Palmer: Origines Liturgicae 23.
Antiq. of the English Rit., Ch. IVb, Sect III-Sect VII.

Chapter IV cont’d.




THE collects of the communion may be divided into three classes: first, the collects for the king; secondly, the collects for the day; and, thirdly, other occasional collects. Before I consider these classes in detail, it may be expedient to consider the antiquity of the custom of using any collects in this place, namely, before or between the lessons, and therefore in that part of the liturgy which all persons, whether believers or not, are permitted to attend. I have, however, already considered this subject at large in the beginning of the last chapter, and nothing more will now be requisite than to recapitulate what has been there said.

It seems that collects have been repeated before and between the lessons of the liturgy in the patriarchate of Alexandria, at least from the time of Athanasius, who appears evidently to allude to them; they are mentioned by Cassian, who lived in the following (fifth) century, and have been continually used since, both in the liturgy, and the offices of morning and evening prayer. The use of collects is traced back to the latter part of the fourth century in Africa, and it is likely that they may be as ancient in the patriarchate of Rome, that is, in the southern half of Italy and Sicily, because they are found in Roman sacramentaries of the fifth century. In Britain they have been used as at present for more than twelve hundred years, having been introduced by Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury; and in Ireland we may probably trace back their origin to the time of Patrick. No collects like ours [36] are found in the oriental liturgies of Antioch, Jerusalem, Cæsarea, and Constantinople.


In the liturgy of the orthodox of Alexandria there were petitions for the king and church before the reading of the lessons1. The liturgy of the Irish church also, in the sixth or seventh century, contained a collect for the king amongst several others which occurred before the epistle2. In the church of England, however, before the reformation, no collect for the king was appointed to be said at this place, although several others, amounting sometimes to seven, were repeated3: and it certainly appeared right that there should be a special prayer for the king, on whom, under God, the church depends for protection and for peace; and accordingly, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, collects for the church and king, or the king and people, were introduced into this part of the liturgy. In a general synod of the church of Scotland, A.D. 1225, it was commanded that five collects should be always said, the first of which was to be for the church, and the second for the king4; and the collect appointed for this purpose was that which in after-times was altered into the second collect for the king in the English liturgy. In the [37] churches of Lyons, Vienne, Tours, Rouen, and all the other principal churches of France, in former ages, the collect of the day was immediately followed by prayers termed lauds, which were short petitions in the form of a litany for the king, queen, bishops, judges, army5, &c. which were also found in the ancient German liturgy6. The same custom is said to have prevailed formerly at Rome, and even so far back as the time of Gregory the Great, A.D. 6007. If any thing were wanting to shew the propriety of our collect for the king in this place, these would be sufficient warrants for our practice.

In our liturgy the collect is preceded by the words "Let us pray." In primitive times the deacon generally made this proclamation, and he not only directed the people to pray, but informed them what they were to pray for. Thus, in the liturgy of the orthodox of Alexandria, the prayer which corresponds to our collect for the king was thus introduced. The deacon proclaimed aloud, "Pray ye for the emperor," on which the whole people prayed three times, crying aloud, "Lord have mercy upon him." And then the priest or bishop summed up or collected their devotions in the following collect, to which all the people responded Amen8.

"O Lord God our Governor, Father of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, we pray and beseech thee to preserve our emperor in peace, strength, and righteousness. O Lord, subdue before him every enemy and foe; take thine arms and shield, [38] "and arise to help him. O Lord, grant him victory, that he may have a peaceful mind towards us and thy holy name; that so, in the tranquillity of his days, we may lead a calm and quiet life, in all piety and godliness; through the grace, mercy, and love of thy only-begotten Son. Through whom, and with whom, to thee, and the most holy, good, and lifegiving Spirit, be glory and dominion now, and ever, and world without end."

In the very ancient liturgy of the monophysites of Alexandria, which bears the name of Cyril, we find in the Anaphora, or solemn prayers, which include the consecration, forms which were probably the originals of those now cited9. But it is sufficient to have directed the attention of the reader to this; to cite them in this place would be inconvenient.

Some expressions in our collects for the king are found in ancient prayers of the English church.

Almighty and everlasting God, we are taught by thy holy word, that the hearts of kings are in thy rule and governance, and that thou dost dispose and turn them as it seemeth best to thy goodly wisdom: we humbly beseech thee so to dispose and govern the heart of N. thy servant our king and governor,

that in all his thoughts, words, and works, he may ever seek thy honour and glory,

and study to preserve thy [39] people committed to his charge, in wealth, peace, and godliness. Grant this, &c.

Deus in cujus manu sunt corda Regum qui es humilium consolator, et fidelium fortitudo, et protector omnium in te sperantium, da Regi nostro N. et Reginæ nostræ N. populoque christiano, triumphum virtutis tuæ scienter excolere,

ut—semper rationabilia meditantes, quæ tibi placita sunt, et dictis exequantur et factis10.

ut plebem sibi commissam, cum pace propitiationis, et virtute victoriæ, feliciter regere, mereaturo11.


What has been already remarked with regard to the antiquity of collects as used in this part of the liturgy, applies to the collects of the day. It is only in the church of Alexandria, and in the west, that collects ever appear to have been used in this place in primitive times. There is nothing like our collects in the Oriental, Greek, and Russian liturgies at the present day. The church of England, however, has now for above 1200 years used collects in the place which our liturgy assigns to them. Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury, brought the sacramentary of Gregory the Great into England, and that sacramentary prescribed collects at this place. In Ireland they may have been used it all earlier period; for Patrick probably brought the primitive Roman liturgy thither; and Columbanus, in the sixth century, appears to have recited several collects in this part of the liturgy12.

The antiquity of the collects themselves which we use is generally very great. They have been read in the liturgies of the church of England from the most remote period. Not only do we find them in the liturgies of the English church before the reformation13, but in those of the Anglo-Saxon church long before the conquest14. Most of these [40] collects can, in fact, be traced back to the very beginning of the Anglo-Saxon church; and by that church they were originally derived from the liturgy of the Roman patriarchate in primitive times15. We are thus in many instances enabled to trace them back to the fifth century. So that our collects, with some exceptions, have been used for fourteen hundred years in the church of God; and their origin lies in the distant glory of primitive Christianity.

Only one collect is appointed at this place in each distinct office for Sundays or other holydays in the English ritual; but the number in practice may sometimes be enlarged. Besides the collect for the king, and that of the day, it is sometimes necessary to repeat others. For instance, in Advent and Lent a collect is appointed to be said during the whole season after the collect of the day. Thus three or four collects may sometimes be said at this place. On Good Friday five collects are appointed to be said, videlicet, one for the king, three for the day, and one for Lent. It appears that several other collects may also be added.


It is permitted by the rubric of the English liturgy to use one or more of six collects after those of the communion. These six collects are placed at the end of the liturgy or communion office. They are preceded by the following rubric: "Collects to be said after the offertory, when there is no communion, every day one or more; and the same may be said also, as often as occasion shall serve, after [41] the collects of morning or evening prayer, communion, or litany, by the discretion of the minister."

The second of these collects was formerly used as special prayer for those who were about to enter on a journey16. This induces me to notice an ancient custom of many of the western churches. In the time of war or tumult, famine or pestilence, storms or rain, or any other evil; whenever calamities were to be specially deprecated, or blessings specially implored, appropriate collects were added to the communion-service at this place. This custom is mentioned in an ancient ritual of the church of Soissons in France, where it is remarked, that "only one collect is said at communion, contrary to the custom in many other places, unless some commemoration of a feast is to be made; or, urged by necessity, we cry to God for peace, or fine weather, or for rain, for the sick, or for those that are going on a journey, or other things of the same kind17." The same custom prevailed in England, as appears by the liturgy of the church of Salisbury18 and others, and is worthy of commendation. We find the principle of this custom adopted in the English ritual at this day, since several collects of the same kind are appointed to be said after the collects of [42] morning or evening prayer, or before the two last prayers of the litany.



During the early ages of the church, the lesson which is now ordinarily designated as the epistle, was more generally known by the appellation of "the apostle." We find it generally called by this name in the ancient liturgies and the writings of the Fathers. Thus Augustine often speaks of it19; and in the sacramentary of Gregory the Great it is said, "the apostle follows20," meaning the epistle or apostolical writing is then read. In the patriarchate of Constantinople, where ancient customs have been preserved more perfectly than any where else, the epistle is called "the apostle" to this day21. In the west this lesson has however long been known by the name of "the epistle," being most commonly taken from the epistles of St. Paul.

In the church of England this lesson of scripture is taken not only from the epistles of the holy apostles, but sometimes from their acts, and occasionally from the prophets. Thus we retain the custom of the church of God, which "mingled the law and the prophets with the writings of the evangelists and apostles22."

During the early ages of the church, the apostle [43] or prophet was generally read by a special reader from the ambon, or pulpit, which stood in the middle of the church amongst the faithful23. The church of Constantinople and the other eastern churches still retain the ancient custom of employing a reader for this office24. The church of Rome abandoned it about the eighth or ninth century, when it became the office of the sub-deacon to read the epistle25. We are blamed by Schultingius for permitting it to be read by the priest26, but it is only read by the officiating minister when no assistant is present; and we might with as much reason blame the church of Rome for permitting the sub-deacon to read the epistle, of which there is no trace in primitive times but it is in truth a matter of little importance.

It was the ancient custom of the church of England to read this lesson from the pulpit27. When no other clergyman was present who could read the epistle, the priest himself read it at the right or south corner of the holy table, which thence obtained the appellation of cornu epistolæ. The injunctions of king [44] Edward the Sixth, in 1547, appoint the epistle to be read in the pulpit or in some convenient place28 and in the injunctions of queen Elizabeth, we find that a special reader, entitled an "Epistler," was to read the epistle in cathedral and collegiate churches, vested in a cope29.

Before noticing the particular passages of scripture which have been selected for this lesson, it is worthy of remark, that, in the only liturgy of the ancient Irish church now in existence, there is only one portion of scripture appointed for the epistle, which was to be read every day30. In the first ages of the church (as has already been observed) there were no selections from the scriptures for special occasions. The books of scripture were read in number and quantity according to the direction of the bishop. In after-times particular books or lessons were read at particular seasons31; and it is said that Jerome made a selection of lessons for every holyday in the year, which he collected in a book entitled, "Comes," and this book, it is said, was brought into use in the Roman church32; but the tradition is very doubtful33.


The proclamation of the title of the books before the lesson began, was very common in early times. It was generally made by the person who was about to read. The deacon first directed the people to be silent and attentive34.

Almost all the lessons now read as epistles in the English liturgy have been appointed to their present place and used by the church of England for many ages. They are found in all the liturgies of the English church used before the revision of our offices in the reign of Edward the Sixth, and they also appear in the monuments of the English liturgy before the invasion of William the Conqueror. It is in fact probable that they are generally as old as the time of Augustine, A.D. 595; since we find that the most ancient lectionaries of the early church of Rome contain nearly the same selections, and therefore Augustine probably brought these selections into use in England. In this view, the lessons entitled epistles in our liturgy have been used for above twelve hundred years by the church of England35. We must consider this more as a subject of interest and pleasure than of any great importance, since "all scripture is given us by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." Yet we may remark, that the extracts [46] read from the epistles are generally devotional and practical, and therefore best adapted for ordinary comprehension and general edification.

In the Roman liturgy anciently, a psalm was sung after the epistle, which was called Graduale36, and is still used. This was followed by Alleluia except from Septuagesima to Easter37. In the churches of Gaul and Spain the graduale was not used38, and the church of England at the revision of her liturgy omitted it likewise. The origin of the gradual, though its present place in the Roman missal is not, in my opinion, the place which it originally occupied, is to be traced to a greater antiquity than liturgical writers have generally thought39. In the apostolic and following ages, many lessons were read in the liturgy, and amongst these was frequently one from the book of Psalms. Thus we find from the Apostolical Constitutions that the eastern church in the third or fourth century, read lessons from scripture at their assemblies in this order. The law, prophets, psalms, epistles, and gospels40. The psalm was therefore one of the lessons. [47] In the west we find Augustine in the fifth century considering the psalm as a lesson. "We have heard," said he, "the apostle, we have heard the psalm, we have heard the gospel; all the divine lessons agree41." In another sermon he says, "We have heard the first lesson from the apostle, .... then we have sung a psalm, ..... after this came the lesson from the gospel; these three lessons we will discourse upon, as far as time permits42." Ambrose says, "When the psalm is read, it causes silence by its own means43." It appears, therefore, that the gradual was anciently looked upon as a lesson from scripture even when it was sung; and if we regard it as a lesson, I see no reason to consider it less ancient than the epistle or the gospel which have been used since the apostolic age. It appears from Augustine, that the psalm was sung between the epistle and gospel in the fifth century by the African church. But this was probably not its original position. As a lesson from the Old Testament it would have come naturally in the order of the Apostolical Constitutions, namely, after the law and the prophets. In the time of Augustine, however, it is certain that the lessons from the Old Testament were often omitted, and the liturgy [48] began even then with the epistle, to which, on certain occasions, lessons from the Old Testament were prefixed. It is probable, that when the western churches began to discontinue the lessons from the Old Testament, they placed the psalm between the epistle and gospel, to preserve the semblance of the ancient custom, according to which the psalm had always intervened between the Old and New Testament.

Even to the present time the Roman liturgy prefixes lessons from the Old Testament, to the epistle and gospel on some particular days, and these lessons are followed by a tractus, or psalm. This is probably a relic of the ancient custom. In the patriarchate of Constantinople the lessons from the epistles and gospels are often preceded by lessons from the Old Testament; and these latter are separated from the epistle and gospel by a psalm44. Even on ordinary occasions, when the Old Testament is not read, there is a psalm, or some verses of it, read before the epistle, and it is preceded by the customary solemnity which takes place when a lesson is to be read. The deacon proclaims to the people Sophia, "Wisdom"—the reader begins "Alleluia! a psalm of David." The deacon exclaims again, "Pay attention;" and the reader proceeds to read the prokeimenon, as this psalm or anthem is called45. The churches of Spain which did not adopt the Roman position of the gradual and alleluia, had a custom [49] which approaches nearly to the eastern form just alluded to. After the reading of the prophet, and before the epistle, they sung the hymn of "the Three Children46." This was a fixed lesson, which had probably taken the place of the ancient psalm. And even now the church of Milan places the psalm after the lesson of the Old Testament which they always read, and before the epistle. This psalm they call Psalmellus, not tractus, or gradual.

The Alleluia which is often sung in the Roman liturgy after the epistle, is said to have been first brought into use by Damasus, bishop of Rome, in imitation of the church of Jerusalem. Gregory the Great affirms this47, but the tradition seems very doubtful. In the eighth century Notker, abbot of St. Gall in Switzerland, composed several hymns in verse, which acquired the name of Prosæ, or Sequentiæ, and were sung after the gradual48. Many other authors followed the example of Notker, and the church of England used several of these hymns before the reformation49; but as they were in many instances unwisely composed, and had no claim to primitive antiquity, the revisers of our liturgy, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, entirely omitted them.




The gospel, being the more immediate history of the Saviour of mankind, has always been read in the catholic church with peculiar respect and devotion. It was generally the office of the deacon to read the gospel in the primitive ages. Thus we find it to have been in the patriarchate of Antioch, in the time of Jerome50; and the same custom prevailed in the churches of Gaul51 and Spain52 at an early period. In the patriarchate of Alexandria it was read by the archdeacon, or chief of the deacons; but in some churches it was read by the priest only, and on the Lord’s day by the bishop53. In the church of Constantinople it has always been read by a deacon, except on some particular feasts when the bishop reads. The church of England permits it to be read either by a deacon or a priest. In the fourth century the deacon was preceded by [51] lighted wax tapers to the pulpit in the eastern churches54, as a sign of rejoicing for the advent of him who was the light of men. The bells also were rung in some churches before the gospel, and in Ethiopia this ceremony has continued to the present day55. When the deacon had ascended the pulpit, or ambon, and announced the title of the gospel, the people with one voice exclaimed, "Glory be to thee, O Lord!" This custom of giving glory to God for his holy gospel appears to have prevailed from remote antiquity in all the churches of the east and west56; and the church of England has not ceased for many centuries to follow so pious and laudable an example.

It was also usual for all persons to arise before the gospel, and stand while it was recited. "When the gospel is read," says the ancient author of the Apostolical Constitutions, "let all the presbyters and deacons, and all the people, stand in great silence57." It was considered a peculiar custom of the church of Alexandria in the fifth century, that the pope or patriarch of Alexandria continued sitting during the reading of the gospel58. In the church of Constantinople the custom is preserved still. The [52] priest exclaims, "Sophia (Wisdom)—Stand up—Let us hear the holy gospel59." In the west it has always been usual to stand when the gospel is read; and the church of England has for many ages adopted the custom.

The gospel was read from the pulpit in places where there were several clergy. This was also customary in the English church60, and it is recognised in the injunctions of king Edward the Sixth61. The injunctions of queen Elizabeth direct, that, in cathedral and collegiate churches there should be a "gospeller," or particular person to read the gospel62, who was to wear a cope. This also had long been the custom of the English church. In places where there were no assistant ministers, the priest himself read the gospel at the north corner of the holy table, which thence obtained the name of cornu evangelii63.

When the gospel was ended, the churches of Spain and Gaul anciently sung an alleluia, or anthem64. A custom like this prevails in many churches in England, where, the gospel being ended, the people say, "Thanks be to thee, O Lord, for thy holy gospel," or, "Thanks be to thee, O Lord."

Besides the lessons from the canonical scriptures, it was often customary, in the primitive church, to read the epistles or writings of churches, bishops, [53] or fathers. Thus the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians was often read, as well as the epistle of the church of Smyrna, describing the martyrdom of Polycarp65, &c. But this, like many other ancient usages, has gradually become obsolete throughout the Christian church, and perhaps it is not desirable that it should be revived66.

With regard to the particular passages of scripture which the church of England has selected for the gospel of each day, the same observations may be made as have been already offered on the epistles. They have generally been fixed in their present positions for above twelve hundred years; a fact which I have endeavoured to prove elsewhere67.



This creed was chiefly composed by the orthodox Fathers of the first general council of Nice, A.D. 325, to define the Christian faith, in opposition to the heresy of Arius. As sanctioned by this assembly, it ended with "I believe in the Holy Ghost," the remainder was added by the second general council, held at Constantinople A.D. 381, in which the heresy of Macedonius, with regard to the divinity of the Holy Spirit, was condemned. The latter part of this creed seems, however, to have been used by the Christian church even before the council of Constantinople, as it occurs in a creed preserved by Epiphanius, which is probably much older than that council68. In the fifth century, the [54] western churches added to this creed the words filioque, in conformity with the doctrine, that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son, as well as from the Father, which in after-times produced controversies and schisms between the eastern and western churches69.

It appears that it was some time before the Constantinopolitan creed began to be used in the liturgies of the Christians. There is no reason to think that any creed was ever used in the liturgy during the first ages of the church. It was probably introduced to exclude heretics more effectually from the communion, none of whom were ever allowed to partake of the bread and cup by the Christian church. It is said that Peter Fullo, patriarch of Antioch, was the first who inserted the creed in the liturgy, about A.D. 47170. About the year 511 it was received into the liturgy of Constantinople by Timotheus, patriarch of that church71. In these liturgies the creed was placed in the part which followed the dismissal of the catechumens and hearers, and before the solemn prayers or canon. In the year 589, the churches of Spain appointed it to be said with a loud voice before communion, that the true faith might receive the testimony of acceptance from the communicants72. In after-times the Constantinopolitan [55] creed was received into the liturgy of the French, Irish, English, and Roman churches. The Roman church was probably the last which adopted the use of this creed in the liturgy. Berno says, that the creed only began to be sung at Rome about the year 101273; but Martene shews with some degree of probability, that it had been read for some time before74.

It has been observed of the eastern, and it is equally true of the western churches, that the creed was not recited while the catechumens or infidels were present. After their dismissal, the creed was recited as a further test of the orthodoxy of those that remained and professed to be faithful. In the course of ages however, the ancient exclusion of catechumens and infidels became obsolete, because the Christian religion was universally prevalent. Thus it was in England, as in most other countries. The distinction between the missa catechumenorum, or that part of the liturgy which catechumens might attend; and the missa fidelium, or that part when the faithful or Christians only were present, gradually became extinct. Hence we find that in the middle ages the sermon, or instruction to the people, was sometimes delivered after the creed and offertory75; thus excluding the creed from that part of the office which was originally intended for the [56] faithful only. This custom of the church of England is still visible in our liturgy, where the sermon follows the creed, instead of preceding it, according to the primitive rule. In the next section some proofs and further remarks will be offered on this subject. How long the Constantinopolitan creed has been used by the English church on this occasion it would be hard to determine, but we find it in the ancient liturgies of the churches of Salisbury, York, and Hereford76, in the same position which it still occupies in ours. The creed was not said on week days when there was no feast or other solemn occasion77. The same rule also was adopted in the Roman church, where it has continued to the present day.

I believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, Begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of very God, Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made: Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, And was made man, And was crucified also for us under [57] Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried, And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, And sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the holy Ghost, The Lord and Giver of life, Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, Who spake by the Prophets. And I believe one Catholic and Apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, And I look for the Resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

Pisteuomen eis hena Theon Patera, pantokratora, poiêtên ouranou kai gês, pantôn horatôn te kai aoratôn. kai eis hena Kurion Iêsoun Christon, ton huion tou Theou, ton monogenê, ton ek tou Patros gennêthenta pro pantôn tôn aiônôn, Theon ek Theou, phôs ek phôtos, Theon alêthinon ek Theou alêthinou, gennêthenta ou poiêthenta, homoousion tô Patri, di’ hou ta panta egeneto. ton di’hêmas tous sôtêrian katelthonta ek tôn Pneumatos Hagiou kai Marias tês parthenou, kai enanthrôpêsanta, staurôthenta te huper hêmôn epi Pontiou Pilatou, kai pathonta, kai anastasanta tê tritê hemera kata tas graphas, kai anelthonta eis tous ouranous, kai kathezomenon ek dexiôn tou Patros, kai palin erchomenon krinai zôtos kai nekrous hou tês basileias ouk estai telos.

kai eis to Pneuma to Hagion, to Kurion, to zôopoion, to ek tou Patros ekporeuomenon, to sun Patri kai Huiô sumproskunoumenon kai sundoxazomenon, to lalêsan dia tôn prophêtôn. eis mian hagian katholikên kai apostolikên ekklêsian homologoumen he baptisma eis aphesin hamartiôn. prosdokômen anastasin nekrôn, kai zôêntou mellontos ainos. Amên.




From the earliest ages of the Christian church, the exhortations and instructions of God’s ministers have followed the lessons of holy scripture. During the apostolic age, when the Spirit was poured out abundantly upon all flesh, those who were inspired with the gifts of interpretation and prophecy, as well as they who ruled the church, taught and expounded the will of God at this part of the liturgy. When miraculous gifts ceased, they that bare rule in the church by divine commission continued the same practice. The bishops, or successors of the apostles, taught and exhorted their people in every public assembly or liturgy79. By their permission the presbyters of the church also preached in churches where the bishop was not present; but in the event of his presence, the presbyter generally made some respectful allusion to the subject, and the bishop himself preached afterwards80. It was not indeed unfrequent in the primitive church for several presbyters and bishops to deliver their exhortation in [59] succession; and in this case, the greatest of the bishops, or the bishop of the church, generally terminated the instruction81. According to Sozomen, there were no sermons or exhortations delivered in the Roman church in the fifth century, which he remarks as a singular custom of that church82. Leo, bishop of Rome in the fifth century, appears to have been the only bishop who preached in the Roman church for many centuries; and it is said, that none of his successors, until the time of Pius the Fifth, five hundred years afterwards, imitated his example83.

The instructions of the preacher may be divided into four parts, according to the ancient practice of the church of England: first, the announcement of feasts or holydays, and of the administration of the communion; secondly, the publication of excommunications and other ecclesiastical acts; thirdly, the prayer preparatory to the sermon; and, fourthly, the sermon or homily.


the church has long been accustomed to proclaim the feast or holydays for the ensuing week, and give notice of feasts, at this part of the liturgy. We find in an ancient monument of the English church, which contains the prayers to be said before the sermon, a rubric directing the feasts which were to be kept holy, and which is evidently intended for the use of the preacher84. By this document we trace the existing practice of the English church [60] to the fourteenth century. But it had long been customary to make public announcements at the same places85; for,


this was the time at which sentences of excommunication were generally read in the time of Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims in the ninth century, who directed his priests to publish an excommunication against certain depredators, not immediately after the gospel, as the custom was, but after the epistle, because some of the guilty departed from the church immediately after the gospel86. At this time also, in many churches, those who had performed public penance were absolved and reconciled87.


the prayers. How long the present form of prayer, directed by the canons of 1603, may have been used in the English church, would be difficult to determine. We have memorials of these prayers as used in England in the fourteenth century88. Ivo Carnotensis, who flourished about [61] A.D. 1080, cites a canon of a council of Orleans, which evidently alludes to a form of prayer like that of the church of England89. The characteristics of both are, that the preacher admonishes the people what they are to pray for; and the people being supposed to offer up a silent petition for each object that is mentioned, the preacher at the conclusion sums up their devotions in collects or the Lord’s Prayer.

These prayers, perhaps, may have passed from France into England. They were at first intended, as appears by the canon cited by Ivo, to follow the sermon; but in the following ages, when there were very few clergy qualified to preach, these prayers were recited without any sermon. Sermons, we know, were very seldom delivered in the Roman church; and during the dark ages, when that church had a great influence in the western churches, the incapacity of the clergy to deliver sermons may have been encouraged by the example of the see of Rome. At length in England it became necessary for those that were in authority, to remedy the evils which arose from the ignorance of the clergy, and in 1281 John Peckham, archbishop [62] of Canterbury, in a council held at Lambeth, made a constitution, instructing the priest of each parish how to teach the people, once every quarter of the year, the meaning of the creed, the commandments of the law and gospel, the good works to be done, the sins to be avoided, the principal Christian virtues, and the doctrine of the sacraments90. In 1408 archbishop Arundell renewed this constitution, enjoining also the "customary prayers" to be said at the same time91. These customary prayers, according to Lyndwood, who commented on Arundell’s Constitution in a few years after it was published, were made to the people on Sundays, after the offertory92; and we find from the processional, or litany book, of the church of Salisbury, that the prayers made after the offertory on Sundays were exactly the same as those enjoined by the council of Orleans, and which we still use93.


 From the circumstance of these prayers being found in the processional of Sarum, of their being mentioned as customary in the church of England in 1408, and appearing to have existed long before; it is not improbable that these prayers, as now repeated before the sermons, may have been used in our churches before, or shortly after, the Norman Conquest. If we regard their form, we are carried back to a more distant antiquity. In the primitive liturgies we often find long prayers like these94, where the deacon enjoined or required the prayers of the faithful; and they either prayed in silence, or answered to each petition "Lord have mercy," while at the close some collect or prayer summed up their devotions. It is from the same original that our litany is derived; the chief difference being, that in the litany the people respond aloud, while in the prayers before the sermon they pray in secret. In the primitive church it does not appear that it was customary to use any particular prayer before the sermon, though many of the Fathers, either at or near the beginning of their homilies, occasionally addressed short and devout prayers to God for his holy Spirit95. But it is evident that this was not general. The sermons which our Saviour and his apostles delivered in the synagogues appear to have been preceded by no prayers, but after the scriptures were read, the preacher immediately delivered his exhortation.


 I proceed, fourthly, to the principal and most important part of the preacher’s office, which consists in teaching the doctrines and the duties of Christianity, and in delivering the word of exhortation and admonition. In the primitive ages, as I have observed, the bishop chiefly taught in the cathedral church, and the presbyters in lesser or parish churches. Here they instructed the people in all the branches of religion, and adopted all those methods of reasoning, persuasion, encouragement, or rebuke, which they esteemed best calculated to benefit the souls of the faithful. When the barbarians of the north had overrun the civilized portion of the world, and for a lengthened period, the arts and sciences were almost extinct, it became difficult, from the extreme ignorance of the times, to find clergy sufficiently qualified to preach. Hence, in several churches, homilies were selected from the writings of orthodox divines, and appointed by public authority to be read to the people96. In England, about the year 957, Elfric, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, required the priest in each parish to explain the gospel of the day, the creed, and the Lord’s Prayer, on Sundays and holydays97. The same person afterwards compiled homilies in the Anglo-Saxon language, which for some time continued to be read in the English church98. At length these [65] homilies probably became either unpopular or obsolete; so that in the year 1281 preaching seems to have been generally omitted. In that year John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, made the Constitution which I have already described, and which provided for the delivery of four sermons in the year, during the time of the communion-service, or liturgy. It does not appear that any great alteration took place for some time after the Constitution of archbishop Arundell; however, in a book entitled, the Liber Festivalis, published in the reign of Henry the Eighth99, we find a series of homilies for all the holydays of the year, followed by the "quatuor sermones," as directed by archbishop Peckham, and all in the English language. This book, however, does not appear to have been published by authority, and was probably not much in use.

By the injunctions of king Edward the Sixth, in 1547, it was ordered that every Sunday when there was no sermon, the Lord’s Prayer, Apostles’ Creed, and Ten Commandments should be recited from the pulpit for the instruction of the people100. This was in fact little more than a renewal of the Constitutions of the archbishops of Canterbury. The subsequent composition and publication of homilies by authority is so well known, that I need not dwell on it. Nor is it necessary to speak of the gradual increase of knowledge and education, which have in later times completely restored the ancient custom of preaching, which had so long been desired by the Christian church.


 In the primitive ages, the bishop generally delivered his sermon or exhortation from the steps of the altar; presbyters preached from the pulpit, or ambon. But these rules were not strictly adhered to, and the preacher generally took his seat101 in the place where he could be best heard by the people. The catechumens, those that were undergoing the penitential discipline, and even infidels, were allowed to hear the lessons and the sermon102. It was only when the more solemn part of the office was about to commence that these persons were dismissed. In the churches of Antioch103 and Asia104, and in other oriental churches, there were distinct prayers for one or more of these classes, by the deacon and people, and each class was dismissed after the prayers that had been made for it were concluded. In most liturgies these prayers, owing to the extinction of the ancient discipline, have been omitted. Indeed it does not appear, that in the churches of Italy, Africa, and Spain, any such prayers were ever used at this place; and it is very doubtful if they were customary in the Gallican church. But in the liturgies of the church of Constantinople the prayer for the catechumens remains even to this day105.

1 Liturgia Marci, Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. tom. i. p. 132.

2 See Dissertation on primitive Liturgies, vol. i. p. 182.

3 Missale Sarisb. fol. 10. 72.

4 Concil. Provinciale Scotican. cap. 70. "Sacræ Synodi approbatione salubriter duximus statuendum, ut per diœcesim nostram in celebratione missarum, præterquam in festis duplicibus, dicantur quinque collectæ, una de pace ecclesiæ, scilicet ‘Ecclesiæ tuæ quæsumus Domine preces,’ &c. alia pro Domino nostro Rege et Regina et eorum Filiis, scilicet, ‘Deus in cujus manu corda sunt Regum.’" Wilkins, Concilia, tom. i. p. 617.

5 Martene, de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. lib. i. c. 4. art. iii. p. 363.

6 Goldastus, Alamann. Antiq. tom. ii. pars 2. p. 175.

7 Bona, Rer. Lit. lib. ii. c. 5. §. 8. p. 358.

8 Liturgia Marci, p. 132. Renaudot, Lit. Oriental.

9 Liturgia Cyrilli, Renaudot, Lit. Oriental, tom. i. p. 41.

10 Missale Sarisbur. Commune, fo1. 26.

11 Benedictio super Regem noviter electum, MS. Leofr. Exon.

12 Agrestius objected to this custom in the synod of Matiscon, A.D. 624. See vol. i. p. 182.

13 As in the missale Sarisburiens. Hereford. Eboracens.

14 As in the MS. of Leofric, Bp. of Exeter.

15 In the sacramentaries of Gregory, A.D. 590. Gelasius, 494. Leo, 483.

16 Miss. Sarisb. commune, fol. xxx. Gelasii Sacramentarium. Muratori, Lit. Vet. Rom. tom. i. p. 703.

17 "Ad magnam missam numquam consuevimus post primam collectam ullam aliam dicere, sicut multis in locis plures consueverunt, nisi fecerimus memoriam de festo alicujus sancti, vel octavæ, vel necessitate agente, clamaverimus ad Deum, pro pace videlicet, aut aëris serenitate, pro pluviæ postulatione, pro infirmis, pro iter agentibus, et aliis hujusmodi, pro quibus sancta mater ecclesia orare consuevit." Rituale MS. Eccl. Suessionens. citat. a Martene, De Antiq. Eccl. Rit. lib. i. c. 4. art. 3. p. 362.

18 Miss. Sar. commune, fol. 22. 24. 33, &c.

19 "Apostolum audivimus, psalmum audivimus, evangelium audivimus, consonant omnes divinæ lectiones ut spem non in nobis sed in Domino collocemus." Sermo 165. de Verbis Apost. (alias 7.) p. 796. tom. v. Oper. ed. Benedict. See also Sermo 176. (alias 10.) p. 839.

20 "Sequitur apostolus." Menard. Sacram. Gregorii, p. 2.

21 Liturgia Chrysost. Goar, p. 68.

22 Tertullian. de Præscript. Hæretic. c. 36.

23 See Apost. Const. lib. ii. c. 57. quoted above, page 27. note 6. Peri tou mê dein pleon tôn kanonikôn psaltôn, tôn epi ton ambôna anabainontôn, kai apo ton diphtheras psallontôn heteros tinas psallein ev ekklêsia. Canon. 15. Concil. Laodicen. "Quid aliud quam super pulpitum id est super tribunal ecclesiæ oportebat imponi ut .... legat præcepta et evangelium Domini," &c. Cypr. Ep. 39. (alias 34.) p. 77. Epist. ed. Fell. See also Bingham, Antiquities, &c. book viii. c. 5. § 4. p. 293.

24 Goar, Rituale Græc. not. 93. in Chrysost. Liturg. p. 129.

25 Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 6. p. 365.

26 Schultingius, Bibliotheca Ecclesiastica, tom. iv. pars 2. p. 135.

27 Miss. Sarisb. fol. x. "Incepta vero ultima oratione ante epistolam: subdiaconus per medium chori ad legendum epistolam in pulpitum accedat. Et legatur epistola in pulpito omni die Dominica," &c. On Sundays and principal feast days it was read in the pulpit, on other days it was read at the step of the choir.

28 Sparrow’s Collection of Articles, &c. p. 7.

29 Sparrow, p. 124. In the cathedral of Durham, and in some other churches, the epistle is still read by a particular reader or "epistler."

30 O’Conor, Append. to vol. i. of Catalogue of MSS. at Stowe, p. 45.

31 "Meminit sanctitas vestra Evangelium secundum Johannem ex ordine lectionum nos solere tractare: sed quia nunc interposita est sollemnitas sanctorum dierum, quibus certas ex evangelio lectiones oportet in ecclesia recitari, quæ ita sunt annuæ, ut aliæ esse non possint; ordo ille quem susceperamus, necessitate paululum intermissus est, non amissus." Augustin. Prolog. Tractat. in Epist. Johan. tom. iii. pars 2. p. 825. ed. Benedict. Concil. Toletan. iv. c. 17. A.D. 633. appoints the Apocalypse to be read between Easter and Pentecost. See Bingham, Antiq. book xiv. c. 3. §. 3. p. 678, &c.

32 Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 6. p. 363.

33 It only appears in the pages of Micrologus, Berno, and Hugo à S. Victore, writers of the 12th and 13th centuries.

34 This is mentioned by Chrysostom, Hom. xix. in Act. Apost. cited by Bingham, book xiv. c. 3. §. 8. It is also alluded to by Ambrose, see the quotation in note k, p. 127. vol. i. [prob. note 12, p. 128; JDL] and by Cyril of Alexandria, de Adorat. in Spiritu et Verit. p. 454. tom. i. lib. xiii.

35 I have endeavoured to trace the antiquity of the epistles in chapter iii. to which I beg to refer the reader for further information.

36 The psalm, or portion of a psalm, sung after the epistle, was always entitled gradual, from being chanted on the steps (gradus) of the pulpit. When sung by one person without interruption, it was called tractus, when chanted alternately by several singers, it was termed responsory. See Le Brun, Explication de la Messe, tom. i. p. 205.

37 See Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. cap. 6. p. 369.

38 Concil. Toletan. 4. can. 12. In quibusdam quoque Hispaniarum ecclesiis laudes post Apostolum decantantur, priusquam evangelium prædicetur; dum canones præcipiunt post Apostolum non laudes, sed evangelium annuntiari," &c. forbidding the custom.

39 The gradual has been ascribed to Cælestinus and Gregory the Great, bishops of Rome. Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 6. p. 367. See also Le Brun, Explication de la Messe, &c. tom. i. p. 204, &c.

40 Apost. Const. lib. ii. cap. 57. cited above, p. 27.

41 "Apostolum audivimus, psalmum audivimus, evangelium audivimus, consonant omnes divinæ lectiones." Sermo 165. de Verb. Apost. tom. v. ed. Benedict. p. 796.

42 "Primam lectionem audivimus Apostoli .... Deinde cantavimus psalmum .... post hæc evangelica lectio .... Has tres lectiones, quantum pro tempore possumus, pertractemus," &c. Augustin. Sermo 176. de Verb. Apost. tom. v. ed. Benedict. p. 839.

43 "Quantum laboratur in ecclesia ut fiat silentium cum lectiones leguntur? Si unus loquatur obstrepunt universi: cum psalmus legitur ipse sibi est effector silentii. Omnes loquuntur, et nullus obstrepit." Ambros. Præf. in Psal. i. p. 741. tom. i. ed. Benedict.

44 "Orientales Christiani Græcorum exemplo, plures sacræ scripturæ lectiones in liturgia celebrant, et in quibusdam diebus aut solemnibus festis, legunt primo caput aliquod ex Veteri Testamento, et ex Prophetis, Psalmi semper interponuntur, nec in numerum veniunt." Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. Collect. tom. i. p. 350.

45 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 68.

46 In Gaul, however, the Song of the Three Children was sung between the apostle and the gospel. See Germanus de Missa, Martene Anecdota, tom. v. p.92. Pamelii Liturgica Latin. tom. i. p. 295. See vol. i. p. 159, 173.

47 Gregor. Mag. Epist. ad Johan. Syracus. lib. ix. Epist. 12, p 940. tom. ii. Oper. ed. Benedict.

48 Bona Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 6. p. 370.

49 Miss. Sar. fo1. 11, 12. et passim.

50 "Evangelium Christi, quasi Diaconus lectitabas." Hieron. Epist. ad Sabinianum lapsum, p. 758. tom. iv. ed. Benedict.

51 Concil. Vasense 3. anno 529. canon ii. "Si Presbyter, aliqua infirmitate probibente, per seipsum non potuerit prædicere, sanctorum Patrum Homiliæ a Diaconibus recitentur. Si enim digni sunt Diacones quod Christus in Evangelio locutus est legere; quare indigni judicentur sanctorum Patrum expositiones publice recitare." Labbe, Concilia, tom. iv.

52 IsidorusHispalens. de Eccl. Off. lib. ii. c. 8. "Ipsi enim (Diaconi) clara voce in modum præconis admonent cunctos sive in orando, sive in flectendo genua, sive in psallendo, sive in lectionibus audiendo: ipsi etiam, ut aures habeamus ad Dominum, clamant: ipsi quoque evangelizant."

53 Tautên de tên hieran biblon (euaggeliôn) anaginôskei enthade monos ho archidiakonos. para de allois, diakonoi. en pollais de ekklêsiais, hoi hiereis monoi, en de episêmois hemerais, episkopoi, hôs en Kônstantinoupolei, kata tên prôtên hêmeran tês anastasimou heotês. Sozomen. Hist. Eccl. lib. vii. c. 19. p. 735. ed. Valesii. Paris. 1668.

54 "Per totas Orientis Ecclesias, quando legendum est Evangelium, accenduntur luminaria, jam sole rutilante: non utique ad fugandas tenebras, sed ad signum lætitiæ demonstrandum." Hieronymus adv. Vigilantium, tom. iv. pars 2. p. 284. ed. Benedict.

55 Renaudot. Liturg. Oriental. tom. i. p. 213. The bells of the oriental churches are made of boards, which are struck with a hammer.

56 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 69. Rupertus Abbas, lib. i. de Div. Officiis, c. 36. "Respondemus, gloria tibi Domine, glorificantes Dominum, quod misit nobis verbum salutis."

57 Apost. Const. lib. ii. c. 57.

58 Xenon de kakeino para Alexandreusi toutois, anaginôskomenôn gar tôn euaggeliôn, ouk epanistatai ho episkopos ho par’ allois out’ egnôn houte akêkoa.

Sozom. Hist. Eccl. lib. vii. c. 19.

59 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 69.

60 Miss. Sar. fol. 11.

61 Sparrow’s Collection, &c. p. 7.

62 Sparrow’s Collection, p. 124. There is still a "gospeller" in the church of Durham, and in other English cathedrals.

63 Gavantus says, the epistle is chanted on solemn occasions, "juxta cornu altaris, ubi celebrans legit epistolam—et est dextra pars ecclesiæ, intrantibus in eam." Tom. i. p. 202. The gospel is read at the other, or north corner of the altar.

64 See vol. i. p. 159. 173.

65 Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. c. i6.

66 Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 6. §. 2.

67 Chapter iii.

68 See Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, book x. ch. 4, for much information connected with this subject.

69 See Bingham as above; also bishop Pearson on the Creed, article viii.

70 Petron phêsi ton knaphea epioêsai—kai ev pasê sunaxei to sumbolon legesthai. Excerpta ex Eccl. Hist. Theodor. Lectoris a Nicephoro Callisto. edit. Valesii. p. 566. Paris, 1673.

71 Timotheos to tôn triakosiôn deka kai oktôn paterôn tês pisteôs sumbolon, kat’ hekastên sunaxin legesthai pareskeuasen. Theodor. Lect. ibid. p. 563.

72 Concil. 3. Tolet. anno 589. canon 2. "Quo et fides vera manifestum testimonium habeat, et ad Christi Corpus et Sanguinem prælibandum pectora populorum fide purificata accedant."

73 Berno Abbas de Reb. ad Missam pertinentibus, c. 2.

74 Martene de Ant. Eccl. Rit. lib. i. c. 4. art. 5. p. 376, 377.

75 Durantus says that the sermon followed the creed in his time, that is, in the sixteenth century. "Post symboli pronunciationem sequitur prædicatio." De Rit. Eccl. Catholicæ, lib. ii. c. 25.

76 Miss. Sarisb. fol. 11. 73. Miss. Ebor. Ordo Missæ infra Fest. Pentecost. Miss. Herefordens. Dom. 1. Adventus.

77 Ibid.

78 Labbe Concilia, tom. ii. col. 951, 954. Bull, Defensio Fidei Nicænæ, vol. v. p. 14. of his works, edited by the Rev. Edward Burton. Bingham Antiquities, book x. ch. 6. §. 14, &c. Our text of the Constantinopolitan creed is the same as that which has long been received by the western churches, and is translated from the ancient English liturgies. "Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem, factorem cœli et terræ, visbilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia sæcula, Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de cœlis, et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est, et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas, et ascendit in cœlum, sedet ad dexteram Patris, et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos, cuius regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum et vivificantem, qui ex Patre Filioque procedit, qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam; confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum, et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi sæculi. Amen." Missale Sarisburiense, fol. 73.

79 Pausamenou tou anaginôskontos, ho proestôs dia logon tên nouthesian kai proklêsin (vel paraialêsin) tês tôn kalôn toutôn mimêseôs poieitai. Justin. Martyr. Apolog. 1. ed. Thirlby, p. 97. Concil. Laodicen. can. 19. Sozomen. Hist. Eccl. lib. vii. c. 19. p. 734. ed. Vales.

80 Kai teleuttaios pantôn ho episkopos. Apost. Const. lib. ii. c. 57. p. 263. tom. i. ed. Clerici.

81 Bingham’s Antiquities, book ii. c. 3. §. 4. book xiv. c. 4. §. 2.

82 Oute de ho episkopos, oute allos tis enthade ep’ ekklêsias didaskei. Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. lib. vii. c. 19.

83 Bingham’s Antiquities, book xiv. c. 4. §. 3.

84 Lestrange’s Alliance of Divine Offices, p. 341.

85 It seems that this was the time to announce any thing to the people, as may be collected from Augustin. Sermo cxi.; at the end of which follow these words: Et post concionem "Quod novit caritas vestra suggerimus. Dies anniversarius ordinationis Domini senis Aurelii crastinus illucescit. Rogat et admonet per humilitatem meam caritatem vestram, ut ad basilicam Fausti devotissime convenire dignemini. Deo gratias." Tom. v. p. 563.

86 "Propterea fratres unusquisque vestrum quotiescumque cantat missam, usque dum ista quam patimur miseria in parochia nostra cessaverit, quoniam tales homines sunt, qui non propter salutem, sed propter consuetudinem, ad ecclesiam veniunt, et usque ad evangelium, juxta quod ista prædicare debueratis, in missa stare solent, et recedunt statim post apostolum id est post epistolam, hanc admonitionem ab initio usque ad finem, cum verbis prophetæ vel apostoli legite." Hincmar Remens. tom. ii. epist. 7. p. 149. ed. Sirmond. Paris. 1645.

87 Morinus de Pœnitentia, lib. viii. c. 14. §. 4.

88 Lestrange’s Alliance, &c, ut supra.

89 Ivo. Decretum, pars ii. cap. 120. "Ex concilio Aurelianensi, c. 3. Oportet ut in diebus Dominicis vel festis post sermonem missarum intra solemnia habitum, plebem sacerdos admoneat, ut juxta apostolicam institutionem, omnes in commune pro diversis necessitatibus preces fundant ad Dominum, pro rege et episcopis, et rectoribus ecclesiarum, pro pace pro peste, pro infirmis, qui in ipsa parochia lecto decumbunt, pro nuper defunctis, in quibus singulatim precibus plebs orationem Dominicam sub silentio dicat. Sacerdotes vero orationes ad hoc pertinentes per singulas admonitiones solenniter expleant. Post hæc saera celebretur oblatio, Ait enim primum omnium fieri orationes, &c."

90 Constitutiones Peckham. Wilkins, Concilia Mag. Brit. tom. ii. p. 54.

91 Sacerdotes vero parochiales seu vicarii temporales et non perpetui–in ecclesiis illis in quibus hujusmodi officia gerunt, illa sola simpliciter prædicent, una cum precibus consuetis, quæ in constitutione provinciali a bonæ memoriæ Joanne prædecessore nostro, bene et sancte in suppletionem ignorantiæ sacerdotum (quæ incipit, "ignorantia sacerdotum &c.") continentur expresse. Const. Arundel. tom. iii. p. 315. Wilkins, Concilia Magn. Brit.

92 Lyndwood remarks on the words "precibus consuetis" above, "sc. in diebus Dominicis post offertorium solitis fieri ad populum." Lyndwood, Provinciale, p. 291.

93 In the processional of Sarum. at the beginning, the bidding prayers and collects are printed at full length, for the purpose of being said in cathedrals immediately before the liturgy began, and "hæ preces prædictæ dicuntur supradicto modo, omnibus Dominicis per annum–Ita tamen quod in ecclesiis parochialibus, non ad processionem, sed post evangelium et offertorium supradicto modo dicuntur ante aliquod altare in ecclesia, vel in pulpito ad hoc constituto" Processionale Sar. fol. 6. These prayers also occur in the manual of the church of York, near the end, under the title of "preces pro diebus Dominicis."

94 As in the Apostolical Constitutions, the liturgies of James, Basil, Chrysostom, &c.

95 Bingham, Antiquities, book xiv. c. 4. §. 13.

96 Thus in Gaul Alcuin composed homilies by the command of Charlemagne; see Cave, Histor. Literaria, tom. i.

97 "Sacerdos diebus Solis et diebus festis populo sensum Evangelii Anglice dicere debet, et per orationem Dominicam ac symbolum apostolicum quam sæpissime potest, homines illos incitet, ut credant, et Christianismum colant," &c. Canon xxiii. Ælfrici. Wilkins, Concil. tom. i. p. 253.

98 See Cave, Historia Litetaria, tom. ii.

99 Liber Festivalis. London, 1511. Printed before in 1497.

100 Sparrow’s Collection, &c. p. 4.

101 The preacher very generally sat during the sermon, while the hearers stood. See Bingham, Antiquities, b. xiv.

102 See page 25. note 61 (not note 62, as in original text, JDL).

103 See above, p. 30. vol. i.

104 Concil. Laodicen. canon. xix.

105 Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 70.

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