Palmer: Origines Liturgicae 27.
Vol. II: Antiq. of the English Rit., Ch. V.




THE English ritual resembles that of the eastern church in the circumstance of combining all the offices of the church in one volume. The Euchologium or ritual of the Greeks, now comprises the offices for morning and evening prayer, the liturgy or eucharist, baptism, litany, orders, &c. The western churches have more commonly divided these offices into at least four parts, entitled, the Breviary, the Missal or liturgical book, the Ritual, and the Pontifical. The Ritual and Pontifical correspond to that part of the English ritual which begins with the office of baptism. The Ritual, termed in the English churches of Salisbury and York, and elsewhere, Manual1, comprised all those occasional offices of the church which a presbyter could administer. The Pontifical contained those only which a bishop could perform2.

The euchologium, or ritual of the Greek church, illustrated with notes by Goar, is well known and easily accessible, and furnishes abundant information with regard to all the rites of the catholic church in the east. The baptismal and some other [167] occasional offices of the Jacobites or Monophysites of Alexandria, Antioch, and Armenia, and of the Nestorians, have been published by Assemani, in his "Codex Liturgicus." Many of the oriental offices for ordination, as well as all the western, are to be found in the learned treatise of Morinus "de Ordinationibus." The most valuable collection of records relative to the occasional offices of the western churches has been published by Martene, in his work, "De Antiquis Ecclesiæ ritibus." This author, with indefatigable industry, transcribed and edited a multitude of ancient manuscripts, and collected whatever had previously been published. So that there is scarcely any branch of ritual knowledge which he has not greatly elucidated.

It is almost needless to add, that the learned Bingham, in his "Origines Ecclesiasticæ," has collected almost every thing which the monuments of primitive antiquity contain relative to baptism and all the other offices.

The office of holy baptism, according to the English ritual, may be divided into three parts: first, the introduction, which includes nearly one half of the office, extending from the beginning to the prayer which follows the exhortation after the gospel, inclusively; secondly, the preparatory office, including the renunciations and professions; and, thirdly, the action of the holy sacrament, and the conclusion.



While it is certain that this portion of the baptismal office is excellently calculated to be placed in the position which it now occupies, it is nevertheless [168] true, that the introduction of the baptismal service was not originally derived from the rites celebrated at the time of baptism, but from those by which the candidate for baptism was made a catechumen, and thus prepared in due time to receive regeneration. During the primitive ages, those persons who desired to become Christians were first received into the class of catechumens, and gradually instructed in the doctrines and duties of Christianity, according to the capacity of their faith and morals. Some form of admission to the class of catechumens was used in all churches at an early period; and it seems most commonly to have consisted of the imposition of hands, with prayer for the person3. To this in many places were added various rites; such as signing the forehead of the candidate with the cross, the consecration and giving of salt, which was entitled the Sacrament of Catechumens4, repeated exorcisms or prayers and adjurations to cast out the power of Satan, anointing with oil, and other mystical and figurative rites. In the course of many ages, when the Christian church had overspread the face of the world, and infidelity had become in most places extinct, the [169] form of admission to the class of catechumens was from a veneration for old customs, in many places conjoined to the office of baptism, and administered at the same time with it to the candidates for that sacrament, whether they were infants or not5. It is not easy to determine the exact reasons which induced the practice of admitting infants as catechumens before they received baptism; it is probable that the custom was recent, and proceeded in a great degree from want of consideration, and ignorance of the original of ecclesiastical rites. It is, however, a certain fact, that at the period when our offices were revised, in the reign of king Edward the Sixth, the church of England had been accustomed to the rite of making the infant a catechumen immediately before it was baptized. For we find in the manuals of the churches of Salisbury and York, that the office of baptism commenced with the "Ordo ad catechumenum faciendum." This ordo contained all the ancient rites of making a catechumen, including signing with the cross, imposition of hands, benediction and giving of the sacrament of salt; and finally, the officiating minister took the infant by the hand, and introduced him into the church as a complete catechumen6. From this ordo, which (as [170] I have observed) immediately preceded baptism, the revisers of our ritual chiefly derived the introductory part of the office of baptism. In this part of the office, as first revised, were contained the rite of signing with the cross, and the exorcism; and at the end of it, the priest was to "take one of the children by the right hand, the others being brought after him, and coming into the church toward the font," to repeat a certain benediction7. On further consideration, the revisers of the English ritual did not think it advisable to retain any of these rites in the introductory part of the office of baptism. Nor was it proper that they should have retained them. For if they be regarded as a portion of the baptismal office, they are comparatively modern rites, and are never mentioned by the Fathers. And if they be regarded as forming the office for making a catechumen, it appears to be perfectly unnecessary to use them in infant baptism, because, though infants may receive remission of sins and divine grace by baptism, they cannot be instructed in the doctrines and duties of Christianity, and therefore cannot really be catechumens. And nearly the same reason will justify the omission of these rites in the introduction to adult baptism. For the ancient catechetical discipline of the church being extinct, it is useless to continue ceremonies which have no longer any meaning; and at all events men were not baptized immediately after they were made catechumens, as is now the case in the Roman ritual. However, as the prayers which accompanied these ceremonies at the first revision of the English ritual were very [171] good, it was not thought expedient to remove them. So that to the present day the introduction to the office of baptism derives its origin, in some measure, from the ancient office for making a catechumen.

From the custom of considering the office for making catechumens as a portion of the baptismal office, it happened that the corresponding introduction of the revised English ritual, when it received several alterations or additions of prayers and exhortations, assumed much more of the appearance of a portion of the baptismal office than it had formerly possessed. In the ancient offices the priest prayed that "the child might advance from day to day, that he might be made fit to obtain the grace of baptism8." This evidently inferred that baptism was not yet to be conferred for some time longer. In the revision of the office, baptism was spoken of throughout, as then and there to be administered.

The office is preceded by an inquiry whether the child hath been already baptized or not. This question is also directed by the ancient manuals of the churches of Salisbury and York9. After this the priest commences an address or preface to the congregation, inviting them to pray for the child. We can perhaps scarcely find any parallel to this amongst the primitive rituals of the church, except [172] in those of the churches of Gaul. The Gothic and ancient Gallican liturgies or missals published by Thomasius and Mabillon, prescribe an address or preface of this kind at the very commencement of the office, of baptism10. It is true, that the following address does not coincide exactly in expressions with that of the English ritual, but still there is a general resemblance: and indeed we find that a very different address was used even in the Gallican church at another time or place. The collect which follows the address in the Gothic missal, bears also some resemblance to the collect which immediately follows our address, as will be seen below.

Dearly beloved, forasmuch as all men are conceived and born in sin; and that our Saviour Christ saith, None can enter into the kingdom of God, except he be regenerate and born anew of water and of the Holy Ghost; I beseech you to call upon God the Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that of his bounteous mercy he will grant to this child that thing which by nature he cannot have; that he may be baptized with water and the Holy Ghost, and received into Christ’s holy church, and be made a lively member of the same.


 Almighty and everlasting God, who of thy great mercy by the baptism of thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ, in the river Jordan, didst sanctify water to the mystical washing away of sin; we beseech thee, for thine infinite mercies, that thou wilt mercifully look upon this child, wash him and sanctify him with the Holy Ghost: that he, being delivered from thy wrath, may be received into the ark of Christ’s church and being steadfast in faith, joyful through hope, and rooted in charity, may so pass the waves of this troublesome world, that finally he may come to the land of everlasting life, there to reign with thee world without end; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Auctorem ac reparatorem nostrum omnipotentem, fratres carissimi, qui ornamenta naturæ amissa per culpam, dignatus est reparare per gratiam; sub reverends mysterii præsentis officio suppliciter exoremus: ut aquis his virtutem transfundat, et ad peragendam sacratissimæ regenerationis effectum præsentia trinæ majestatis adsistat: confringat et conterat super has aquas caput draconis: ut sub undis fecibus transactione secreta chirographum pristinum evacuetur, et debitoribus cum Christo per baptismum consepultis, ita hic agatur mortis imitatio, ut salvatis perditis sola se sentiat in terris perditione. Per Domium11.

Deus qui Jordanin fontem pro animarum salute sanctificasti: descendat super aquas has Angelus benedictionis tuæ: ut quibus perfusi famuli tui, accipiant remissionem peccatorum; ac renati ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, devoti tibi serviant in æternum. Per Dominum12.

The next collect has been very anciently used in the English churches, since we find it in the manuals of Salisbury and York: in these ritual books it occurs in the office for making a catechumen which, as I have observed, formed the first part of the baptismal service. It is also found in many ancient MSS. some of which seem to have been used nine hundred years ago13.

[174] Almighty and immortal God, the aid of all that need, the helper of all that flee to thee for succour, the life of them that believe, and the resurrection of the dead; We call upon thee for this infant, that he, coming to thy holy baptism, may receive remission of his sins by spiritual regeneration. Receive him, O Lord, as thou hast promised by thy well-beloved Son, saying, Ask, and ye shall have; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: So give now unto us that ask; let us that seek find; open the gate unto us that knock; that this infant may enjoy the everlasting benediction of thy heavenly washing, and may come to the eternal kingdom which thou hast promised by Christ our Lord. Amen.

Deus, immortale præsidium omnium postulantium, liberatio supplicum, pax rogantium, vita credentium, resurrectio mortuorum; te invoco super hunc famulum tuum N. qui baptismi tui donum petens, æternam consequi gratiam spirituali regeneratione desiderat. Accipe eum Domine: et quia dignatus es dicere: Petite et accipietis: quærite et invenietis: pulsate et aperietur vobis, petenti prœmium porrige et januam pande pulsanti: ut æternam cœlestis lavacri benedictionem consecutus: promissa tui muneris regna percipiat. Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre, in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia sæcula sæculorum. Amen14.

The portion of St. Matthew’s Gospel, which is appointed to be used immediately after the preceding prayer, is also found in the introductory office for making a catechumen, according to the rites of the English churches of Salisbury and York. How long it may have been used in this place it is hard to determine, but a manuscript ritual of the church of Beauvais in France, 800 years old, directs a gospel to be read in this place15; and in a ritual of the monastery of Remiremont, written 700 years ago16, [175] we may observe the same portion of St. Matthew’s Gospel, which was used by the churches of Salisbury and York in ancient times, as it is by all the English churches at present.

The priest shall say,

Hear the words of the Gospel, written by Saint Mark, in the tenth chapter, at the thirteenth verse.

They brought young children to Christ, that he should touch them; and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.

His dictis, dicat sacerdos,

Dominus vobiscum. Resp. Et cum spiritu tuo. Sequentia sancti evangelii secundum Mattheum. Resp. Gloria tibi Domine. In illo tempore, oblati sunt Jesu parvuli manus eis imponeret et oraret. Discipuli autem ejus increpabant eos. Jesus autem ait illis, Sinite parvulos et nolite prohibere eos venire ad me: talium est enim regnum cœlorum. Et cum imposuisset eis manum, abiit inde17.

The address and collect which follow the gospel, and terminate the introduction of the baptismal office, do not occur in the ancient offices of the English church, as far as I can perceive. However, in annexing these forms to the office, the church only exercised that authority which had been delivered to her by the holy apostles; namely, the power of adding such rites and prayers to the essential matter and form of the sacraments, as she [176] judged most suited to benefit and edify her children.



In the position of the renunciations and professions the English ritual agrees with those of the patriarchates of Constantinople and Antioch. According to the ancient rites of those churches, the renunciations and professions preceded the benediction of the water18; in the Roman and several other western rituals they followed the benediction19. The English order in this place may be compared with that of the Constantinopolitan ritual, where the renunciations and professions are made at the direction of the bishop, in the course of a long exhortation which he delivers before baptism is administered20. In like manner the priest, according to the English ritual, delivers an address to the candidates for baptism, or their sponsors, in which he exhorts them to renounce the Devil, to believe God’s holy word, and obediently to keep his commandments; and at the close of the exhortation the renunciations and professions are made according to his direction.

It has been customary in the Christian church, from the most remote period, for the candidates for baptism to renounce the Devil and all his works [177] before they were admitted to that sacrament. Tertullian21, Cyprian, Ambrose, Basil, Jerome, Cyril of Jerusalem22, and many other fathers and doctors of the church during the first four centuries, speak of this renunciation as an established and universal rite.

In the fourth century the renunciation was made with great solemnity. Cyril of Jerusalem, speaking to those who had been recently baptized, said, "First, you have entered into the vestibule of the baptistery, and, standing towards the west, you have heard, and been commanded, to stretch forth your hands, and renounce Satan, as if he were present23." This rite of turning to the west at the renunciation of Satan is also spoken of by Jerome, Gregory Nazianzen, and Ambrose; and it was sometimes performed with exsufflations and other external signs of enmity to Satan, and rejection of him and his works. To the present day these customs remain in the patriarchate of Constantinople, where the candidates for baptism turn to the west to renounce Satan, stretching forth their hands, and using an [178] exsufflation, as a sign of enmity against him24. And the Monophysites of Antioch and Jerusalem, Alexandria and Armenia, also retain the custom of renouncing Satan with faces turned to the west25.

ENGLAND. Dost thou, in the name of this child, renounce the Devil and all his works, the vain pomp and glory of the world, with all covetous desires of the same, and the carnal desires of the flesh, so that thou wilt not follow, nor be led by them ?


I renounce them all.

ANTIOCH. Abrenuncio Satanæ ego N. et omnibus operibus ejus, et omni militiæ ejus, et omni cultui ejus, et omni pompæ ejus, et omni errori ejus mundano et cuilibet ei consentienti eumque sectanti26.

ALEXANDRIA. Abrenuncio, tibi Satana, et omnibus operibus tuis immundis, et omnibus dæmoniis tuis nequam, et ministris tuis malis, et omni virtuti tuæ, et sordido tuo famulatui, et omnibus fraudibus tuis malignis et illecebris, et [179] omni militiæ tuæ, et omni potestati tuo et reliquis omnibus impietatibus tuis. Ter dicit, Abrenuncio tibi27.

GAUL. Abrenuncias Satanæ, pompis seculi, et voluptatibus ejus? Respons. Abrenuncio28.

ROME. Abrenuntias Satanæ? Resp. Abrenuntio. Et omnibus operibus ejus? Resp. Abrenuntio. Et omnibus pompis ejus? Resp. Abrenuntio29.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Apotassomai tô Satana, kai pasê tê latreia autou, kai pasi tois aggelois autou, kai pasê tê pompê autou. They repeat it thrice after the priest, and then he asks them, Apetaxasthe tô Satana; they reply, Apetaxametha. 30

JERUSALEM. Apotassomai soi Satana, kai pasi tois ergois sou, kai pasê tê pompê sou, kai pasê tê latreia sou.31



The renunciation of Satan was always followed by a profession of faith in Christ, as it is now in the English ritual. However, different churches adopted different rules as to the time at which this profession was made. In the eastern churches of Constantinople, Antioch, &c. the profession was made immediately after the renunciation, as it is in the English ritual. In the Roman church, according to the sacramentary of Gelasius, the renunciation was made some time before the office of baptism, which only contained the profession32. The promise of obedience and faith in Christ was made by the catechumens and sponsors with their faces turned towards the east, as we learn from Cyril of Jerusalem33 and many other writers.

Tertullian speaks of the profession of faith made at baptism, in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and in the church34. Cyprian mentions the interrogation, "Dost thou believe in eternal life, and remission of sins through the holy church35." Eusebius [180] and many other Fathers also speak of the profession of faith made at this time36; and it is especially noted in the Apostolical Constitutions, which were written in the east at the end of the third, or beginning of the fourth, century37. The profession of faith in the eastern churches has generally been made by the sponsor, or the person to be baptized, not in the form of answers to questions, but by repeating the creed after the priest38. In the western churches the immemorial custom has been, for the priest to interrogate the candidate for baptism, or his sponsor, on the principal articles of the Christian faith. The profession was made in this manner in Gaul, as we find by the ancient Gallican missal, which was used before the introduction of the Roman liturgy and offices into France39. We also find that it was customary in Africa, by the testimony of Cyprian; and the ancient offices of the Roman church exhibit the same.

Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth? And in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord? And that he was conceived by the Holy Ghost; born of the Virgin Mary; that he suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; that he went down into hell, and also did rise again the third day; that he ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; and from thence shall come again at the end of the world, to judge the quick and the dead ?

And dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Catholic Church; the Communion of Saints; the Remission of sins; the Resurrection of the flesh; and everlasting life after death?


All this I steadfastly believe.


Credis in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, Creatorem cœli et terræ?



Item Sacerdos.

Credis et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum natum et passum?



Item Sacerdos.

Credis et in Spiritum Sanctum, sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam, Sanctorum communionem, Remissionem peccatorum, carnis Resurrectionem, et vitam æternam post mortem?





The first interrogation and answer after the profession of faith do not occur, as far as I am aware, in the rituals of any of the eastern churches, but they have long been used in the west. A manuscript of the church of Rheims in France, written .a thousand years ago, contains this form, as does [182] another MS. above nine hundred years old41; and the English offices have long interposed it between the profession of faith and the administration of baptism. We do not, however, find this interrogation in the sacramentaries of Gelasius or Gregory, nor in the most ancient monuments of the Gallican church.

 Wilt thou be baptized in this faith?


That is my desire.
Item Sacerdos. Vis baptizari?



 The succeeding promise of obedience is of very great antiquity. Justin Martyr says that those who were to be baptized promised that they would live according to the rules of Christianity43. The Apostolical Constitutions, written about the end of the third century, appoint a promise of obedience, to be made after the renunciation of Satan, as the church of England does; but this promise precedes the profession of faith in the Constitutions44.

The form of promising obedience in the eastern churches, as we learn from the Apostolical Constitutions, and the rituals of the churches of Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, together with the testimonies of Chrysostom, Basil, Cyril of Alexandria, and others45, consisted of a solemn adoption of the service of Christ, and was generally conveyed [183] in very few words; such as, "I give myself up to the government of Christ." The form of question and answer in which the promise of obedience in the English ritual is conveyed, has been adopted in order to preserve uniformity with the renunciations and professions, which have from time immemorial been made in that form by the English and all other western churches.

ENGLAND. Wilt thou then obediently keep God’s holy will and commandments, and walk in the same all the days of thy life?


I will.

ANTIOCH. Consentio tibi Christe Deus ego N. et omni doctrinæ, quæ a te divinitus tradita est per Prophetas, Apostolos, et Sanctos Patres. Confiteor et credo, et baptizor in te, et Patre tuo, et in Spiritu tuo vivo et Sancto46.

ALEXANDRIA. Confiteor te Christe Deus noster, et omnes leges tuas salutares, et omnem religionem tuam vivificam, et omnia opera tua, quæ vitam impertiuntur47.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Kai suntassomai tô Christô … Interogat eos, Sunetaxasthe tô Christô; Et dicunt, Sunetaxametha. 48



We have now considered all the preparatory parts of the office of Baptism. These parts were sometimes separated by an interval of time from the administration of the sacrament; but the remainder of the office has most commonly been all repeated at the same time. The part of the English baptismal office which I consider at present, consists of benedictions of the candidate for baptism, and of the [184] water prepared for the administration of the sacrament. We find in many ancient rituals that these benedictions were conveyed in a form which bore a near resemblance to that of the eucharist. Thus in the Gallican church the benediction was preceded by the form of Sursum corda, "Lift up your hearts," &c. and then began, "It is very meet and right, O holy Lord, Father Almighty, eternal God," &c. It then proceeded to commemorate the mercies of God in a thanksgiving, in the course of which God was implored to sanctify the water, and send down his Holy Spirit, and to confer various benefits on those who were to be baptized therein49. The benediction of the font in the church of Constantinople is made in a manner similar to that just described, except that it does not begin with Sursum corda50. In like manner we find the benediction of the font and solemn prayers in the church of Antioch to have begun with thanksgiving, and afterwards proceeded to prayer, benediction, and invocation of the Holy Spirit51. In the patriarchate of Alexandria the consecration of the font begins with Sursum corda, &c. then the priest makes a thanksgiving, as in the liturgy, or eucharist, in the course of which the deacon commands those that sit to arise, and look towards the east; and, at the close, the people all repeat Tersanctus. And then the priest proceeds to pray for the Holy Spirit to bless the water, and those that are to be baptized therein, and to give them remission of their sins, and regeneration, &c. [185] At the close of this prayer and consecration the people all repeat the Lord’s Prayer52. All this bears a remarkable similarity to the eastern liturgies. However, we do not find, in the ancient sacramentary of Gelasius, that the benediction of the font much resembled that of the eucharist53. Nor does the similarity appear in the sacramentary of Gregory the Great54. However, in subsequent times the benediction in the Roman church, and in several other western. churches, was preceded by the form of Sursum corda, &c.55; which custom may perhaps have been derived from the eastern churches, or from the churches of Gaul. In most of the old rituals we find that the font was hallowed with various ceremonies besides prayer. It was customary to make the sign of the cross, as we learn from the testimony of Chrysostom, Augustine, and Pseudo Dionysius56. The Roman church, and the monophysites of Armenia, pour chrism, or holy ointment composed of oil and balsam, into the water. The church of Constantinople does not57. Various other rites have been devised by the Christian churches, some of which are used in one place, and some in [186] another. But every church is to be left to her own liberty as to the rites of consecration; for not only do we find, from the Apostolical Constitutions, that the consecration of the water was originally made only by prayer58, as it is in the English ritual; but it has always been held by orthodox divines, that the sanctification of the water is not necessary to the effectual administration of the sacrament of regeneration.

The following benedictions as to substance are found in the most ancient monuments of the eastern and western churches; and the form in which they are conveyed, according to which, the response of Amen frequently occurs, is visible, not only in all the most ancient western benedictions of the people, but in the office for consecrating the water in the Alexandrian church59.

It is worthy of notice, that the English ritual, in directing that the water should be sanctified for every occasion on which baptism is to be administered, is supported by the ancient and immemorial practice of the churches of Constantinople, Antioch and the other eastern churches60. The Roman church only appoints the water to be changed, and new water to be consecrated, when that which has been in the font becomes unfit for use61.

O merciful God, grant that the old Adam in this child may be so buried, that the new [187] man may be raised up in him.


Grant that all carnal affections may die in him, and that all things belonging to the Spirit may live and grow in him. Amen.

Grant that he may have power and strength to have victory, and to triumph, against the Devil, the world, and the flesh. Amen.

Grant that whosoever is here dedicated to thee by our office and ministry may also be endued with heavenly virtues, and everlastingly rewarded, through thy mercy, O blessed Lord God, who dost live, and govern all things, world without end. Amen.

Almighty, everliving God, whose most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, for the forgiveness of our sins, did shed out of his most precious side both water and blood; and gave commandment to his disciples, that they should go teach all nations, and baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost;

Regard, we beseech thee, the supplications of thy congregation; sanctify this water to the mystical washing away of sin; and grant that this child, [188] now to be baptized therein, may receive the fulness of thy grace, and ever remain in the number of thy faithful and elect children; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Domine Deus æterne ... fiat locus iste dignus, in quem Spiritus Sanctus influat: sepeliatur hic illic Adam vetus, resurgat novus:

Moriatur omne quod carnis est, resurgat omne quod Spiritus ...


… Quicumque hic renunciaverint Diabolo, da eis triumphare de mundo. Qui te in hoc loco invocaverit, tu eum cognoscas in regno ...

Quicumque hic se sibi negaverit, te lucrifaciat: et per ministerium nostrum, et mysterium tuum consecratus tibi populus, æternis ad te præmiis consecretur. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum62.


Benedico te (sc. aquam) et per Jesum Christum Filium ejus unicum Dominum nostrum ... qui te una cum sanguine de latere suo produxit, et discipulis suis jussit ut credentes baptizarentur in te, dicens, ite docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.

Hæc nobis præcepta servantibus, tu Deus omnipotens, clemens adesto, tu benignus aspice, tu has simplices aquas tuo ore benedicito, ut præter naturalem emundationem, quam lavandis possunt adhibere corporibus, sint etiam purificandis mentibus efficaces63. Adimple eum (puerum) gratia Spiritus tui Sancti ... ne sit filius carnis, sed filius thalami tui nuptialis, et hæres regni tui inamissibilis atque perennis64.



The churches of Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, have from time immemorial administered the sacrament of baptism immediately after the water was consecrated65; and the English ritual has appointed the same order. According to the ancient customs of the Roman church, represented in the sacramentary of Gregory, the profession of faith occurs between. the hallowing of the water and the administration of the sacrament66. We find that this custom has been long used in the Roman church; since the sacramentary of Gelasius, A.D. 494, appointed the confession of faith to be made immediately before baptism, though the renunciations were made some hours before67. The English ritual appoints baptism to be administered "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," which was the form directed by our Saviour Jesus Christ, and which has ever been used [189] by the Christian church. We find indeed from ancient rituals, that certain additions were made to these words in some churches, but the substance of the words used by the English church is found in all the Christian rituals.

ENGLAND. N. I baptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Batizetai ho doulos tou Theou ho deina. eis to onoma tou Patros, kai tou huiou, kai tou hagiou Pneumatos. Nun kai aei kai eis tous aiônas tôn aiônôn. Amên.68

ALEXANDRIA. Ego te baptizo N. in nomine Patris. Amen. Ego te baptizo N. in nomine Filii. Amen. Ego te baptizo N. in nomine Spiritus Sancti. Amen69.

ARMENIA. N. Baptizatur in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Redemptus sanguine Christi a servitute peccatorum, consequitur libertatem adoptionis filiorum Patris cœlestis, ut fiat cohæres Christi, et templum Spiritus Sancti, nunc et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum70.

GAUL. Baptizo te credentem in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti; ut habeas vitam æternam in sæcula sæculorum71.—Another form. Baptizo te Ill. in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti in remissionem peccatorum; ut habeas vitam æternam. Amen72.

ANTIOCH. Baptizatur N. in nomine Patris. Amen. Et Filii. Amen. Et Spiritus vivi et Sancti in vitam sæculi sæculorum73.

ROME. Et ego te baptizo in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritus Sancti74.

CHALDÆA. Ego baptize te N. serve Christi, in nomine Patris. Respondent. Amen. Et Filii. Respondent. Amen. Et Spiritus Sancti in sæcula. Respondent. Amen75.




We learn from Tertullian that the Christians were accustomed to sign their foreheads with the sign of the cross in all the actions of their lives76; and it may well be supposed that such a custom would be also employed in religious offices and prayers. Accordingly we find that this sign was made in some part of almost every Christian office. Omitting, however, all consideration of the use of this sign in the liturgy, and other parts of divine service, let us notice briefly the accounts which we have of the sign of the cross, as used in the rites of baptism. The sign of the cross was made on those persons who in primitive times were admitted to the class of catechumens, and it was often repeated during the course of their instruction77. The candidates for baptism in the eastern church about the fourth century were three times signed in the forehead, before the water was consecrated, and baptism administered78. In many churches also the water was consecrated with the sign of the cross, and prayer79. It is manifest from this, that in primitive times the sign of the cross was not only made on the forehead of the elect at the time of baptism, but was used very often in other ways. It does not [191] seem that any of the most ancient rituals appointed the sign of the cross to be made on the forehead of the person exactly at the time which the English ritual directs. The position. of this consignation may therefore be regarded as originally peculiar to the churches of the British empire, though the act itself is probably not more recent than the apostolical age. The form of words with which the priest is directed to administer this rite in the English ritual is not devoid of resemblance to forms used in several ancient rituals on similar occasions.

ENGLAND. We receive this child into the congregation of Christ’s flock, and do sign him with the sign of the cross, in token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed to confess the faith of Christ crucified, and manfully to fight under his banner against sin, the world, and the Devil; and to continue Christ’s faithful Soldier and servant unto his life’s end. Amen.

SARUM. Trado tibi signaculum Domini nostri Jesu Christi—ut in fide catholica permaneas, et habeas vitam æternam, et vivas in sæcula sæculorum. Amen80.

BOBIO. Accipe signum crucis tam in fronte quam in corde. Semper esto fidelis. Templum Dei ingredere—Cole Deum Patrem omnipotentem, et Jesum Christum filium ejus, qui venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos, et sæculum per ignem, cum Spiritu Sancto in sæcula sæculorum81.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Sêmeiôthêtô ho stauros tou monogenous sou huiou en tê kardia kai tois dialogismois autou, eis to pheugein tên mataiotêta tou kosmou, kai pasan tên ponêran epibouên tou echthrou, akolouthein de tois prostagmasi sou.82




The administration of baptism was succeeded by various rites in the primitive church. In Gaul, Spain, and Milan, the priest washed the feet of the newly baptized83; but this ceremony has long become obsolete in all parts of the Christian church. At this time also the newly baptized received a taste of milk and honey84, and were clothed in white garments85. But the former of these rites has long been extinct in almost all parts of the church86, and the English church has not deemed it expedient to continue the latter. Formerly also, confirmation followed immediately after baptism87. And in the eastern churches, where presbyters are permitted to confirm, the same custom prevails to the present day88. But as the discipline of the western churches has not so far relaxed as to concede to presbyters the power of administering confirmation ordinarily, it became necessary that when they administered baptism, confirmation should be deferred to some future time, when the bishop was present.


 The conclusion of the office of baptism resembles that described in the Apostolical Constitutions, where the newly baptized are directed to repeat the Lord’s Prayer and another concluding prayer89. An order also, somewhat similar to ours, is observable in the monuments of the ancient Gallican church.

Seeing now, dearly beloved brethren, that this child is regenerate, and grafted into the body of Christ’s church, let us give thanks unto Almighty God for these benefits; and with one accord make our prayers unto him, that this child may lead the rest of his life according to this beginning.

Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed, &c.

We yield thee hearty thanks, most merciful Father, that it hath pleased thee to regenerate this infant with thy Holy Spirit, to receive him for thine own child by adoption, and to incorporate him into thy holy church. And humbly we beseech thee to grant, that he being dead unto sin, and living unto righteousness, and being [194] buried with Christ in his death. may crucify the old man, and utterly abolish the whole body of sin; and that as he is made partaker of the death of thy Son, he may also be partaker of his resurrection; so that finally, with the residue of thy holy church, he may be an inheritor of thine everlasting kingdom; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Laudes et gratias Domino referamus, fratres dilectissimi, quod augere dignatus est ecclesiæ suæ congregationem per cares nostros, qui modo baptizati sunt. Petamus ergo de Domini misericordia ut baptismum sanctum, quod acceperunt, illibatum, inviolatum, et immaculatum perferant ante tribunal Christi.


Domine Deus omnipotens, famulos tuos, quos jussisti renasci ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto; conserva in eis baptismum sanctum quod acceperunt, et in nominis tui sanctificationem perficere dignare, ut proficiat in illos gratia tua semper, et quod te ante donante susceperunt, vitæ suæ integritate extstodiant90.

The office of baptism is followed by an exhortation addressed to the sponsors, instructing them in their duties towards the child recently baptized. The ancient offices of the churches of Salisbury and York appointed a similar exhortation to be made on the same occasion91. What may be the antiquity of this custom I know not. Nor have I observed a similar order in any of the western offices, except in those of the English church, and in an ancient ritual of the church of Limoges in France, published by Martene92.



The catholic church has always been accustomed to permit the private baptism of persons who are unable from sickness to receive that sacrament in public. In such cases of necessity baptism was administered with [195] very few forms, and often consisted of nothing more than the affusion of water on the person baptized, with a repetition of the words of baptism. It is unnecessary for me to enter on the discussion relative to the proper ministers of baptism, which has been treated with his usual learning by Bingham, in his Scholastical History of Lay-Baptism. The church of England has not encouraged the practice of baptizing children by the hands of laymen or women, even in urgent cases. But it cannot with reason be apprehended, that infants who depart before baptism can be administered, are without the benefits of that sacrament; because the catholic church has always held that the wish to receive baptism is sufficient in a case of necessity; and if the church who hath the power of administering this sacrament, be prevented by the visitation of God from fulfilling her intentions, her desire and wish are sufficient to remove apprehension93. It is needless to make any lengthened observations on the practice of the church of England in the administration of baptism in private. The minister is directed to perform the office, by repeating the Lord’s Prayer, and any other collects of the office of public baptism which the time permits. Amongst these it would certainly seem proper that the benedictions beginning "O merciful God, grant that the old Adam," &c. and the following prayer for the sanctification of the font of water should be used. For we observe that in the ancient offices for the baptism of the sick in the church of Constantinople, and in the sacramentary of Gelasius, there is a short form for consecrating the water94. [196] The rules of the English church, as to supplying that portion of the rites of baptism which was omitted in a case of private baptism, are nearly the same as those which prevailed before the reformation of our offices95.

The rubric informs us that we should "not doubt but that the child so baptized is lawfully and sufficiently baptized, and ought not to be baptized again." This is also a rubric in the manual of the church of Salisbury96. In case the child recovers, the rubric directs him to be brought into church; and if the minister himself baptized the child, he is directed to notify it to the congregation; but if he did not, he is directed to inquire whether the sacrament was rightly performed, and in like manner to notify to the congregation the validity of that baptism. This is also prescribed in the manual of the church of Salisbury, except the two cases of notification97. After notifying to the congregation the validity of the private baptism, the priest is directed to perform the whole office of baptism, with the exception of the benediction and consecration. of the water before mentioned: and the same directions occur in the manuals of Salisbury and York98.


 In case the priest should doubt from the answers of those who bring the child, whether it was lawfully baptized, a form of proceeding is appointed, which is also prescribed by the ancient rubrics of the English churches.

But if they which bring the infant to the church do make such uncertain answers to the priest’s questions, as that it cannot appear that the child was baptized with water, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, (which are essential parts of baptism,) then let the priest baptize it in the form before appointed for public baptism of infants; saving that at the dipping of the child in the font, he shall use this form of words .

If thou art not already baptized, N. I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

Si vero dubitet rationabiliter sacerdos utrum infans ad baptizandum sibi oblatus prius in forma debita fuerit baptizatus, vel non: debet omnia perficere cum eo sicut cum alio quem constat sibi non baptizatum, præterquam quod verba sacramentalia essentialia proferre debeat sub conditione, hoc modo dicendo:




si baptizatus es, ego non rebaptizo te: sed si nondum baptizatus es, ego baptizo te in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen99.

1 The ritual was sometimes also called Manuale, Agenda, Institutio, Pastorale, Sacerdotale, or Sacramentale; and it sometimes received other appellations during the middle ages. See Zaccaria, Bibliotheca Ritualis, tom. i. p. 147, 154, &c. During the middle ages also we occasionally find several distinct books containing offices, such as the Processionale, for litanies and processions, the Baptismale, or Baptism-book, &c. See Zaccaria,. p. 157, &c. See also Ducange’s Glossary.

2 The different editions of the Pontifical are mentioned by Zaccaria, tom. i. p. 164, &c.

3 Bingham’s Antiquities, &c., book x. ch. 1. §. 2, 3.

4 Concil. Carthag. 3. callon. 5. "Per solemnissimos Paschales dies sacramentum catechumenis non detur, nisi solitum sal." Augustine alludes to this custom thus: "Et quod accipiunt (catechumeni) quamvis non sit Corpus Christi; sanctum est tamen, et sanctius quam cibi quibus alimur, quoniam sacramentum est." Liber ii. de Peccatorum meritis, c. 26. The consecration of this salt contained the following passage: "Exorcizo te creatura salis—ut in nomine sanctæ Trinitatis efficiaris salutare sacramentum ad effugandum inimicum." Manuale Sarisb. fol. 34. It also occurs in a sacramentary above nine hundred years old, referred to by Martene, de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 40. The sacrament of salt was peculiar to the western churches, as we do not find any notice of it in the monuments of the eastern church.

5 This may be seen in the manuals of the churches of Salisbury and York, the latter of which places the title of "Baptismus Puerorum" at the top of each page, both of the office for making a catechumen, and the actual office of baptism. The Roman ritual also, published by order of Paul the Fifth, bishop of Rome, combines the two offices, without any distinction, under the title of "Ordo Baptiismi Parvulorum." It seems from the offices of the oriental churches, published by Assemani in the three first volumes of the Codex Liturgicus, that something of the same kind ha occurred amongst them.

6 Manuale Sarisb. fol. 35–36. Manuale Eboracens.

7 Prayer Book, 1549. Public Baptism, fo1. 3.

8 "Aperi ei Domine januam pietatis tuæ, ut signo sapientiæ tuæ imbutus omnium cupiditatum fœtoribus careat, et ad suavem odorem præceptorum tuorum lætus tibi in ecclesia tua deserviat, et proficiat de die in diem, ut idoneus efficiatur accedere ad gratiam baptismi tui." Manuale Sar. ad faciendum Catechumenum, fo1. 33.

9 "Inprimis deferatur infans ad valvas ecclesiæ et inquirat sacerdos ab obstetrice utrum sit infans masculus an fœmina. Deinde si infans fuerit baptizatus domi." Man. Sar. fo1. 33. Man. Eborac. Baptism. Pueror.

10 Miss. Gothic. p. 247; Miss. Gall. vet. p. 362. Mabillon de Liturg. Gallicana.

11 Miss. Gallican. vet. ap. Mabillon, Lit. Gall. p. 362. I have printed this formulary as I found it, not thinking it advisable to alter the language of the original.

12 Miss. Gothicum, ibid. p. 247.

13 "Ex duobus MSS. libris sacramentorum insignis ecclesiæ Turonensis ante annos octingentos (900) exaratis." Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 41.

14 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 34. Manuale Eborac. Baptism. Pueror.

15 Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 43.

16 Ibid. p. 44.

17 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 36. Man. Ebor. ut supra.

18 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 338. 341. 350, &c. Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 41, 42, 43. See also the oriental rites in the first volume of Assemani’s Codex Liturgicus, at p. 158. 172. 237, &c.

19 Sacramentar. Gelasii Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. i. p. 570. Miss. Gallican. Vet. Mabillon de Lit. Gall. p. 364.

20 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 340, 341.

21 "Aquam adituri, ibidem, sed et aliquanto prius in ecclesia sub antistitis manu contestamur nos renuntiare diabolo, et pompæ et angelis ejus." Tertullian. de Corona, c. iii. p. 102. ed. Rigalt. 1664.

22 "Sæculo renunciaveramus, cum baptizati sumus." Cypr. Epist. ad Rogatianum. "Ingressus es regenerationis sacrarium, repete quod interrogatus sis, recognosce quid responderis. Renunciasti Diabolo et operibus ejus, mundo et luxuriæ ejus ac voluptatibus." Ambros. de Initiatis, c. 2. "Renuncio tibi Diabolo, et pompæ tuæ, et vitiis tuis, et mundo tuo, qui in maligno positus est." Hieronymus, Com. in Matt. xv. 26. Cyril. Catechesis Mystag. i.

23 Eisêeite prôton eis ton proaulion tou baptistêriou oikon, kai prostas dusmas hestôtes êkousate kai prosetattesthe ekteinein tên cheira, kai hôs paronti apetattesthe tô Satana.

Cyril. Catechesis Myst. 1. p. 278. ed. Milles.

24 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 338. 341.

25 Assemani, Codex Liturgic. tom. i. p. 237. 158. 172.

26 Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. i. p. 237.

27 Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. i. p. 158.

28 Mabillon de Liturgia Gall. p. 364.

29 Muratori Liturg. Rom. Vet. tom. i. p. 563.

30 Goar, Rituale Græcum, p. 341.

31 Cyril. Hierosolym. Catechesis Mystagog. 1. p. 279, &c. ed. Milles.

32 Sacramentar. Gelasii Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. i. p. 563. 570.

33 Cyril. Hieros. Cat. Myst. 1, p. 283. ed. Milles.

34 Tertullian. de Baptismo, c. 6. "Quum autem sub tribus et testatio fidei et sponsio salutis pignerentur, necessario adjicitur ecclesiæ mentio: quoniam ubi tres, id est, Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, ibi ecclesia, quæ trium corpus est." p. 226.

35 "Sed et ipsa interrogatio quæ fit in baptismo, testis est veritatis. Nam cum dicimus, credis in vitam æternam, et remissionem peccatorum per sanctam ecclesiam? Intelligimus remissionem peccatorum non nisi in ecclesia dari." Cypr. Epist. ad Episcop. Numid.

36 Euseb. Epist. ad Cæsarienses ap. Socrat. lib. i. c. 8. August. Conf. lib. viii. c. 2.

37 Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 42.

38 Ibid. Cyril. Cat. Mystagog. 1. p. 283. edit. Milles. Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 341.

39 Miss. Gall. Vet. Mabillon de Lit. Gal. p. 364.

40 Manuale Sarisburiens. fol. 43. See also Gelasii Sacram. Muratori, tom. i. p. 570. Many western rituals, however, gave the questions at greater length, including all the articles of the Apostles’ Creed; for example, the sacramentary of Bobio, written before the year 800. See Muratori, Liturg. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 851. See also another sacramentary, 1000 years old, in Martene de Antiq. Ecel. Rit. tom. i. p. 176. The candidates for baptism, or their sponsors, repeat the Constantinopolitan Creed on this occasion in the eastern churches.

41 Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 180. 192.

42 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 43.

43 Hosoi an peithôsi kai pisteuôsin laêthê tauta ta huph’ hêmôn didaskomena kai legomena einai, kai bioun outôs dunasthai hupischnôntai, euchesthai te kai aitein nêsteuontes para tou Theou tôn proêmartêmenôn aphesin didaskontai, hêmôn suneuchomenôn kai sunnêsteuontôn autois. eteita agontai huph’ hêmôn entha hudôr esti, kai tropon anagennêseôs hon kai hêmeis autoi anagennhêmen, anagennôntai. Justin Martyr, Apol. i. p. 88. ed. Thirlby.

44 Apost.Const. lib. vii. c. 42.

45 Bingham’s Antiquities, b. ii. c. 7. §. 6.

46 Rituale Syrorum, Assemani, Codex Lit. tom. i. p. 238.

47 Rituale Copt. Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. i. p. 159.

48 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 341.

49 Missale Gothicuin, MabilIon, Lit. Gallican. p. 247. Missale Gallican. vetus, ibid. p. 363. Sacramentar. Gallican. Bobiense, Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 849.

50 Goar, Rituale Græcum, p. 352.

51 Rituale Syr. Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 218.

52 Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 159-176. Compare this with the canon of the Coptic liturgy of Basil, Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. Collectio, tom. i. p. 13, &c.

53 Sacramentar. Gelasii. Muratori, tom. i. p. 568, &c.

54 Sacramentar. Gregorii à Menard. p. 71.

55 Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 176. 185. 189. Missale Rom. p. 176.

56 Chrysost. Hom. 54. al. 55. in Matt. p. 475. ed. Commelin. Panta di’ autou teleitai ta kath’ hêmas kan anagennêthênai deê staupos paraginetai, &c. Augustin. Hom. 27. olim 50. tom. x. p. 175. "Quia Baptismus, id est, aqua salutis, non est salutis, nisi Christi nomine consecrata, qui pro nobis sanguinem fudit, cruce ipsius aqua signatur." See also Dionys. de Hierarch. Eccl. c. 2.

57 Assemani, tom. ii. p. 207. note 1.

58 Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 43.

59 Rituale Alexandrin. Copt. Assemani, tom. ii. p. 173.

60 Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 352, 353.

61 Rituale Romanum. p. 6. de Materia Baptismi.

62 Missale Gallican. Vetus, apud Mabillon de Liturg. Gall. p. 363.

63 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 41. Sacr. Gregorii, p. 72. Sacr. Gelasii, Muratori, tom. i. p. 569.

64 Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. Assemani, tom. ii. p. 151.

65 Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355. Assemani, tom. ii. p. 225. 180.

66 Menard. Sacr. Gregorii, p. 73.

67 Muratori, tom. i. Sacr. Gelasii, p. 570.

68 Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355.

69 Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 180.

70 Rituale Armen. Assemani, Codex Liturgic. tom. ii. p. 200.

71 Missale Gallican. Vetus, Mabillon, Liturg. Gall. p. 364.

72 Missale Gothicum, MabilIon, Lit. Gall. p. 248.

73 Rituale Syrorum Assemani, Codex, tom. ii. p. 225.

74 Sacr. Gregorii, p. 73.

75 Rituale Chaldæor. Nestorian. ac Malabaror. Assemani, Codex Liturg. tom. ii. p. 212.

76 Ad omnem progressum atque promotum, ad omnem aditum et exitum, ad vestitum, ad calceatum, ad lavacra, ad mensas, ad lumina, ad cubilia, ad sedilia, quæcumque nos conversatio exercet, frontem crucis signaculo terimus," Tertull. de Corona Militis, c. 3.

77 See Bingham’s Antiquities, book x. c. 1. §. 3. and c. 2. §. 8.

78 Dionys. Hierarch. Eccl. c. 2.

79 See Dionysius Areop. Augustin. and Chrysostom, cited by Bingham, book ii. c. 10. §. 3.

80 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 37. See also Martene, tom. i. p. 194, who quotes it from a MS. of Jumiege in France, written A.D. 1032.

81 Missale Bobiense, 1100 years old, Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 848. Martene de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. tom. i. p. 37.

82 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 321.

83 See Bingham’s Antiquities, book xii. ch. 4. sect. 10. Compare Miss. Goth. p. 231; Miss. Gall. Vet. p. 364; Mabillon, Liturg. Gallican. This rite was abolished in Spain by the council of Eliberis.

84 Tertullian de Corona Militis, c. iii. p. 102, speaks of this as one of the ancient traditions of the church. It is also mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and Jerome, &c. See Bingham, book xii. ch. 4. §. 6.

85 See Bingham ut supra §. 1. This custom is still preserved in some degree in many rituals of the east and west.

86 I say almost all, because the Æthiopians or Abyssinians still retain this and many other rites of immense antiquity. See Ludolfi Hist. Æthiopic. lib. iii. c. 6. No. 34.

87 See Bingham, b. xii. c. 1.

88 Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355, 356.

89 Apost. Const. lib. vii. c. 44, 45.

90 Miss. Bobiense ante annos 1100. scriptum. Muratori Lit. Rom. Vet. tom. ii. p. 852.
This may also be compared with the prayer in the ritual of the monophysites of Antioch. "Deus qui redemptionem per Christum tuum tribuisti nobis, et dedisti huic famulo tuo, qui baptizatus est, regenerationem per Spiritum tuum sanctum. Tu Domine, hominum amator, adjuva et conserva eum in sanctitate, fulgentem lumine tuo, et coram sacro altari tuo adstantem: dignum effice eum beatitudine tua cœlesti; quoniam gloriosum est nomen tuum, semperque benedictum, nunc et semper et in sæcula sæculorum." Ordo sacri baptismatis auctore Severo patriarcha Antiocheno monophysita. Assemani, Cod. Lit. tom. ii. p. 305.

91 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 43. Manuale Eboracens. ad finem baptismi.

92 Martene, tom. i. p. 308.

93 Hooker, b. viii. 6o.

94 Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 370. Gelasii Sacramentar. Muratori, tom. i. p. 595, &c.

95 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 44.

96 "Et si puer fuerit baptizatus secundum illam formam, caveat sibi unusquisque ne iterum eundem baptizet." Manuale Sar. fol. 44.

97 "Sed si hujusmodi parvuli convalescant, deferantur ad ecclesiam, et dicantur super eos exorcismi et catechismi cum unctionibus et omnibus aliis supradictis præter immersionem aquæ et formam baptismi, quæ omnino sunt omittenda—.
Et ideo si laicus baptizaverit puerum antequam deferatur ad ecclesiam, interroget sacerdos diligenter quid dixerit, et quid fecerit: et si invenerit laicum discrete et debito modo baptizasse, et formam verborum baptismi ut supra in suo idiomate integre pertulisse, approbet factum, et non rebaptizet eum." Man. Sarisb. fo1. 44. Eboracens. ad finem baptismi.

98 See former part of last note.

99 Manuale Sarisb. fo1. 44, 45. Eboracens. ad finem baptismi.

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