The Catholic Movement and the Society of the Holy Cross.
By J. Embry, M.A.,
Vicar of St. Bartholomews, Dover.
London: The Faith Press, 1931.
"SONS OF THE PROPHETS."
THE history of the Society has been brought down to the end of its first fifty-two years. At this time, of those whose names had been on the first printed Roll of Members, three only survived,?C. Spooner, E. P. Williams and T. Humphris Clark. In addition to these there were only four alive who were on the second Roll,?G. D. Nicholas, J. F. W. Bullock, E. G. Wood and S. G. Beal. Those who had been contemporary with all the Brethren of S.S.C. were indeed few.
The year 1907 was a critical one in the life of the Society. Except for the meetings of the Local Branches and a Provincial Synod of the Western Province, held at Gloucester, the Society lay fallow. At the May Synod, the Member who had been elected to the Mastership was unfortunately absent through illness. In consequence of this a statutory difficulty sprang up respecting his admission to office, which could only take place at the May Synod. A proposal that he should be admitted at the next Chapter was opposed, on this ground, by a representative number of members, who entered their protest in a constitutional way. When at the Chapter the time for the admission of the Master-elect was reached, the "previous question" was moved and only defeated by the narrowest majority. The Master-elect did the only thing which he felt he could do honourably under the circumstances. He proposed the adjournment of the Chapter, which was carried. It set up a difficulty not to say an impasse which but for the efforts of the Revds. G. B. Roberts, S. G. Beal, F. F. Irving and others would have threatened the very life of the Society.
In 1908, the Rev. F. F. Irving, Vicar of All Saints', Clevedon, was elected Master. It was the wisest choice that could have been made at this juncture. Fr. Irving possessed a peculiar charm of manner, a lovable disposition and a striking personality. He knew his own mind and was never afraid of expressing it, which he could do inflexibly but not harshly. His devotion to S.S.C. was great and he had made himself well-acquainted with its history and its spirit. Both as a theologian and a thoughtful preacher his services were much sought, as E.C.U. platforms and Sermons on Special Occasions testified, nor was he shy of using the ars scribendi in the Church press when reasons appeared which demanded criticism or plain-speaking. He was a priest of varied experience, having been a lecturer at Cumbrae, a curate of St. Saviour's, Leeds, a worker on the Archbishop's Mission to Assyrian Christians at Umri for five years, and Vicar of All Saints', Clevedon, from 1899 down to his death in 1925. If the rule of Fr. Ommanney, at a difficult time when temptations to compromise were in the air, could be summed up in the Apostolic injunction,? "Quit you like men," that of his successor completed the couplet,?"be strong," for his whole policy as Master was to screw men up to the realisation of their obligations to S.S.C. and thus help the Society to grow strong. Towards this end his own thoroughness and energy were indefatigable. Two examples to illustrate this may be furnished by the tactful way he dealt with two weak?nesses of human nature,?the forgetfulness to pay subscriptions, and the slackness of attending meetings. In the first a series of persistent reminders, with timely suggestions and the co-operation of the zealous Treasurer (F. L. Ware), brought it to pass that, in one year, two subscriptions only had not been paid. For the second, he insisted, for the good of the corporate life of the Society as well as of the individual member, that the then existing rule of every one absent from a Synod stating his reason for the same should be carried out to the letter, a process which laid upon him in some instances the burden of a heavy correspondence. Being a strong Master, he was full of practical sympathy and evinced it by his thoughtfulness towards those of the Society who, through no fault of their own, had to struggle with genuine poverty. His sense of liturgical propriety was doubtless an asset of utility at a time when temptations and opportunities were rife to strike out into wider liturgical paths. The Ecclesiastical Commission followed by the varying pro?posals of Prayer Book Revision had produced chaos, as far as the regulating of services was concerned. Catholics were unanimous in their opposition at this time to Revision, both on account of its origin and also the knowledge that the majority of those undertaking it lacked the expert liturgical science necessary for so serious a work. It was true, at the same time, that the present generation felt, in a greater degree than did their predecessors, the inadequacy of the Prayer Book owing to its curtailments and omissions. As a consequence of this, to say the least, a suspicion was aroused that the endeavour was being made by some to use this opportunity as an occasion for disregarding the use of the Prayer Book. To any tendency in this direction, Fr. Irving always expressed himself to be in strong opposition, while at the same time he was almost over punctilious in his directions for carry?ing out the details of ceremonial.
The year 1908 was a quiet one. The chief event in ecclesiastical minds was that which had been aroused over the case "Bannister v. Thompson", heard before Sir Lewis Dibdin, which in S.S.C. led to a Resolution that as many clergy as possible should send to their Diocesans a declaration that under no circumstances would they give Holy Communion to persons living as man and wife within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity. The Resolution was communicated to the E.C.U.
During this year, the Society displayed a wonderful vitality and power of recuperation quite beyond all expectation. The difficulties of the previous year seemed to have solidified that sense of fellowship which was one of the aims of the Society.
If anything had been needed to demonstrate the growth of the Catholic Movement, it could not have been more forcibly done than it was at the September Synod of 1908, when a representative account of the Religious Life was given and the inspiration dwelt on which emanated from Kelham, Cowley, Mirfield, Caldey and Stanford-le-Hope. If the humble announcement made by Fr. Mackonochie in 1866, and the Memorial to the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1867, be recalled (Chapter II.) all comment is rendered needless.
On October 11th, 1908, the Rev. Frank Weston was consecrated bishop in Southwark Cathedral by the Arch?bishop of Canterbury and ten co-consecrators.
He was admitted to the Society in 1898, when at St. Matthew's, Westminster, and the same year had joined the U.M.C.A. to which Mission the rest of his life was devoted. He sailed for Zanzibar as its bishop, on October 17th, and received and acknowledged when on the point of departure the following resolution,?"That this Chapter of S.S.C. expresses its thankfulness for the consecration of our Brother Weston to the See of Zanzibar, and wishes God-speed to him and our Brother the Bishop of Lebombo, on their departure for their respective Dioceses." The latter bishop was due to return on the 31st. The Society, at this time, had the names of three bishops upon its Roll, the other in addition to the two mentioned being Bishop Richardson who had been Bishop of Zanzibar from 1895?1901, and for a time Assistant Bishop of Brechin. The Bishop of Lebombo retired from the Society in 1911.<>The only controversial event with which the Society was concerned in 1908 was one connected with an attack on the Invocation of Saints from the Bishop of Salisbury. It caused in defence a very able and valuable pamphlet to be written by the Rev. G. B. Roberts, entitled, "Are we Disloyal?" It was issued in due course by the E.C.U.
During this year, the Society lost three Brethren by death. The Rev. A. L. Graham, Rector of Kirton, Notts, who in his earlier years had done mission work in Glasgow, died on May 27th. On November 22nd, the Rev. H. N. Thompson, Vicar of Havenstreet, passed away. He had for a considerable number of years worked at St. Bartholomew's, Brighton, and was widely known as a Tract writer. He was the author of the largely circulated "St. Bartholomew's Tracts," and one of the two founders of the Catholic Literature Association. He was admitted to S.S.C. in 1880, and was an example of the type of priest which it was the ideal of S.S.C. to produce. Five days later, or on November 27th, there passed away at Lisbon one who, if not of the Society, could not be overlooked by it. Of Charles Rose Chase, Fr. Irving said,?"We would fain forget the latter years of separation, and the rejection of old ideals, and changed spiritual aims and hopes. And those of us who knew him in his days of strength and vigour, as a leader amongst us, will recall his remarkable versatility and great theological acumen, and his graceful and unfailing courtesy when discharging the duties of the Mastership and fighting with us the battles of the Faith. Although as a Society we could make no formal recognition of his death, we yet as individuals have probably already said Mass for his repose and eternal blessedness." On December 13th, the Rev. A. Thurlsby-Pelham, Rector of Cound, a devout Member of the Society, which he had joined in 1870, and a generous promoter of Retreats, passed away.
In the early part of 1909, some attention was given to the Report of a Committee of the Lambeth Conference on "The Church of Sweden," with its suggestion of "some kind of alliance between the Anglican and Swedish Churches." It was true that the Report had touched on the weak points of the Scandinavian claim to a true suc?cession and had found that further investigation should be made, but the matter was really a grave one, especially in view of its being a protestant body committed to the Lutheran tenets. The movements also of an eccentric ecclesiastic known as "Bishop Matthew" were attracting attention, especially as he appeared to have taken up the position which had been adopted formerly by the O.C.R. He claimed to have been made a bishop by the "Old Catholic" bishops in Holland. A small Committee was appointed in S.S.C. to watch both these movements, and to report from time to time.
Nearly nine years had now elapsed since the Lambeth Opinions against Reservation had been given. The line of opposition showed signs of wavering. It was reported that the Bishop of London felt himself in a position to sanction Reservation under certain regulations. At St. Peter's, London Docks, the ban regarding incense and Reservation had been removed, and the bishop was understood to be in correspondence with other Churches served by the Members of S.S.C.
The question of Prayer Book Revision, which was occupying the attention of Convocation, now became the outstanding topic in Church affairs. It consequently provided much matter for the deliberations of S.S.C. The proposals which attracted serious thought and restrained controversy centred around the Ornaments' Rubric, the Athanasian Creed, the Whitsun Preface, and the Question to Ordination Candidates concerning their belief in Holy Scripture. All the proposals concerning these were ultra vires. In their integrity, they were all possessions of the One Church, of which the English Church was a co-trustee. The English Provinces could not tamper with the Estate and lay claim to faithful trusteeship at the same time. By such proposals she was courting the removal of her candlestick. The Members of S.S.C. were urged to do their utmost in Diocesan Conferences, Ruridecanal Chapters and Societies to protest against Revision. It was mentioned that in the London Diocesan Confer?ence the resolution against Revision had been carried by two to one.
This year (1909) saw the Jubilee of the ECU. and witness was borne by S.S.C. to the great work the Union had done. It was stated in reference to the Jubilee that, humanty speaking, S.S.C. could "not have held on with?out E.C.U." and so to ignore its Jubilee "would be to be unthankful to Almighty God." The following resolution was passed :?
"That the S.S.C. in Chapter assembled, upon the occasion of the Jubilee of the E.C.U., desires to record its sense of the great services rendered by the Union in the defence of Catholic doctrine, discipline and ceremonial, and to convey to the President its profound appreciation of the unsparing self-devotion which has so markedly distinguished his tenure of office as President of the E.C.U. for the past forty-one years."
The Society itself was much inspirited at this time (although its own Jubilee had passed by a space of five years) from a review of the Society given in Chapter by its senior member, the Rev. E. P. Williams, whose memory went back to the early days, he having joined the Society in 1865. He spoke of the great witness S.S.C. had borne in the past, and the witness it could bear in the future, if loyal, "not to Anglicanism, but to the Church of England, and true to the traditions, rules, principles and discipline of S.S.C." A great effort was made at this time, not without success, to spread the influence of the Society and to bring home to individual members of it the sense of their own responsibility in seeing that it did not sink to low water mark. Emphatic stress was laid upon the great work the Society had done in the past by means of its literature, much of which had passed out of circulation. The Master made it his business to see that copies of these publications were placed in the hands of all the Members, of whom many, especially the junior ones, were in ignorance of their issue, and it was resolved that effort should be made for the renewed dissemination of the same.
The month of July, 1909, saw the deaths of three Members. The Rev. F. Matthews, who was one of the Scottish Brethren, was a priest of simplicity and directness of character. He passed away rather suddenly on July 3rd. The Rev. A. B. McDougall, Chaplain of the Hospice, Hendon, terminated a lingering illness, wonderfully borne, on the 12th. The Society and the Church in London suffered a loss on the 16th, when the Rev. W. H. Bleaden, Vicar of St. Mary Magdalene's, Paddington, passed away. He was one who had made a determined fight to the last for the due and seemly Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament and the full use of incense.
When the May Synod of 1910 met at St. Peter's, London Docks, His Majesty King Edward VII. was lying dead in Buckingham Palace. The Society loyally offered its tribute to his sound judgment in statecraft and graceful tact, and his soul was remembered at the Society's Solemn Requiem, while prayers also were invited for his Royal Consort in her sorrow and for King George who was called upon to bear the heavy sceptre of so vast an Empire.
In the Society itself the year 1910 was one of quiet, unmarked by any special incident. The subjects dealt with were entirely devotional and theological, the former intended to help the priest in his Mass and the recitation of his Office, and the latter, without controversy, to im?press some, of the truths which modern thought attempted to discount. One such, was a paper on "Modern Thought and the Person of our Lord," by the Rev. W. B. Trevelyan. The chief feature of the year was the suc?cessful efforts which had been made by the Foreign Secretary (Rev. C. H. Griffith) to bring the Members in distant countries into more vital touch with the Society as a whole. The Foreign Secretary stated what a great privilege it was to him to hold that position, and he wished that all the Members could see the interesting accounts he received from Foreign Brethren, whose courage and patience under special difficulties were most inspiring. It should be stated that Fr. Griffith possessed qualifications which peculiarly fitted him for this Secretaryship, a wide knowledge of things likely to interest, past and present; an accurate memory; and a keen aptitude for the almost lost art of letter writing. These have enabled him to do arduous and unsuspected work for the Society.
On January 27th, 1910, the Rev. F. Fisher, Vicar of Cranborne, who had joined the Society in 1892, passed away. He was a consistent Catholic, who fought for Reservation during the last part of his ministry. He was one who seemed to excel in everything to which he put his hand and the beautiful wood-carving, with which he had by his own patient and skilful labour adorned Cranborne Church, will be his visible and appropriate memorial for many generations to come. The Rev. H. Jesson, Vicar of St. Peter's, West Bromwich, who had worked in the Potteries district for more than forty years, died on March 3rd, 1910. Another name placed on the Roll of Departed Brethren was that of the Rev. E. T. M. Walker, who had been Secretary of the Society from 1902 to 1907, and worked at St. Peter's, London Docks. He died May 11th, 1910. His life had been a most regular and ascetic one. He was the producer of short Catechisms and of several pamphlets bearing on the controversies of the day. He knew how to deal with the "Roman Question" in a popular way and at one time did much work with his own printing press.
In May, 1911, Fr.Irving's time-limit as Master expired. The Rev. A. M. Y. Baylay was elected to succeed him and held the Office for two years. Fr. Baylay was Vicar of the old church and parish of Thurgarton, the former of which was famous (when it was an Augustinian Priory) as having had as one of its Canons in the latter half of the fourteenth century Walter Hilton?the English Mystic, whose writings widely influenced England in the fifteenth century, the chief of which was The Scale of Perfection, a work which has never ceased to be published and is still read as an old English ascetical work. Fr. Baylay was a priest whose mind, learning and inclinations fitted him to be in a church the setting of which was essentially mediaeval. He was a scholarly priest. He had been a Wrangler at Cambridge and was at the same time a fair classical scholar, an antiquarian and a keen Liturgiologist. His translation and editing of Batiffol's Histories of the Roman Mass and the Breviary had received commendation from the select circle interested in such works, while A Century of Collects, in the Alcuin Club publications, by the beauty and rhythm of the translation, raised him as a translator to an almost Cranmerian level of excellence although, as he stated, "he had not followed him (Cranmer) in playing fast and loose with the thoughts." It was said of Fr. Baylay after his death (July 22nd, 1921) that there was no known Rite of the Church, East or West, of which he was ignorant, and not only so, but that he would have been able to render accurately, without previous prepara?tion, the whole or particular part assigned to him in any Rite.
During the two years of Fr. Baylay's Mastership of S.S.C., it was not surprising that Liturgical subjects were very much to the front. There were two reasons for this, his own expert knowledge and the prominent place Prayer Book Revision occupied in the Anglican mind at this time. It had always been the aim of S.S.C., without being "ritualistic," to impress the importance of the Liturgy; it could not be otherwise in a Catholic Society whose aim was to lay stress on the greatness and sanctity of priesthood and to develop it to its utmost capacity. It knew the axiom that the priest was what the Altar made him. No subject, therefore, which had to do with the Liturgy, its conduct, the administration of the Sacra?ments, or its ornaments, had ever escaped the attention of the Society. It would be possible to compile a small Liturgical Dictionary from the Acta of S.S.C. Without being fussy, because directing to something higher, and able always to maintain the right proportion, it often succeeded in drawing attention to small matters without disturbing the greater. Through lack of what would correspond with a "seminary training," it had been no small fault of the Anglican clergy that they did not know how to behave in Church. How many a Procession had lacked just one point of nicety because, in spite of the lesson taught by old brasses, monuments and stained windows, bishops and priests were not quite sure what they ought to do with their hands. What an amount of instruction was conveyed in the following bit of woof crossing the warp of a spiritual address,?"If a priest aims at a reverent demeanour in church, not looking about when saying Mass, but keeping his eyes downcast, not crossing his legs or lounging in choir, it will have an effect on his tone of mind and so on his general manner both in and out of church." Or again, from another spiritual address,?"Then as to the mere technical science of how to say Mass?such matters as where to stand at each part of the service, when to turn to or from the Altar, how to hold the hands, when to bow or genuflect, and so forth, the priest will learn to carry out all this with the most perfect accuracy, for no less is due to the King of kings." So, too, without any parade of pedantry or laying down a law, the different degrees of loudness or softness of voice in conformity with the rubrics were spoken of, so also practical warnings were given against unpunctuality, gabbling, and, as a guidance, the length of time which ordinarily a low Mass should take was noted.
Many excellent liturgical papers were a feature of this time, and they tended to a greater "correctness," or an educating in the reverent ceremonial of the Catholic Church and a fixedness of legitimate interpolations in the Mass. To put into a right setting, as it were, not only for dignified worship, but also for edification, S.S.C. from its earlier years had numbered amongst its Officers both a Ceremonarius and a Precentor; the former, to take order for the right observance of the Ceremonies at the Mass and Officium at Synod; and the latter to take entire charge of ordering the Music and Singing.
There was little doubt but that at this time, speaking generally, there was a true development taking place, in the churches called " catholic," which, in the end, would have evolved into an acceptable rite, following Western use while faithful to the Prayer Book. The "fancy ritual" of the earlier decades was fast disappearing, and what once had been largely confined to "the Plymouth School" was fast becoming dominant. By 1927, ceremonial divergences within the "Catholic party" would have settled themselves agreeably and acceptably, and have been tolerated outside it, except by a few extremists who would never tolerate anything, if it had not been for the appearance of the "Deposited Book," which reopened the old controversies and drew forth the need of the old defences.
A great help towards a reasonable uniformity, on the Catholic side, was what has become familiarly known, both within and without S.S.C., as Fr. Kenrick's Book. Its first edition was issued in 1910.
About 1912, much attention was given to the proper place for the Ablutions at Mass, for which it was urged no provision was made in the Prayer Book, the cautel at the end of the Service pertaining to another matter. The correct point in the Service for the Ablutions would be after Communion and not after the Blessing. This conformity to Western practice, occasioned outside the Society the application, by those who followed it, of the crisp term "tarp"?the initial letters of "take ablutions right place." The question raised on the point did not go unchallenged. There were several within the Society who gave the fullest weight of their opinions against the practice, insisting that the Prayer Book directions were perfectly clear. The subject was allowed to drop. To?day few Catholics question the right place.
For very many years, Catholic Churches, certainly those served by Members of S.S.C., had been careful to observe the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Certain definite attention was devoted to it in 1912. It was insisted that as a Feast of the Universal Church, older than that of Christmas, it came on oecumenical authority and was therefore of obligation. The difficulty was that there was no Mass provided for it by authority in the present English Rite. This, however, was no dispensation from its observance, seeing that the English Provinces had no more power so to do, than they had to do away with Easter or Ascension Day.
This same year, the Society gave much particular attention to the Sacrament of Extreme Unction, as it was taught and practised both in the West and the East. This was rendered more necessary by reason of the interest aroused over the question of spiritual healing and the great confusion of thought which prevailed over the use of blessed oil. The chief hindrance in the past to the revived use of this Sacrament had been the unwillingness on the part of the bishops in England to provide the correct matter. A seeming eagerness to perpetuate the Reformers' dislike of oil led to what Bishop Ellicott in his later years spoke of as the laying aside of a plain Scrip?tural injunction. Several bishops were now prepared to bless oil but in many instances it was with an intention contrary to that of the Catholic Church. If no one to-day need be deprived of the consolation of this last Sacrament, it is owing under God to the persistent way in which priests of S.S.C. applied to their Diocesans for blessed oil and to the clear teaching they gave to disentangle the threads of confusion which had wound themselves around the use of oil.
Amongst subjects of the day which could not be ignored was "the growing danger of modern spiritual?ism." It received consequently some careful and thorough consideration in S.S.C. One paper read before the Society, at the May Synod, 1912, was of so unusual a value as a multum in parvo of the whole subject that the reader was strongly urged to publish it for the benefit of a wider circle. Many other subjects dealing with prac?tical mission work in slum districts, town and country parishes received marked attention. Helpful theological papers also were given at this time on Catholic subjects such as the Merits of the Saints, and others which at this juncture were arousing opposition in certain high church quarters.
In July, 1912, an interesting piece of information, which is worth recording, was conveyed to the Society. On Good Friday, two years earlier, a band of Kensitites had disturbed the Service at Holy Trinity, Hoxton. The leader of them had now been converted and was preparing to make his first confession. The incumbent of a York?shire parish had written to Fr. Kenrick giving him the particulars and stating that on the man's behalf he had apologised to the Archbishop for his wickedness, while he thought possibly that the Bishop of London would like to know. The man had been with his party holding a "mission" in the north but was very miserable and, having broken off from his Association in a straightfor?ward way, hoped after two years of discipline to begin to prepare for the priesthood.
During these two years, the Society lost by death the Revds. E. M. Wilmot, M. E. Ruddock, J. R. Sanderson, C. H. B. Molyneux and R. B. Oliver.
At the May Synod, 1913, the Rev. F. F. Irving was again elected to the Mastership, which he held by re-election down to 1916. The year 1913 was fully charged with events which concerned the Church. It was under?stood that Parliament was likely to introduce a Divorce Bill, on the recommendation of a Majority Report, which would lead logically to the destruction of Marriage. The relations between Church and Parliament were becoming unusually strained; the blocking of the Sheffield Bishopric Bill afforded an example of this. The Archbishop's Finance Scheme was arousing much public attention, both favourable and critical, but chiefly the former, as it was recognised as an honest and well-considered attempt to meet the pressing difficulties of financial administration. Modernism was becoming more pronounced and the publication of Foundations seemed likely to mark an epoch. The year closed with the "Kikuyu" trouble and the Open Letter, "Ecclesia Anglicana for what does she stand?" addressed to the Bishop of St. Albans, by the Bishop of Zanzibar. While within S.S.C. all these matters received the careful attention they merited, it was only to be expected that the action of the Bishop of Zanzibar would call out marked consideration and sympathy, seeing that the Bishop was one of the most honoured members of the Society. Consequently, when he arrived in England in 1914, an address of welcome and of sympathy was presented to him on February 13th.
The Master (F. F. Irving), in presenting the Address, said:?
"My dear Lord and Brother,?I am profoundly con?scious of the honour which falls to my lot to-day in voicing our expression of sincere and deepest sympathy with your Lordship in present complications and diffi?culties and extending to you the enthusiastic and respectful welcome which comes naturally straight from the hearts of the members of our Society, not only of those able to be present at necessarily very short notice to-day, and of those whose signatures appear on our little Address, but also, I am sure, and perhaps in a pre-eminent degree, from those whom it was impossible to communi?cate with, who like your Lordship?some in your own jurisdiction?are doing the work of the Church in Africa and other distant missionary districts.
"It may seem almost superfluous that we should present to you any such address to-day. It would be more than strange?indeed, utterly anomalous and altogether paradoxical?if S.S.C. were not in sympathy with your Lordship at this juncture and whole-heartedly determined to support you in your bold and determined stand for the divine principle of Episcopacy as funda?mental to the claims and position of the Church in all her borders, and indeed for all that is involved in the responsi?bility of the claim to exercise the office of a bishop in the Church of God. At the moment, as it appears to me, this is the point at which battle has to be waged; and my earnest hope and my firm belief is that all English Catholics, and especially all Catholic-minded priests amongst us, not merely the members of our small but venerable Society, will be found solid and whole-hearted in upholding your Lordship in such prudent action as may become necessary.
"If I leave for the moment on one side the specific instances brought out so forcibly in your Lordship's Open Letter, illustrating particular action or the lack of it, in regard to Modernism on the one hand and the practice of Invocation on the other, it is not that I fail to feel the force of your argument or its relevancy, but because I believe, in common I think with many others, that the true antidote for present evils is to be found in the enunciation and acceptance of sound principles in regard to the office and responsibilities of the individual bishop in his relation to the Corporate Episcopate of the Church Universal.
"But I speak with hesitancy and bated breath. I fear to seem presumptuous, or even to incur the suspicion of offering advice. Our object in meeting to-day is to assure your Lordship of our respectful sympathy. I trust these few and halting words of mine will be followed by brief utterances from some of our Brethren much more qualified to speak, and that the impression this little gathering and address will make upon your Lordship will be that of hearty support, and, if it may be, afford some measure of personal encouragement in the very delicate and important work upon which, in some sort, your Lord?ship may be said only now to be entering.
"The Address which I shall now have the privilege of presenting to your Lordship is as follows:?
"We, the undersigned, Brethren and Probationers of the S.S.C., desire to express our respectful sympathy with your Lordship in the distress you are feeling at the present time in regard to the action of certain bishops, and in your attempts to defeat the proposals lately made by the Bishops of Uganda and Mombasa."
The following also spoke in support of the Master:? The Revds. R. A. J. Suckling, T. Outram Marshall, J. P. Shaw, S. G. W. Maitland, J. A. Le Couteur, R. W. Burnie, E. Green, J. E. Dyson and W. J. Scott.
The Bishop of Zanzibar, in acknowledging the Address, said he found it difficult to express his thanks to the Society. It was a great relief to find that many priests were able to understand his action and to refrain from criticising it in detail. He gave an account of the circum?stances which had led him to make his protest.
After the Special Chapter, which had been held at the Church of Holy Cross, Cromer Street, tea was served in the room under the Church, affording an opportunity of personal intercourse with the Bishop.
Events in the Church, at this time, were causing some Catholics to become anxious in their minds and consequently unsettled. Just as there sometimes arises at sea what old salts call " a capful of wind," and those un?accustomed to pitch, roll and spray, experience fear and nausea, and a false doubt of their own and the vessel's safety, so there were many going through not an unlike ecclesiastical experience in the boat of the Anglican Com?munion, occasioned by the contrary winds which were blowing around them. The utterances of Modernism, with their open denial of many fundamental truths, which were allowed to go by unchecked, unrebuked, and with no serious attempt to " drive away " the ban placed in some dioceses on those who taught fully the Christian Faith and in accordance with it reserved the Blessed Sacrament and asked the Saints for their prayers; and the dangerous experiments, due to the secularising spirit, as shown by the " Church Reform Movement"; all these became causes of unsettlement to some Catholic minds. It could be seen clearly by many that the laity as a body, not insisting on their real rights to be given Catholic faith and practice, were being led to ask for fictitious ones, on nonconformist lines, or for a share in the government of the Church. The Catholic Church being a monarchical kingdom with a Sacred Hierarchy, and not a democratic body run on Parliamentary principles, was one in which laymen could have no share in the governing voice. It was not strange, therefore, that some should have mis?givings as to whither these unchurchly, new and untried paths would lead. As it had happened before in the history of the Movement that there had been some who when unusual difficulties presented themselves in the English Church had taken the illogical course of making these difficulties an excuse for accepting the ultramontane claims as true, so once again, at this juncture, there were several both among the clergy and the laity who could see no way out of these perplexities except by becoming Roman Catholics. This was not so, however, with S.S.C.  It had a history of its own to which it could appeal and from it take heart. The Society could see in the events of 1914, troublous as they were, nothing new. In fact, when compared with the evils of the P.W.R. Act, and the anti-confessional agitation of 1877, of with the so-called "crisis" of sixteen years earlier, they were?as obstacles to teaching Catholicism?less. It was pointed out that even if individual bishops, here or there, tolerated the teaching of heresy, this was no lawful excuse for breaking off communion with them, any more than it was in the days of bishops who were Arian. Priests were reminded that committees possessed no ecclesiastical authority and could decide nothing. The steady advance of the Catholic Movement during past years was the encouraging fact, while there was always to be borne in mind the happy vision of an England won back to the Catholic Faith.
We now reach that new epoch-making age which was ushered in by the events of August, 1914. To say that the Great War affected S.S.C. would be but a platitude. The first to be really cognisant of it, within the Society, was the Bishop of Zanzibar, who left England, as early as was possible and by uncertain sailings, to reach his diocese. That a great part of the latter was in German territory entailed, as the U.M.C.A. afterwards related, much deprivation, suffering and danger, added to which, at one period, was the anxiety arising out of the un?certainty to whom the territory would belong when the War was over. The distress in Belgium at the very be?ginning of the War moved the Society of its own charity to forward a grant of ?21 to Cardinal Mercier for relief purposes. Amongst Members of the Society who engaged early in War Work were the Revds. R. A. Kingdon and C. F. Kempson, who in November, 1914, were reported to be on Active Service with the troops and asking for the prayers of the Society. At a later period seven Brethren were doing Chaplain's duty with the Forces, and before the War closed many others were engaged in various duties, while in 1917 the Secretary (F. H. Glaister) was designated by his bishop for War Work in France and the Assistant Secretary (L. T. S. Barrett) was engaged in naval duties.
In spite of the anxiety caused by the War, Catholics could not evade giving careful attention to what was taking place in Convocation. It was realised that a most unsatisfactory point had been reached in the attempted alterations of the Prayer Book. In the Lower House of Canterbury Convocation, Canon E. G. Wood had sus?tained an untiring fight, almost single-handed. It was felt as a deep wound, when one who should have been on the Catholic side had proposed and carried an amendment that in the Revised Book the Athanasian Creed might be allowed as an alternative to the Apostles' Creed in the daily office?thus sanctioning its omission from public use. The suggested concessions in regard to Reservation showed a failure to grasp what Catholics had wanted, and had so long been asking for. The "kikuyu" affair, more?over, had resulted in a frankly Protestant utterance. It was an official expression rather than a theological one. While it was very much to be regretted, it could be said of it that it gave no real cause for distress.
The latter difficulty was an occasion for S.S.C. to give particular attention to the Doctrine of the Church. The subject was introduced in an able way by the Rev. R. D. R. Cowan and the Rev. R. W. Burnie. It will be taken for granted that the Prayer Book question occupied a great part of the Society's attention in 1915 and the succeeding years. This was so, while it was also true that most of the transactions, during the same period, were side issues, as it were, of the same subject. There were exceptions to this, when War subjects and matters arising out of them claimed attention. Such, for example, was the National Mission of 1916. Concerning the inception of this venture, there were many saying that it was difficult to define what it was intended to be or to do. The Master (F. F. Irving), however, gave expression to what most felt, when he said that it was his own belief that it sprang from the conviction that God had far-reaching lessons to teach and bring home to spiritual consciousness, and that it was a call to greater nearness to God. He urged all within the Society to attune themselves and those within their influence to the call.
In 1916 Fr. Ommanney was once more elected to the Mastership. It turned out to be his third triennial of office, for he was re-elected down to 1919. During these three years, the matters brought before the Society, aris?ing out of the ecclesiastical polity of the time, were those which, from whatever angle they may be viewed, must be fresh in most minds, and coincided with the severe strains of the War, the Armistice and the Peace.
In 1916 Lord Halifax in his Presidential Address to the E.C.U. had pressed for the restored use of the First Prayer Book of 1549. The proposal, however, received but little response from the Catholic clergy who as might be expected preferred "the second year" with its wider interpretation to many of the mentioned restrictions of 1549. In S.S.C. it received no support whatsoever. It was the ancient Mass which the Society had before it as its ideal, even though it might have to wait beyond the lifetime of most to see its restoration.
This same year there was issued the Report of the Archbishop's Committee on the Church's claim to Self-Government. It aroused Catholic opposition of an un?compromising kind, as it was bound to do. It could be seen that the Report proposed to democratise the two English Provinces by conferring upon the laity powers of government which violated the divine constitution of the Church. The proposal was an innovation against the settled order and discipline of Eastern and Latin Christi?anity, and tended to become a proclamation that the Church of England was a separate, an independent and a self-sufficient body, and not the local presence and organ of the Catholic Church in this country. Regarding such proposals, as they stood, S.S.C. in common with all Catholics could but repeat their repudiation of them, aware that they were, in so doing, speaking the language of all the ancient Churches. Another ultra vires proposal of this time which caused consternation and scandal to Catholics was that which centred around the Service of Women in the Church. It was an opinion gaming ground in "Anglican" quarters that certain women possessing unique qualifications might find a niche in the recognised Ministry of the Church and by going through a form of ordination act as Preachers and Sacred Ministers. It is an elementary truth in the theology of the Sacraments that a woman, by reason of her sex, is incapable of receiv?ing the sacramental character of Holy Order. There are, too, passages in the New Testament which, if words mean anything, distinctly forbid her preaching in church. In fact, several feeling the force of the latter dilemma could only find refuge in the weak and unwarrantable supposition that if the Apostle had lived in the twentieth century he would have been of a different mind,?a supposition, from the Orthodox Church standard, which was likely to land the propounders of it in a quagmire of further ecclesiastical difficulties. The English Church, moreover, only recognised three Orders of the Sacred Ministry,? "bishops, priests and deacons," and nowhere, as in chil?dren's grammars when genders are given, had she supplied a feminine form to correspond with the masculine. Article XXXVII. also was a difficult fence, for it stated very definitely that "we give not to our Princes the ministering either of God's Word or of the Sacraments." Now, as the Article by the mention of "Elizabeth our Queen" clearly had in mind "that bright occidental star" who, like her predecessors and successors, had at her sacring been invested with a stole, yet could exercise no ministerial function in the Church, it would be illogical and anomalous to suppose that lesser ladies could possess or be given a power which the first lady in the land had not and could not have. Further, the question of ordaining women had been settled in the negative centuries before by the Catholic Church. It was quite true that there was in the Primitive Church an order of deaconesses, who by an imposition of hands received a blessing, or even a consecration, or setting apart, for the kind of churchly work exercised to-day by Sisters and pious churchworkers, but there were no ministerial functions attached to the office, while its teaching authority was in no sense public, but was limited to the private instruction of women and female catechumens. The Canon XIX. of Nicaea, moreover, when laying down regulations for the re-baptism and re-ordination of deacons reconciled to the Church from the Paulianist heresy, had clearly indicated that deaconesses were to rank as laics and that they received no ordination in the proper sense of the term. The ministry of "the Word," like the ministry of the Sacraments, was a supernatural act for which women possessed no capacity (meaning, of course, a supernatural one, the striking example of this being our Blessed Lady). To instruct catechumens, women and children, as delegates of the clergy or of parents, was an entirely different thing. The "Anglican" proposal, as it read, seemed to be contrary both to St. Paul's statements and to the Canons of Nicaea, which raised another difficulty, seeing that by the Statute Law of England it would place it within the legal definition of "heresy." Anyone therefore in England who performed such an "ordination" would, in addition to his violating the law and discipline of the whole Catholic Church, be also placing himself in an anomalous position, as regarded his churchmanship, in the eye of the Statute Law. It was no wonder then that Catholics did more than rub their eyes when they read the astounding proposal and exerted their full power to expose its fallacy.
Meanwhile Prayer Book Revision went on and with it certain dangerous proposals, whose elasticity and tendencies were in the direction of Modernism. These formed reasonable matter for much discussion and eventually the Society formed a small Committee to consider what changes S.S.C. would propose if it were in a position to effect any. The E.C.U. already had a Committee sitting for this end. As S.S.C. had amongst its members several who possessed considerable liturgical knowledge, yet who were not represented on the E.C.U. Committee, it was thought desirable to take this course. The Committee presented its Report in 1918. It was quite moderate and omitted several proposals which many would have liked. These, however, were considered impossible, for it was recognised that the only thing that would satisfy Catholics would be the restoration of the ancient Mass and Offices of the Church, brought up to date and made suitable for the twentieth century. Meanwhile, the majority preferred the Prayer Book of 1662, as it was, to proposals which tended to undermine much that pertained to ancient faith and practice. The S.S.C. Report was divided into two sections. It contained a minimum of things indispensable and a list of things highly desirable.
Of things set down in the Report as indispensable, fivewere afterwards found in the Proposed Book, when it appeared in February, 1927. Of those which did not, were the following:?
"In the Mass.
"After the Offertory, the following to be the order of the matter provided:?'The Lord be with you, etc.? 'Lift up your hearts, etc.,' 'the Preface, Sanctus, and Benedictus.' Then 'Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church' omitting 'militant here on earth.' (The latter words were omitted in the Proposed Book, but the order of the 1662 Book was adhered to.)
"Then the Prayer of Consecration.
"N.B.?No Invocation of the Holy Ghost to make the Bread and Wine the Body and Blood of Christ to be used after the solemn recitation of the words of Institu?tion. If any such Invocation is used, it must be before those words, as in the First Book of Edward VI.
"Then the Prayer of Oblation, 'O Lord and Heavenly Father, etc.'
"Then the Lord's Prayer, with introductory clause as in the First Prayer Book of Edward VI. Also with rubric directing it to be said or sung by the priest alone, with 'Deliver us from evil' as response, and without 'Amen.'
"Then 'The peace of the Lord be always with you' and the Agnus Dei.
"Then the priest is to make his Communion.
"At the Communion of the People, the following shall be the order of matter:?Short Exhortation, Con?fession, Absolution, Comfortable Words, and Prayer of Humble Access.
"A rubric directing that when all have received, the remains of the Blessed Sacrament are to be consumed and the Ablutions taken."
Of things spoken of in the Report as highly desirable, a few of the minor recommendations were found in the Proposed Book, but the following found no place:?
"That the Gloria in Excelsis should follow the Kyrie, with the insertion of 'Jesu' before 'Christ' in the last clause, and with the insertion of a rubric limiting the use of the Gloria to Sundays and festivals outside Advent and the period from Septuagesima to Easter Eve.
"A Collect to be said super oblata. (This was indispensable if the Prayer for the Church was incorporated in the Canon.)
"A rubric should direct 'Grant them rest' and 'Grant them rest everlasting'; the third time, to be substituted in the service for the departed at the Agnus Dei."
Some insertions in the Calendar were suggested, together with the provision of a Proper Collect, Epistle and Gospel for certain "Red Letter" Days, a "Common" for festivals of the three orders of saints and some Votive Masses for various objects and occasions. The Proposed Book contained most of these insertions, but very strangely omitted the Assumption,?the oldest, greatest, and an (Ecumenical Feast of our Lady, while providing a Proper for some of her late mediaeval Feasts. St. Joseph, the Guardian of the Holy Family and the "just man" of the Gospels, was also rejected by the Anglican Divines. St. Thomas Aquinas, the greatest theologian, after St. Paul and St. Augustine, that the Catholic Church has produced, and St. Dominic the contemporary and friend of St. Francis, and, like him, the founder of a great mediaeval Order, were allowed no place amongst the holy ones to be venerated by the English Provinces, yet illogically enough, no ban was placed on either St. Bernard or St. Francis. It seemed, too, that the mouldering pen which had erased the great name of St. Thomas of Canterbury from the English Calendar was still held stiffly in the dead hand of Henry VIII.; for the space opposite December 29th still remained blank, and the English Calendar continued to possess the unique disgrace, of being the only one in Catholic Christendom in which his name was not to be found.
The S.S.C. Committee's Report on other matters con?nected with Revision stated amongst "things indispens?able" that in the "Recitation of the Psalter there must be no mutilation of any Psalm and no exclusion of any Psalm." In connection with this, it was suggested that a certain number of Psalms (five for Liturgical fitness) should be provided in sets, which might be used on ordinary Sundays instead of those for the day, when so desired. It was thought that this would be unobjection?able and might conciliate the would-be mutilators. The Report also, in things "highly desirable," recommended that the Confirmation Service should have in it the Restoration of the Chrism, as in the order of the First Book, 1549; that in the Visitation of the Sick, there should be the Restoration of Unction; and that at the Burial of the Dead the order of 1549 should be restored. The Proposed Book did not propose these ancient and "highly desirable" things. It becomes a matter of justice however to state that, as regards the Burial Office, the Proposed Book, although it did not follow the Order and Catholic directness of the 1549 Book, was neverthe?less a vast improvement on the Book of 1662. It did contain prayers for the departed soul and suggested the Scriptural and Catholic Prayer at the end of the Psalms,?"Eternal rest grant, etc." It also provided for a Requiem. It had a crudeness which the 1549 Book had not. The latter belonged to an age when cremation was considered a greater Christian act when practised on a living body than on a dead one. This being so, the 1927 words,?"commit his body to be consumed by fire," did suggest a corrupt following of the Act against the Lollards and the revival of a pagan spirit, contrary to the belief and poetry of Christian sepulture.
The Reports of the Archbishops' Committees, and also the Life and Liberty Movement, which contained the germ of the Enabling Bill, were very much to the front in 1918. S.S.C. regarded the "Movement" as "too vague and too ambitious to claim (Catholic) sympathy? and felt that it disregarded the Synodical government of the Church, while it appeared to deny the Church's infallible authority.
In 1919, Fr. Irving was again called to the Mastership. He held the office down to May, 1921. During these two years matters in connection with the Enabling Act, the tendencies of Modernism, and a laxness respecting both the Creeds and the Ministry, were beginning to emerge and the outlook was disquieting. In addition to the ecclesiastical problems the general outlook of affairs at the time was not encouraging. It seemed to some that it was possible Western civilisation itself might collapse with a grave danger to Christianity. On the other hand, Stat crux dum volvitur orbis. Assured of this fact and aware that Catholicism alone provided the full measure and the perfect rule for the settling of strifes and the sanctifying of human interests and endeavours, Catholics could look across the troubled state of the world with earnest and serious attention, yet without fear. The old and well-tried motto engraved on the badge of S.S.C. still held good,?In hoc signo vinces.
The more recent outward progress of the Catholic Movement has been illustrated by the "Anglo-Catholic Congress" movement, which was inaugurated in 1920. A meeting of priests, arranged by the Master of S.S.C., was held during the first Congress. It was well attended and an admirable spirit prevailed. A subsequent meeting, to consider proposals for the possible amalgamation of all Societies existing for the better ordering of the priestly life, was also convened and largely attended. S.S.C. was not the inaugurator of the A.C.C., as it had been of so many of the efforts of the past, nor has it been officially connected with it. As individuals, priests of S.S.C. have taken their part in the A.C.C. Movement and some of them are on its Committee. The "Congress," it may be said truthfully, will always owe an ungrudging debt of gratitude to S.S.C., seeing that the latter gave to it its first great leader and inspirer in the person of the beloved bishop?Frank Weston of Zanzibar.
Before the May Synod of 1921, Fr. Irving asked not to be nominated for re-election to the Mastership. The Society, in response to his request, chose as its Master the Rev. A. H. Baverstock, and he and the Rev. R. A. Kingdon have successfully held the office since that date.
During the last eight years reviewed in this chapter, the Society lost by death thirty-four of its Brethren. These included several of its senior and valued members. The Very Rev. R. H. Godwin, Provost of St. John's Cathedral, Umtata, Kaffraria, died January 9th, 1913. During the same year there also passed away the Rev. H. de C. Wingfield, Vicar of Holy Nativity, Knowle, Bristol (Feb. 19th); the Rev. W. M. N. Young (Aug. 16th); the Rev. T. H. Clark (Nov. 3rd); the Rev. O. E. Anwyl (Nov. 28th). The Rev. T. H. Clark was one of the very senior members, of the Society. He had joined S.S.C. in 1866 and for many years was an active member of it. He was experienced in moral and ascetical theology and was instrumental with the late Mr. Gambier Parry in re-introducing the Religious Life into Gloucester. It was at his invitation that S.S.C. had held at St. Lucy's Home, Gloucester, in July, 1888, its first Chapter outside London. Fr. O. E. Anwyl was Vicar of All Saints', Plymouth, to which he was appointed upon the resignation of Fr. Chase, in 1898. If not prominent at the London meet?ings, he was well known in the Plymouth (St. Augustine's) Local Branch, and was the type of priest who had done much to cause the association of S.S.C. to be appreciated in the Provinces. He was at All Saints' during the difficult time of the "Lambeth Opinions," and was one of the few who helped "to hold the citadel." During his incumbency the church, with the exception of the more permanently built chancel, was destroyed by fire. The present erection with its staple interior, apart from the chancel, stands as a witness of his courage in facing difficulties. The Rev. J. H. Amps, who had belonged to the Society for forty-four years, died Feb. 1st, 1914. He was a keen member of S.S.C. and for many years was a prominent figure in the deliberations of the Society. The prime of his priestly life was spent in doing effective hospital, home and penitentiary work. Five other members died also in 1914, the Revds. M. E. Ruston (July 9th), G. E. Barber (Aug. 13th), T. H. Chadwick (Sept. 18th), C. S. Wallace (Nov. 15th), and H. Bolton Smith (Dec. 6th). The Rev. C. S. Wallace, Vicar of the Church of the Ascension, Lavender Hill, was a senior member of S.S.C., his membership dating back to 1871. He was the embodiment of priestly chivalry and fraternal charity, qualities which in a Society like S.S.C. fitted him for the office of Treasurer, a position which he occupied from 1881?1894. The Rev. H. Bolton Smith was a senior member who had joined the Society about the time it was undergoing its greatest difficulties. He was for many years Vicar of Wymering, Cosham. At the time of his death he had been in Holy Orders for sixty years. On June 5th, 1915, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, of Pull Court, Tewkesbury, Hon. Canon of Worcester, passed away. He was one of the kindest and most open-hearted of men and of deep and sincere piety. He was a most generous supporter of various religious and philanthropic institutions, chiefly in the Diocese of Worcester, where his connection with the county families?among whom he had grown up from boyhood?and his unflinching loyalty to Catholic principles and practice enabled him to exercise a most useful and far-reaching influence. He was a keen promoter of Retreats and for many years arranged those which were held at the Clergy House of Rest, Malvern, while for members of S.S.C. he sometimes placed his beautiful Worcestershire home at their disposal for a Society Retreat. He was one of a group of Brethren who helped to make the Cheltenham (St.Wulstan) Branch a power within the Society, giving it a prestige which it has never lost.
The Rev. G. G. Kemp, late fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and for many years Rector of Rawreth, Wickford, Essex, died Dec. 15th, 1915. The Rev. A. R. Thorpe, one of the younger members of the Society, who had worked at Cardiff and Sheffield, died Feb. 25th, 1916. The Rev. T. F. Stewart, Vicar of St. Paul's, Worcester, was killed in a motorcycle accident on March 15th, 1916. The Rev. B. Hampden-Jones, who had spent most of his ministerial life at the Cape, having been engaged there in teaching and spiritual work for thirty years, died June 26th, 1916. On August 4th of the same year, the Rev. T. I. Ball passed away. He was Provost of Cumbrae Cathedral, N.B., a liturgical and theological scholar and writer. From thirty to forty years ago, he was a frequent preacher and speaker at the annual Festival of the C.B.S. in London. A paper read 6y him in 1893 before the Confraternity in condemnation of "Evening Com?munions," with an Appendix on the "Liturgical Witness to the Resurrection of Christ," was one of the most valuable that had been printed on the subject. The Rev. C. G. Jones, a thoughtful, faithful and studious priest, sometime Vicar of Kempley and later Chaplain of St. Andrew's, Folkestone, died Dec. 12th, 1916.
Three members of the Society passed away in 1917, two of whom were among the Seniors, and who had joined S.S.C. very much about the same time,?the Rev. J. W. Ward and the Rev. R. A. J. Suckling, and a junior member, the Rev. W. H. Bashforth. Fr. Ward, who died Jan. 20th, was an energetic member of the Welsh (St. Dyfrig) Branch. He had worked at St. Mary's, Cardiff and from 1897 was Vicar of Llantarnam. One of his favourite subjects was menology, which he promulgated as a practical means to foster a greater veneration of the Saints. He possessed strong views on mission work, which he felt would not reach its highest tone until it could be carried out more like the work of St. Vincent de Paul. Fr. Suckling died on September 24th. His life and work have been written of elsewhere. Both at St. Peter's, London Docks, as the successor of Fr. Lowder, and at St. Alban's, as the successor of Fr. Mackonochie, his humility and adaptation were wonderful. Of him it could be said that, like Moses, he "esteemed the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt."
In 1918 the following names were placed on the Roll of the Deceased Brethren. The Rev. J. F. W. Bullock, who had belonged to the Society for exactly half a century, died on April 4th, having been Rector of Radwinter, Saffron Walden, for fifty-four years. He was an expert in the knowledge of Hymnology and was the editor of the New Office Hymn Book, a collection compiled for the use of ordinary congregations. His intimate knowledge of the history and contents of Hymns Ancient and Modern led him in 1904 to the conclusion that the new edition of that book could hardly be considered an improvement on the previous issues. In 1906, his criticism of the English Hymnal was that it had "certainly attained a higher level of literary excellence than any previous Hymn Book," and that he thought it particularly suited to cultured congregations; at the same time he doubted whether it would ever be popular with the average congregation. The quarter of a century that has elapsed since these opinions were passed on to S.S.C. has not proved them to have been entirely wrong.
The Rev. E. Ram, Vicar of St. John's, Norwich, died May 31st, 1918. Of a humble and retiring disposition, yet firm in character, he was greatly revered in S.S.C., which he had joined in 1884. He will be recalled as the other who, with the Rev. W. H. Westall, appeared before the Archbishops in the Lambeth Inquiry concerning the Use of Incense and Processional Lights.
The Rev. Austin R. Taylor was a young priest whose philosophical and theological knowledge gave great promise for the future, not, however, to be realised in the Church on earth. He passed away October 12th, 1918. Another younger brother of the Society who died about three weeks later (October 31st) was the Rev. R. L. Phillips, who had worked at Holy Trinity, Hoxton.
On January 2, 1919, the Rev. F. C. G. Turner, a learned priest and an accurate theologian, who contributed regularly to the deliberations of S.S.C., during his twenty-two years membership of it, died. He had received a seminary training and had been ordained deacon and priest by the Archbishop of Rouen. He was admitted into communion with the English Church by the Bishop of Oxford in 1887.
The Rev. W. J. Mayne, who died February 4, 1919, had previous to his ordination been an officer in the Royal Navy. With the exception of a short time at Streatham, he worked entirely in Gloucestershire from the date of his ordination in 1874 to St. James?, Gloucester, to that of his death at Clifton.
The Rev. W. S. Sellon, a senior member of the Society with a varied experience in country work, died at St. Gwythian?s, Cornwall, on December 8th, 1919. His name on the Roll of Deceased Brethren was followed by that of a very junior member of the Society, the Rev. A. R. Pinel, Rector of Jagersfontein, S. Africa, who died January 11th, 1920. Another senior member who passed away on April 1, 1920, was the Rev. S. C. Church, who had joined S.S.C. in 1870. He was a definite Catholic whose voice in his earlier years was uttered with no ?uncertain sound.? This same year saw the passing away of three other faithful priests of the Society, the Rev. E. F. S. Daniell, who had worked in S.E. London parishes and who died April 22nd; the Rev. W. H. Blackwell (March 4th), whose work was chiefly done in Wiltshire; and the Rev. H. H. Willmott (November 20th), who was ordained and worked in the Scottish Church, but who in 1896 was appointed to Rivenhall, Essex, where he remained until his death.
On July 22nd, 1921, the Rev. A. M. Y. Baylay, Vicar of Thurgarton and a former Master of S.S.C., passed away. He has been referred to above in the review of the years which coincided with his Mastership.
During the last eight years (1922?30), the following members of S.S.C. have died. The names of many of them have already appeared in the above narrative, with an account of their work both in and out of S.S.C. The memory of them is still fresh. It will suffice to apply to them the words of wisdom penned by the sacred Author, they "behaved uprightly in the conversion of the people and directed their hearts unto the Lord."
The Rev. W. Cree (November 10th, 1922); Rev. A. N. Vowler, Ulley Vicarage, Sheffield (December 7th, 1922); Rev. E. Green, Charterhouse (January 24th, 1923); Rev. J. Hipwell, Retired, Editor of Coster's Meditations on the Passion (April 7th, 1923); Rev. D. G. F. Smith, St. Paul's, Liverpool (June 1st, 1923); Rev. C. Dyson, Barlow, Chesterfield (July 2nd, 1923); Rev. E. F. H. Thomas (July 8th, 1923); Rev. I. K. Anderson, Mary Tavy (November 21st, 1923); Rev. N. Y. Birkmyre, formerly St. Simon's, Bristol (November 27th, 1923); Rev. E. Wilson, Whitkirk, Leeds (January 20th, 1924); Rev. J. A. Le Couteur, St. Columba's, Kingsland Road, (February 8th, 1924); Rev. J. E. H. Binney, some?time Vicar of Holy Trinity, Ilkestone (June 21st, 1924); Rev. F. F. Irving, All Saints', Clevedon, elected Master eight times (January 18th, 1925); Rev. R. E. Giraud, St. Mary Magdalene's, Minister Square (July 13th, 1925); Rev. W. A. Cooper, Warden of the Convent of the Holy Cross, Hayward's Heath (August 9th, 1925); Rev. R. T. Brockman, St. John's, Tue Brook, Liverpool (September 10th, 1925); Rev. J. H. Hamilton, St. George's, Wolverhampton (October 26th, 1925); Rev. F. C. Kempson (see Chapter XIV., d. May 10th, 1926); Rev. R. E. Taglis, Denby, Huddersfield (September 24th, 1926); Rev. E. Heath, Brighton (June 23rd, 1927); Rev. J. A. Pickworth, St. Stephen's, Birmingham (August 20th, 1927); Rev. R. W. Barber, Retired (April 22nd, 1928); Rev. E. Denny, Codford St. Peter, Author, Anglican Orders and Jurisdiction, 1893; Papalism, 1912; Joint Author, De Hierarchia Anglicana, 1895 (May 18th, 1928); Rev. F. M. Clayton, Mount Frere, East Griqualand, S. Africa (July 30th, 1928); Rev. L. S. Wainwright, St. Peter's, London Docks (February 6th, 1929). The work of this devoted and wonderful priest is closely interwoven with that of S.S.C., of which he was so faithful and true a member. His more than fifty-five years' work at St. Peter's, going back to the days of Charles Lowder, is a history of its own, outside the range of this narrative, even if it were possible.to include it. His memory will always remain as one of "the grapes of Eschol" in S.S.C. He joined the Society when he joined Fr. Lowder in 1873. The Rev. S. G. Beal, Rector of Romaldkirk, Darlington, Hon. Canon of Ripon, died February 18th, 1930. He joined S.S.C. as long ago as 1866. His death has left only one within the Society who entered it that same year.
 This does not mean that S.S.C. was free from individual seces?sions to the Roman Catholic Church in England. When different "crises" had arisen, the Society had lost some of its members in this way. Their departure formed the heaviest pressure of the Cross laid upon it. When these events happened, the Society took the strong lines of disapproval, sorrow and surprise.