce upon the fitness of each article, but you will not expect this of me. I will, however, state to you the interesting fact, that the barrels are worth to us one dollar each, for this is the price of common pork casks in Faribault, whilst the freight was only about ten dollars.
And now, dear friends and co-laborers in Christ, to return to the work, unto which your work has been sent. I am glad to say that the people have contributed for the Church School-house about $350. The building itself cost about $1000. And now that it is built, we have a place of our own in which to husband strength for the erection of the real church. Up to this time we were paying rent for the use of a vacant store, for Church and school purposes, at the rate of $250 a year. This is now saved, and the weekly offertory will do more than pay expenses for fuel, cleaning, &c. We have also a nice room for a Sunday School, and number in it forty-five children already. The day school will have about as many, and these will be under daily Church training. Thus all are trained silently, and it is beginning to tell already upon the lives of some of the young in our midst. The young men preparing for the Ministry are valuable aids to us in all this work. Then I might well bring before yourselves, my sisters in Christ, the inward life of the Church, as seen here upon the distant Frontier, in our quiet weekly Eucharist, whereat your offerings, as well as our own strength, are consecrated to the service of the MOST HIGH. Thus, after all, we are but the instruments at work, doing our Divine Master's will towards men. How can it but succeed, if we have faith in His Word? Surely this Mission, sustained in all its work, through all its trials, day by day, and year by year, for seventeen years, should make us believe.
Also, my dear friends, there is another bond of union which should not be passed over by us, unmindful of the promise, "where two of you shall agree to ask anything of my FATHER, it shall be done for them," and which is observed, and has been steadily observed, by this Mission, from its beginning in the General Theological Seminary at New York in 1839 and 1840, viz.: united supplication and prayer in an Office of Devotion set forth for this very purpose. The Misses Edwards will show you the edifying character of this Service, and how appropriate it is for yourselves, and our friends and brethren abroad, as well as for those who are immediately on the ground. Let me beg you ever to remember us in your addresses at the Throne of Grace, that we may be one.
Let us all bear in mind that this work is not our own, that it belongs to the LORD, who has gone into a far country, and who will return to take account of His servants at some future day; and hence what we have to put into His treasury is kept there, giving and gaining for Him that righteous usury, which is His just due. Then, dear friends in CHRIST, you will require no animating appeal from my pen to continue in good works, for you have shown already nobly heretofore that you will work, let what will come,--life, death, or whatsoever else.
This White Mission,--for I have scarcely touched upon the Red in this paper,--contemplates a School of the Prophets; and, far more, even Christian education for all who may come to us, of both sexes, but in distinct departments and locations, and, in time, under distinct boards of trustees. But for the male portion of the Institution, for which valuable lands have been secured, we have chosen a name that will, I trust, please you, and for the surname, one that will cover all departments which may arise in the future of the Church in Minnesota, viz., Seabury University. The name was thought appropriate from the great Church pioneer character of the Bishop of this name. This should form one link more in our bond of union.
(October, 1858.--To the Sunday School Children of Trinity Parish, Wilmington, Delaware.)
The visit, my dear children, that I paid you last winter, remains fresh in my memory, and I take great comfort in thinking of you all, and of the many happy faces which I saw there. I doubt not you remember little Clara Mokomomik (Little Knife) too, and I can assure you this little Indian girl retains in her memory, with great distinctness, the much she saw amongst her distant Christian White brothers and sisters.
Again we are on the broad Frontier of our country, beyond the father of waters. Again, dear children, I am traveling the length and breadth of this land, to hasten the coming of our LORD the second time, by preaching the Gospel of His Kingdom. But I am not alone in this work. There are more than twelve laborers in this "Associate Mission." Some are Clergy, some Candidates for the sacred Ministry, and some are Christian ladies, who have come out as Missionaries. These are divided up between the Red and White fields; in the former carefully training the young, more particularly fitting them for both the Christian and civilized life; in the latter, planting another School of the Prophets, nearly 500 miles to the North-West of Nashotah.
In the year 1841, with two others, the present learned Prof. Adams and the earnest Rev. Dr. Hobart of Trinity Parish, New York City, I came to Wisconsin, and there spent nine years in planting the Church in a large Missionary field which was our circuit, and at the centre we established Nashotah, which has sent into the Ministry forty-six Missionaries. Should not my heart and the hearts of thousands of children and grown-up people be gladdened and encouraged by beholding such fruits as these in so short a time! Truly the harvest is ready, but the laborers are few. The Rev. Dr. Cole, who succeeded me there, is carrying on the work at the Theological School most nobly, and each year they are sending out an additional band of Missionaries.
But notwithstanding all this, the rapidly growing West is yet very far from being supplied by the ministrations of the Word. In the eight years that I have been in Minnesota, only one of the graduates of Nashotah has come into this Northwestern field. This one is the Rev. Mr. Peake, our excellent Associate in the Indian Mission. We are now a State with upwards of two hundred thousand inhabitants, which are rapidly to multiply in this healthful climate." To meet their special wants, we have established the Associate Mission at Faribault, forty miles west of the Mississippi River, in the midst of a very rich country, and where we shall be most readily reached from all parts of the Diocese of Minnesota.
At this beautiful place, some kind friends in the East have enabled us to obtain lands for the Mission and school buildings. These grounds are so elevated as to overlook the town and prairie beyond (lying towards the setting sun), and contains twenty-five acres of beautiful woodland. This Mission has the education and training of young men for the Ministry in view. Already six young men are with us, preparing for Holy Orders, whilst others are expected before Winter. These aid the Clergy of the Mission in the work of catechising the young, as well as in teaching the children of the school; and at the same time they are pursuing their own studies.
Having explained thus much, let me now ask you, my dear children, to follow me in a simple description of our work at the "Bishop Seabury School" of the Prophets; for after this heroic and pioneer Bishop of the American Church, we have called this pioneer school of Minnesota. Upon the Mission grounds proper, we have not yet a tree cut or a log rolled up for a house. This is the work, my dear children, for you to do, as well as for ourselves, and to which I shall introduce you by and by. But other work has been doing, and most important work too.
It is 5 o'clock in the morning, when quietly one of the Missionaries and his little band of six are crossing the common (as the unoccupied prairie in this village might be called) and are seen entering a stone-colored wooden-building of low sides and steep roof, standing within a neat enclosure. Come, my dear children, let us enter too, and see this place, for it looks very church-like, although everything is so plain about it. It is not, however, a church, but we must, for some time to come, use it as a church. The building is twenty-one feet wide by fifty in length. At the east end there is a platform ten feet deep, and raised three steps above the floor of the room. And at this end also, there is a triplet Gothic window of stained glass, adorned by a simple cross in the central light. This was a present from some friends. I have said this was not a church; but in order to impress the people who come to worship with the sacredness of the place where GOD is worshipped, and especially the children who attend the school, which is truly the object of this house, we have movable screens across the room, which are taken away entirely on Sundays, and partly so on week days, when the children are called to prayers, and then they come forward to the seats between the screen and the chancel steps. Thus, my dear children, must we do in a new country, where there are at first very few members of the Church, and these often very poor in this world's goods. But nevertheless they are generally willing to help the Missionary according to their ability, and this they have done at Faribault for the Associate Mission. This house has cost $1,000; but the people have contributed $350 towards it, besides giving a village lot valued at $300 more; so that now they take great pleasure in seeing their children not only educated, but coming to a church they have helped to build themselves; and they see, too, that friends abroad have likewise helped them.
I have now told you, my young friends, what this wooden building on the village common is for, in which you saw the clergyman and his little band of Divinity students entering at so early an hour in the morning. They were going there for prayer, and for instruction in what was to be their future calling. Again at a late hour, but yet early in the day (of one day in the week), when the clergy and students are all at home, you may see the same little company, now enlarged by the female Missionaries, entering the same wooden building. It is to commemorate their adorable LORD in His Passion and Death at the Holy Supper which He established for all His children. Thus in this wilderness we are enabled to realize our close communion with the rest of CHRIST'S Church Militant. It is at this season, too, that moneys sent us, whether from Sunday Schools or from individuals, are offered up to GOD, for His further acceptance and blessing upon our work before we make use of them. Thus what you contribute is again given here in your name, proving thereby most fully, how truly you are Missionaries and laborers with us in the very field where we are, and that time and distance with GOD are nothing.
I desire you to bear in mind, my dear children, that we have been here at Faribault less than five months, and all that I am in this letter telling you has grown up in this short time. Our primary school has already been in operation three months in rented rooms. It now opens in the new building which I have described, with upwards of fifty children and young persons. These are taught by female teachers, and in part by young men who are with us preparing for the Ministry.
But, my dear children, come with us again into our church school-room. It is 11 o'clock at the close of the morning recess. One of the screens is now removed, and the pupils all go forward to the seats immediately before the chancel. One of the clergy appears and begins the service with the LORD'S Prayer (but if it is Wednesday or Friday, with the Confession), in which the voices of all unite audibly. Then follow the Versicles, and the Psalms for the day. At the melodeon, a beautiful instrument presented by a gentleman in Philadelphia, sits a young lady, a pupil of the school, and plays the chants, for all are taught to sing the praises of JEHOVAH. Then follows one of the appropriated lessons from the Holy Scriptures. After another chant, the Creed is said, and a portion of the Litany and the Prayers are offered up. Then all retire to the busy scene of the school-room again in order. A similar exercise is gone through at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, when the children are dismissed for their homes.
On the LORD'S Day these same children are seen, with others, at the Sunday School, numbering already upwards of fifty children in attendance. All these little ones are soon, we hope, to put on CHRIST in Holy Baptism, when they will become your brothers and sisters in the Church, and this blessed work is yours as well as ours, in making them so. On Sunday the children are brought forward, and occupy one-half of the front seats of one side of the house, whilst the infant class is seated on the chancel steps. All are taught to respond, to sing and chant, and to observe all the postures of divine worship. How beautiful it is then to behold in these remote parts of our country the same sacred services offered up to the MOST HIGH, as with you, where the Gospel has been planted for years!
I wish you to come with me, dear children, once more, and witness another service. It is the Missionary Office of Devotion It has been in use above seventeen years. When the three who planted Nashotah were pursuing their studies in the General Seminary, they were preparing themselves for these Western works by the weekly use of this special Liturgy. When they entered upon their work in the wilds of Wisconsin, that first bell which was held in the arms of the old oak tree, summoned the Missionaries there to this same Office of Prayers and Intercession. More than twenty Divinity students had there joined with me in the same before I had left for this farther frontier. And here you will now witness again Clergy and students for the Ministry and the Missionary teachers praying together, once a week, in the same Office. I cannot now describe it to you, but some day I may be able to send you a copy, for it has been printed at the Missionary press of St. Augustine's College, England, where we sent it for the benefit of their Missionary students of Divinity. But one of the prayers in it I must copy for your comfort, and for that of your teachers and pastors. It shall close this Missionary letter.
I have now somewhat described the real work of the Church now doing in Faribault, for the distant West. I could tell you of the Missionary work in our field, which lies twenty-five miles in every direction, all about us. But it would weary you too much. Another time I may do so. I could tell you of our Indian work at St. Columba, but that, too, would make another letter. I have wished to confine this to our Central Station, that you might see, as well as possible, what our work is, and what your work is, too, in our midst. You will then be able to judge of its increase, when you next hear from us.
Let me, in conclusion, beg you, dear children, when you now hear this prayer which we offer up for yourselves and our benefactors, that you will esteem it a duty, not only to give, but likewise to pray for us and for our work.
(October 18th, Faribault.--To his Brother Charles.)
.....Thank you for your good wishes and purposes. We are progressing finely in our work, both in the School of the Prophets and in the field, both White and Red. The latter we have concentrated at St. Columba. We have at Faribault six Divinity students, and fifty-five day-scholars under constant Church training. We have most admirable teachers and disciplinarians, and aim at general education as well as Theological, thus imbuing the people of this great Northwest with Church principles in the hearts of their children. One family in Connecticut sent us one thousand dollars, to buy lands. With this exception, the direct aid for the White field has not been great, and hence, in order to accomplish some building before Winter, we have had to make payments thus: One half down when buildings were completed; one-fourth in three months, and one-fourth in six months. So that, to meet these in January and February, the offering from your parish had better be for the White field. Thank you for this kindness. I could write you all day, but my many duties forbid more.
(December 7th.--To his Brother Charles)
Yours of the 15th November has come to hand, and has brought safely the sacred enclosure of the little child of Paradise. The one penny also came to hand by the same mail, making $5.06. I have expended this in procuring more comfortable beds for our Divinity students. Three young men are deserving of all that we are doing for them, and by the training which they get here, they-will be worth something to the Church in due course of time. I send you our educational papers from time to time, that you may see what an "important work we are engaged in for the Church amongst the laity, as well as for training up a Ministry. About thirty of our pupils are young men and young women. If we could have proper help for another year, for buildings, you would find above a hundred under direct Church training in this far-off spot of our land. I am now writing you from the midst of sixty-six pupils. Neither am I engaged with teaching myself. My duty is the disciplinarian. Each week I go off on foot, fifteen and sixteen miles, for Missionary work. I am thus traveling through snows and a wild country, to find out and to feed the scattered sheep and the lambs of the Fold of CHRIST. I am always back again on Sunday night by half-past seven o'clock, to meet the Divinity students in Pastoral Theology. Now, my beloved Brother, your anniversary is nigh at hand, and I beg you to do for us all that you can.
This year was indeed a signal epoch in the history of the Church in the Diocese of Minnesota, and in all that concerned the best interests of the same.
The Rev. H. B. Whipple was unanimously elected by the Convention, and was consecrated at Richmond in October, during the session of the General Convention.
We now quote largely from Missionary Paper, No. I, written by the Rev. J. Lloyd Breck. The Rev. Mr. Wilcoxson had visited Faribault and its vicinity, and strongly recommended it as a point well suited for the purposes of an "Associate Mission." The almost immediate results made manifest the excellence of his judgment.
The very small beginnings were almost contemptible--no larger than a man's hand; but presently, the whole wilderness and the solitary places were made glad for them; and the desert rejoiced and blossomed as the rose, and rejoiced even with joy and singing. Instead of the wild war-whoop and the senseless mutterings and howlings of the medicine men, there arose the chants and hymns of the Christian Church, and the recital of the ancient Creeds.
Already plain Mission houses had been erected, the school numbered a hundred scholars, and ten young men looked forward to the Ministry. This was the only Church school in a region of country 500 miles square.
(March 3, Bishop Seabury School, Faribault.--To the Ladies of the Seabury Society, and other Members of Trinity Parish, New Haven.)
I have now received, through the hands of Miss Edwards, the following large contributions to the work of this Missionary Association: From the ladies of the Seabury Society, and from other members of Trinity Parish, $226; from the Offertory of the parish, $12, and from the children of the Parish school, $4; making in all two hundred and forty-two dollars. Pardon me for not having replied to this remittance at an earlier day. No one abroad can realize the weight of responsibility upon me, arising from the two Missions, with so many laborers in them, and so many Divinity students and children to support and teach, with no resources to meet all expenses but the free-will offerings of the faithful abroad, saving what arises from out of the Primary School of the White field for the support of its teachers. But we have no right to complain. We have been nobly assisted by the faithful abroad in prayers and offerings for eighteen years.
But let me, dear friends, call your attention to our field. I would wish you to understand it. Should you travel to the interior of our continent, and enter the great valley of the Mississippi on the east, you would find there that noble School of the Prophets, called Nashotah. But the Manifestation of CHRIST by the Church appears the more necessary, in every possible form of Christian benevolence, when the vastness of this field is considered, with its towns and cities already in being. Not to detain you with the geography of our land, let me say, that after traveling from Nashotah five hundred miles to the Northwest, all the way through an inhabited country, you come to Faribault and the St. Columba Mission, both of them west of the Father of Waters, but yet within this same valley. From New Haven, the Bishop Seabury School may appear to be but just behind Nashotah; but its remoteness and necessity alike appear when I state that from Nashotah northwest for 500 miles, and from the Missouri line 700 miles due north, there is not a Church school apart from this Mission. St. Columba and Faribault are themselves 200 miles asunder. The next census taken of the United States, in0 1860, will doubtless give to this valley the preponderance of our white population. The Romanists and the Sects are both alive to the importance of acquiring position here, and many are their schools, sustained by men and supported by pecuniary means sent out with no sparing hand; in the case of the former, these supplies come from the heart of Europe; and in the case of the latter, from our Puritan Eastern population. Whilst, therefore, we would preach the Gospel to the Red Man of our forests, we must not neglect the Saxon race, which is rapidly supplanting him in his land, lest these in their new home, without the Church and Church education, in turn become themselves heathen of a worse complexion.
Owing to the event (and we believe a Providential one) of our disturbances in the Upper Indian Mission, our attention has been drawn to the White field. We have located the Bishop Seabury School at Faribault, a village of two thousand inhabitants, just burst into being, in the midst of a rich farming district, forty miles West of the Mississippi River. It is a position upon a projected and partly-built railroad from the South, and, consequently, one that may soon be speedily reached from all quarters of the surrounding valley. We contemplate in this Mission, not simply a Theological School and an itineracy, but the outgrowth of a Church University. Was not your own Yale once as young and weak as the present infancy of this school?
We will not then despair. We believe that Church education ought to be represented in this vast region--500 by 700 miles in extent--with a population little short of a million of souls. In this faith we began only nine months ago. There were no pledges for support of clergy or teachers--none for the purchase of land, and none for the erection of buildings. In this faith we came forth, a band of eight laborers, partly clerical and partly lay, to do the Church's work. Only in May last, this work had its institution, in a place where there were but six communicants, where the Church Missionary had never before lived. The itineracy round about Faribault, fifty miles in diameter, was of similar destitute character. We entered this village and country as utter strangers. Two small frame houses were rented at six to ten dollars per month for our Missionary staff. Three Divinity students were already with us. Next, an unoccupied store was found and rented for a church-room (20 feet by 40 feet below) and for a school-room above. From this beginning, with fifteen day scholars, has the work already grown in nine months to the goodly proportions of upwards of eighty pupils, in a building 22 feet by 80 feet, of seven rooms! Whilst the rented frames have given place to two plank, early-pointed Mission Houses; and lands upon the bluff which overlooks Owatomac River, Faribault, and the prairie beyond, have been secured for Church purposes.
From the beginning of our work, as well at Nashotah and St. Columba as at this Mission, the weekly Eucharist has been our token of discipleship with the early Church, and the living bond with present Christendom. To begin now in the East with such actual weakness in temporal things as we began here, would be simply impossible, except it was headed by a saint and martyr spirit of the Church's best days. But here in the distant West, upon the broad frontier, where all is youth, we grow with the growth of the country; and before we can fully know it, we become a part of the very being of its society, and essential to it. Let the Christian child and the Christian adult here and there through the Eastern dioceses, continue with it, in prayers and offerings to the Great Head of the Church, for even five years, and what will be its fruit and yet future promise!
Already youth of this unbaptized age are, from out of this primary school, turning their attention to the Ministry, and asking for admission to the Mission House proper. In twenty years' time, what may not be the number of those that will here be first impressed with a deep sense of that Truth, of which the Church is both Witness and Keeper, and seek to labor for CHRIST in His own vineyard! And who would pretend to number the youth of both sexes who will, by this instrumentality, be made disciples; and, as active, pious laymen, carry the Gospel into the surrounding country, and to the distant Rocky Mountains?
I might, at this place, enlarge upon the itineracy, which surrounds Faribault as a centre, at a radius of twenty-five miles, which we travel over largely on foot. But this in a few years will cease. The parish clergyman will take the place of the itinerant Missionary. Stations for preaching will become parishes, whilst churches will take the place of school-houses or other common rooms, which we use at present for the public services of the Church. Also I might enter largely into the merits of Church work amongst the Indian tribes of the United States. But this must, in its awful difficulties, arising out of the changing policy of an oft-repeated elective government such as ours, be reserved for a letter by itself. I would, however, stale, that in May next, we are expecting to present a long-tried Indian candidate for Holy Orders to be made a Deacon, to serve under this Mission. This will be only the second Red man ordained to the Ministry of the Church in this country. The poor Chippeway will then hear the blessed Gospel at the mouth of one born a pagan, but born again the child of the true GOD.
(May 6th, Faribault.--To Miss Sarah M. Edwards)
.....You will be glad to hear of our growth and prospects. Our little School of the Prophets has now eleven Divinity students connected with it,--the increase of less than one year. The pupils of the primary department have been one hundred in number, although not so many at any one time. These have been taught by certain of the Divinity students and two female Missionaries. We are now desirous of opening the next department, which will be the High School or Academy. About one-half of the pupils of the primary school are properly members of such a department. The effect of this school with the daily teaching of the Church services has been most visible. For instance, of seven adults whom I baptized on Easter Day, five were members of the day-school. Also three of these students have sought, altogether unsolicited, for admission into the Divinity department. We have also three parishes organized, which will be represented in the approaching Council of the Church in Minnesota. There are also Stations, at which we preach. What we now most ardently look and pray for, is a true Bishop, as head of this Diocese, and we have strong hopes of eminent success. For this, join your prayers unto ours. The Convention meets on the 29th June. But more a great deal on this subject hereafter. The Indian Ordination, we hope, will come off at that time also. You will find in the Children's Magazine some account of our little Clara, which may interest the young ladies of your school and the children of the Sunday-school.
The sudden departure of the Rev. Mr. Sanford has left a great amount of work upon my shoulders. But the Rev. Solon W. Manney soon joins us; and, I am happy to say, he is a clergyman known to me through many years, and moreover is admirably qualified to teach the Theology of the Church.....
But an event of Sunday, the 3d July, calls for more than ordinary attention at this time. The Mission at St. Columba was again, the third time, represented in our Diocesan Convention, by full Indian delegates. Three Chippeways had come down with the Rev. Mr. Peake, one hundred and fifty miles from the North. One of these was Isaac Manetowab, the Christian chief; another was J. Johnson Enmegahbowh, the interpreter and candidate for Holy Orders. This last had already passed his examination for Deacon's Orders, with satisfaction to the Bishop and two clergymen. The Bishop accordingly, with great kindness, consented to accompany us, immediately after the close of the Convention, to Faribault, for the purpose of ordaining Enmegahbowh.
Faribault is situated in the heart of what was the Sioux or Dakota country. A Chippeway had never before been known to penetrate so far into the interior. From time immemorial these two nations have been at war with one another, and continue so to this day. This very Christian chief had followed the war-path, and taken scalps of the enemy. We were now at Faribault, surrounded indeed by Whites, but the Red race, with its representatives, was here too. Sunday was the most brilliant of days, and the service was crowded with eye-witnesses of a scene never before recorded in the annals of the American Church. Here was an Indian; born a pagan; a pagan at twelve years of age; he becomes a modest, humble-minded Christian, and attains to the rank of interpreter to Missions. He is now at the mature age of thirty-six years, has been a candidate for Holy Orders nearly five years, and has been connected with the St. Columba Mission from its very foundation in 1852. The unwavering interest of the Rev. E. G. Gear, in the planting and watering of the Chippeway Mission, should here be conceded to him in that large degree which he deserves.
Let me now ask our friends, who have expended so largely upon this Mission both prayers and offerings, to enter, along with us, the humble chapel of the parish of the Good Shepherd at Faribault, and behold their reward. Within the chancel is the venerable Missionary Bishop of the Northwest. At the south side is the Rev. Mr. Peake, the Indian Missionary. Outside of the chancel, at either end, are seated two Ojibwas, the Christian chief, and the Indian brother; whilst in the centre is seated the Indian candidate for Holy Orders, decently habited in the surplice; and upon either side of him sit the Rev. Mr. Breck and the Rev. Professor Manney. Immediately behind these, on the south, is the sweet choir of children singers, which is in daily training in the Church school; whilst on the north side, opposite to these, are seated many Dakota or Sioux Indians, who have come in from their wigwams to witness this strange scene. What must have been their thoughts at beholding one as red as themselves, habited like a priest for the Christian service of the GREAT SPIRIT! Ah! Red brothers! Here is the Great Physician Himself come down to you, and making even your own men physicians of the soul! Behind the poor natives was seated the large congregation of Whites.
The service throughout was one of thrilling interest. The good Bishop, at the end of Morning Prayer, delivered the Gospel charge in his happiest style, animated--as we all were--by the representatives of two nations before him, which had hitherto made so continual war upon each other. The three Associate Missionaries then unitedly presented the candidate for the Holy Order of Deacons. After the customary services, holy hands were laid upon the head of our Red brother, and he humbly received the commission in the "Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST, Amen." Enmegahbowh now arose from his knees, and read the Gospel in a modest but distinct voice. The Bishop added a few more deeply-impressive and prayerful words, when the Eucharistic service began. The Christian chief participated in this too, along with his new pastor. Several nations were now represented around the Table of the LORD, and we felt that it was good to be here. At the conclusion of the services, the Sioux or Dakotas, and Chippeways, all shook hands together and departed in peace.
The lengthy services of the morning allowed but a short respite before the opening of the Sunday-school. There are seventy-five children connected with this school, taught by nine teachers. Here you behold the little Chippeway, Clara Mokomanik, a scholar in the infant school, and well reported of for her continued good behavior. She remembers her Eastern and Southern tour with great distinctness and profit to herself and others.
The 4 o'clock service of the afternoon was now opened by the new Deacon, and read with becoming diffidence. After a sermon by the Rev. Mr. Peake, the third Ojibwa present came forward and was presented by his pastor for the Apostolic rite of Confirmation. At its conclusion, his own request was granted him, and, through the Interpreter of the Mission, he addressed, with much earnestness and simplicity, the great congregation of Whites. He said his heart was filled with gratitude at seeing so many Christian friends, and he magnified the blessings which they received under the light of the Gospel. He likewise turned to the clergy, and addressed them with deep feeling as those who had taught them all they knew on the subject of true' religion. He particularly thanked them for giving them a teacher from out of the midst of their own nation. He then waved his hand aloft, by which he said he shook hands with all present, both the people and the clergy. The services were now concluded by the Bishop.
Notwithstanding their length, and the permission given the congregation to retire, they remained to hear another speech from the Christian chief to the Dakotas who had again assembled for afternoon prayer. A Dakota interpreter took from the mouth of the Ojibwa interpreter, what he delivered into English for the Chippeway chief, and this he rendered into Sioux. The Christian Ojibwa chief now took the hand of his people's ancient enemy, and after shaking it said: "Once I followed the war-path, and thought it led to glory, but I am long since of a different mind. I have become a Christian, and this makes me love you as brothers. I wish you all to become Christians, and live as do the Whites, and then we shall love one another. It is our blindness and ignorance, which occasion our going to war together. We must do so no more, and then the GREAT SPIRIT will receive us all into one family, and we shall prosper and live."
In the evening of the day, the Dakota chief with some of his braves visited us at our Mission House, and had a lengthy interview with the three Chippeways and their Missionaries.
The Mission House at Faribault was happily at once recognized by them as the medium of their friendship. They delighted in the thought that their children would grow up together, and play as children together, and thereby forget their ancient feud. This was a happy day for us all. It told most evidently the real and only permanent basis of peace and good-will towards men. Civil pacifications with the presence of a military force are not such as produce lasting obligations with these people. This had Religion for its basis. We are happy to add, that at once the Dakotas brought their children to the school to be taught, and the Chippeways will no longer feel afraid to send their children to us; and we now intend receiving certain of the more promising ones of both nations to train them to go forth in due time as Catechists and Missionaries to their own people.
(July 5th, Faribault.--To Miss Edwards)
....... We have had another Convention, and the third balloting, after secret prayer, brought us a Bishop, which was made a unanimous vote. The Clergy nominated the Rev. Dr. Tucker of Troy, 'twice, to the laity; but he was rejected by one vote majority each time. We then nominated the Rev. Mr. Whipple of Chicago, and he was elected by a unanimous vote of the order of the laity, after consultation for a few moments. Our Bishop-elect is Rector of the free Church of the Holy Communion, Chicago;--a sound and strong Churchman, hard worker, and full of faith. We shall now hope to move forward to victory in this young and vigorous Diocese. The New Jersey appointment also is a blessed gain to the whole Church (the election of the Rev. Dr. Odenheimer as the successor of Bishop G. W. Doane).
The 17th of August, 1859, was styled Anniversary Day; and although but five quarters had ended, it was sufficiently attractive to bring together several of the Clergy, and the whole population of town and country. In all its arrangements it was beautiful and impressive, and exhibited the wonderful faculty on the part of the Founders of making all things tend to joy, instruction, and the glory of GOD.
The school counted up 102 students in place of the 15 of the first three months. The exercises opened with the Te Deum. The brass band led off to the appointed place, beneath the noble forest trees, fresh from the Indians' tread, where seats had been duly arranged. After the music ceased and all was still, Father Gear, the veteran pioneer of Minnesota, offered up the opening prayer to Almighty GOD. The Rev. Dr. Knickerbacker then delivered an address on the only true basis of education.
The History of the University was given by the Rev. Dr. Breck. The Alma Mater Roll of 161 pupils was now called. The members of the High School, having the Ministry in view, were matriculated. Upon the conclusion of this ceremony, these young gentlemen were addressed in a forcible manner by the Rev. Prof. Manney. The Children's Choir in the distance now sang out very sweetly the 42nd Hymn, "Songs of praise the angels sang." In the procession were seen the Dakota boys of the Primary School, and along with them at the feast were "Little Hattie "and "Clara Mokomanik," children of the Chippeway nation, and several full-grown Indians along with them. After the awarding of the Prizes, and an Address by the Rev. Mr. Olds, the Gloria in Excclsis was beautifully chanted by the children and the whole assembly. Father Gear pronounced the benediction. The scholars came forward and shook hands with the Clergy; and thus joyfully closed the first year of the Church's educational work in Faribault.
1860. (March 9th.--To Samuel Breck, Esq.)
Dear Sir: I would informally advise you that at the meeting of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, on Tuesday evening, the Rev. James Lloyd Breck was unanimously elected to receive the degree of Doctor of Divinity at the ensuing July Commencement. It is not in order to notify the reverend gentleman until after the degree is conferred; but thinking it may gratify you to be aware of the action contemplated by the Board, I take the liberty of sending you this communication. Very respectfully yours. CALDWELL K. BIDDLE, Sec'y.
(March 16th.--To the Ladies of the Seabury Society.)
...... I am writing you from the Indian country, and very much wish I were able to enter into all the interesting particulars of this visit. For three nights Bishop Whipple, the Rev. Mr. Peake, and our Indian Deacon, with myself, have been camping out in the midst of snow and frozen lakes. We have been on a visit to a new band of Indians towards Lake Superior. We visited the principal chief in his wigwam, and have been gratified to hear from his lips the deep interest that he feels in the improvement of his people. But, my dear friends and co-laborers in this cause and in that of the School and Mission at Faribault, will you not permit me to communicate the great facts of interest in our united work by means of the little Missionary Paper which I enclose, and which will appear from time to time? If so, do me the kindness to furnish me with the address of each Lady of the Society, and I will most gladly send them our periodical. I now enclose Nos. 5 and 6, which I hope will interest and reward you all.......
(May 21st.--To his Brother Charles)
...... The box arrived before the list of articles, and I had no clue to its source. Hence we were greatly cast about to discover who could send out a box of clothing weighing 440 pounds; and now it turns out to be the admirable fruit of the labors of my beloved brother's parish. How many, many stitches have these upwards of 500 garments cost! Surely you and your good people have excelled, in this line of things, all others who have ever contributed to our new Mission. The cry for clothing has been strong of late. With our Indian Deacon we have a White teacher, a young man from Brooklyn, who writes on the 7th May in these words: "I hope you will send some children's clothes. I need pantaloons for them. Some come to school more than half naked." So that you may tell the dear friends that we are now able to help these willing pupils of the Red field. You have asked me for the freight and I will give it, notwithstanding I think you have done your duty in preparing the clothing. But if you wish it to be a holocaust, here it is: Freight from Wilmington to Hastings $9.70, from Hastings to Faribault $2.20; total $11.90. This is a large sum for freight; but it was a large box.
(From the Missionary Paper.)
The first visit of the Bishop and the Rev. Mr. Breck to Redwood was made in the month of June of this year (1860), and it will gratify the friends of the Mission abroad to know the particulars of this excursion into the interior, and the results of their interview with this interesting people. At the close of the first day's ride in a U. S. Mail wagon, they reached the beautiful valley town of St. Peter, which numbers twelve hundred White inhabitants. They had traveled all day; and, considering the woods ride of twenty-five miles through the worst of roads, for the most part unchopped and without even a corduroy bridge, they had done well in accomplishing by nightfall upwards of forty miles.
At St. Peter the wayworn travelers found a quiet and most hospitable resting-place with the Rev. E. Livermore, the Missionary of this village. A private conveyance was now procured to take them through to Fort Ridgely, distant fifty miles, for the most part a charming ride over prairies, beautified here and there with groves and sweet lakes. In order to effect an interview with Major W. J. Cullen, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, before he should leave for the Upper Agency, it was thought best upon arriving at the Fort to continue their journey through the night with a fresh team. The Missionaries were here indebted to the Rev. Joshua Sweet, Chaplain of the U. S. Army, for reaching the Reservation by midnight. Here for three days they pursued the object of their visit, aided assiduously by A, W. Daniels, M.D., the physician of the Indians, under Government appointment. Too much cannot be said in admiration of Mr. and Mrs. Daniels, for their heartfelt and unselfish interest in the Red races of our continent. To a Missionary, their knowledge of this people and their sympathy in everything, would be a great comfort. Their house has been literally the home of the traveler, as well as the church-room of the chaplain, whenever he could visit them for an English service. It was a pleasant thing to find that these self-banished people had presented their children, though born in the midst of pagans, to the Church for Holy Baptism.
We will now invite our dear friends to go with the Bishop and the Rev. Mr. Breck through the Dakota farming districts, and from notes taken on the spot we are sure of presenting things to their view as they were found. The beautiful prairie land along the river, convenient for wood and water, had been surveyed into eighty-acre lots, and upon these about sixty houses had been built, some entirely by the Government, others by the Indian himself, and others in part by both. Our excellent guide, Mr. T. W. Cullen, Superintendent of farms, would' not allow us to pass houses by without inspecting them. We will describe just what we saw, and the faithless on the subject of Indian civilization and Indian love of labor may then form their own conclusions.
Shahahska (White Dog) two years since was a chief, when he dropped his feathers, blanket, paint, &c., and put on the civilized dress, which he has continued to wear. We entered his house, and he was glad to see us. He looked happy and intelligent, and answered all our inquiries with readiness. A present member of the Faribault school, who was born and brought up among the Dakotas, was our interpreter. The house of this Indian was eighteen by twenty-four feet, with an outer room for a kitchen. In two corners of the main apartment were high-post bedsteads with comfortable feather beds upon them. There were curtains above and below the bedframe. A counterpane was the coverlet of one of the beds, and we asked the chief--who made it? Answer: "My wife and daughters." "Where did you get these chairs, that rocking-chair, and this large mirror?" Answer: "I sold my corn and potatoes and bought them." We observed a cupboard well filled with crockery. Both butter and milk were in clean dishes. "Have you cows?" Answer: "I have five head of cattle, eight hogs, and also chickens." "The windows were hung with red and white curtains, tastefully arranged, and about the room were the ordinary utensils for housekeeping. We passed out of the house and looked at his farm. It was well planted, and the crops looked fine. We turned to the fanner and asked how much land he had planted, and he said twenty acres.
In the gardens of the different Indians, as we passed through the farming districts, we saw the usual vegetables growing. Indians were plowing out their corn and potatoes with horses, whilst ox-teams were frequently seen driven before wagons by their swarthy masters. Besides Community fields, which contained 620 acres, there were about sixty well-fenced enclosures, containing from five to ten acres each, amounting to 480 acres. The land plowed by the Indian himself the present year is 1100 acres. The entire enclosures have been fenced by the Indians themselves. In some instances, unwilling to wait for teams, the men, after splitting the rails, have carried them upon their backs nearly a mile to their fields. Chiefs are recognized by the Government officers only when they distinguish themselves as agriculturists.
Much more that might be added demonstrates beyond a ' doubt, that if the encouragement is extended in the right way, the Indian will not be slow in doing his part. The Superintendent now said they had done all they could do, it was for the Church to come in and do the remainder.
St. John the Baptist's Day found the Bishop Seabury Mission in the Wilderness, preaching the Gospel to a body of Gentiles.
The coincidence was the more striking, when we read these words from the Epistle for the day: "The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our GOD." The dwelling-house in which we had service was well filled with Indians. We were fortunate in having a Mr. Prescott for interpreter, a man as distinguished for his humility and piety, as for his devotion to this people of his adoption. The General Confession, LORD'S Prayer, a chapter from the Bible, the. Ten Commandments with the responses as in the Communion Service, and hymns, were all in the Dakota language.
When it is remembered that this was the first service of the Church ever had in this nation, numbering in and out of Minnesota, perhaps sixty thousand souls, both the adaptation of a liturgical service and its harmonious character must be acknowledged by all. For no people is a liturgy needed so much, as for the illiterate and newly-converted tribes. The most remarkable appearance of all in this Indian congregation, was that the entire body of aborigines present was habited in the citizen's dress. This is the first instance on record of anything of the kind, as a pagan people. The Bishop and Mr. Breck both addressed this interesting congregation. They felt that here was a tribe of men emerging out of darkness, but no one to take them by the hand and lead them to the only True Light.
At the close of the service, one of the principal men arose and said, that all present had a council last evening, when it was determined to ask the Missionaries to come amongst them, to teach them and their children. He expressed their fixed determination to stand firm in their civilized life, and many other words he added, which would have sunk deep into the hearts of every friend of this Mission, could they have witnessed so remarkable a sight as was permitted to us in the depths of this wilderness. An intelligent Dakota boy, named Nee-in-dah (Passing-Cloud), and another, a mixed blood, accompanied us back to Faribault, to enter the Indian Department of the Bishop Seabury School. Shortly a candidate for Holy Orders will receive the commission from Apostolic hands for this field of labor. Thus the first two graduates of the Bishop Seabury Divinity School will be Indian Missionaries; the first a native, for the Chippeways, and the second a white man for the Dakotas.
On Sunday, the 17th of June, the Bishop, the Rev. Professor Manney, and the Rev. Mr. Breck, being present in the chancel of the Church of the Good Shepherd, Faribault, the Rev. J. J. Enmegahbowh and Mr. H. P. Chase (a full-blood Chippeway from the Canadas), addressed the large congregation of whites present, on the subject of their people. They both spoke in English, and their simple words sank deep into many a heart. At this service a number of Dakotas were present. May not this Mission become, under GOD, the instrument for healing a deadly strife, which has existed between the Chippeway and the Dakota from time immemorial? Civilization and Christianity are bringing them together in friendly alliances, and in our central school their children both study and play together in the utmost harmony.
The Indian Department at Faribault contains seventeen children under the care of Mrs. Breck, and is fulfilling our highest expectations. The children are tractable, and are growing up in the nurture and admonition of the LORD, so that soon they will be fitted to return to their own people as ministers of the everlasting Gospel, or as living examples of the reforming and renovating power of the Cross of CHRIST. Our Indian Deacon at St. Columba, who is under the immediate care of the Rev. Mr. Peake, is fulfilling his ministry with zeal and fidelity, to the great honor of CHRIST and His Church.
No one can be more sensible of the deep degradation and ignorance of our Indian tribes, of the great difficulties that have all along presented and opposed themselves to their evangelization, than the members of this Mission. We are fully conscious of the difficulties of this work, but we do not despair. With GOD'S blessing we know of no such word as fail. And then, notwithstanding all our discouragements, we are daily cheered with results that may be known and read of all men. Since the ordination of the Rev. Enmegahbowh, seven persons have been confirmed, and a class is now under instruction who will be prepared for this sacred rite at the next opportunity.
During the last visitation of the Bishop he traveled over five hundred miles by canoe in the Indian country, and was besought by many, with words and gestures of deepest earnestness, to teach them the faith of CHRIST, and send to them the ministry of reconciliation. Can we turn a deaf ear to such importunities for the bread of life? Can the Church refuse to listen to and supply the spiritual wants and necessities of the heathen of our own land? We do not believe she can. Our Mission has the confidence of all the Indians, from Crow Wing to Pembina, beyond any other that has ever been established among them. And although the dark clouds have sometimes lowered over it--the result of whisky, and the want of authority--yet, through the providence of GOD, these clouds have been dispersed, and never before were our prospects in this unpromising field more cheering and encouraging.
(August 10th, Faribault.--To Mrs. Dimock.)
.....The wine arrived two or three days after your letter; and be assured, dear Madam, you and yours, especially in this time of an afflicting Providence, will oft be remembered at the Altar. As at dear old Nashotah, the Holy Eucharist is here celebrated every LORD'S Day at 12 o'clock. Please accept of the earnest thanks of a Missionary of the Cross for this farther token of your living interest in our work.
Two years ago, we found in Faribault but three communicants. The present number is nearly seventy. We found no Church work; now we have large schools, in which two hundred and fifty children have been brought under our teaching, and the Church's happy influence. Twelve young men are with us preparing for the ministry. Two are shortly to be ordained. But, my dear Mrs. Dimock, I will not recount to you the farther work of this Mission.....
Your kindness to Nashotah gratifies me greatly. That was my first love in the Missionary work of the Church, and it will be as lasting as life. I thank you for your continued interest in that School of the Prophets, and I pray GOD you may find a rich reward in store for you above, for the much you have done for it.
(September 24th.--To his Brother Charles)
.....I have just furnished our good Bishop Whipple with a letter of introduction to you. Pie goes East on the business of his Diocese, but more especially in relation to this Mission, and the Church schools at Faribault. Yesterday (Sunday) I had with me in the chancel three Deacons, the first fruits of this Bishop Seabury Mission. Will you not congratulate me on so early and blessed fruit? Two are Indian Missionaries. The third remains with us, and takes charge of the Grammar School. Pardon this haste. I could write you, as I could talk,--all day.
(Nov. 23d, Faribault.--To his Uncle, the Hon. Samuel Breck)
.....I have just returned from a two hundred mile journey North, and brought with me six more native children for the Andrews Hall; so that this department is likely to do much good to the Red races of this region. I wonder if my good Uncle has seen or heard our beloved Bishop in his Eastern tour. I shall be much disappointed if he has not made his personal acquaintance, for seeing the man is knowing a great deal more about him than pen and ink can tell. I trust he has received encouragement to go forward with the work of the Church here, in buildings for our Institution. We have no room for our Divinity students at present, and yet young men are applying to come. The twelfth Missionary Paper is ready for the press, but we wait the return of the Bishop, which is expected to be next week.
(From the Missionary Paper)
In all the energy of manhood Bishop Whipple enters upon the work of this empire Diocese. His maturity of head and warmth of heart alike fit him for his field. He enters a Diocese where everything is to be done. He is to initiate work, as well as with faith and boldness to bring it to perfection. He is to be all things to all men. With the restless man of business, he is to be the business man. With the cottager of the backwoods, he is to be the kind friend at home, without the least embarrassment at his surroundings; and with the poor Red man in his wigwam, he is to be the willing, earnest and loving messenger of the Most High. In all these respects, few in the Church are so well adapted to go in and out amongst men, without personal inconvenience, as Bishop Whipple.
The Bishop reserved Faribault unto the close of his first review of the Diocese. He had visited all the River towns; had been to St. Columba; had gone West to Mankato and south to Chatfield; and not until the night of the 18th of February, did the rolling stage-coach conduct him to the Mission-House door. A ride of sixty-four miles that day prepared him for the hospitality of the Mission. But a Western Bishop knows no rest for the soles of his feet. The work is all about him and he must be up and doing it, or else golden opportunities pass away never to return. This Saturday night shall prove to him the care with which a class of thirteen has been prepared for the. renewal of their Baptismal vows. They are examined before him and addressed by him.
The next day (Quinquagesima) is full of duty. The crowded congregation wait to catch every word from his lips, and with many there is the moist eye. Holy duties make up the entire day. Now the Bishop preaches, now offers up the Holy Eucharist, now exhorts the sheep of his flock to remember their calling. Again, he is in the midst of the Iambs, teaching them to love CHRIST, their Good Shepherd. Now he raises holy hands, and lays them upon the heads of such as come to renew their Baptismal vows. The Bishop passed the entire week with the Associate Mission. Upon its close he must have realized that he was the Father of this remote family. At one time all the baptized children called upon him at the Mission House, where he addressed them in his own peculiarly winning manner. At another time he delivered his solemn admonitions to the communicants to be faithful. Then at another, and in very inclement weather, forty gentlemen and a number of ladies called upon him at the Mission House. The schools of the University were addressed by him publicly, with the happiest effect; and, privately, on another occasion, he gave his paternal counsel to the young men under preparation for the sacred Ministry.
In the course of the Bishop's visitation to the Faribault Mission, he delivered eighteen, addresses to old and young, besides examining two candidates for Holy Orders. Up to the close of his visit the attention and interest of the people never flagged. A plain man, with great good sense, gave the true reason when he said, "The Bishop always speaks as if he were personally responsible for each one whom he addressed."
It is now fully believed that Faribault is the choice of the Bishop for his permanent residence. As a centre, none can equal it. In a short time, here, as elsewhere, the railroad will supersede river navigation. In an agricultural point of view, it is the Garden of Minnesota. Here, for the sons and daughters of the land entrusted to us from abroad for Christian training and education, are to be found all those moral influences which are so important for right culture. Everything to make a Bishop strong for his work is already here. Ten Divinity students, with the Associate Clergy, are on the ground. Schools for little children, for boys and girls, and for grown up young ladies and young men, are in full vigor. Including the Indian children, upwards of a hundred and fifty youth are in attendance. Valuable lands in just the right places have been secured, and some buildings have been erected upon them. Here may be another St. Mary's Hall, another Nashotah, with graduated training schools for youth of every age; and here, as now, may be for years to come, the Indian department, educating native teachers and a native ministry for our domestic pagans. Here, too, is found a devoted and loving people, which may be moulded to become the model parish of the Diocese--indeed the real Cathedral, not presently of stone and mortar, but of all those elements which make up the spiritual House of the LORD. Seventeen Chippeways are now in the Bishop Seabury University. They are in the Mission House and Mission Schools, and Mission manual-labor departments, the year round. They will return to their people only after years of training have elapsed. They will then go with the White Man's domestic habit's, with the knowledge of what are the White Man's good and evil ways, and the power to judge of them. They will go as trained Christians, and teachers of Christianity.
(December 13th, Faribault.--To Miss Sarah M. Edwards.,)
..... May the benefit of our Holy Religion be felt throughout our land in healing divisions, civil as well as religious! Should Civil War burst upon us, the Missionary work of the Church must in all human probability be much retarded. What hearts of prayer should there be just now, throughout the length and breadth of our land!..... You may be delighted to learn of the progress of the Church work here. The stone is now quarrying, and already some is delivered upon the ground. It does our hearts good to see this pledge of a future House of Prayer. This parish has had remarkable growth. From three communicants two years ago last May, without increase from without or from abroad, we have now nearly eighty. We have had about this number of Baptisms, about one half of them having been of adults. The Sunday-School numbers nearly a hundred and thirty pupils. We trust the real Cathedral will be reared up here. The daily Service, with our large day-school and Divinity students, and the weekly Eucharist for the parish, are forming it, far more surely than could thousands of brick (or stone) and mortar. The Bishop thinks his visit to the East will enable us to build a Divinity Hall the next season. I trust this may be so, for the students are much scattered now, and more apply to enter than we can possibly accommodate. Our twelfth Missionary Paper would have been out long since, had it not been for the absence of the Bishop.....
1861. (April 21st, Faribault.--To Miss S. M. Edwards)
I beg you to thank the young ladies of the "Minnesota Circle" for their Easter offering of $39. They have indeed done nobly for us. Especially do we feel it so, when deserted of our numerous friends in the South. I will send by this mail a number of copies of Missionary Paper No. 14, which please distribute among the young ladies. They may prove a seed of many a future growth. We have indeed fallen upon sad times, and the Missionary and other benevolent causes must feel them deeply. I trust this will find you and your sisters in good health. At this Easter season, and in these times, we may well think of our treasures in Paradise. How glorious a rest and fruition of sight and hearing remain there for the children of GOD!
(From the Missionary Paper.)
Through the Rev. Mr. Peake, the Chippeway boys this year contributed largely to our decorations, when, at the distance of two hundred miles away, they gathered a sack of ground pine, and sent it to us for this very purpose. It was upon the third Sunday in Advent that a Dakota and a Chippeway, both boys, lately received into the Andrews Hall, were baptized; and now the pine of the Chippeway in the North had come to join the cedar of the Dakota in the South in celebrating the birth of the Prince of Peace. How much would many a child in the large cities of the East have given to behold this simple chapel thus decorated! From time immemorial these two Indian tribes have been at deadly war, the one with the other. Each nation has had its horrid war-dance from village to village around the scalp-lock. They have associated its merits with the spirit-land, thinking the poor victim, taken in ambush and barbarously massacred, becomes now the slave of a father, friend or brother that has died. In contrast with this, dear children, how beautiful it is to behold the Gospel, the glad tidings of salvation, coming forward, and, in the Name of an Universal SAVIOUR, commanding hostile tribes to lay aside their scalping-knives for the peaceful implements of husbandry!
It is not only for you, beloved children, to send offerings to us, but in turn these swarthy sons of the forest who come to CHRIST, are to make offerings for yet others. Thus are they taught to do, and here is a beautiful incident to illustrate it:
A short time ago, the Bishop sent Mr. Breck to visit the Chippeway Mission. After three days' hard traveling, Saturday night found him within fifteen miles of St. Columba. Clara Mokomanik, the little Indian girl, known personally to so many of you, was his traveling companion, now making her first visit to her mother since you saw her in the East. The fifteen miles were accomplished before Divine service on Sunday morning They found but few of the Indians at home. The Rev. Enmegahbowh, as usual, was faithful at his post. And the log church had been put in good repair for the Winter by his hands.
Soon the sweet-toned bell rang out the Missionary's welcome, and the good Indian folk of Kahgeeashkoonsikag began to assemble for worship. It was not expected that there would be an offering on this occasion, but the Indian Deacon said that the people were prepared- to make one, and would be disappointed if they were not permitted. Accordingly, after the customary Ojibwa service came the sermon, upon the text: Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold; THEM also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice; and there shall be one fold and one Shepherd." And the Missionary, to test their forgiving spirit and their appreciation of the teaching of the SAVIOUR, applied the "other sheep" to the Dakota Indians, and then showed how great things had been done for themselves and their children by their white friends in the East and South, and that now, in turn, they were called upon to do to others in like manner. He saw before him disciples that had followed the war-path. He saw others that had had relatives massacred by the Dakotas. To give to such a people, was to be a powerful test of the working of that Gospel, which is designed to make a brotherhood of the "one blood" of which, St. Paul says, God had made "all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth." He told them of the St. John Baptist's Mission to the Dakotas, and that the same services here celebrated to-day in Ojibwa had been offered up there in Dakota, and that their ancient enemy could not hate-them, when both were upon their knees in the same Confession, and both sent their children to the same Mission School at Faribault. No sight could have touched the hearts of our young friends more than that which was now witnessed by the Missionary. Not a man, not a woman, nor a child, nor a babe present, that did not come forward, according to their custom, to the chancel gate, and deposit a bit of money. The offering from these poor people on this occasion amounted to upwards of eleven dollars, which was afterwards made up by absent Indians to thirteen dollars.
Do you not think, dear children of Sunday Schools, that your contributions have been blessed by the Great Head of the Church upon the hearts of this neglected race? Is not the blessing of the widow's mite to be found beneath the rough blanket and within many a wigwam? If so, then the blessing of "the cup of cold water" given by you to these disciples is also yours.
In the latter part of October, the Missionaries, Breck and Peake, were visiting together on foot, from wigwam to wigwam, the band of Indians belonging to the old chief Wah-de-nah (White Fisher) and his friend Que-we-sen-shish, or the Bad Boy. As they were wending their way through beautiful Norway pine groves, they met an Indian and his wife, who became their guides to a wigwam hidden within a thicket on the banks of a small stream, where the Indian family which they wished to find was living. A little motherless boy stood by the side of his grandmother, and the father sat over against them upon the ground.
These Missionaries, so well known to the Indian, were received with evident tokens of delight. The Indian wife that had died had been a pupil in the Mission House at St. Columba as early as 1852. The next year she left for the woods without having become a Christian, and married this man. In 1859 the evident advance of consumption told of approaching death, and she asked to return to the Mission to prepare for the Christian life before she should die. The Indian Deacon appointed for her and her husband comfortable quarters; and after instruction she was baptized. Thinking herself able to travel, she left on a visit to her relatives at a famous fishing-ground. But here she soon died, and it was her solitary grave in the midst. of the forest, upon the banks of a beautiful lake, distinguished from pagan sepulture by the silent truth-telling cross, which was seen by the Bishop and his companions in their tour by canoe and portage through the Chippeway country last Summer.
The purpose of the present visit was now made known to the father and grandmother. The request to give up this little boy, five years of age, was a hard one to grant, and they answered that a half-sister, some years older, was too much attached to him to admit of their separation; but that if she could go along with him, they would consent. The Missionaries asked if the girl had been baptized, and the man reaching a bag of Indian manufacture took out of it an Ojibwa Testament, and from the Testament the certificate of the child's baptism. It was in the handwriting of Mr. Breck, and showed that this child had been presented at the first baptism celebrated for this nation. The Testament had been given at the same time to the father, who could read in Ojibwa; and it showed evident signs of frequent perusal.
But it is this, dear children, we wish you to note particularly, that through seven years this Indian had been carrying about with him in his movable house of birch bark this solitary Book of books, and along with it the baptismal certificate of his child, as the witness of the next best treasure he had obtained for her on earth. This motherless boy was the Chippeway that in Advent received Holy Baptism at Faribault, as has already been narrated.
During this visit six children were freely given up to us, and they are now in the care of the Andrews Hall. Twenty-five Chippeway and Dakota boys and girls are at present beneath our roof at Faribault, receiving instruction in the civilized and Christian life.
(From the Missionary Paper.)
Late on Saturday evening, the 10th of March, the Bishop, with Mr. Breck and a Divinity Student, arrived at the door of the residence of the Rev. E. S. Peake, in Crow Wing. Early on Sunday morning a sled team was in readiness to receive the load destined for the Indian Mission, twelve miles distant. Mrs. Peake and two Indian maidens accompanied the Bishop on the sled, whilst the Associate Missionaries traveled on foot. On the way they passed several wigwam encampments moving to the "sugar bush." The inroads of the White Man's firewater were too plainly visible upon some of these Indians to admit of concealment. What neither law nor military force has been able to check, the Church may yet do. Only two weeks before this, the head chief, Hole-in-the-Day, called on the Rev. Mr. Peake to promise a year's trial to abstain from fire-water. But more on this subject later in the account of this Visitation.
As they passed along, one of the Indian girls, who had just returned from Faribault, accidentally met her mother, and the intensity of this people's affection shown on this occasion fully proved that they only judge of time and place when self-control is necessary.
The sweet-toned bell of St. Columba had already summoned the Indian congregation from their sugar-camps. No exception could have been taken to the neatness of the little Indian church, even by the good and sainted George Herbert. The Rev. Enmegahbowh and his excellent Indian wife make the church, before all other buildings, the pattern of cleanliness and beauty. The native Deacon was now with joy presenting the first fruits of his Ministry to the Bishop, when he called together a class of seven adult Chippeways, most of them married persons, to be examined in the Catechism, prior to the service for the "laying on of hands." The wife of the head chief of Rabbit Lake, who had come the distance of eighteen miles and remained here for instruction through most of the past winter, led off in the responses without the least hesitation. It was a beautiful sight indeed to hear from lips so lately pagan the triple vows of Christianity, the Creed of the Apostles, and the Prayer of the LORD himself.
On Monday morning, at the early hour of six o'clock, according to the custom of St. Columba, the congregation assembled for the celebration of the Holy Supper of the LORD JESUS CHRIST. The Service was said for the most part in Indian, and was deeply solemn. The offering made on this occasion was very affecting. The good Bishop held the alms-basin at the chancel gate, whilst men, women, and children came forward to deposit their gifts. The pagan part of the congregation joined the Christian also in making this offering. A number of very small children were brought to the Bishop, and held up in their parent's arms, that they too might drop their mite into the plate. Such as could not contribute money brought bead-work and put it upon the plate.
It was in the afternoon of Monday, the i2th of March, that the Bishop and his Missionaries, Breck, Peake, and Enmegah-bowh entered the unfrequented wilderness to visit the band of Wahdenah, fifty miles from St. Columba. They had now left the White Man behind them to take up their abode for a few days with their brother Red Man. The Great Divine Exemplar had done infinitely more than this when He came to this sinful world, and condescended to man's estate and to call man brother. What if one of His Apostles shall now sleep on the ground, as Bishop Whipple did for three nights, in the midst of northern snows? Was not his Master oft-times without a place to lay His head? Would that this short visit into the interior could be written with the pen of inspiration, that it might awaken the love and working zeal of slumbering Christians abroad, to rise, and, by prayers, and self-denial, and offerings, help on the day of the LORD and of His coming. The plain Gospel narrative may require reference to primitive times to explain to city congregations the meaning of its simplest truths; but an earnest Apostolic Bishop in the midst of a primitive people, though Gentiles as truly as the woman of Samaria or Zaccheus the Publican, acts over again the story of the Nazarene day after day. Who cannot see the Saviour and the multitude on the mountain side, when these Missionaries are met by a large assembly of Indians in the woods, and the Bishop stops to tell them the substance of the Sermon on the Mount? And who will doubt that they have souls to be saved and are willing to be taught, when all of them rise to their feet at the recital of the Creed and LORD'S Prayer in their native tongue, and hear through the mouth of a Deacon, once as pagan as they, the prayers and blessing of the Chief Pastor of their souls?
Again, as these Missionaries pass over a frozen lake, a wigwam encampment of traveling Indians is seen upon its banks. On coming up with them, a wild pagan woman recognizes in the Indian Deacon a friend, who two years before had saved her from starvation; and she gratefully fills her basket with rice, and presses it upon his acceptance. And who will not admit that here is a nature fully within the range of the Gospel appeal? Will not that same gratitude behold in the Saviour the infinitely more that He has done for a dying soul?
The limit of this paper admits only the further statement that Wah-de-nah, the youthful head chief of six hundred Chippe-ways, was one of the three chiefs of Mille Lac, who in the Autumn of last year had come to Enmegahbowh, beseeching a Missionary for their people. The promised visit was now paid, an important interview had, and a seed planted to vegetate spiritually, it is believed, into a harvest of souls for CHRIST and His Church. Seven more Chippeway children belonging to St. Columba now returned with the Bishop and Mr. Breck to join their brothers and sisters already in the schools at Faribault. One was the only son of Shatayence, the head Grand-Medicine man. Samuel Nahbequan was given up to CHRIST and His Church about five years since, and is a boy of fine promise.
Manetowab, the chief of the Christian band, gave up his eldest child, a daughter seven years of age. Other children could have been obtained, had the Mission quarters been large enough to receive them. Beautiful is now the sight of seventeen Indian children under Christian training in the White field, all enrolled in the school, in due season to go forth bearers of good seed to regions uncared for and uncultivated.
(January 28th, Faribault.--To his Uncle, the Hon. Samuel Breck.)
...... Again I thank you for your gratifying myself and so many of the young friends of this Mission by preparing the picture of the Mission House. Will you bear with me in asking a second, and even a third (after a while), for I know how gratifying it will be to many friends. The artist explains the picture. There is an inclining tree, old and broken off at the top. At its root a fire is built about a large log; and should the tree burn down before morning, it will fall in the opposite direction from the Missionaries, one of whom is lying asleep at full length, with his feet towards the fire, his hat on, and knapsack under his head. The other Missionary is by his side, beneath an umbrella, which he is also holding over his sleeping companion. They lie immediately on the ground. The St. Croix River is running by at the lower right-hand corner. The trees are oak, and--as it is summer time--are of course clothed with their foliage. I am giving you the simple facts in the case without embellishment. These incidents are narrated literally as they took place. The thunder-storm arose from the river side, and the wind blows from the same direction. I know now, beloved Uncle, with these valuable explanations, you will be able to make a very nice picture for the children of the Church. The picture should indicate about sunset time.
(February 12th.--To the same.)
Here I am troubling you again. A fortnight ago I sent you No. 2 of Incidents in Missionary Life, and herewith is the No. 3. Will you not, dearest Uncle, tell me if I am wearying you? I know your great love for the Church and affection for myself. By these pictures you are doing great good to this Mission, as well as interesting deeply many children who love the Missionary work of the Church. The picture I wish for this number is a Missionary on foot, dressed in blanket, which is opened in the middle for the head to pass through, and then flows equally all around his person, save on the sides, where the blanket is narrower, and allows the free use of the arms in walking, although only the hands are seen. Upon his back is a leathern knapsack, and a cap on his head, with woolen scarf around his neck. The Missionary is trudging his way through deep snow, in the 'midst of a snow-storm, on an open prairie, where a deep ravine is at hand, into which he is about descending. There is only a scrub oak tree visible here and there. The Mississippi River is seen in the distance, passing between bluffs which rise abruptly from the river to four or five hundred feet. I wish I could sketch for you this picture, but I am wholly devoid of talent in these respects. The description I have given is the natural-scenery, as the incidents narrated were strictly true to myself. With prayers that your life may long be spared to you, I remain, &c.
His Uncle was then in his 90th year, and continued to use his pencil and brush with all the facility and delight of the earlier periods of his life.
(August 15, Bishop Seabury Mission, Faribault.--To Mrs. Dimock.)
Your truly acceptable letter of the 2d inst. came safely to hand a week, ago, and I hasten to answer, for its own sake, as well as to acknowledge and thank your good, generous husband for his offering of fifty dollars, which reached us the next day. If you knew, dear Madam, the thankfulness which possessed all our hearts at this pious GOD-send, you would almost covet a Missionary's life in the distant wilderness, whose faith in GOD, to send us all things needful, is our only resource. I am sure GOD will hear the prayers and receive the offerings which are thus sent up to Him in these disastrous times of our beloved country; and yet we may for CHRIST'S sake have to suffer much in maintaining our ground in a field, where for a time all the support must come from abroad. Will you, dear Mrs. D------, in the name of our good Bishop and this Mission, thank your beloved husband for this further expression of his piety to GOD and good-will to this Mission?
About the middle of the winter, Mrs. Breck became so ill that Dr. Breck took her to St. Paul for more skillful medical treatment. They reached there in a covered sleigh, after three days' ride. It was all in vain. She lingered a few weeks, in intense suffering, and then entered into the rest of the Blessed!
She was trained and nurtured for the service of CHRIST; and when the Minnesota Indian Mission was founded, she resolved to consecrate herself to this difficult and self-sacrificing work. When first she entered this field, it was in company with Bishop Kemper, on his Visitation. He found her bright and cheerful, as if on her way to some pleasant home of refinement and civilization. Her devotion to the work set before her never flagged. In her hands the children found a mother, and so thoroughly did she give her heart and soul to their instruction, that they esteemed her as the most beautiful of creatures. After her marriage, she continued her unwearied work, and eventually accompanied her husband to his New Mission, through the wilderness, on to Leech Lake. From this home they were driven by fierce and drunken savages, and finally settled down at Faribault. The care of the Indian children, gathered out of remote Indian wilds, was committed to her.
Bishop Whipple, in his funeral address, remarked:
She became a Missionary teacher in the Indians' wilderness home. In loving JESUS, she loved those whom JESUS loved, and so again love grew by what it fed upon, until her heathen lambs were printed on her heart. When GOD called her, a wife and mother, to another field, these forest birdlings had their old place within her heart and home. They never lost it; they were first in work, in love, in prayers. Even death did not spoil her love. She said: "Let my lambs sing that dear old song at my burial, 'Lay me beside Ellen's grave in the acre of God.'" And so she will sleep beside her Indian lambs who came to us from their wigwam to find a Saviour and a home, and when the Resurrection morn shall break may say, "Behold, I, and the children whom GOD has given me."
Need I tell you of what she was as the faithful pastor's wife? All these years she has gone in and out among you, and your hearts are her epistles.
There are some here who could tell us of another Dorcas' work. Which of your homes was ever touched with sorrow when she did not come? Where was there sickness that she did not minister? Whose heart has no memories of her loving words and work? You will all miss her; the poor will miss her hand that scattered bounty; the sick will miss the coming of her feet. She will be missed in the church, in the Sunday School, and Parish work. ... She loved life, and it never seemed more blessed than when the summons came. It found her ready. She meekly bowed her head and said: "Thy will be done." There was no faltering, no drawing back, not a murmur passed her lips- Grace conquered all. I met her in her sick room, where you read her anguish in every lineament of her face; but there was not the shadow of a passing cloud upon her faith. With her stricken household we met beside the Table of her LORD, and she ate of angels' food for the last rough stages of the journey.
The following letters of her beloved husband are here inserted:
(April 30th, 1862, Faribault, Minn.--To his Brother Charles.)
My beloved Friend and Brother: Yours of the I2th inst. has come to hand, and I thank you for its consolation. It was written, as you have learned ere this (by the paper I sent you), after my darling wife had departed this life. She was a great sufferer for weeks. I waited upon her every night of her illness, and for two months remained with her in St. Paul. Your remarks on the subject of death and the transition to the world to come are very just, and most full of comfort in my hour of trial. My poor wife made every preparation for death, supposing on two or three occasions that she was going to die. On one of these, when the Visitation Office had been appointed, by a brother clergyman (Dr. Ingersoll), she requested the Holy Communion to be substituted; and she called for clean garments with all the calmness possible, as though she were preparing to go to church. But GOD kept her in the body a few more days to suffer for herself or others.
The morning of her death I was called at 3 o'clock A. M. to her bedside, by hearing her repeat the words, "Come quickly," with her hands clasped in prayer. She was doubtless conscious of her time and place on the verge of the Jordan, that separates us from the world to come, and was calling to the Blessed SAVIOUR and His Angels to come help her over and through the valley of death. I called her sister, and the family where we were tarrying, and in the midst of the Commendatory Prayer, her soul took its everlasting flight. And here I am alone!--never again on this side of the grave to hear her voice or behold her form. It is hard to realize, and harder to bear. Her grave is beside her Indian lambs, and now I am left with her two boys, three and a half and five and a half years of age, to mourn their irreparable loss, and mine. I know I have your true sympathy and that of Mrs. D------. You, my beloved Brother, have had your trial of the sick chamber, and must indeed have been schooled these years in the highest degree of patience and faith. Love to Mrs. D------and the little ones.
(May 5th, Faribault--To the Same.)
My precious Brother: Your two letters of the 15th and 26th April, so full of sympathy, have come to hand. The last of the brothers to marry, I am the first to be taken away from my second self. Separation by death was always so distant to my mind, as to seem something impossible for present reflection. But she has gone into her rest, after weeks of intense suffering. Night and day I was with her, and in person attended upon her. She made all her spiritual preparation for dying, and when the Good LORD did call her, she had her hands clasped heavenward, and crying "Come quickly," and in the midst of the Commendatory Prayer, which I was required at 3 o'clock in the morning to offer up, her soul fled. I had then to make all the arrangements for our return to Faribault, and you may imagine that lengthy funeral journey of sixty miles, which Mrs. Breck's sister and I had to take in a solitary carriage, following the lonely hearse. With no telegraph or other means of informing the Mission of her departure, we had to come upon our friends and brethren, carrying the sad intelligence ourselves. This was trying to flesh and blood in the extreme. Here I had to meet my darling, motherless boys, who, too young to understand much about death, yet nevertheless came clinging to me, repeating the question time and again--"Is Mamma dead?" To enter the empty Mission quarters, and there deposit the lifeless body, that had so long been the moving spirit of this place, was another great struggle. And now to meet all her loving friends, many from the ranks of the poor, with sympathizing words and looks, was heart-rending. The Bishop's sermon, published, will be sent you this week.
My loving wife now sleeps by the side of her Indian lambs. I can write you, my Brother, no more. Remember me in your prayers.
In connection with the funeral of Mrs. Breck, there is an incident of touching interest in relation to the work of building, at as early a date as possible, the "Bishop's church." He says:
The death of Mrs. J. Ll. Breck impressed deeply on the Bishop's heart the words of his LORD and Master: "Work while it is day, for the night cometh in which no man can work." In so far as this bereavement left its lesson on our hearts, the erection of the church is connected with memories of one who has entered the rest of the people of GOD.
The year 1862 was marked with losses one after another; first his dear wife; next, his honored uncle, Samuel Breck; and then his nephew, James Lloyd Breck, a Christian indeed, "in whom there was no guile." And now the most terrible troubles began with the Indian outbreak:
(September 6th, Faribault.--To Miss Sarah M. Edwards)
.....The wild Indian has long been irritated on account of the loss of his hunting-grounds, and for bad faith on the part of the White Man. Being well informed of the Civil War raging among our own citizens, this was thought a favorable time to strike the blow, and they have done it most adroitly and fatally for our poor frontier settlers. I will not pretend to put on paper the horrors of the scalping-knife, unsurpassed for cruelty in the history of the early settlement of this continent. These disasters still continue. Every day we hear more of them; and it now looks much like a border war for some time to come.
Our Missionaries have all escaped,--in some instances in a manner most providential. None of them had to use the least violence to others in getting away. A maiden lady, quite advanced in years, that was a teacher with me among the Chippeways when I was obliged to leave my station there, had joined this new Mission to the Dakotas; and in making her escape on foot, saved her life only by boldly extending her hand to a gang of savages that arose on all sides of her to massacre her and her only companion, another woman. This other woman had two little children with her. One, aged eleven years, fled and has never been found. I might fill volumes with narratives too horrid to believe possible in this age of light and Gospel truth. And yet it is not known what has been the fate of the Christian Indians. Some, we know, have been taken prisoners. Doubtless many white women and children are captives--that is, buried alive.
For a time I sent my little boys away to a river town, but they are again back with me. If things do not brighten for the Winter, I may conclude to take them to their friends in New York or Pennsylvania. But alas! alas! what a desperate state is our own land in, everywhere! Surely this earth is not the home of the Christian! My own poor wife has indeed been taken from the evil to come. How distressed would she be were she alive now! With all her intense sufferings, I can only think this would have been to her loving soul an hundred-fold worse.
(September 17th.--To his Brother Charles)
.....The sentiment of your letter touching the illness and dying moments of our venerable and good uncle is very gratifying. You, beloved Brother, are honored in being at hand to be the ministering spirit of our relatives in their last agony. If you saw pain in our dear aged uncle, what did I not see as a husband in the agonized countenance of my precious wife in her prime of life! But she was taken away from the evil to come. What would not have been her distress at this present, to have witnessed the horrid massacres by the wild Indians on this border! After sending my children with their aunt to the River, and with Brother George, her husband, on picket duty, my solitary night in this Mission, alone with a Sioux young man, was anything but comfortable! The escape of our Missionaries was most providential.
What is to be the permanent effect upon the Indian Mission is impossible to say. It may ultimately save a remnant, that otherwise would have become extinct as pagans. But the present aspect of affairs is most discouraging. I fear our Missions will be greatly perplexed what to do for lack of means. Our receipts the past year were about equal to former years--but since this disturbance we have almost nothing.
My dear Brother, how delighted must the Saints departed be to welcome their brethren in CHRIST, as they enter among them from this strange land! May your son "Samuel" ever prize that final blessing of the aged pilgrim! Give my love to sister, and specially to "Lloyd," but also to the other dear ones.
The "son Samuel," here referred to, was lifted up on the bed of his father's uncle, within reach of the unpalsied arm, stretched out to lay a hand on the head of his young namesake; and then followed the most patriarchal blessing, full of piety, faith and love--a sight touching beyond expression!
(October 20th.--To his Brother Charles)
My very dear Brother: I have just heard of your very sad loss. We live in a world of sudden bereavements!' That clear boy--no one could look at his sweet heavenly face without loving him--he has gone to his rest, and to the society of his beloved sister and others. How must the spirits of those who have gone before, rejoice in the union of the redeemed of earth as they reach that abode of peace! How must they with rapture conduct them through the realms of Paradise! GOD grant you all the comfort of His sustaining grace!
"An affectionate Brother, a most dutiful and loving Son, and a faithful disciple of JESUS CHRIST."
(November 7th, Crow Wing.--From the Rev. Enmegahbowh, to the Rev. Dr. Breck.)
.....We have entered the saddest and bitterest of our days. Our poor Alfred is no more. We buried him day before yesterday. Father Gear was with us, and performed the funeral service, for which I am thankful, and very grateful. My poor wife is getting prostrated and helpless, and indeed I am much afraid of her, that it will cause a serious illness. I need not tell you, dear Breck, of the particular death of my son. I have mentioned it to you in my last, of his future prospect of entering the better world. He was fully prepared, and said again and again to us, that the GREAT SPIRIT has taken off all his sin away, and he was now prepared to go to Him and receive him, as His child. Just few minutes before he died, while his mother was weeping on his dying bed, he said, "Mother, don't weep for me, for I am going to the good place. I feel for you, mother; you are living in this wicked world; very soon I shall leave it." And again he said to her, "Mother, will you meet me in that good place?" She said to him: "Yes, my son, I shall very soon, meet you there;" and he stretch his quivering hand to me and said: "Father, pray much, and do good! "These were his last words. Never did I see a dying man with so much peace, and great comfort of entering the good world. He never for one minute struggled for breath. There is the secret of religion, which casts out all fear. Indians can indeed enjoy the White Man's religion, can indeed say with the Apostle Paul, "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?"--and "Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory, through our LORD JESUS CHRIST."
Mrs. Morrison and others said they never saw one died so happy as Alfred, and Mrs. Morrison said further, that he was continually talking of the good place, and of the GOOD SPIRIT. His last words to his father--"Pray much, and do good," have sunk deep in my heart, and as I walk about,, they are continually vibrating in my ears. He also told his Brother Gaius and Sister Martha to become true Christians, and pray to the GREAT SPIRIT, and that they must mind father and mother. Everybody took notice of him, that, to the very last, he was sensible. Just one or two of his last breaths he opened his eyes, and looked up to heaven, and then closed his eyes. I weep not as without hope, but have a prospect to meet him in the good world.
Now, Father in the Gospel, there are great many of your White people that try to discourage you, and tell you to abandon your Indian work entirely, because it is useless, and far beyond our comprehension of the Gospel. No, Father; your work of love, I have no doubt, has saved many, and will call you blessed at the last day. My fixed purpose of heart is to pray much and do good among my countrymen in whatever situation I may be placed, and may GOD bless you and our good Bishop, to spare you long and many days, to do good among my poor countrymen.
Father, I am lonely since our beloved brother Peake has left us. I am homeless [the wild Indians had destroyed his household effects, and broken up both the Mission House and Church of St. Columba]. I have no home. What to do I cannot say.
I think I must be uncomfortable this winter. I thought of going to Canada this winter, to see if I can raise a few dimes to enable me to purchase a house here at Crow Wing. Some are anxious to have me remain here. I think I might do a little good. Our payment takes place the 20th of this month. I will write to you again very soon and let you know what we can do after the payment. We may get something towards buying a house.
Please tell my little Eliza and George that their brother is no more. Alfred had often spoken about his little sister and brother. Please also inform me what you think I better do, if you still think of continuing little work among the Indians. I hope, Father, you will often write to me. Your letters do me much good in this troublesome time.
To-day the three Mille Lac principal chiefs came to me and ask me plainly to go to their country and teach them, poor fellows. Your son in the Gospel,
J. J. ENMEGAHBOWH.
While at Crow Wing, Mr. George Bungo, a very intelligent man, of mixed African and Indian blood, came to see the Bishop on behalf of the Leech Lake Indians, to express their deep sorrow that their foolish young men had driven Mr. Breck from the country, and to say for them that "all the Indians agreed they never had a better friend, and they hoped he would forgive them." Many messages were sent by the Red Lake Indians, asking for help.
1863. (January 21st, Faribault.--To Mrs. Dimock.)
Your kindness of the 24th December has been long neglected. In behalf of this Mission, I thank you heartily for your farther kind offering of fifty dollars to aid us in our work. You have indeed had great faith, and united to it a most liberal charity, now for many years past. We have a common work here upon earth to do; and in the Paradise of GOD, we have the blessed spirits of those we loved here. I had not heard before of the death of your father. You must indeed be lonesome. And this is the heritage of earth. We are indeed strangers and pilgrims, journeying to another and better country, even an heavenly one.....
But, dear Madam, I hope before long to see my friends, as well as my aged parents, in person once more. For this Spring and Summer I intend spending in the East. It is my third visit only, since 1841. It will be a change for me, but not a rest, for I shall be visiting our friends, young and old, everywhere, in city and in country. I must deliver many addresses to Sunday Schools as well as to congregations. It is my desire during this visit to ask an offering from congregations, in behalf of the new Bishop's Church or Cathedral of Minnesota, which is building at Faribault. With perhaps six to ten exceptions, all the contributions sent to our Mission come from Sunday Schools and individuals, not from parishes or congregations, so that this course will not interfere with the regular (stated) offerings which sustain this Mission......
(February 9th, Faribault.--To Miss Sarah M. Edwards.)
...... If you were astonished at the result of your year's labor, how much more myself. How many years have the Ladies of the Seabury Society been with me in my frontier work! They have indeed a large share in the foundations which have been laid here. How shall I thank them for three hundred and sixty dollars! You have indeed filled our hearts with gratitude to the Giver of every good gift.
Permit me to tell you of the delightful Services of yesterday in the rustic room occupied by the parish of the Good Shepherd in this place. They consisted principally of the baptism of children in the afternoon. The congregation, as usual, was full to overflowing. There is one very beautiful feature in this parish. The afternoon services are equally well attended with those of the morning. In many places, in most indeed, the second service of the day is not considered so binding as the first, and even Churchmen remain at home. But here it is quite the reverse. So much for the privilege of laying foundations. No wonder St. Paul gloried in not building upon another man's foundation. You may remember my telling you that we found here in 1858 but three communicants, and these have now increased to upwards of one hundred; so that they" do for the most part all that they are taught. Infant baptism and other baptisms we make as interesting as possible. The Font and other parts of the chancel are decorated with evergreen in Winter, and with flowers and wreaths in Summer. I am also very particular in having the full complement of godparents, and those chosen from among the most faithful of the communicants.
On this occasion, the first two children baptized were boys of five and seven years of age, presented by their mother, who till now has been a Baptist, but became of herself a member of my class which is in course of preparation for Confirmation. These two boys now enter the parish school.
The next two were children of a Church lady, who recently lost her husband, and moved from the country into our village. Her husband was a Congregationalist, and through the misery of a mixed marriage, she had neglected the Church for years in New Hampshire, where she was born and lived until within the past year. Through affliction she is now brought home, and returns to the bosom of the Church, and is also a member of my class for Confirmation.
The next was a babe put into my arms to receive CHRIST'S blessing. This one was of good Church parents, both of Old England's Church, but young people, presented here for Confirmation, married by me, and received to the LORD'S Supper. They are plain but highly-esteemed people of this town as well as parish.
The next child was a beautiful babe of mixed national parentage, one a Hollander and the other a German: the man well educated and of Lutheran faith, the woman a Romanist; both finding in the Church a common platform upon which to stand. These had come on this cold Sunday six miles to present their first-born to CHRIST and His Church.
The last child baptized on this occasion was a babe of Norwegian parentage. The husband is in the war at the South, but it was with his consent that the Church became the nursing mother of their child. The god-parents were also Norwegians, and I was so happy that the babe, though crying when handed to me, should cease its tears when the consecrated water was poured upon its head, and the Church became its nursing mother, as though it knew it had gotten home at last to a place of safety.
Thus seven more were enrolled in that mighty army of the redeemed ones of a fallen world. It has always been my custom with infants and children, after signing them with the sign of the cross, to imprint the kiss of peace on their foreheads, and no mother has ever yet found fault with me for so doing. These make sixty-five Baptisms in this new parish since last Easter, beside eight adults who have been received into the congregation (from other Baptisms) by signing them, as customary, with the sign of the Cross.
But I am soon (D. v.) to be with my many friends in the East. It is now twenty-two years since I first came to this frontier, and I have been East but twice in this time. Once in seven years was my rule, so that this third visit will be within the limits prescribed for myself. I purpose leaving this immediately after Easter, if navigation should be open. This will bring me to New York by the 12th of April....... If thought expedient I would spend a Sunday in New Haven any time from the 1st of June to the 1st of September; and I would like to preach three times.
The Eastern journey was accomplished, as he intended, and everywhere he found that his welcome had not been cooled by seven more years of toils and sufferings for the work of the Church on the frontier.
(April 29th, New York.--To his Brother Charles)
...... I was quite sad ,the other day at seeing so little of you, and at not being able to hear you preach, or even go with you to the cars. It made me gloomy all day. Your kindness in coming to see me was fully appreciated, but my life is one of continued toil, and to writing there is no end! I do not feel satisfied to put you off with only a week-day service. And whilst I will come to you on Monday, the nth, yet I must endeavor to do better than this ere I return to my Western home. On Ascension Day I am to be at Reading; so do not arrange for me beyond Tuesday night. I had but just made this appointment in my book, when I received a letter from the Rector there, sending their S. S. children's Easter offering of $65, for the general purposes of the Mission, and asking me to give them a service on a week-day, if not on a Sunday, and I was glad I had set apart this high feast day for them.
I preached with great effect (I think) in the Church of the Ascension. The reason I think so, is from the fervent words of the Rev. Dr. Smith when I closed, endorsing our Mission in the most marked manner. No collection was made, but he invited his people to send in offerings. As soon as the service was over, one gentleman from near Boston, who happened to be present, asked for an interview, and arranged with me for the support of a new Missionary among the Indians at $500 a year for five years. On Monday a lady pledged $150 a year for the support of a Divinity Student (White); also wished to procure a silver communion service at $350 or $400 for the Memorial Church; likewise had made the Mission a remembrance in her will. The offering with the Rev. Dr. Montgomery was considerably over $200. Thus the ball is rolling, and I trust will roll, until twice ten thousand dollars shall be heaped up for that Western work.
Sister Anna has just heard from her son John at Gambier, and he states that they have just had a Sunday School fair, at which they realized $100, and this they had sent to Bishop Whipple. I hear Dr. Stoddard has made an offering for Johnson, our Indian Missionary.
With all this news I must stop, for I am going continually, and only find a little moment here and there for writing.
This is a sample of the success that attended his incessant work during this Eastern tour. North as far as New Hampshire,--at Boston, Troy, Albany, through all central and western New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania,--so driven by engagements that he had to snatch time for letter-writing on steamboats and even in railway cars, at times so weary that he had to lean against the wall to regain strength enough to pull through,--Sunday and week-day he was indefatigable; and by August 1st he reported the success thus far achieved:
To our Friends and Benefactors.
My dear Brethren in CHRIST: I have now been in the East three months, going in and out among you and your little ones, in the strict discharge of the great object of my visit. Up to the first of August, I have preached to sixty-five congregations, and addressed seventy Church and Sunday-Schools, averaging one hundred pupils each, making an aggregate of seven thousand youth. One hundred and thirty-five Missionary addresses show that brethren here would not have me idle, even during a furlough. And the further fact that everywhere brethren have given me the most cordial welcome to the hospitality of their houses, as well as to the liberality of their churches, has made my vocation one of the highest personal joy and encouragement. I can truly say, this visit will be, in memory's book, a continual feast to my Missionary heart in all my future labors on the frontier.
What has the Appeal Accomplished?
Brethren everywhere ask: "What success have you met with?" And when I have told them, their delight is only equalled by my own. But the five thousand dollars I have received in these three months' labor, are not a tithe of the real offerings which have been given. No! the love and the future interest awakened, can only be estimated by the "prayers of thousands, along with the self-denial and faithful work of hearts old and young, everywhere. These five thousand, which I now acknowledge in this Missionary Paper, are the voluntary offerings of Churchmen, given without any private appeal. I have gone to no one to compel them to give because they could not refuse a personal application. The great work of our Mission requires this public appeal to the churches, but it requires no unwilling gift; and I am assured in my heart, that thus far no one that has given large or small sums to these five thousand, regrets it. On the contrary, as has been expressed to me everywhere, they would wish that their gift could be multiplied ten or an hundred fold.
Who Are They Who Have Given?
I am happy to say, the poor as well as the rich, young children as well as strong men, the sick as well as the whole. Ml that have heard of the Church work on the frontier for the White and Red population, have desired to have a part in it. Children everywhere have listened with great patience and evident delight to my words. They are the army of little ones, who have ever been foremost in helping us. They are the young innocents such as CHRIST held up as patterns of faith for men to follow. It is true their penny may be their all of this world's goods, but in parting with it, they have fulfilled the command of the SAVIOUR, "Go, sell all and give." Examples of this loving faith and loving work are found everywhere. Let me note a few in this place. A pastor writes me, "Forty cents of the enclosed were handed me by a lame boy, earned by his own hands." A dying child sends for her spiritual father, and taking from beneath her pillow her all of worldly wealth, the sum of four dollars, says, "Give these to Mr. Breck's Mission," and shortly afterwards she adds, "Jesus, take me," and extending both her wasted hands above her head, as though to be received, exclaims in dying accents, "Beautiful!" and she is gone. A little boy put in my hands a dollar, the result of last Lent's self-denial. He had kept it for weeks, expecting me. My delay must have tried his faith, when self-indulgence on all sides called for its expenditure. Four little girls., hearing that the Indian children were earning money enough to put a window in the Bishop's Church, for a Memorial to the Christian Indian lambs that are sleeping in the church-yard, with delight brought me one dollar to help them do it.
Christian men and women have also nobly responded to my appeal. Not content with the alms-basin, or where the alms-basin did not go around, they have generously sent in offerings for the Bishop's Church. One lady in France, as soon as she heard of my visit to the East, sent me one hundred dollars. Several gentlemen have made special contributions of fifty to one hundred dollars, in ways so quiet, that I was not at liberty to obtrude my presence upon them even to thank them. They have their reward on high, and in the sanctuary of their own consciences. Christian ladies, by previous preparations for gifts, have delighted me by bestowing them in person, or through their pastor. The sick chamber has also been to me the scene of the most solemn and blessed of services. Here the House of Prayer, that could never be reached, was the delight of the spiritual vision, which could behold stone rising by stone in that distant portion of the Vineyard.
The buildings progress along with the Appeal. As I receive offerings, they are transmitted to the Bishop of Minnesota, who in turn applies them on the work. The many offerings made here in form of thin paper, are already there massive stone-work in the uprising walls of a living Cathedral. In a letter just received from Bishop Whipple, he says: "It looks like an herculean task to build such a work in these days of a common sorrow; but men have done such work for GOD in other days, and I believe He will help us to do so. There is one consolation, that the work will last five hundred years, if done as commenced. I am fully satisfied with the work. It is very beautiful, and I know GOD will own and bless it. It may seem to our friends in the East, as in advance of the country. I do not deny it; but why should we not make the House of GOD the centre of His work? Why wait one hundred years, to have the Church a gleaner then, in a harvest that ought to be all her own? American Churchmen say, and justly, that the only hope of the country is in the Church. If so, do we ask too much that here, in the fairest land on earth, capable of one of the densest populations of any State in America--do we ask too much to plant the work of the Church at once, on such a foundation that it cannot fail? I do not believe it. Churchmen will stay up our hands, and GOD will bless them."
Five thousand dollars have now been received, and with the 1st of August, I have begun the further appeal for the second five thousand, GOD willing, as in the past three months, so in these, I shall break no appointment. And now, thanking all those who have aided me in the past by their prayers and offering, I commend this great work, undertaken in faith and love, to the further sympathy and interest of a Brotherhood that knows no color, or language, or nation, in CHRIST JESUS, the Saviour of the world.
It is well worth while here to see what Dr. Breck means by an American Cathedral:
The Bishop's Church, not a parish church, will be the living centre, towards which all eyes will be addressed, for from thence will go forth the Church-life of the Diocese. It is not simply that the Bishop has a church; but that the Church work for a Diocese centres there. Apart from the Church work, it would be a trunk only, without branches or fruit. The works of piety, charity, and Christian training are its essential elements. So that when, by this appeal, I have asked for the free-will offerings of the faithful, I have asked indeed for a Church building, but only as the Christian temple, wherein may worship the thousands, who, in all time to come, shall there be blessed instruments in doing work for CHRIST, or be the recipients of His works.
These last mean the sick and suffering members of CHRIST, the orphan and the destitute, the afflicted in any and every sense, whether of spiritual or bodily malady. These mean, too, the educational work, not simply for the candidate for the Ministry, but for the little child, the nurslings of the flock, for boys and for girls, for grown-up sons and daughters just on the verge and ready to enter upon the arena of life. They mean also the place where both Bishop and Clergy may rally for increased spiritual life and refreshment,--where they may gather together when they will, and find a common Altar, and worship together in the atmosphere of a spiritual retreat from the world, to go forth again with renewed strength to the battle-field. They mean the one place in a Diocese, where both Clergy and Laity may say "naught of the things we here possess is our own, for we have all things in common."
The Asylum, the Hospital, the Training School, these Christian Schools are as much the property of the most remote Clergyman, or of the humblest member of the Church in the Diocese, as they are the property of the Bishop or any other. The Church in their midst consecrates the whole to GOD, and sets the seal to all, that CHRIST is the Sun and Centre, around which all revolve.
(July 28th, Crow Wing.--from the Rev. J. J. Enmegahbowh) The Indians are quiet and peaceable. There is no fire-water at Crow Wing. Most of the whisky traders have been taken away, and taken care of by your laws. You would be perfectly astonished to see the Indians look so different, and changed both in their appearance and clothing. How long it will continue I know not; but as far as I understand, the Indian Agent is determined to put through this whisky trade. What a blessing it would be for the Indians and the country, if the whisky trade could be stopped entirely!
With regard to opening a new Mission among the Indians, we have postponed it until everything is settled. It is now thought all the Mississippi bands as well as the Mille Lac Indians will be removed to some part of Red Lake. I have been with my family at Faribault, and remained two weeks. We have had a good time with the children. We have also had the greatest pleasure of singing and praying together with my hereditary enemies, the Sioux; and the Bishop asked me to say a few words, which I did. They sang so loud made my dark cheeks red, and I was truly glad their hands were my hands, their hearts were my heart indeed. I loved them most truly. I loved them as my own relations, and I wish them all to be saved. Many years ago that big heart of hatred of mine against them was delighted at every scalp brought in, and my continual wish was that more scalps would be taken. But that hatred is now done away, and turned into friendship and brotherhood in the Christian bond of love and fellowship towards them.
I have often thought of Father Gear being the first man of GOD who spoke to me about the poor Chippeways. And again of Dr. Breck, who ventured out into the Indian country to gather in the lost sheep of the wilderness. And now comes our beloved Bishop, to confirm and strengthen the sheep brought into the fold. Truly our poor hearts ought to sing and pray with the words "Mequech, mequech." The other day my wife and I were talking about you, and Father Gear, and the Bishop. We said, had those men of GOD not been living, what would have become of us? What condition would we have been in at present? Perhaps long ago I should have died as a drunkard, or have been killed by some one of the Sioux, or by my own people.
Our services on Sunday still continue well attended. In speaking of the Bishop of Minnesota, we have remembered him in our prayers. Oh that my poor people might become good Christians, and love the GREAT SPIRIT with true heart and strong mind, and that the Bishop's heart might be full with gladness and joy!
(October 8th, Lake Champlain.--To Mrs. D.)
...... Would that I could say, The end of my journey is nigh at hand! I am working hard, and the work must be longer because I will not make any personal appeals. And to count up ten or fifteen thousand dollars from the offering of parish appeals must take time. But I feel satisfied in that I am doing Missionary work here in the East all the time. This is a sort of Missionary commission to the churches, and which is required as much as the living voice on the frontier. Indeed, if I could, I would have a Missionary Commission of two or three Clergymen once in five years or so go the rounds of the Church in city and country to reproduce and create Missionary spirit, and zeal for CHRIST. I have just been in Burlington and Plattsburgh, N. Y. I was here six years ago. I asked at the latter place, Has any Missionary been here since my previous visit? and the Doctor (Coit) said None. It is so all through the Church, save in large places.
Now this is all wrong, and I console myself that this visit may repair this evil in a degree. It is very hard to be continually on the wing from place to place, and be continually discoursing on the same topics; but I try to bear up under it. It is a sort of mental martyrdom, for I must be fully as earnest the hundredth time as the first. Pardon me for running on at such a length with self. I ought to rejoice in the opportunity which is hereby afforded me to strengthen the walls of Zion over so great a land and nation.......
The following Extra Missionary Paper, issued at Quinquagesima, closed Dr. Breck's Eastern tour, and announced his return to the West once more:
(To our Friends and Benefactors)
My dear Brethren in CHRIST: Let me ask the Clergy and Laity who have heard my appeal during the past nine months, to give these additional words a hearing. My tour has been one of manifold interest to me, and I trust also of great Missionary worth to young and old everywhere. The immediate response in money has been, for the most part, only a feeble expression of interest that will appear in the future harvest. At the same time, a certain response now, for founding the work of a great Church centre, is necessary in view of a proportionate outgrowth.
Up to February 1st, I have received and transmitted to Bishop Whipple for the buildings at Faribault, $11,313.51. With less than this sum, I could have returned to my field rejoicing. But to lay suitable foundations there of stone, we were aware, would require twice or thrice ten thousand dollars. Had I come to the East simply to raise twenty or thirty thousand dollars, not caring for the future perennial sustenance of the work, neither for my own feelings, nor those of others, I could readily have accomplished it in much less time than this visit, by the direct personal appeal. But this I could not do, from both the disqualification for it in myself considered, and from great aversion to extracting the unwilling gift. I would a thousand times rather work longer and harder for the willing and glad offering, than rend my own spirit and distress others by compelling them to give, because they could not refuse a personal application.
And now in putting forth this Extra, it is not intended to do the work of the private appeal in another form; but through the conviction that many who have contributed in churches already, would have given more had they been prepared; whilst others, who would have given gladly, were absent at the time of my visit; and yet others, who gave, would cheerfully give again to make up any deficiency. For these reasons, I press home to Churchmen everywhere, the vast importance, in a Missionary point of view, of well founding this Church centre in Minnesota at the present time. And that even twenty-five thousand dollars be not thought adequate for our work, let it here be considered that the Romanists have already expended in buildings at their centre for this same young Diocese one hundred thousand dollars more than this sum; and yet this foreign Church is far-seeing enough to know the vast vantage ground gained by presenting a strong front at the very outset.
The hub must be the strongest part of the wheel, or else all will fall, crumbling in upon it. Now Faribault is our centre for Church work in Minnesota. It is there that we have six graduated Church schools, one of them an Indian Department; and in these during the past six years, four to five hundred youth have been more or less educated. It is there the Bishop resides and is building his Church, a church to be forever common to every clergyman and layman of the Diocese, where the incense of prayer and praise is never to cease. It is there, too, the asylum for the orphan, the sick, the maimed and afflicted of every name, should in time cluster and beautify with the willing works of pious hands.
To accomplish so important an object at this early period of a Diocese, I have consented to all this day and night toil, of the week-day and Sunday, for the past nine months; and I wish here to thank GOD for giving me the health and strength to do it, and also to thank my brethren everywhere for their good cheer, thereby enabling me to pursue it. And now, at the close of my Eastern tour, I propose a method by which eleven thousand dollars additional to my receipts may be raised, and I ask the interest of our many friends among the laity to second their pastor's approval of it, personally, by contributing, or, through others, obtaining it. I ask the pledges of 50 persons for $100 each, making $5,000; 100 persons for $50 each, making $5,000; 100 persons for $10 each, making $1000; in all, eleven thousand dollars; the pledge to be given by Easter, and payable any time within the six months ensuing. I trust the steady outgrowth of work on the frontier, which, along with associates both of the clergy and laity, I have in person represented for the past twenty-two years, is something of a basis upon which to stand, to ask for this uprearing of the superstructure.
In the faith of CHRIST, which has ever sustained this Mission, I offer this further appeal to my friends and brethren throughout the East. This Bishop's Church, built by the offerings of the faithful everywhere, will be a fitting testimony in our day, of a return to the system of Missionary centres, such as wrought so effectually in the spread of Christianity in the earliest and best days of the Church.
My appointments in the East close with February. I trust to reach Faribault for the early Easter morning service.....
(May 29th, R. R. Station near La Crosse.--To his Brother Charles)
Your kind letter was received at Geneva or Detroit, and greatly surprised me respecting the relapse of our dearest Mother. I felt quite confident, on leaving New York, that she would be spared to us, at least for a time; but now it would appear that we must soon part with her that bare us. And are we to be motherless, and no more to find the earnest greeting to which we have been used for nearly half a century? It is too late for me to return; and indeed our blessed service together was a most fitting leave-taking. But I will not think I am without a mother, even after what has been written me; and I can hear nothing more until I have reached Faribault. And there all will be joyous greetings from my darling boys, and from a people very near to my heart. I shall feel unwilling to open letters from our dear family at such a time, lest sorrow must flow mingled along with my joy.
At Detroit my Easter was a marked one. At a 6 o'clock service (A. M.) I addressed a congregation of some 400 people. A blessed service it was. My discourse was on the great subject of the day. At 10:30 A. M. I would not preach. Met two Sunday-Schools in two churches in the afternoon, and preached to another congregation at night. One gentleman and his wife gave me $100. I think my visit there will amount to $150 more. One church at Stamford, Connecticut, sends me a pledge for $250. The iron companies at Pittsburgh have given all the iron, nails, bolts, &c., for the Cathedral, amounting to nearly $700. Anonymous in New York, under "F," gave me $200. So that I may well go on my way rejoicing, take courage for the future, and thank GOD.
I hope to find boats running in the Mississippi to-morrow morning, which will spare me a long tedious journey in stages; still I expect at least 100 miles by stage.
Dr. Breck's account of the Convention, and the figures in his parochial report, are well worth transcribing:
We have just had our Convention, which is doing admirable work for the spread of the Church throughout the borders. The Missionary character is the perfection of Church Conventions. This year the Bishop treated on the subject of the Cathedral system, developing its Missionary character. You will be pleased to hear my Report for Faribault (not embracing the remote Stations of this Mission), viz.:
Families in care of the Church 100
Number of souls 500
Baptisms past year, adults 22
Baptisms past year, children 40
Sunday-School children 283
Sunday-School teachers 22
Parish-school pupils 86
Alms for the poor $40.00
Offerings for current expenses $310.36
Sunday-School offerings for Cathedral $38.80
Additional room for Church accommodation $400.00
Increase and improvement of Church property $600.00
Bishop's salary $50.00
Diocesan Missions $114.70
Bible and Prayer-Book Society $12.00
Society for Increase of the Ministry $4.20
Society for Conversion of Jews $5.05
Soldiers' Aid Society $48. 00
Let it be borne in mind, that six years ago we began this Mission in Faribault, and found but three Church families here, and any amount of ignorance on the subject of the Church. It should also be remembered that this village has in it only 1,500 inhabitants, so that it is fast becoming altogether a Church town. It is soon to be connected with La Crosse and Milwaukee by railroad, so as to be very easily reached from without the Diocese, as well as from all points within it.
The following sketch of the entire work accomplished thus far at Faribault, is very complete. It was a wonderful work:
By our progress in the Mission House is meant the Christian training of the young in our schools. It is one of the most important features of this Mission. The educational department is graduated for juveniles, for youth of both sexes, and for young men up through the collegiate studies to the Divinity Hall, making, with the Indian school, six ranks of scholars. In the course of the year, we have one hundred and fifty pupils who receive Christian education. And not less than five hundred youths of the border Whites have already been taught in these schools. Surely such a nursery as this for the rising generations of a youthful Diocese cannot be overestimated. It must soon develop the Hall for the daughters, and the College for the sons of this land. And the College will furnish the young men who are to fill up the ranks of the Christian Ministry as well as other honorable Professions.
For these schools we have secured by gift and purchase, the most beautiful sites of land, containing fifty-two acres, which cheer the hearts of all who look upon them.
For the parish schools we own five lots, forming the entire face of one side of the public square, in the village of Faribault. Neat wooden buildings are here erected, which serve very well at present for upwards of one hundred day scholars.
Upon the opposite side of the public square, and facing it, are three lots, upon which the Cathedral Church is being built, of blue lime-stone, taken from a quarry near the town.
Over a stream of water, upon the rising bluffs, are the ample grounds of the Collegiate Department, containing twenty-five acres, the gift of three ladies, who bought them six years ago, for one thousand dollars. And here Christian friends have enabled the Bishop to erect already a stone building, 30 feet wide by 75 feet long, three stories high above a basement known as the Seabury Hall, and ultimately intended for the exclusive use of the Divinity Department.
Three-fourths of a mile further along on the bluff is the beautiful grove, covering eighteen acres, designed for the future Hall for young ladies. At present it is occupied by the Indian school and a Mission House.
Further on is the site of six acres for the Episcopal residence, the gift of two gentlemen of Faribault.
There are also ten acres of land, the valuable gift by bequest of Edward John Crump, an Englishman, who gave them for a Church cemetery. One-fourth part has been neatly enclosed, and is the resting-place of the pious giver, and of others who have departed hence in the LORD.
These lands are important acquisitions for the future Church work contemplated at this centre of a new Diocese; and the improvements made upon them have already proven, as regards Church growth, in the highest degree remunerative. Now to secure to these departments of learning men of the best talent, as well as highest Christian culture, there must be the requisite support pledged to them. This can now be done by the outlay of tens and hundreds, which thousands in the future cannot do. Beside offerings in money for the Cathedral, there have been important and valuable gifts in kind. Contributions have been made for the Altar, the Font, the Chancel-rail and other furniture....... Several of the stained-glass windows have been taken by individuals. One person in this Diocese, a blacksmith, in acknowledgment for prosperity, has pledged for one of the windows of the Nave one hundred and twenty-five dollars. The sisterhood of the parish of the Good Shepherd, Faribault, is earning money for the organ.
But this is too early in the history of the Cathedral to enter more minutely into the description of these and other parts of the building. We hope the present year to accomplish the walls. The lumber, in amount one hundred and fifty thousand feet, is bought and paid for; and we believe the Good LORD, for whose honor and glory this house is being reared, will raise up the instruments whereby all shall be completed.
In September of this year, 1864, Dr. Breck was married to Miss Sarah E. Styles, in St. Louis, the ceremony being performed by the Rev. Milton C. Lightner. This second partner of his life survived him but one year and four months, her departure being on the 27th of July, 1877, in Paterson, New Jersey.