Project Canterbury

Report of the Missionary Bishop of Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming

By George Maxwell Randall

No place: no publisher, 1871.

FIVE years ago, last May, I left the East for the West, having been elected and consecrated a Bishop in the Church of God, with a commission to take the supervision of the work of Missions in the region of the Rocky Mountains. In God's good providence, I am here to-day, to make to the Board of Missions my Fifth Annual Report.

During this half decade, something has been done in extending and establishing the Kingdom of our Lord on this frontier. Would that this something were a great deal more than it is. But thanks be to the Great Head of the Church, that we have been enabled to accomplish what we can now report.

From the outset, my greatest trial has been to obtain ministers ready to go to this land, and stay there long enough to "possess it." On my first arrival I found the people willing, the field white, and all things ready, and we could have the infant empire if we would. But the army was wanting. Romanists and other Christian bodies were on the ground in force. Appeals, for five months after my consecration, brought me one Deacon. With him, I marched to the front. Having spied the country, came back, spent six months in the recruiting service; again turned my face toward the setting sun, and marched with a new force, consisting of another Deacon, and before we fairly got into action, met the first army coming East. By such marching and countermarching as this, it would have been well-nigh miraculous had we made much headway in the work of a great conquest. But, blessed be God, at the end of two years, our numbers began to increase, and they have been steadily multiplying ever since by the enlistment of soldiers, who have done good service, the fruits of whose labors are to be seen in forms which bless man and honor God. Why it is that young [1/2] clergymen choose to remain in the larger towns and cities, with the hope of getting something to do, as assistant ministers, and so build, if they build at all, on another's foundation, rather than to take their young life in their hands, go forth into a new field where everything is fresh,--where towns and cities and states come into existence as if by magic, where the tide of human enterprise is hearing multitudes of the most intelligent classes from the Eastern States to Western homes, where the elements of society, let loose from old associations, are whirling into conditions wherein they will quickly take on their abiding form, and will not wait for the moulding hand that shall give them a right direction, and yet will accept and yield to its controlling influences, if it be timely offered,--a country where consequent is close upon the heel of antecedent, where the work of a common lifetime may be well done in a very few years,--why there should be such a reluctance, on the part of the flower of the Lord's Army, to go forth to such a country and to such a conquest, is, indeed, passing strange. But such is the fact. It will probably remain a fact, for aught I can do to change it. Hence, it is more evident than ever, that the ranks of the ministry must be supplied by those who sire trained in the field. No one doubts that this is best; but all must see that such a course consumes time and requires money, while our necessities are imminent. We must not, cannot wait. Our Church must be prepared to advance at such a period as this, or she will fall behind farther and more sadly than ever. We have done something in the way of securing


Since my last report, four persons have become candidates for Holy Orders, making seven in all, of whom two have been admitted to the Diaconate. Five young men are studying for the ministry at Jarvis Hall. Two of this number are not yet candidates for Orders. It was one of the chief purposes in establishing this collegiate institution, to provide a place where young men, desirous of entering the ministry, might pursue their studies. This is, and is to be, one of the most important features of our missionary work. I have no means of supporting theological students; yet they must be maintained, or we cannot have them, since very few young men of this class have means of their own. Hence


become a necessity. For two hundred and fifty dollars, I can support a student of divinity. Sunday schools, parishes, and individuals, by the contribution of this sum, annually, can carry a young man through his preparatory studies, and thus fit him for good service [2/3] in the region where he has been trained. Such benefactions are a direct contribution to the missionary work. The above named sum barely covers the expense of board at the Hall. Four hundred dollars would provide for their support. Those who servo as missionaries, must, in the nature of things, make some sacrifice. Let the great body of the laity make a tithe of such a sacrifice, raid means will not be wanting to fill up the ranks of the ministry in every quarter of the land. For this work I need funds, and to tin's point I call particular attention.

The subject of education, in connection with our missions, early engaged my attention on reaching this jurisdiction, as one of the most promising measures of establishing the Church in a new dominion. The Romanists, in this regard, have taught us a wise; lesson, and it is at our cost if we do not improve it. Religion and learning must go hand in hand in the work of bringing the kingdoms of this world into loyal allegiance to the kingdom of Christ. I have, therefore, recommended and encouraged


wherever it was practicable to have them. In a country with a sparse population, it is difficult to secure sufficient patronage to sustain a parish school, especially where there is an active competition. I have aimed to found at prominent points in the several territoties, Academies or Schools of a higher grade. Of this class is


Cheyenne, Wyoming, which has been conducted during the last yearly the Rev. F. O. Barstow. The population of the town has considerably decreased of late, and there has been a corresponding falling off in the number of scholars. The school has maintained a good reputation, much to the credit of the Principal. At Pueblo is


under the instruction of the Rev. Samuel Edwards, whose learning, and many years of experience as an educator, fit him in a high degree for this office. The location is decidedly favorable for an educational institution. Pueblo is a county town, on the Arkansas River, the centre of an increasing agricultural population, and easy of access from the region round about. The Denver and Rio Grande Railroad passes through it, bringing it into immediate communication with northern and southern Colorado and New Mexico. The town has recently increased largely, and bids fair to be the most important place south of Denver. At such a point we should have [3/4] a first-class school. But we have no school-house. Land has been promised for this purpose. I trust these facts will be read by some one, whose eye will be quickened to see in them our necessity and their own opportunity. Will not some disciple, to whom the Lord has entrusted earthly riches, consecrate a portion of them to the work of erecting a, suitable building for this institution, and thus, while they confer an everlasting blessing upon coming generations, perpetuate their own name as Christian benefactors? I shall not build until I have the money to finish and pay for the building. If the church will give me what I need for this purpose, I solemnly promise, God helping me, that in less than two years, I will ask for as much more to establish another school somewhere else.

The Rev. Mr. Cornell has been appointed missionary at Santa Fe, New Mexico, and on entering upon his duties, opened a school, which is to be under his own supervision. The American families in this place are anxious to have a good school, which they promise to patronize.

The Rev. Mr. Barstow has gone as a missionary to Las Cruces and Messilla, in the same Territory. At a point midway between these two places, which are three miles apart, he is to establish a school, for the accommodation of the people in both towns. American residents of New Mexico suffer great inconvenience in the deprivation of the means of educating their children. There are but few schools in that territory, and these are, for the most part, of an inferior grade. Throughout the country, the children of the native population, with few exceptions, are growing up without instruction. In regard to the Romish schools, taught in convents and monasteries, in some of the larger towns, such is the superficial character of the instruction, that some of the more intelligent Mexicans will not send their children to them.

When all our educational enterprises are thoroughly inaugurated, and are in the full tide of successful experiment, we shall have cause for great gratitude to God, and have good reason to believe, that we shall have in operation an instrumentality mighty in the work of extending the Kingdom of Christ.


our High School for girls, at Denver, during the last year, has had an average attendance, larger than at any time since it was opened. By the aid of its liberal benefactor, John D. Wolfe, Esq., of New York, we have been enabled to add fifty feet to our lot, which now has a frontage of two hundred feet. A further addition of fifty feet is very desirable, and, in fact, absolutely necessary to the future well-being of the school. This Seminary is doing its work in a manner highly satisfactory. Its corps of teachers are making [4/5] for it a reputation, which, with God's blessing, will place it foremost among the educational institutions of the far West. All who have contributed to establish this seminary, may draw the dividend of their investment, every day, in the conscious fact that the good they would do, is not postponed until after they are dead and buried, but may be seen and enjoyed now, in the abundance of its fruits. It does not owe a dollar; and last year its income paid its expenses. Since my last report,


our collegiate school for boys, has been opened at Golden, under auspices which promise well for its future success. The edifice was finished and furnished in time for the commencement of the first term in October of last year. It is a substantial structure, conveniently arranged for the purposes for which it has been set apart, and it is entirely free of debt. Within a few months the brick building erected at the expense of the Territory, for purposes connected with a school of mines, has been completed, and when properly furnished, with a suitable and sufficient apparatus, will be a great accession to the facilities for the prosecution of scientific studies at this college. The lower story is used for a laboratory. On the second floor is the lecture hall and the library room, with cabinets for specimens in mineralogy, geology, metallurgy, and natural history. Here, also, is an extensive herbarium, which already contains more than a thousand neatly and scientifically arranged specimens in botany, which have; been collected and presented to the college, by the Rev. Ed. L. Greene.



The library consists of about two thousand volumes, of which fifteen hundred were a gift from the Rev. Ethan Allen, D. D., of Baltimore. A large number of standard theological works have been received from the Jarvis family, contributed through the agency of Geo. A. Jarvis, Esq., of Brooklyn, N. Y. By the aid of a liberal contribution from Mr. Jarvis, the library room has been finished and the books placed in alcoves.

Two acres have been added to the college grounds by the generous gift of C. C. Welch, Esq., making twelve acres in all that have been given by him for the use of the school. The entire domain has been enclosed by a substantial fence, which adds much to the appearance of the buildings. The destruction of the first building by a hurricane involved me in an unexpected and heavy loss. I made an appeal for help, which was responded to by a few persons. Two thousand dollars received from Mr. Jarvis, and one thousand from Mr. Wolfe, and five hundred from a lady of Calvary Church, N. Y., with less sums from other sources, enabled me to rise and build. Thank God, the building has been finished, furnished, and paid for. [5/6] This institution is destined to be a great blessing to this country, and I trust will grow with its growth, and have the capacity to meet the increasing educational wants of such a land. Its benefits are beginning to be felt, and it has already gained a reputation, of which both church and state may well be proud. While on the subject of education, I desire to say, that the climate of Colorado is such as to make this Territory a desirable residence for invalids, who are affected with asthmatic and pulmonary diseases. Consumptives who go thither in the incipient stages of their disease, are quite sure of improving their health. In eases of asthma, relief is immediately found in almost every instance, however severe or chronic. It is therefore a place for invalid youth; and young persons, predisposed to pulmonary disease, may here find a permanent cure. A lad fifteen years of age, afflicted with the asthma, was brought from an Eastern city to Colorado, with the hope of obtaining relief and securing an ultimate cure. Hearing of Jarvis Hall, his parents entered him at the beginning of the first term. He continued his studies to the end of the Academic year, without losing a day from any attack of the asthma. There are many youths of both sexes at the East, who are suffering to a degree which deprives them partially, and in some instances entirely, of the benefits of educational opportunities. Such children, if sent to this locality, will not only find relief, but will be in the way of obtaining a final cure; while they may enter school at once, and prosecute their studies, with nearly as much regularity and efficiency, as strong students can do at the East, thereby securing a, restoration to health, without sacrificing their educational period of life.

This much I have deemed it proper to say, in relation to educational matters. I now turn to a consideration of the more immediate missionary interests of the jurisdiction, beginning with


This Territory has a peculiar interest to all Christians, and a special claim upon all Churchmen. It has about a hundred thousand inhabitants, nearly all of whom speak the Spanish language, and are connected with the Roman Catholic Church. Up to the time of the annexation of this territory to the United States, this people were almost wholly shut out of communication with the Protestant world. They were under the exclusive influence of the Romish communion, and that Church had a grand opportunity, for two centuries and a half, to show to the world what their system would do in training a nation from its infancy, without any interference from a Protestant source. The legitimate fruits of Romanism are to be seen there today, in the condition of a people, where want of intelligence, want [6/7] of enterprise, and a fearful immorality, are characteristic of the masses.

The New Mexicans are a mixture of the Spanish and Indian races. There is nothing in blood which has scaled them to this inferiority of mental, social, and spiritual condition. Had they enjoyed the daylight of truth as it has shone since the Reformation upon England and the United States, there is no good reason to doubt that they would have compared favorably with these nations in intelligence and business enterprise, and all that constitutes an ennobling civilization.

Since New Mexico was made a part of the United States, a large number of English-speaking people have emigrated to the principal towns, and constitute the chief part of the business population. Moreover the officials, civil and military, appointed by the general government, are from the States. These with their families have become a very considerable clement in the Commonwealth. The influence of intelligent and enterprising Americans must necessarily be felt. But this portion of the community are compelled to sacrifice very much by their removal to this country, in the loss of the privileges which have been a common heritage at home. In the entire land there was not a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church. To rear a family in a country without churches and schools, is fearful to think of. This class of Americans, who in point of religion are nominally Protestant, is continually increasing. Their influence upon the native population will naturally be more and more. Here, then, is a missionary field, extraordinary in every point of view, alike inviting and promising. Our Church is peculiarly adapted to it. The majority of Americans there prefer our services to any other. Some have been attached to them at home. Others have been in the army, and are partial to a liturgy. Others, though unaccustomed to the prayer-book, prefer its forms to the extemporaneous efforts of denominational ministers. But there is another and striking feature of this field, which should not be overlooked. Here are multitudes who, though baptized in the Romish communion, have no strong attachment to it. They care nothing for its worship in an unknown tongue; they do not respect its ceremonies, they will not comply with the demands of its authority, and they do not regard its dogmas. But they believe in a ministry, and will respect a godly priesthood; they have ever been accustomed to a liturgical worship, and three orders of the ministry. They have always seen the ministers of God clad in clerical vestments when officiating in public worship. I need not here point out the advantages which our Church possesses over other religious bodies in these particulars; with her bishops, priests, and deacons, with her time-honored liturgy, with the order and impressive solemnity of her [7/8] worship, presenting to such a people the pure Gospel of Christ, and the uncorrupted ordinances of the Church as He ordained them.

I might write a volume on this point. But I am writing a report, and this is only one item in it. And here I must leave the argument and the illustration, with the reiteration of the remark already made, that New Mexico is one of the most important missionary fields on the entire continent of North America.

But it may be asked, what have you done about it? I answer, I have done what I could, which has been very little. I appealed to the Church for missionaries. Two were nominated to the Domestic Committee, and I received a note from the Secretary, saying 1 hat the Committee did not appoint Missionaries where no provision had been made for their support. In other words, there were no funds in the treasury, and so we must be content to have no missionaries in New Mexico; and here the matter rested.

On Monday, the ninth of May, I left Denver for New Mexico, in a stage coach, and arrived at


on Friday afternoon, having accomplished the journey of four hundred and twenty miles, by riding night and day. I was cordially received, and very kindly entertained at the residence of Col. Bridgman. On Saturday I baptized several children. On Sunday I preached in the senate chamber, to large congregations, morning and evening. In the morning administered the holy communion, and in the evening baptized three children.

At Santa Fe are the head-quarters of the general commanding this military district; it is also the residence of the governor, and of those connected with the territorial government. Here is a very considerable population, more or less attached to the service of the Church. Soon after my first visitation to this place, three years ago, a parish was organized, under the name of St. Thomas' Church. The Rev. John Woart, then a post chaplain at Fort Union, upwards of a hundred miles away, frequently held service here, whose labors of love are still gratefully remembered. The Rev. Mr. La Tourette, post chaplain at Fort Garland, spent several weeks at Santa Fe within the last year; and, during his visit, officiated with much acceptance to the people. These are the only clerical services which they have had. But such are the attachments of the people to our liturgy, and such their desire to enjoy its worship, that lay services have been held every Sunday morning in the parlor of Col. Bridgman's residence.

The American portion of the people feel the great need of a school of a high order for the education of their children. Such a school would no doubt be patronized by some of the more liberal Mexicans. [8/9] An Episcopal Church and school at the capital will be the centre and source of a strong and wide-spreading influence, which, under the smile of God, will be a great blessing to the people. I appointed the Rev. John Cornell, Rector of St. Matthew's Church, Laramie, in Wyoming Territory, to be a missionary at Santa Fe. He commenced his duties there on the first of September, and has already opened a, school, in connection with the mission. Mr. Cornell has been well tried as a soldier on the frontier; he has done good service in Wyoming, and I have all confidence that his self-denying labors will be crowned with signal success in New Mexico.

I left Santa Fe on Monday morning, May 15th, in the stage for the lower part of the territory. These mail coaches, like those between Denver and Santa Fe, go day and night, and the traveller must get his sleep as best he can catch it. On Thursday afternoon I reached Messilla, and was warmly welcomed by Col. Jones, at whose house I found a pleasant home.

On Saturday, the Rev. Mr. Tays, from El Paso, Texas, arrived, he came fifty miles on horseback to meet me. On Saturday, I visited Las Cruces, which is only three miles from Messilla. Here I met with several persons, who are very anxious to have the services of the Church permanently established. On Sunday after Ascension Day, I preached in the morning at Cruces. Prayers were read by the Rev. Mr. Tays. In the afternoon, services were held in the court room at Messilla. Evening prayer was read by the Rev. Mr. Tays, and I preached and continued two persons. In the evening baptized two adults and three children. The congregations in both places were large and attentive. Several Mexicans wore present at both services. Here, as at Santa Fe, there are many Americans who desire to have the Church permanently established among them. They are also exceedingly anxious to have a good school under the supervision of the missionary. The want of schools in all this region is truly fearful. The people are willing, according to their means, to contribute to the support of both minister and teacher.

I appointed the Rev. F. O. Barstow, Rector of St. Mark's Church, Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, as missionary at Messilla and Cruces. Mr. B., since his residence in this jurisdiction, has shown himself well qualified for this twofold office. Here is a grand field for any man who has the true missionary spirit, and I have no doubt that Mr. Barstow, who has done so well in Wyoming, will do still better in New Mexico.

Mr. Barstow has opened a school in Messilla, and as soon as means can be obtained for that purpose, a suitable school building will be erected midway between Messilla and Cruces, for the accommodation of the people of the two towns, and which will be only a mile and a half from each.

[10] I regard these missions in New Mexico as second to none in this jurisdiction, in point of promise and importance. On Monday morning, the 22d, I left on my return, having received from Col. Bennett (one of the proprietors of the stage line) a free pass to Santa Fe, a distance of three hundred miles. When it is considered that the stage fare in this part of the country is 25 cents a mile, this act will be be seen to be one of a generous character.

On my way I met at Socorro, by previous appointment, a judge of the United States Court, which was then in session at this place. He had been baptized and reared in our communion, but during the many years of his residence in New Mexico, had enjoyed very few opportunities of attending our service. He was now anxious to be confirmed. While the stage company were at dinner, I held a service in the parlor of the hotel, in the presence of the Judge's family, and administered to him the apostolic rite of confirmation. This was a most interesting and touching incident. I can never forget that scene. It is one of the green spots in a Bishop's life. The service concluded, the judge returned to the bench, and I "went on my way rejoicing, towards" the north, "which is desert."

Soon after midnight on Friday, I reached Santa Fe, and was again a guest in the hospitable family of Col. Bridgman. On Saturday, I administered infant baptism, and on Whitsunday preached in the senate chamber, and administered the holy communion. Preached again in the evening, and baptized a child. On Monday, left for Denver, where I arrived on Friday, having travelled upwards of fourteen hundred miles in a stage coach, and was not a little refreshed in body, by the exercise of the ride, and a good deal cheered in mind and faith, by the signs of promise developed during this visitation.

In this jurisdiction, as everywhere on the frontier, there are many tribes of


some of whom are friendly, but few have, as yet, given any very reliable signs of a disposition to quit their nomadic mode of life, and so far adopt civilized customs as to be willing to settle on reservations, and learn to till the soil. It is to be hoped that the inducements offered by the government may yet be effectual in accomplishing this end, both for the advancement of the red men and the peace and protection of the whites.

In New Mexico there is a tribe of Indians called the Pueblos, who, soon after the settlement of the country by Spaniards, were converted to Christianity by the Roman Catholic priests. With the faith of the Gospel thus received, they retained some of the forms and usages of their old religion as heathen, and their faith and worship [10/11] are somewhat of a mixture. They have churches, and, I believe, native priests. They live in communities, and have a government of their own; hence their name, Pueblo, which means town. I have visited the ruins of one of their churches, which is supposed to be two hundred years old. It is said that they are looking for the coming of Montezuma, whom they regard as their future deliverer, and to this end they maintain a constant lire on the altar of some shrine, never allowing it to go out, lest with it all hope of his coming should expire. Their villages present a comparatively comfortable and neat appearance. They are industrious and peaceable.

The NAVAHOES have been in conflict with the government, but are now quiet. They cultivate the soil, raise cattle, and make blankets, and by these arts and acts of civilization are distinguished from other tribes. The agent of the government is making praiseworthy efforts to establish schools among them, and to induce in them a taste for the further cultivation of the modes and manners of civilized life.

In Colorado the Utes, who chiefly inhabit the mountains, are a peaceable tribe. The government has assigned them a reservation, on which they seem very unwilling to remain. Their religious instruction, by the arrangement of the Indian department at Washington, has been assigned to the Unitarian denomination.

The instruction and oversight of the Indians in Wyoming has been given to the Episcopal Church. The most troublesome Indians on the plains are the Sioux, under the celebrated war chief lied Cloud. The government have dealt very liberally with them, but, as yet, they have not accepted their place on the assigned reservation, and matters are in an uncertain condition. Until they are permanently at home in their new abode, little can be done by the church in the office committed to her by the general government.

In the northern part of Wyoming, in what is called the sweet-water country, are the Shoshones and Bannocks. These Indians have been placed on a reservation. By my recommendation, Mr. James Irwin has been appointed agent. As yet I have not been able to find a clergyman suitably qualified for the twofold office of teacher and preacher, who is willing to go to that distant point to engage in such a work. Mr. J. I. Patten, a communicant in the Church, has been appointed teacher, whom I have licensed as a lay reader.


I have made two visitations to this territory since my last report. The settlements lie almost entirely upon the Union Pacific Railroad, reaching from Cheyenne to Evanston, near the line of Utah. The only exceptions are


two villages in the mining regions of the sweet-water country, which are an hundred miles north of the railroad. In July I visited these two places, and held services at South Pass City, where we have a chapel, and at Atlantic. In these places the Rev. Mr. Fitnam officiated for nearly a year. The mining interest declined, and the population decreased,--and the missionary left, and commenced services at Carbon. Atlantic is four miles from South Pass City; and two miles above Atlantic is Fort Stanbaugh, and thirty miles beyond is Fort Brown, where is the Indian reservation of Shoshones and Bannocks. In all this region there is not a minister of the Gospel of any name or denomination; and no place of worship except our own chapel of "The Good Samaritan," which has been closed for several months. The Rev. Mr. Cornell, at my request, visited South Pass and Atlantic last winter. Here are several hundred persons, and among them Church families. They have a comfortable chapel, but no one to break to them the Bread of Life. The place and the climate are pleasant, and the people are intelligent; but, alas, what spiritual destitution! The bettor class in these communities are anxious for the regular services of the Church. This simple statement shows how much a missionary is needed. I am anxious to obtain a man for the place, and must look to the Church for the means of his support.

A clergyman is needed at the Indian agency. His salary as a teacher would be guaranteed by the U. S. Government.

On the same journey, I held services at


which is the remotest town in Wyoming, on the line of the railroad. As yet the place is small, but the railroad company are erecting extensive workshops here, which will ensure for the place a population of several hundred. I found a few Churchmen, and the attendance at the service was good. The Presbyterians are building a place of worship. The Baptists are making a similar effort. I took measures for securing a Church lot. At


is a Presbyterian chapel in which I preached. This village is not large, but should have the privileges of our service, which some of the people desire. A few miles east of this place is


which, like almost all military posts on this frontier, has among the officers and their families several members of our Church. The present chaplain is a Methodist, who very courteously invited me to preach in the chapel. The room was crowded, and the congregation attentive. Rev. Mr. Fitnam has also officiated both here and at Rawlins.

While on my last visitation in Wyoming, I preached at


The population of this village is small, and the congregation was not large. It was at this point that I took the stage for South Pass. At


is stationed a company of United States soldiers, and here I held service. The Rev. Mr. Fitnam has for some time preached here every other Sunday, it being within easy reach of his residence at Carbon.


is the name of a small settlement a few miles west of Laramie. At this place I held service in a saloon, known as the "Progressive Saloon," which I have purchased and partially fitted up as a chapel. The Rev. Mr. Cornell has repeatedly officiated at this place.


is the highest point on the Railroad, and the highest of any Railroad in the world. Here are a few people, and here I held service in a private house.


has been supplied very acceptably by the Rev. Mr. Barstow, who in July removed to Messilla, in New Mexico. During the year he conducted the parish school, which under his instruction did remarkably well. The population of the town has much decreased the past three years, while church edifices have considerably multiplied. Our church was the first erected in the place. We have a good church building, a commodious parsonage and school, and our services should be maintained. The town will probably not be much smaller than it already is. The Rev. Geo. W. Mayer has succeeded the Rev. Mr. Barstow, as Rector. I have visited St. Matthew's Church,


twice since my last report. Held confirmations on both occasions. The Rector, the Rev. John Cornell, has accepted an appointment as Missionary at Santa Fe, New Mexico, and has already entered on his duties. Mr. Cornell went to Laramie less than three years ago, which was then only a small place, with all the characteristics of a terminus-town of the railroad. All manner of ungodliness prevailed. Ho entered manfully upon his work, gathered a congregation, secured a lot of land, built one of the finest churches on the frontier,--the first place of worship in the town,--opened and taught a school, presented a class for confirmation at every Episcopal visitation, which was generally twice a year, so that I have confirmed forty-three in that parish. A large addition to the Church lot has been secured, and nearly fifteen hundred dollars have been obtained for a parsonage. Besides, the Rector has done much missionary work up and down the road, visiting many places of his own accord, and always responding with promptness to any request from me, to officiate at any point near or remote. This shows what can be done at the very front of the advancing line of civilization. It as a noble record, and augurs well for further success, with God's blessing, in the new field to which Mr. Cornell has gone. Since the last meeting of the Board, the Territory of


has received a fresh impulse in all its business relations and prospects, by the completion of railroad communication with the East and West. It was only a year ago in June last since the first railroad to Denver was completed. Now there are no less than five railroads having their termini in this town, and the rapid increase of population, the large amount of capital which has already found its way hither for investment, in modes of developing the mineral and agricultural resources of the country, have caused an activity and growth which are well-nigh magical; and yet they are all real and increasingly so. Amid the rush of such torrents of men and means, it is neither the time nor the place for the Church to stand still. We must go forward, if we would lead,--as lead we must, if we would plant the Church here on immovable foundations, where she will abide, and exert that conserving, elevating, and saving influence which comes alone of evangelical truth and apostolic order. In regard to the destiny of this Territory, there is no longer any room for the speculations which pertain to experimental endeavors. As certain as any future thing can be is the growth and greatness of this Territory. Climate, soil, minerals, in connection with multiplied [14/15] facilities for promoting emigration,--all unite to further the increase of population and the development of wealth. One new feature but lately developed, which is assuming every day increased importance, and attracting more and more attention, is the mode of settling this country by


which, for obvious reasons, is the most rational and the most rapid way of peopling a new territory. This feature marks an epoch in our frontier history, and makes a new demand on our missionary resources and zeal. Where there is a colony, there should be a Church. The various denominations understand this, and are acting upon their convictions. On the first day of April, last year, on tins prairie where the town of Greeley now is, there was not a tent nor a shed to be seen, where to-day is a town with streets, well arranged, having four hundred buildings, and more than twelve hundred inhabitants. I have repeatedly officiated here. A parish has been organized, lay reading has been sustained, and a Sunday school instructed. A lot has been obtained, and a lady in Philadelphia has sent me five hundred dollars toward the erection of a church. Services are now held every Sunday by the Rev. E. L. Greene, who is supported by a missionary fund which is raised in the jurisdiction.

Two and a half miles from Greeley is the town of Evans, on the Platte River, which is the centre of another colony. The missionary at Greeley can easily hold one service at this place on every Sunday.

Twenty miles away is another settlement called Fort Collins, where there are several Episcopal families, and where occasional services may be held.

About thirty miles from Denver, a colony has lately been established, known as the Chicago colony, the chief settlement of which is called Longmont. Our services have been held in this place with the most encouraging prospects. Here we should have a church at once.

Down the Platte is still another settlement of a colonial character, while committees representing communities or associations at the East, are frequently visiting the Territory in search of suitable localities for associated settlements.

In the northern part of New Mexico, near the line of Colorado, is a colony lately from England, engaged in mining, many of whom, with some of the officers of the company, have been connected with the church of England. To this place I have sent a missionary.

Two miles south of Colorado city, at a point on the Rio Grande Railroad,--is a locality beautiful for situation, where a colony is to be established, in the new town of Colorado Springs, which is to be [15/16] the centre of this settlement. Many buildings have already been erected.

The population of the neighboring village of Colorado City and the surrounding country is already considerable, and is constantly increasing. At this point there should be at once a missionary and a church. The first on the ground will have the advantage of an advanced position.

On a late visitation among the mountains, I preached in the Methodist place of worship, at


This, and the neighboring communities, are chiefly engaged in mining. One clergyman could easily sustain services here, and at other mining towns in that region, higher up in the mountains. Aid will be cheerfully rendered by the people towards the support of a missionary, so soon as one can be found willing to cast in his lot among this people.

On my way to attend the convocation at Pueblo, in August, I stopped at


and preached in a Methodist place of worship, which was very kindly loaned for the occasion. There were present two Methodist preachers, who assisted us in the responses and singing, and thus contributed very pleasantly to the interest of the services. About two miles from this village, the new town, to which I have already alluded in this report, is the point where I propose to erect a church, when means for that purpose can be secured.

On the tenth Sunday after Trinity, Aug 13, I preached in St. Peter's Church,


Here we have a neat and comfortable church, and here the Rev. Mr. Edwards continues to labor in faith and with acceptance, in connection with his school, of which I have already spoken. I am anxious to make this point on the Arkansas the head-quarters of an associate mission, which shall operate in all the region round about, so soon as the ministers for it, and the means for their support, can be obtained.

I had made an appointment at


for the next Sunday, but was suddenly summoned to Denver, in consequence of the dangerous illness of my assistant minister, the Rev. Mr. De Garmo, and was obliged to defer the visit to this [16/17] place. At my request, the Rev. Mr. Turner officiated there at the time appointed. Some years ago, a lot for a church was secured at Caron. There are a number of Church people in that vicinity, to whom I should be glad to send a minister, if I had the means for his maintenance.

On my return from Pueblo, I stopped at


where there are a number of persons attached to our services, and where means could be secured for the erection of a church, in connection with the assistance I might be able to render them. This place could be supplied in connection with other stations in that region.

Services have been held, with many interruptions, at


The Rev. Mr. Mayer officiated for three months. He was followed by the Rev. S. J. French, who remained only a few weeks, and resigned the rectorship to accept a call to the Diocese of Louisiana. The Rev. Dr. McMurdy has been elected rector, by whose judicious and energetic labors, with God's blessing, I trust this parish may be soon relieved of all embarrassment and permanently established, and the church finished and paid for. On Friday evening. Sept. 15th, I confirmed twenty-five, of whom twenty-two were heads of families. The rector at Georgetown has charge of the Church at


where we have a very tasteful edifice. The population of the place is less than it was a few years ago, but those who remain very gladly attend our services.

By the labors of the rectors at Nevada and Central, services have been maintained a portion of the year in Calvary Church,


where, during the summer season, there are a large number of persons from the States, who visit this locality for the benefit derived from the springs.

At Easter the Rev. F. Byrne resigned the rectorship of Christ Church at


which he had held for about four years, to accept an appointment as chaplain of Jarvis Hall, and head of the college Household. Mr. [17/18] Byrne has labored faithfully and devotedly at his post, and with much acceptance.

The Rev. Mr. Turner continues as rector of St. Paul's parish,


and is universally esteemed in the community. His efforts to establish a Church hospital have not met with the general and liberal co-operation on the part of the people which they richly deserved.

The Rev. Mr. Lynd has resigned the rectorship of Calvary Church,


and has been succeeded by the Rev. H. H. Van Deusen, the newly appointed Principal of Jarvis Hall, under whose administration I have good reason to hope that this parish, which has a beautiful brick church, will soon become one of the strongest on the frontier. For the last six months, lay reading has been maintained by the teachers of Jarvis Hall at


a beautiful spot in the mountains about fifteen miles from the school. I have officiated at the school-house in this place, and found the people desirous of our services. A subscription has been made for the erection of a church, and with the aid of friends in New York, connected with St. Mark's Church, a sufficient sum has been secured for its completion. I hope to be able to supply this missionary station with the services of a clergyman two Sundays in the mouth, during the winter.

I have preached in a school-house in a village on the Golden City Railroad, called


a lot of land has boon given for Church purposes. The teachers at Jarvis Hall have maintained lay reading here for several months. I hope to obtain the means for the erection of a church at this place. On the second Sunday after Trinity, July 26th of last year, I commenced holding services in the afternoon of every other Sunday at


ten miles from Denver, up the Platte River. There were in the village, one church family, and another resided eight miles away. The services were held in a school-house. In less than ten months, a church was erected, finished, furnished, and paid for, and was consecrated by the name of St. Paul's, on the Sunday next before Easter, of this year, April the 2d. Much credit is due R. S. Little, [18/19] Esq., by whose efforts, in connection with what pecuniary aid I could render, we were enabled to complete a House of God, which for good taste and churchly appearance will compare well with any church of its size and cost, either East or West. Services are still held here once in two weeks. I should be glad to have them every Sunday, if I had a minister who could attend to this duty. On my way from New Mexico, I officiated at


This town, though chiefly inhabited by Mexicans, is in the Territory of Colorado. Here are many Americans, who are anxious for our services. A parish has been organized. The Rev. Jno. C. Fitnam has been appointed missionary, who, in connection with the mission, has established a school.

I have repeatedly officiated in a school-house in


ten miles from Denver, down the Platte. This is a farming community, and the population is somewhat scattered, yet I have ill ways had large congregations. The interest in this enterprise continued to increase in the neighborhood, in which are several Church families, until it culminated in a subscription sufficient, with the aid which was rendered by a lady in Philadelphia, to erect a church,--the corner-stone of which I laid on the fourth of September, 1871, with the usual ceremony, in the presence of a deeply interested congregation.

The parish of St. John's Church,


is steadily increasing. Land has been lately purchased, on which, at some future day, when the congregation have the ability, it is proposed to erect a new and substantial church edifice. The Rev. Samuel J. French, my assistant, having resigned, the Rev. H. H. De Garmo, from the diocese of Wisconsin, was appointed in his place. He had been with us only a month when he was attacked with a severe hemorrhage of the lungs, and died almost immediately. In his death we have suffered a severe loss. In grace, manners, learning, and ability, ho was well suited to this country, and already had the people begun to appreciate his excellences and feel his influence. The Rev. W. H. Moore, who was a candidate in this jurisdiction,--a graduate of the General Theological Seminary,--has become the assistant at St. John's.


It is plain enough, that if those new territories are to become the kingdoms of Christ, we must have Christian temples in every neighborhood. There is no substitute for them. My plan is to dot this jurisdiction all over with consecrated places of worship. In order to do this, they must necessarily be small and inexpensive; cheap, only in cost, not in appearance. Proper proportions cost nothing. To lay u brick, or saw and nail a board, in a way that produces a legitimate and pleasing effect, costs no more than to do these tilings in a way which is only ugly and misshapen. The building of cheap churches, in such a manner that the House of God shall never be mistaken for any other house, is something of an art. I have made this matter a study, until I am prepared to say, that in this country, where material and labor are at high prices, a church,--in Gothic style, twenty feet by forty,--- with an open timber roof, pointed windows of stained glass, a triplet window in the chancel, bell turret, porch, a decent chancel and comfortable pews,--can be built for fifteen hundred dollars! Of this description is the church at Littleton, which has been admired by everybody that has seen it; a picture of which accompanies this report. A church, 20 x 30, in the same style, can be erected for a thousand dollars. Of this class are the churches to be built at Baldwinsville and Bergen Park; and, seeing that this can be done, I renew the offer already made,--that for every five hundred dollars given me for that purpose, I will pledge myself to build, finish, and pay for a church. The people are ready and willing to contribute, in addition to this, all that may be required to complete and furnish the edifice.

How many hundred persons in our own church could, every year while they live, build a church, with no detriment to their interests or happiness. What satisfaction there must be to those who have had the ability and the grace in their day to erect at least one Christian temple! I hope my proposition may be put to a severe test, by the multiplicity of offers which shall come in answer to this evangelical challenge.

But we must have ministers to preach the everlasting Gospel in these churches. Experience has taught me that we cannot rely upon the East for a full supply. These soldiers of Christ must be trained here in the field where they are to fight. Hence we need facilities for education.


In establishing Jarvis Hall, I had in view a school of the Prophets, where young men, desirous of entering the ministry, could be properly [20/21] trained. But this class of young men rarely possess the means for their support. Somebody must aid them during their stay at the school. I will agree to maintain a candidate for Holy Orders at the rate of two hundred and fifty dollars a year, though much more than that is needed for his comfortable support. What individual, what parish, what Sunday school will send a soldier to the front for two hundred and fifty dollars a year? Are there not many who cannot be ministers, yet would gladly place a substitute in the ranks?


This is my fifth annual report, and it may be well to look at our missionary expenditure in a light which accords somewhat with the mercantile habit, in which not a few givers are wont to look at missionary matters where money is involved. This is, of course, the lowest aspect in which the results of Church charities are 1o be considered. Much that is given to a missionary Bishop is expended in the support of missionaries, and in a thousand other ways which leave no material, tangible result. The good is moral, spiritual, eternal, and cannot be estimated by any standard of earth. This use I have endeavored to make of the funds entrusted to my hands, and this "record is on high." But it will be seen by the following statement that the Church property here has been increased to an amount equal to the sum which I have received. I therefore charge myself with the amount received from all sources and for all purposes, since my consecration, viz., $106,000, and credit myself with the following:--

Wolfe Hall, building, land, and furniture, present worth $35,000.00
Jarvis Hall, 12 acres of land, 2 buildings, furniture, and library 28,000.00
Endowment 10,000.00
Church in Golden 5,000.00
Church in Cheyenne and parsonage 4,000.00
Church in Lariimie and rectory fund 8,400.00
Church in Nevada, and parsonage 3,500.00
Church in Georgetown 4,000.00
Church in Pueblo, and school land 5,000.00
Church in Idaho 2,000.00
Church in Littleton 1,500.00
Church in Central, addition in land, parsonage, etc. 3,000.00
Church in Empire 2,000.00
Church in South Pass City (Chapel) 1,200.00
Church in Baldwinsville (money raised), 1,000.00
Church in Bergen Park (money raised), 1,000.00

Total $114,000.00

By this statement it will appear that the church has intrusted [21/22] me with $106,000; and I now show, over and above all that has been expended in supporting missionaries, maintaining schools, and defraying other expenses, church property worth $114,600, over and above what existed, in this jurisdiction, when I entered upon my office. And it is to be observed that no part of this sum of $114,000 has accrued from the increase of value in property. It has all been created.

In the above amount, I have left out the increase in the value of church property in St. John's parish, Denver, amounting to several thousand dollars. In the light of such a financial exhibit, will the church East give me another hundred thousand dollars, with a promise that I will make a similar investment in the next five years, should my life be spared? I wish they might have faith enough to dare to make that experiment.

I am glad to be able to say, that we have inaugurated measures for raising funds in aid of diocesan missions. By a vote of the clerical convocation, collections are made in the churches and at missionary stations, three times a year, for the support of missionaries in this jurisdiction. We already have one such missionary, and hope to sustain two. Thus, in our feebleness, we have already begun to help ourselves.

There is only one more topic to which I desire to call the attention of the Board, and that is, the future policy of the church in the matter of the conduct of her missions, in the newer and more rapidly growing portions of the country. I was not present at the last meeting of the Board, but I read a report of the discussions at that meeting. The evident drift of the debate was in the line of argument, designed to show that the church was doing too much, relatively, for western missions; in other words, that more should be done for the East, and for the oldest States in the East. This idea, as near as I could judge, seemed to be the prevailing sentiment of the Board. It was very natural and very proper, that the Domestic Committee should carry out, practically, what was so evidently the disposition of the Board. With their action I find no fault. Nor am I opposed to the increase of appropriations to the East, provided there be an increase of funds. I wish that the old dioceses might receive tenfold more than they have ever received. But it is evident, that if the appropriations are increased in this direction, while there is no increase in the income of the Board, then such increase of appropriations to the East is made at the expense of those to the West. And now for the facts. The church called me away from the East, consecrated me a bishop, and sent me to the West, and told me to establish the Church in three immense territories: Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

The territory of Colorado is 16,000 square miles larger than the [22/23] whole of England, Scotland, and Wales; as large as the whole six of the Eastern or New England States,--Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, with Ohio added; and 2,300 square miles larger than the whole of the four States of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware--a territory which is now traversed by five railroads, centring in its chief town; whose mines of gold and silver extend through almost its entire length; with millions of acres of land, as productive as any on which the sun shines; all inviting an immigration which is increasing rapidly its population at points remote from each other, by which colonies are multiplying, towns springing up in all directions, and the future growth is likely to exceed anything in its history. Now it is to such a territory (and this, only one out of three) that I have been sent to plant the church.

In Colorado we have, besides self-supporting parishes, sixteen missionary stations. My duty is to find and establish such stations, organize parishes, obtain ministers, pay their expenses to the frontier, support them after their arrival. To such a territory,--all alive with business enterprise, and where missionaries of the Roman Catholic church, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Baptists are all hard at work in the interes of their respective bodies,--am I sent. To do all this, which the church expects and requires me to do, how much money do you think this Board allows me? I will tell you: a little less than the sum of twelve hundred dollars a year. And how much money do you think this Board appropriates to the easternmost State? just double that sum, viz., $1,200 to Colorado, and $2,400 to this easternmost diocese.

Now I ask, in the light of these extraordinary facts, is this to be the policy of this Board and of this church? Is this the scale by which our missionary operations are to be graduated? If so, then it should be known. Let me not be misunderstood. I find no fault, I make no complaint. But I state facts, which have naturally enough sprung forth out of the opinion which prevailed at the last meeting of the Board, which was, that more money must be given to the East; and accordingly more money has been given to the East, and the appopriation to the diocese named was raised from $1,800 to $2,400, while the stipends to this missionary jurisdiction were not increased at all. To make this matter perfectly plain, I will state that the appopropriation to this entire jurisdiction is $3,500, which divided among the three territories is less than $1,200 to each. I was compelled to use what belonged to New Mexico in Colorado, and so when the missionaries were sent to that Territory, I was obliged to guarantee their salaries out of my own scanty means. In Wyoming, the Presbyterians pay one of their missionaries $1,500 a year, i.e., they give $300 more to one man, than I am allowed by this Board [23/24] for supporting all the missionaries in the entire territory of Colorado.

It may have appeared to the brethren at the meeting of the Board in New York last year, that the national and continental tide had turned, and was now setting eastward; but to all the rest of the world it was evidently enough running westward yet, with a current broader, deeper, mightier, than over before. I am anxious to know what is to be the policy of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, as to the mode and measure of missionary work on that part of this great continent, which is startling the civilized world by the marvellous strides of a progress, that bids fair to be unprecedented in the history of modern times, or of any times.

Our church may stand still if she chooses to do so, but I can tell this Board and the church, that this world does not stand still, and does not intend to. Business enterprise, the march of mind, the army of emigrants, the hosts which are hurrying on to people mountains and plains, are not going to wait on the road for a lagging church to come up, under the plausible pretence of converting the old States, before she ventures much among the new. I tell you there is no arresting this mighty tide. It will go on, and its impulsive, impatient spirit will wait for nobody. While we are halting and talking and having a good time in pleasant places at the East, this teeming current is going on, and Romanism, and all sorts of error, and all shades of infidelity, are going on with it, and sowing broadcast their principles, at a time and in a place where "a nation is born in a day." And can it be, that the Protestant Episcopal Church shall show to the world that she learns nothing by her own sad experience, and is determined and is destined to act over again her folly, and to be in the West what she was proverbially at the East,--the church of the eleventh hour? God forbid. She must be first. Her place as an apostolic church is in the front rank. Be the policy and be the practice of this Board what it may, where my commission runs,--God being my helper,--she shall lead the van, in that great army which follows the "star of Christian empire that westward takes its course," and whose conquests are yet to be signalized from ocean to ocean, by the banner of the cross, floating in glorious triumph upon every mountain-top in the land.


Oct. 1, 1871.


Since the above Report was made to the Board, I have received a note from Nathan Matthews, Esq., of Boston, authorizing me to draw on him for the sum of ten thousand dollars, to be used in the erection of a Divinity Hall, in connection with our college at Golden. This is a most timely gift, for which God be thanked. May the Lord abundantly reward the giver with heaven's best blessings, and lead a multitude of others, to emulate this noble example of Christian charity.


Statistics for the year ending Oct. 1, A. D. 1871.

Baptisms: Adults, 27; Infants, 106. Total, 133.

Confirmed, 100.

Communicants, 326.

Marriages, 43.

Burials, 46.

Sunday Schools: Scholars, 536; Teachers, 61. Total, 597.

Ordinations: Deacons, 2; Priests, 2. Total, 4.


Freedmen's Mission, $3.00
Foreign $19.98
Domestic $161.20
Diocesan $566 86
For parochial purposes, not including salaries of ministers $3,184.34
Church building $1,950.50

Total $5,885.88


Project Canterbury