Project Canterbury

The Missionary Bishop:
The Sermon at the Consecration of
The Right Reverend Jackson Kemper, D.D.,
Missionary Bishop for Missouri and Indiana;

in St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, September 25, 1835:

By George Washington Doane, D.D.,
Bishop of the Diocese of New Jersey.

Burlington, N.J.: J. L. Powell, 1835.


Brethren, we are assembled, under the protection of Almighty God, to partake in, or to witness, the consecration of A MISSIONARY BISHOP. [1] It is a new office in this Church. The event has not occurred before. What we are now to do will go on record, as a precedent, Is it right that it should be done? Is it wise in us to do it? Is the Church prepared for the transaction?—Favour me, brethren, with your attention, while, according to the grace of God which is given unto me, I answer these plain questions. And thou, divine and holy Saviour, who hadst compassion on the multitudes, "because they fainted and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd," imbue us with thy tender love for all the flock,—accept and sanctify our present effort to extend thy sacred fold,—and make of him, who waits before us to receive thy warrant, a pastor according to thine own heart, to feed thy people with knowledge and discretion!


I. What is the nature of his office?

II. Has it divine or apostolic sanction?

III. Is there a present call for its provisions?

IV. Is it consistent with the order and the genius of this Church?

I. In strictness, as every minister of Jesus is a Missionary, [2] so are the Bishops, as his chief ministers, eminently Missionaries—sent out by Christ himself, to preach the Gospel—sent to preach it in a wider field—sent to preach it under a higher responsibility—sent to preach it at greater hazards of self-denial and self-sacrifice, and under circumstances more appalling of arduous labour and of anxious care,—to fulfil, in a single word, that humbling, but most wholesome precept of the Saviour, "whosoever of you shall be the chiefest, let him be servant of all." But, though the "divers orders of ministers" which God, by his Holy Spirit, [3] has appointed in the Church, have been, from the Apostles' time, and will forever be the same,—and though it is the chief glory of the highest as of the lowest, that, like the blessed Son of God himself, they are all Missionaries, sent out to preach the Gospel of salvation to a ruined world,—the different circumstances of the Church, in different countries, and at different times, lead to a difference of relation in the ministry, which may apply alike to each of its three orders. In places where the Church has long been settled, there will be a settled ministry. The people will supply themselves, or be supplied, through means which are substantially their own, with the word and ordinances of God—in other terms, they have diocesan Episcopacy and a parochial Clergy. In places where the Church has not been introduced, or has but partial and precarious lodgment, it, of course, cannot be so. To them emphatically applies the argument of the Apostle, of which the text is part. True, it is indeed so written in the Holy Scripture, "Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. But how"—the question is as true and pertinent at this day as when urged by fervent Paul—"how shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And how shall they preach, except they be sent?" In other words, if they have ministers of Christ to admit them to the Christian fold by baptism, to preach in their ears the word of reconciliation, to break among them the bread of everlasting life, and help them to train up their children "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord," they must be Missionaries. If they have Bishops to oversee the flock, to lay hands upon them "after the example of the holy Apostles," "to ordain elders in every city, and set in order the things which are wanting," they must be Missionary Bishops. And precisely, as the Church, obeying the mandate of her divine Head, sends Presbyters and Deacons, to go "into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature," so may she, and so should she, emulating that divine compassion, which yearned over the fainting multitudes, that roamed, untended and unfed, among the mountains of Judea, send Bishops to them, to seek the wandering flocks, to lead them to the sacred fold, to appoint them under-shepherds, to oversee and govern them with due authority and godly discipline, and, "warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom," to do what in them lies to "present every man perfect in Christ Jesus." And this is what is meant by A MISSIONARY BISHOP—a Bishop sent forth for the Church, not sought for of the Church—going before, to organize the Church, not waiting till the Church has partially been organized—a leader, not a follower, in the march of the Redeemer's conquering and triumphant Gospel—sustained by their alms whom God has blessed both with the power and will to offer to him of their substance, for their benefit who are not blessed with both or either of them—sent by the Church, even as the Church is sent by Christ; not to such only as have knowledge of his truth, and desire him for their king, but to the ignorant and the rebellious, to them who know not of his name, or who will not have him to reign over them, to the ungodly, the heathen, the idolatrous—to all who ignorantly are in unbelief, or wilfully "his enemies, by wicked works." II. But, is there sanction for this office of a Missionary Bishop in the instructions of the Saviour, or in the practice of the Apostles? It is abundantly supplied in both. Take, for example, St. Matthew's record of the Saviour's first appointment of the ministry. "And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease among the people. But when he saw the multitudes he was moved with compassion on them because they fainted, and were scattered abroad as sheep having no shepherd." "And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples" he "sent" them "forth, and commanded them, saying "as ye go, preach,—the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Here surely is a most unquestionable exhibition of the Missionary principle.—The Saviour died, and rose again. But neither death nor life, the bleeding agony of the Cross, nor the triumphant glory of the Resurrection, could turn aside his steadfast heart from its benevolent and holy purpose. "Then the same day at evening," says the Evangelist St. John, "being the first day of the week," the same on which he rose, "when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst of them and said, Peace be unto you;" "as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you." And once again, when he was just about to rise to heaven, Jesus came and spake to the eleven, saying, "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world." Here was consummated and confirmed, by Jesus Christ himself, with perpetuity of succession to the end of time, the office of Apostle, or—the inspiration and the power of miracles ceasing with the necessity for them—of Missionary Bishop.

If there be desired still farther precedent, what clearer instance, and what nobler model, of a Missionary Bishop than Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, traversing sea and land,—at Antioch, at Damascus, at Ephesus, at Jerusalem, at Corinth, at Athens, in Italy, in Spain,[4]—not knowing the things that may befal him there, nor counting his life dear unto himself, so that he may finish his course with joy, and the ministry which he had received of the Lord Jesus. Brethren, is there triumphal march recorded, of conqueror or king, that shines out through the mist of ages with a track so luminous? What limit shall we set to the transforming power of that religion which could make the heart of a proud, persecuting Pharisee so overflow with self-denying love! Who would turn back from a career like this, though afflictions, bonds and death [5] were multiplied a thousand fold along the way, to dream the longest life out in inglorious ease, or wear, even in its proudest and most palmy state, the purple of imperial Rome? And what poor dastards must we be, how utterly unfit to bear the name of Christ, if with such aids, such motives, such examples as we have, we still permit the ignoble thralls of time and sense to bind our spirits down to earth; and grovel in the mire of selfishness and sensuality, when we are called to tread the starry path by which not only Paul, but Polycarp, and Latimer, and Heber, and Middleton, and Henry Martyn, and many more, whom time would fail us but to name, who "loved their lives not to the death," followed their Saviour into heaven!

III. But, do the times require such efforts and such sacrifices? Does Providence make plain before us the path of Christian duty? Is there a present call for the revival of what certainly received in the first ages the highest sanction, that even heaven itself can lend—the office of a Missionary Bishop? Look for a moment out upon the world. Glance with a rapid eye at the strange signs which mark the times. Look Eastward, and behold how throughout Asia ancient superstitions seem worn out and tottering to their fall. The sway of the false Prophet is now the shadow of what once it was. The mystic spell which shut out China from the world is fast dissolving, and the light of Gospel truth begins to break on her benighted and degraded millions. And even in Africa, which, for so many centuries, has lain, in awful silence, like some old forgotten grave, grown over with long grass and weeds, faint signs of renovated life are seen, or seem to be, and challenge, by the holiest and most powerful sympathy, our pity, our exertions, and our prayers. Do we look homeward? Through the regions of our own unbounded West see how the stream of life sets onward. Behold, in arts, in wealth, in power, a progress such as earth has never seen, outrunning even fancy's wildest dreams; but with no provision that at all keeps pace with it, for the securing of man's nobler and immortal interests. Observe with what a keen and shrewd regard the Church of Rome has marked that region for her own, and with what steadiness of purpose she pursues her aim; and seeks to lay the deep foundations of a power which is to grow as it grows, and to strengthen as it gathers strength.

Whence, in this crisis of the world, whence is the succour to be sought, that is to come up to the help of God against the mighty? To what source does the finger of his providence turn every eye that looks for rescue and relief? The Church of England, long by God's protecting favour, the stay and hope of Christendom, now needs her utmost succours for her own defence against the impious combination that attempts her overthrow. The Christian brethren, not of our communion, who have seemed to grow and multiply about us with a vigour so prolific, now begin to feel, and in some instances to own, the want of those inherent principles of union which alone can bind in one large masses of mankind; and, destitute of ancient landmarks, stray insensibly from "the old paths," in which alone God's promise gives assurance of protection and of peace. Meanwhile, they turn instinctively to us. They recognize the doctrines which we hold, as the old faith which once was given to the Saints. They yield to us, with one accord, however they may differ from each other, the possession of a ministry with due authority from God to preach the Gospel of salvation, and set to its seals. They acknowledge the existence, in our institutions, of that tendency to fixed and certain centres, of those principles of unity, subordination and stability, which tend so powerfully to self-preservation, while they are so entirely indispensable to vigorous and enduring influence with others. They own that in the faithful use of our most scriptural and primitive service God may be worshipped, "in spirit and in truth," while man's infirmity is wisely guarded against much that tends to mar "the beauty of holiness," and to endanger the integrity of faith.

Brethren, these are no grounds of boasting on our part. There is nothing here that should be suffered to tempt us to glory over others, or to rely upon ourselves. No, God forbid! We have nothing that we did not first receive. We have nothing for which we must not at the last account. We have nothing which we ought not, in the spirit of true Christian meekness, to beseech our brethren, whom we love for Jesus' sake, to come and share with us. But, brethren, though we may not glory in our privileges, should we not be faithful in improving them? Though we may not boast of what the Lord has done for us, should we not be prompt and fervent in owning and proclaiming it? Though we may not triumph over others, who fall behind in any gift, should we not be earnest and untiring in commending our advantages to them, and urging their adoption, not by the force of argument alone, but by the persuasive and prevailing eloquence of our meek, humble, holy, charitable, Christian conversation? If we believe that God has done more for us, than for some others of his children, the proper evidence of our sincerity is our endeavour to make up to them, from our abundance, their "lack of opportunity." If we are conscious that his presence is among us, and his blessing is upon us, the proof of our sincerity in that conviction is in "unfeigned love of the brethren," and in untiring efforts to make our light—the light reflected in us from the face of Jesus Christ—"so shine before men," that they may glorify with us our Father who is in heaven. If we believe that our principles as Protestant Episcopalians are most in accordance with the divine will, and therefore most for the promotion of human happiness, it is our duty to demonstrate it in action, to carry them out before the world in vigorous and efficient practice, and to make visible to every eye, and palpable to every heart, the great things which the Lord has done for us.

Brethren, I believe, before God, that next to the possession of the pure and undefiled religion of the Gospel of his Son,—and, in a degree so close and intimate that human penetration never can discriminate between them,—we are most indebted, for all that we are and all that we have that is most precious to us here of Christian privilege, or hereafter of Christian hope, to the maintenance, in integrity and purity, of the order of his holy apostolic Church. I believe that it is to us, as faithful in the maintenance of both, that God continues, and, so long as we are faithful, will continue, to us his presence and protection—blessing, as he has promised that he will, the ministry of his appointment; accompanying, as he has pledged himself to do, the glorious Church which he purchased to himself with the blood of his dear Son, "alway, even unto the end of the world." I believe that, as the truth of the blessed and glorious Gospel is attested, not only by the outward evidence of its divine original, but by its quickening and transforming power in the conversion and renewal unto righteousness of every heart that faithfully receives it; so the identity of the one, holy, apostolic Church is and will ever be established, not only by the verifiable succession of its orders and sacraments,[6] but by its effective and unquestionable agency as "the pillar and ground of the truth,"—as the conservator of God's pure and spiritual worship,—as the promoter in all human institutions, civil as well as religious, of order, strength and permanence,[7]—as God's minister on earth of peace and good will to man: the very purpose for which apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers—in a word, the whole structure of the Church was given—being, as St. Paul declares, "for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, till we all come in the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Believing these things, professing myself, as most assuredly I do, to be entirely conscientious in my belief of them, my principles as a Churchman, my attachment to the Church, cannot be charged upon me as bigotry—may not, in Christian candour or in Christian charity, be denounced as blind and arbitrary attachment. No, it is part and parcel of my Christianity. I am protected against censure or reproach for that profession, by my Christian birthright to that glorious "liberty wherewith Christ has made us free." Infinitely more and more important even than this—I am bound, bound most solemnly, bound by all my hopes of heaven, to offer, so far as in me lies, the same advantages, to commend and urge, so far as is consistent with that same glorious liberty, to the adoption of all others who have them not, the same inestimable privileges. Esteeming, as we do, beloved brethren, "the office of a Bishop," enjoying, as we profess to do, with grateful hearts, the rich blessings which God has showered upon the Church in which it is our happiness to worship, how is it that we can, how is that we dare, keep back from others the means of that enjoyment? If due perpetuation of the Church, and chief authority, and the protection of God's promise, appertain to Bishops, as successors to the Apostles of the "Lord, how can we encourage, so far as we have rightful influence, the extension, or even the existence of the Church without a Bishop? If it be "evident," as we declare, [8] "to all men diligently reading holy Scripture and ancient authors, that from the Apostles' time there have been these orders of ministers in Christ's Church, Bishops, Priests and Deacons," by what warrant can we withhold from any portion of the Saviour's family the chiefest of the three? If it be sound and true in practice, as it is certainly of primitive authority, "not to do any thing without the Bishop," [9] upon what principle is it that we permit the organization of dioceses—nay, that we invite the organization of dioceses, and yet until they have a certain number of duly organized parishes, and of duly settled presbyters, compel them to remain—without a Bishop? [10] And if there be, in Indiana or Missouri, in Louisiana, Florida or Arkansas, some scattered handfuls here and there of Churchmen—or if, obedient to the Saviour's mandate, to preach the Gospel unto every creature, we send out heralds of the Cross to China, Texas, [11] Persia, Georgia or Armenia J—upon what principle can we neglect, or on what ground can we refuse,—since from their feebleness and poverty they cannot have a Bishop of their own, or in their ignorant blindness, they do not desire it,—to send to them [12] at our own cost and charge, and in the Saviour's name, a Missionary Bishop?

Brethren, THE FIELD is THE WHOLE WORLD. [13] To every soul of man, in every part of it, the Gospel is to be preached. Every where, the Gospel is to be preached by, through, and in the Church. To Bishops, as successors of the Apostles, the promise of the Lord was given to be with his Church, "alway, to the end of the world." Upon Bishops, as successors of the Apostles, the perpetuation of the Christian ministry depends. With Bishops, as successors of the Apostles, the government of the Church, the preaching of the word, the administration of the sacraments, the care of souls, has been entrusted. Without Bishops, as successors of the Apostles, there is no warrant, and for fifteen hundred years from Christ there was no precedent, [14] for the establishment or the extension of the Church. Professing these things, act accordingly. "Freely ye have received, freely give." Open your eyes to the wants, open your ears to the cry, open your hands for the relief, of a perishing world, [15] Send the Gospel. Send it, as you have received it, in the Church. Send out, to preach the Gospel, and to build the Church,—to every portion of your own broad land, to every stronghold of the Prince of hell, [16] to every den and nook and lurking place of heathendom, a Missionary Bishop!

IV. But, loud as is the call for this provision, imperative as is our duty to respond to it, is it consistent with the order, and the genius of this Church to do so? Yes, my beloved brethren, yes! And if it were not so, it were no Church for us. If it were not so, it were no Church of Christ. That could not be the Saviour's lawful and beloved spouse, which had no heart to feel for, or no hand to feed, the hungry souls for whom he died. That could not be the Saviour's body which did not bear to each remotest limb, the care, the consolation, and the saving grace of its ascended and triumphant Head. Thank God, it is not, and it never has been, so with us! As from the first, so in all after ages, it has still been competent for the Church of Christ to emulate her Saviour's holy love, in sending out Apostles to the multitudes that wander and are faint, as sheep who have no shepherd. It is of the nature of a trust, that there be always given with it authority and power for the due execution of all its proper uses. It is still farther of the nature of a trust, that, on its acceptance, there devolves on the trustee the bounden duty to secure, so far as in him lies, its full and faithful execution. Now THE GOSPEL is God's gift, in trust, for the conversion and salvation of lost man. THE CHURCH is his Trustee.—Admirably indeed is she prepared and fitted for her trust. She is divinely instituted. Were she of human origin, she would be, like man, uncertain and capricious. She is of God, and like him cannot fail, and never will betray. Were she a voluntary institution, she might cease, without a miracle, for want of members. But God is wiser than men; and membership in his Church is thus made part of the plan of salvation. "Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost." "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved,"—To discharge the duties of a continual trust, the trustee of necessity must have continuance. The Church is, by divine appointment, perpetual by succession, in the highest order of her ministry. "All power is given unto me in heaven and earth." "As my Father hath sent me, even so send I you." "Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world."—The Gospel is to be preached to every creature; and co-extensive with this trust is the intended influence of the trustee. "Go ye therefore into all the world, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them." The kingdoms of this world shall all become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ. If In other words, the Church of Christ is to become universal. And thus, in the capacities and powers essential to the execution of her trust, is God's trustee, the Church, shown to be "perfect and entire, wanting nothing."

Thence of necessity,—in strict agreement with that wise and equitable rule, "unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required,"—flow out resulting trusts, immense in value, and of infinite responsibility. She is to be a Missionary Church—"to the intent that now," not only to all men, but "unto the principalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God." Her Bishops are Apostles, each, in his proper sphere, sent out to "feed the Church of God." Jointly, and in agreement with established principles of order in the Church, they have the power which Christ imparted to the twelve—"as my Father sent me, even so send I you"—to send Apostles in his name. Her Ministers are all Evangelists, or preachers of glad tidings,—to go wherever God shall call them, through his Church, to bear the blessed tidings of salvation, through the blood of Jesus, for a ruined world. Her members, baptized into the death of Jesus, and so purchased by his blood, are Missionaries all, inspirit and intent; to go, or—if themselves go not—to see that others go; [17] and to contribute faithfully and freely of the ability which God shall give them, to sustain them while they go, and "preach the Gospel unto every creature."

Such, beloved brethren, as the Scripture teaches, and as reason,—justified in all the works of God, and not least clearly in his Church,—most fully and abundantly confirms, is the original, the permanent, the immutable constitution of the Christian Church. Such, by the solemn act of it highest legislative council, is declared to be the Constitution of this Church. Baptized into her, in the name of the eternal Three in One, you become a party to the trust with which she is honoured by her heavenly Head, to preach the everlasting Gospel. It is a trust which no man is free to decline—for, "unless a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." It is a trust which no man who has once assumed it can put off—-for his baptismal vow is registered in heaven, and will go with him, in its consequences of unmingled bliss or wo, throughout eternity. It is a trust which no man who is permitted to assume it can, without eternal ruin to his soul, neglect—for if "any man love not his brother,''—and surely he can never claim to love him, who takes no care for his immortal soul,—"if any man love not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen." "Verily I say unto you inasmuch as ye did it not unto one of the least of these ye did it not unto me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life eternal."

Brethren beloved, think upon these things. It has pleased the Lord to make you partakers of salvation, through the Gospel of his Son. Its law of universal love should be engraven on your hearts. "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." "Look not every man on his own things, but every man also upon the things of others." "Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ." "Love," my beloved brethren, "is the fulfilling of the law." The mark and measure of the love of Jesus Christ for us was shown upon the Cross, in the outpouring of his precious blood. How shall we bear to stand before that bleeding Saviour, when he cometh in the glory of his Father, with the ' holy angels, if, from our neglect to go, if we are ministers,—if, from our neglect to give, and strive, and pray, if we are members of his Church,—there be one to say, in that dread hour, whom our ministry, our bounty, or our prayers, might have redeemed, through Christ, from death, "No man cared for my soul."

Beloved brethren, it is recorded of the holy Saviour, as he went about among the cities and villages of Judea, preaching the Gospel of the kingdom, that when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, "because they fainted and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd. Then saith he unto his disciples, the harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers unto his harvest." "And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples," he sent them "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel," to go and preach, saying, "the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Behold, dear brethren, in the service which assembles us this day, the result of God's especial blessing on the Church's holy emulation of her Saviour's love. Like him, and in the pathway which his blessed footsteps traced with tears and blood, the Church has gone about among the villages and cities of this broad and sinful land. Every where she has found ignorant to instruct, mourners to comfort, rebels to reclaim, sinners to save. Every where she has had need for all the means with which her Saviour has entrusted her, to spread abroad his everlasting Gospel. But the West, the vast and distant and unsettled West, has fixed her eye, and agonized her heart. There indeed has she beheld great multitudes that fainted with the burden of the weary way, and wandered, cheerless and uncared for, as "sheep that have no shepherd." There indeed has she beheld the wily serpent and the prowling wolf, and wept with bitter tears that she could do no more to guard her Saviour's lambs. Moved with compassion, she bethought her of her Saviour's precept. "The harvest truly is plenteous but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest."

Encouraged thus by the divine assurance, she betook herself to prayer. She besought the Lord to have compassion, as he once had in the days of his suffering flesh, upon his erring sheep. She besought him by his "agony and bloody sweat," his "cross and passion," his "precious death and burial," not to give up his heritage to the heathen, nor his people to reproach. With strong crying and tears, she supplicated the gracious Lord of that abundant harvest, white and bending to the sickle, that he would " send forth labourers into his harvest." He graciously inclined his ear, and heard her prayer. He poured upon her members the abundance of his grace, and shed his love abroad in the hearts of his believing people.

He was present, by his divine and Holy Spirit, in the council of his Church, as he had been in the councils of the Apostles. He harmonized all hearts. He opened and illuminated, with the light from heaven, the eyes of all their minds. He lifted up the hands that hung down, and gave energy and vigour to the feeble knees. He suggested wisdom, he imparted courage, he communicated strength. Above all, he sent his Holy Ghost, and poured into their hearts "that most excellent gift of charity, the very bond of peace and of all virtues;" and so enabled them, as but one man, to contrive, digest, mature, propose, accomplish, and carry into practice the great Missionary work, that here, this day, with the whole Church to applaud, and God from heaven, by the clear shining of that glorious sun, smiling consent, we have come up before his altar, to present the first fruit of the Saviour's answer to his Church's agonizing prayer for her lost sheep in the vast West,—her first—God grant that it need not long be said!—her only, Missionary Bishop.

Brethren, it is the pledge of God that he will hear, that he will bless, that he will save his Church, placed thus upon the vantage ground of Christendom, and made—I speak it without the fear of contradiction— the Missionary Church of the whole world, [18] It is your pledge, my brethren, that you will go on, as you have now begun, in the benign and blessed impulse of that Missionary spirit which God has poured upon his Church. Brethren in the Episcopate, it is our pledge, laid up in heaven, that we will go, as Jesus went, to seek and save the lost and dying sheep. Brethren of the parochial Clergy, it is your pledge, that you will do your utmost, " praying with all supplication of the Spirit," to bring your people, one and all, to sustain us in the work which God has given us to do. [19] Brethren of the Laity, shall it not be your pledge, that from this time forward, true as the day returns, to bring you rest from all your toil, and spiritual comfort in God's holy house, you will "lay by in store" [20] such portion of his blessing as you shall justly think you owe to him who saved your souls, and consecrate it, as a Missionary offering, to save, through Christ, the souls of other men? God of our salvation, be thou witness, on thy throne in heaven, to the sincerity of our united pledge! Write it in thy book! Write it in our hearts! And send thy Holy Ghost, to make us perfect in every good word and work, to do in all things thy most blessed will!

Beloved brother, from the work to which the Lord, we trust, has called you, I may keep you back no longer. You are to go out, in the Saviour's name, the first Missionary Bishop of this Church. Going with the office, go in the spirit, of an Apostle! You are to preach the gospel of salvation to a ruined world. You are to bear "the ministry of reconciliation" to sinful men, the enemies of God, and of their own souls, by wicked works. Like the Apostle Paul, preach to them "Christ crucified." [21] Like the Apostle Paul, beseech them in Christ's stead, "be ye reconciled to God." Like the Apostle Paul, remind them that without holiness, no man shall see the Lord; and implore them, "by the mercies of God," that they present their bodies, "a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to him, which is their reasonable service."—Fear not, dear brother, though the load be heavy, and the way be long. He who hath called you, will give you strength to run the noble race which he has set before you; and, if you are but faithful unto death, will crown you with eternal life.—Fear not, dear brother, though there be many that oppose themselves, and set their battle in array to turn you back from the thrice glorious onset. They that are with you are more than they that are with them; and he who fighteth upon God's side bears victory and triumph on his banner.—Fear not, dear brother, though the fainting flesh and sinking spirit admonish you how frail the earthen vessel is in which you bear this precious burthen. The God you serve is greater than your heart; and, like the Apostle Paul, with Christ to strengthen you, you can do all things.—Fear not, dear brother, though fatigue and care and sickness may molest, and death, too early for the Church, cut off your work of love. It was through suffering and toil and shame that Jesus went to purchase for us pardon and eternal peace; and on the Cross he poured his soul out for us, with his blood. Remember, "it is a faithful saying," if we suffer, we shall also reign, and if we die, we shall forever live with him. Blessed, glorious assurance! Welcome, in Jesus' name, the tears, the toil, the blood! Welcome, for Jesus' sake, the shame, the agony, the death! If we suffer, we shall also reign—if we die, it is to live with him!—Beloved brother, go! Go, bear, before a ruined world, the Saviour's bleeding Cross. Go, feed, with bread from heaven, the Saviour's hungering Church. Go, thrice beloved, go, and God the Lord go with you!

[1] The Rev. JACKSON KEMPER, D. D., Rector of St. Paul's Church, Norwalk, Connecticut, was consecrated, on Friday, Sept. 25, 1835, in St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, (in the pastoral care of which he had been 20 years associated with the Right Rev. and venerable Rector,) the first Missionary Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, to exercise Episcopal functions in Missouri and Indiana, by the Rt. Rev. WILLLAM WHITE, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of Pennsylvania, Presiding Bishop; assisted by the Rt. Rev. RICHARD CHANNING MOORE, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of Virginia; the Rt. Rev. PHILANDER CHASE, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of Illinois; the Rt. Rev. HENRY USTICK ONDERDONK, D. D., Assistant Bishop of the diocese of Pennsylvania; the Rt. Rev. BENJAMIN TREDWELL ONDERDONK, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of New York; the Rt. Rev. BENJAMIN BOSWORTH SMITH, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of Kentucky; and the Rt. Rev. GEORGE WASHINGTON DOANE, D. D., Bishop of the diocese of New Jersey.—An account of his election, and of the course of events preparatory to it, will be found in the Appendix, in a notice of the proceedings of the late General Convention, drawn up, by the present writer, for "The Missionary."

[2] Literally, one sent out,—synonimous with the scriptural words, Messenger, and Apostle.

[3] "It is evident unto all men, diligently reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles' time there have been these orders of ministers in Christ's Church—Bishops, Priests and Deacons."—Preface to the Ordinal.

"Almighty God, who by thy divine Providence hast appointed divers orders of ministers in thy Church."—Collect in the form and manner of making Deacons.

"Almighty God, giver of all good things, who by thy Holy Spirit hast appointed divers orders of ministers in the Church.—Collect in the form and manner of ordering Priests.

[4] There would have been little hazard in adding to this rapid sketch of the Apostle's journeyings, in Britain. "That he did go to Britain," says the excellent Bishop of Salisbury, Dr. Burgess, "we may collect from the testimony of Clemens Romanus, Theodoret and Jerome, who relate, that after his imprisonment he preached the Gospel in the Western parts; that he brought salvation to the islands that lie in the ocean, and that in preaching the Gospel he went to the utmost bounds of the West. What was meant by the West, and the islands that lie in the ocean, we may judge from Plutarch, Eusebius, and Nicephorus, who call the British ocean the Western; and again from Nicephorus, who says, that one of the Apostles went to the extreme countries of the ocean, and to the British Isles; but especially from the words of Catullus, who calls Britain the utmost Island of the West; and from Theodoret, who describes the Britons as inhabiting the utmost parts of the West. When Clement, therefore, say? that St. Paul went to the utmost bounds of the West; we do not conjecture, but are sure that he meant Britain, not only because Britain was so designated, but because St. Paul could not have gone to the utmost bounds of the West without going to Britain."—Sermon on the first seven Epochs of the ancient British Church.

[5] "But even supposing Burmah had proved unfavourable to my health, or that of my companion, are the Burmans to be left to ruin because health will be impaired, or life shortened by our coming hither? To spread the Gospel through Burmah is a work worth a thousand lives. What if we do find an early grave? Shall we regret it at the last day? Oh no."—letter from the Missionary Boardman to his mother.

[6] "There is not," says Palmer, in his admirable "Antiquities of the English Ritual," "a Bishop, Priest, or Deacon amongst us, who cannot, if he pleases, trace his own spiritual descent from Saint Peter and Saint Paul." Surely this may be called "a verifiable succession."

[7] "I told them," said Bishop Middleton, in his first sermon in Calcutta, "that I came to India, as Titus went to Crete, 'to set in order the things that are wanting,' and that in the primitive ages, 'Episcopacy was at once the bond of unity and the safeguard of truth.'"

[8] Preface to the Ordinal.

[9] See the Epistles of Ignatius, the disciple of St. John.

[10] Prudential reasons have been thought to require that no diocese in our communion should be allowed to proceed to the election of a Bishop until there had been duly settled in it six presbyters in charge of parishes for one year, and until there should also be six parishes duly organized. Such is the provision of the second Canon. Thanks be to God, it was provided at the last General Convention—which must be known hereafter as the Missionary Convention—that, on the request of any diocese, however few its parishes or presbyters, the House of Bishops may proceed to nominate a Bishop, who, if duly confirmed by the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies, or in the recess of the General Convention, by the several Standing Committees, may be consecrated the Bishop of that diocese. This provision, with the Canon for Missionary Bishops, completes the organization of the Church for the great ends of permanence and increase. The work will now begin at the right end. The Bishop may go out, as Titus went to Crete, "to ordain elders in every city." Dioceses will not be tempted to unseemly efforts to make apparent the canonical quota of parishes and presbyters. Bishops in new dioceses will not of necessity be elected under circumstances the most unfavourable to the best result of that most important transaction. The united wisdom of the fathers of the Church will be exerted for the protection of its infant members. The incipient measures in each diocese, on which so much depends, may be taken under the best auspices. The Clergy in distant and unsettled regions will enjoy episcopal oversight.

[11] Texas has just been made a Missionary Station.

[12] The Board of Missions, at the last meeting recommended these countries as Missionary Stations.

[13] Such is the noble declaration of the Missionary Constitution of our Church. "Article X—For the guidance of the Committees, it is declared that the Missionary field is always to be regarded as one, THE WORLD—the terms Domestic and Foreign, being understood as terms of locality adopted for convenience. Domestic Missions are those which are established -within, and Foreign Missions are those which are established, without the territory of the United States."

[14] "We require you to find out but one Church on the face of the whole earth, that hath not been ordered by Episcopal regimen, since the time that the blessed Apostles were here conversant."—Richard Hooker.

[15] "Were there but one neighbourhood of unconverted men in the world, what incessant prayers would be offered to God from every Christian's heart; what unremitted exertion would be made to bring them back to God. But, alas, when a world is in ruins, and only here and there is one who is awakened to behold the wide-spread desolation, what astonishing sluggishness is manifested!"—Rev. G. D. Boardman.

[16] "Should the Church of Christ be contented, like the garrison of a besieged town, to defend herself and preserve her own territory? Ought she not, on the contrary, to make continual sallies, and to advance, like a victorious army, over the enemy's land?"—Felix Neff".

[17] "My dear brethren," were Boardman's parting words, when setting out for Burmah, "serve your Saviour unceasingly, and faithfully unto death; and if it may not be your duty to be Missionaries abroad, be Missionaries at home."

[18] In a private letter to the Rev. Dr. Milnor, Foreign Secretary of the Board of Missions, the Bishop of Calcutta, the excellent Daniel Wilson, expresses the opinion, and sustains it, that the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America is pre-eminently fitted for the Missionary work in all the world.

[19] In the Report presented to the Foreign and Domestic Missionary Society, on which the amendments in the Constitution, reported by the same Committee enlarged, were all predicated, it was recommended to declare, as "one of the general principles for the direction of the Board," that "the reliance of the Church, for carrying on its Missionary plans, beyond the direct operation of the Board, and its Committees and their officers, is mainly on the parochial organization—each parish being regarded as a Missionary dissociation, and its Pastor as Agent of the Board, for Jesus' sake." The Author, as Chairman of that Committee, urged this as a most important feature of the plan. He desires here to reiterate that conviction; and to add the hope, that a monthly meeting conducted by the Minister, for Missionary information and Missionary impression, will very soon be established in every parish in our whole, communion. It is thus, supplicating always the throne of heaven with fervent prayer, that the parochial fountains will be filled and kept full, that are to feed the treasury of the Church, so that a never failing river shall go forth from it, to "make glad the city of God."—Let the liberty be granted to him affectionately to urge the high expediency, not less than the solemn duty, of adhering, in the proceedings for this end, strictly to the primitive principles, the prescribed order, and the received worship of the Church. Now that air that are without are looking from all directions towards us, let us be steadfast in our maintenance of the "old paths," through which the Lord has thus far led us. "Stand still, and see the salvation of God."

[20] By the same Committee, it was especially recommended, as another of the "general principles" by which the Board should seek to carry on the Missionary work," that the contributions of the members of the Church to the support of Missions be made, so far as may be convenient, upon some plan of systematic charity, that their permanent continuance may be the more relied on." The plan of "Offerings of the Church," successfully pursued in the diocese of New Jersey, is now fully before the Church. It has been adopted in detail in several dioceses and in many parishes; and the principle has been recommended to the whole Church, both by the General Convention and the Board of Missions. See for further information "Systematic charity upon the Apostolic Model," in the series of Pastoral Theology, issued at the Missionary Press, Burlington, N. J.

[21] The following beautiful and touching illustration of the certain power which always will attend the faithful preaching of "Christ crucified," is taken from the history of the Moravian Mission, in the words of the Missionaries themselves. It cannot be repeated too often, nor dwelt on too much. It is the fulfilment of that gracious promise of the Saviour, "and I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me."—"June 2 1738, many of the natives of the South that passed visited us. John Beck was at the time writing a translation of the Evangelists. The savages earnestly requested to hear the contents of that book. He accordingly read part of it, and took the opportunity to enter into some conversation with them. He asked them if they had an immortal soul? They answered, Yes! He asked, again, where their souls would go after death? Some said, up yonder, pointing to the sky; others, down into the abyss. After setting them to rights, he asked them, Who had made heaven, earth, and every thing visible; they replied, that they did not know, nor had ever heard, but that it certainly must have been some great and opulent lord. He then told them, how God had created all good, particularly man; but that the latter revolted through disobedience, thereby plunging himself into extreme misery, and ruin. But that his Creator had mercy on him, and became man to redeem him by suffering and dying.—And now, said Brother Beck, we must believe in Him, if we wish to be saved. The Holy Spirit then prompted this brother to give them an energetical description of the agonies of Jesus. He exhorted them to consider seriously, how much it had cost our Saviour to purchase their redemption, how he had been wounded, suffered inexpressible anguish, sweat blood, and died a cruel death for their sakes, and how awful would be their responsibility, should they reject his offers of grace. He afterwards read to them from the New Testament the narrative of Christ's sufferings on the Mount of Olives. Then the Lord opened the heart of one of them, called Kajarnak, who stepped up to the table and said with a loud, earnest and affecting voice: 'How was that? Tell me that once more, for I would fain be saved too.' 'These words,' says the missionary, 'the like of which I had never heard from a Greenlander before, thrilled through my frame and melted my heart to such a degree, that the tears ran down my cheeks, while I gave the Greenlander a general account of the Saviour's life and death, and of the whole plan of salvation.' Meanwhile the other brethren returned from their several employments, and began to explain the doctrines of the Gospel to the heathen, still more at large. Some of them laid their hands upon their mouths, as is their custom when struck with surprise. Some who had no relish for the subject, sneaked off; but others desired, that we should teach them also to pray; and when we did so, they repeated our expressions over and over, in order not to forget them. In short, there was such an agitation among them as we had never seen before. On taking leave, they promised to repeat their visit in a short time, and hear of this matter again, and that they would also tell their acquaintance of it. "A short time after, some of them visited us again. Kajarnak still recollected a great portion of what had been told him, and could recite some of the prayers. He said, he would now go to his tents, and tell his family, especially his little son, these wonderful things."—Crantz, History of Greenland.

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