Palmer: Origines Liturgicæ 18
Vol. I: Antiq. of the English Rit., Ch. IIIA, to Quinquagesima.
COLLECTS, EPISTLES, AND GOSPELS.
BEFORE I proceed to ascertain the antiquity of this portion of our ritual, I would observe, that the collects, and the lessons which we now call Epistles and Gospels, were originally recited from two books, the former entitled the Sacramentary, the latter the Lectionary. These two books, with a third called Antiphonary, contained the whole service for the Eucharist. The Sacramentary comprised the collects and the canon or prayers that never varied1. The Lectionary consisted of lessons from the Old and New Testaments, corresponding to our Law, Epistles, and Gospels2: and the Antiphonary supplied the anthems or verses for the beginning of the communion, the offertory, &c.3 About the eleventh or twelfth century it was found convenient generally to unite these three books, and the volume obtained the name of the Complete or Plenary Missal, or Book of Missæ4. Of this description were almost all  the liturgical books of the western churches, and the arrangement is still preserved in our own.
The eastern churches have, no sacramentaries, because they do not employ different prefaces and collects for different days, but make use of several liturgies, each of which is appropriated to a particular season of the year. The lessons and anthems are by them recited from distinct lectionaries and anthem books5.
The origin of collects, or prayers read before or between the lessons during the celebration of the liturgy, is involved in obscurity. Such prayers have certainly been used in all the western churches from a remote period; for we not only find them in the earliest monuments of the Roman liturgy, and of all which adopted that rite, but even in those of Gaul and Spain. None such occur in the ancient liturgies of Jerusalem, Antioch, Cæsarea, or Constantinople; but they appear in the same position as in the western liturgies in that of the Monophysites of Alexandria6; and we conclude that they must have been used in the Alexandrian liturgy prior to the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451, because the liturgy of the orthodox of that church gives plain signs of having been altered from one resembling in this respect that of the Monophysites7; and such resemblance must have been caused by the derivation of both from a common original, before their total  separation at that time. We have also Cassian’s testimony that collects were recited in his time, amongst the psalms and lessons of morning and evening prayer, by the Egyptians8: and Athanasius, in more than one place, seems plainly to allude to the existence of the same practice in his time, or early in the fourth century9. There is therefore a high degree of probability that the collects of the Alexandrian liturgy are of great antiquity. The use of collects is certainly very ancient in the west, but they probably cannot be traced so far as those of Alexandria. The latter indeed look much as if they were the models on which those of Rome and other western churches were formed; and if I were to hazard a conjecture on the origin of collects, I should say that they were introduced from Alexandria. We know certainly that the eastern Christians at an early period devised many improvements in the mode of celebrating divine service, which did not occur to the less lively and inventive imaginations of their brethren in the west; and that the latter were accustomed to imitate the former in their rites and ceremonies10. A time came, however, when  the tide of invention turned, and innumerable additions and alterations began to he originated in the west, while the eastern rites continued with little variation from age to age.
It has been thought that the collects originally did not vary with each celebration of the liturgy, but were always the same; and the office for Good Friday, or Parasceve in the ancient Roman sacramentary where there are several collects for the clergy, people, heretics, Jews, infidels11 &c. has been pointed out as a relic of the primitive custom. Augustine seems to allude to some such custom in his epistle to Vitalis of Carthage, who affirmed that we ought not to pray for unbelievers. "Employ thy disputations against the prayers of the church; and when thou hearest the priest of God at the altar exhorting the people to pray for the unbelieving, that God may convert them to the faith; and for the catechumens, that he may breathe into them a desire for regeneration; and for the faithful, that by his grace they may persevere in that which they have begun to be, then ridicule the pious words12."  Cœlestinus of Rome, about the same time, speaks of prayers resembling those mentioned by Augustine13. The ancient Leonian sacramentary, used in the Roman church in the fifth century, contains several collects for each feast, sometimes four or five; and the Irish sacramentary, originally derived from the Roman, contained several collects for different estates of men, which did not vary14. It is so difficult, however, to reconcile the idea of the invariableness of collects with the directions of the African church in the fourth and fifth centuries, which prohibited the use of collects, &c. that were not approved by competent authority15, evidently permitting any new collects that should be so approved; and with the variety of collects seen in the most ancient sacramentaries of Rome, Milan, &c. that I am inclined to think the variation of collects has been customary in the west from a most remote period; and the words of Augustine and Cœlestinus probably relate to some peculiar offices.
I now proceed to consider the antiquity of those individual collects which are found in the English  ritual. The majority of these occur in the Latin language, in the ancient missals of Salisbury, York, Hereford, &c. and they are also in the sacramentaries of the English church written before the Norman Conquest. We meet them in all the ancient MSS. of Gregory’s sacramentary, as used in the Roman, Italian, and other western churches, and thence shew that they formed part of that sacramentary when it was introduced into England by Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury; and in consequence, that they have been used by the church in this country for above twelve hundred years. Many of the collects, however, are much more ancient than the time of Gregory, A.D. 590; they occur in the sacramentary of Gelasius, patriarch of Rome A.D. 494, and some may be traced to the Leonian sacramentary, used in the Roman church about A.D. 483. In the following pages I have placed in parallel columns the English text of our collects, and the Latin, extracted from the ancient liturgical offices of the church of Salisbury, with which those of York and Hereford almost always agree16. I have also cited a manuscript sacramentary of the Anglo-Saxon church, written probably about the ninth or tenth century, and given by Leofric, bishop of Exeter, to his church before the Norman Conquest17. I have likewise referred to the sacramentary of Gregory, as published by Menard. When references to the above three monuments are appended to any collect, we may fairly consider it to have formed part of the sacramentary of Gregory  A.D. 590, and may conclude that it has been used in the English church for above twelve hundred years. When to these references I have subjoined another to the sacramentary of Gelasius, the collect to which it is appended may be considered as old as the year 494. Those collects which I have traced to the sacramentary of Leo are much more ancient than the time of Gelasius, and may be referred to the end of the fourth, or the earlier part of the fifth century18. I have also occasionally quoted the sacramentary or missal of Ambrose, or more properly of the church of Milan. This sacramentary has been different from that of Rome from a most remote period, and though the liturgy of Milan was originally derived from Rome19, yet the latter church may afterwards have borrowed from the sacramentary of the former some of those collects which are found in both, and have been so long used in the church of England. I have also had occasion to refer to the sacramentaries of the ancient Gallican church, which were in use before the emperor Charlemagne introduced the Roman liturgy into France20.
THE EPISTLES AND GOSPELS.
In another part of this work the reader will find some remarks on the antiquity of the custom of reading lessons from scripture in the Christian liturgy21. I have there remarked on the custom of the English church, of continually reading the same portion of the Law, containing the Decalogue,  before the other lessons22. In addition to this lesson from the Law, two others are taken from the Prophets, the Epistles of Paul, the catholic Epistles, the Acts of the holy Apostles, and the Gospels. The first being frequently taken from St. Paul’s Epistles, and the second always from the Gospels, they have long currently obtained the names of "the Epistle and the Gospel."
Almost all our Epistles and Gospels have been appropriated to their present situations for a great length of time. They are appointed for the same occasions in the most ancient monuments of the English church. In the succeeding pages I have traced the Epistles and Gospels now used by the church of England to her ancient liturgies. I have thought it sufficient to refer to the missal or sacramentary of the church of Sarum, because it generally agrees with those of Hereford and York, and was commonly used in England. I have traced these lessons to a period antecedent to the Norman Conquest, by means of the manuscript of Leofric before referred to23: and, finally, by means of the ancient Lectionarium or Comes of the Roman church, published by Pamelius24, I have already shewn that they  were brought to this country by Augustine, archbishop of Canterbury, and consequently have been used in the church of England, as at present, for more than twelve hundred years.
Before I conclude these introductory remarks, I wish to explain the manner in which the Epistles and Gospels are referred to in the following pages. I have only thought it necessary to insert the chapter and verse which mark the commencement of those lessons in the English ritual, because any one may immediately refer to them in the Prayer Book. In like manner I have only extracted the title, and the beginning and concluding words of the corresponding passage in the ancient lectionaries, &c. because any one with a Latin Bible can easily find the original.
Palmer: Origines Liturgicæ
COLLECTS, EPISTLES, AND GOSPELS.
THE FIRST SUNDAY IN ADVENT25.
THE EPISTLE. Rom. xiii. 8. Lectio Epistolæ beati Pauli Apostoli. Ad Romanos xiii. Fratres scientes quia hora est ... sed induemini Dominum Jesum Christum26.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matthew xxi. Evangelium secundum Mattheum xxi. In illo tempore cum appropinquasset .... benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini27.
THE SECOND SUNDAY IN ADVENT28.
THE EPISTLE. Romans xv. 4. Ad Romanos xv. Quæcumque enim scripta … et virtute Spiritus Sancti29.
 THE GOSPEL. St. Luke xxi. 25, Secundum Lucam xxi. Erunt signa in sole ... verba autem mea non transibunt30.
THE THIRD SUNDAY IN ADVENT31.
THE EPISTLE. I Cor. iv. 1. Ad Corinthios I. iv. Sic nos existimet homo ut ministros Christi … laus erit unicuique a Deo32.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matt. xi. 2. Secundum Matthæum xi. Cum audisset Joannes ... qui præparabit viam tuam ante te33.
THE FOURTH SUNDAY IN ADVENT.
THE COLLECT. O Lord, raise up we pray thee thy power, and come among us, and with great might succour us; that whereas, through our sins and wickedness, we are sore let and hindered in running the race that is set before us, thy bountiful grace and mercy may speedily help and deliver us; through the satisfaction of thy Son our Lord, to whom with thee and the Holy Ghost be honour and glory, world without end. Amen.
Excita, quæsumus, Domine potentiam tuam et veni, et magna nobis virtute succurre; ut per auxilium gratiæ tunc quod nostra peccata præpediunt, indulgentia tuæ propitiationis acceleret. Qui vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre34.
Phil. iv. 4. Ad Philippenses iv. Gaudete in Domino ... et intelligentias vestras
in Christo Jesu Domino nostro35.
THE GOSPEL. St. John i. 19. Secundum Johannem primo. Miserunt Judæi ... ubi erat Joannes baptizans36.
THE NATIVITY OF OUR LORD37
THE EPISTLE. Hebrews i. 1. Ad Hebræos primo. Multifarie multisque modis ... et anni tui non deficient38.
THE GOSPEL. St. John i. 1. Initium sancti evangelii secundum Joannem primo. In principio erat Verbum ... plenum gratiæ et veritatis39.
SAINT STEPHEN’S DAY.
THE COLLECT. Grant, O Lord, that in all our sufferings here upon earth for the  testimony of thy truth, we may steadfastly look up to heaven, and by faith behold the glory that shall be revealed; and being filled with the Holy Ghost, may learn to love and bless our persecutors by the example of thy first martyr St. Stephen, who prayed for his murderers to thee, O blessed Jesus, who standest at the right hand of God to succour all those that suffer for thee our only Mediator and Advocate. Amen.
Da nobis, quæsumus, Domine, imitari quod colimus, ut discamus et inimicos diligere, quia ejus natalitia celebramus, qui novit etiam pro persecutoribus exorare Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium tuum qui tecum vivit et regnat40.
FOR THE EPISTLE.
Acts vii. 55. Epistola. Lectio Actuum Apostolorum vi. et vii. Stephanus plenus
gratia et fortitudine obdormivit in Domino41.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matth. xxiii. 34. Secundum Mattheum xxiii. Ecce ego mitto ad vos … dicatis, Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini42.
SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST’S DAY.
THE COLLECT. Merciful Lord, we beseech thee to cast thy bright beams of light upon thy church, that it being enlightened by the doctrine of thy blessed apostle and evangelist St. John, may so walk in the light of thy truth, that  it may at, length attain to the light of everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Ecclesiam tuam quæsumus Domine benignus illustra: ut beati Joannis apostoli tui et evangelistæ illuminata doctrinis, ad dona perveniat sempiterna. Per Dominum43.
THE GOSPEL. St. John xxi. 19. Evangelium secundum Joannem xxi. Dixit Jesus Petro ... et scimus quia verum est testimoniuni ejus44.
THE INNOCENTS’ DAY.
THE COLLECT. O Almighty God, who out of the mouths of babes and sucklings hast ordained strength, and madest infants to glorify thee by their deaths; Mortify and kill all vices in us, and so strengthen us by thy grace, that by the innocency of our lives, and constancy of our faith, even unto death, we may glorify thy holy name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Deus cujus hodierna die præconium innocentes martyres, non loquendo sed moriendo, confessi sunt; omnia in nobis vitiorum mala mortifica, ut fidem tuam, quam lingua nostra loquitur, etiam moribus vita fateatur. Per45.
FOR THE EPISTLE. Rev. xiv. i. Lectio libri Apocalypsis beati Joannis Apostoli xiv. In diebus illis vidi ... sine macula enim sunt ante thronum Dei46.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matth. ii. 13. Secundum Mattheum ii. Angelus Domini apparuit in. somnis Joseph ... et noluit consolari quia non sunt47.
THE SUNDAY AFTER CHRISTMAS-DAY48
THE EPISTLE. Gal. iv. i. Ad Galathas iv. Quanto tempore heres .... quod si filius et heres per Deum49.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matthew i. 18. Secundum Mattheum primo. Cum esset desponsata ... salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis corum50.
THE CIRCUMCISION OF CHRIST.
THE COLLECT. Almighty God, who madest thy blessed Son to be circumcised, and obedient to the law for man; Grant us the true circumcision of the Spirit; that our hearts, and all our members, being mortified from all worldly and carnal lusts, we may in all things obey thy blessed will; through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Omnipotens Deus, cujus unigenitus hodierna die, ne legem solveret, quam adimplere venerat, corporalem suscepit circumcisionem; spirituali circumcisione mentes vestras ab omnibus vitiorum incentivis expurget; et suam in vos infundet bene-dictionem. Amen51.
THE GOSPEL. St. Luke ii. 15. Secundum Lucam ii. Postquam consummati sunt ... priusquam in utero conciperetur52.
| Advent | Septuagesima |
THE COLLECT. O God, who by the leading of a star didst manifest thy only begotten Son to the Gentiles; Mercifully grant, that we, which know thee now by faith, may  after this life have the fruition of thy glorious Godhead; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Deus, qui hodierna die unigenitum tuum Gentibus, stella duce, revelasti; concede propitius, ut qui jam te ex fide cognovimus, usque ad contem-plandum speciem tuæ celsitudinis perducamur. Per eumdem53.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matthew ii. 1. Secundum Mattheum ii. Cum natus esset ... reversi sunt in regionem suam54.
THE FIRST SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.
THE COLLECT. O Lord we, beseech thee mercifully to receive the prayers of thy people which call upon thee; and grant that they may, both perceive and know what things they ought to do, and also may have grace and power faithfully to fulfil the same; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Vota, quaesumus, Domine, suppli-cantis populi cœlesti pietate prosequere; ut et quæ agenda sunt, videant; et ad implenda quæ viderint, convalescant. Per55.
THE EPISTLE. Rom. xii. 1. Epistola ad Romanos xii. Fratres, obsecro vos per misericordias Dei ... alterius membra in Christo Jesu Domino nostro56.
THE GOSPEL. St. Luke ii. 41. Secundum Lucam ii. Cum factus esset Jesus annorum duodecim ... proficiebat sapientia ætate et gratia apud Deum et hominem57.
THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.
THE COLLECT. Almighty and everlasting God, who dost govern all things in heaven and  earth; Mercifully hear the supplications of thy people, and grant us thy peace all the days of our life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui cœlestia simul et terrena moderaris supplicationes populi tui clementer exaudi, et pacem tuam nostris concede temporibus. Per Dominum58.
Romans xii. 6. Ad Romanos xii. Habentes donationes ... sed humilibus
THE GOSPEL. St. John ii. 1. Evangelium secundum Joannem ii. Nuptiæ factæ sunt ... et crediderunt in eum discipuli ejus60.
THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.
THE COLLECT. Almighty and ever-lasting God, mercifully look upon our infirmities, and in all our dangers and necessities stretch forth thy right hand to help and defend us; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, inf-irmitatem nostram propitius respice, atque ad protegendum nos dexteram tuæ majestatis extende. Per Dominum61.
THE EPISTLE Romans
xii. 16. Ad Romanos xii. Nolite esse prudentes apud vosmetipsos ... noli vinci a
malo, sed vince in bono malum62.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matthew viii. 1. Secundum Mattheum viii. Cum descendisset Jesus de monte .... et sanatus est puer in illa hora63.
THE FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.
THE COLLECT. O God, who knowest us to be set in the midst of so many and great  dangers, that by reason of the frailty ‘of our nature we cannot always stand upright; Grant to us such strength and protection, as may support us in all dangers, and carry us through all temptations ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Deus qui nos in tantis periculis constitutos, pro humana scis fragilitate non posse subsistere; da nobis salutem mentis et corporis, ut ea quæ pro peccatis nostris patimur, te adjuvante vincamus. Per64.
Romans xiii. anima potestatibus sublimioribus subdita sit ... ministri enim Dei
sunt, in hoc ipsum servientes65.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matth. viii. ..23. Secundum Mattheum viii. Ascendente Jesu in naviculam … quia venti et mare obediunt ei66.
THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.
THE COLLECT. O Lord, we beseech thee to keep thy Church and household continually in thy true religion; that they who do lean only upon the hope of thy heavenly grace, may evermore be defended by thy mighty power; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Familiam tuam, quæsumus, Domine, continua pietate custodi; ut quæ in sola spe gratiæ cœlestis innititur, tua semper protectione muniatur. Per Dominum67.
Coloss. iii. .2. Ad Colossenses iii. Induite vos sicut electi ... gratias
agentes Deo et Patri. Per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum68.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matthew xiii. 24. Secundum Mattheum xiii.  Simile factum est regnum cœlorum homini … triticum autem congregate in horreum meum69.
|Epiphany | Quinquagesima |
THE COLLECT. O Lord, we beseech thee favourably to hear the prayers of thy people; that we who are justly punished for our offences, may be mercifully delivered by thy goodness, for the glory of thy name; through Jesus Christ our Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.
Preces populi tui, quæsumus Domine, clementer exaudi, ut qui juste pro peccatis nostris affligimur, pro tui nominis gloria misericorditer liber-emur. Per Dominum70.
THE EPISTLE. 1 Cor.
ix. 24. Ad Corinthios i ix. Nescitis quia hi qui in stadio currunt ... Petra
autem erat Christus71.
THE GOSPEL. St. Matth. xx. 1. Secundum Mattheum xx. Simile est regnum cœlorurn homini patrifamilias.... multi enim sunt vocati, panci vero electi72.
THE COLLECT. O Lord God, who seest that we put not our trust in any thing that we do; Mercifully grant that by thy power we may be defended against all adversity; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Deus qui conspicis quia ex nulla nostra actione confidimus; concede propitius, ut contra omnia adversa Doctoris gentium protectione muni-amur73.
THE EPISTLE. 2 Cor. xi. 19. Ad Corinthios 2 xi. Libenter suffertis insipientes ... libenter igitur gloriabor in infirmitatibus meis ut inhabitet in me virtus Christi74.
THE GOSPEL. St. Luke viii. 4. Secundum Lucam viii. Cum turba plurima conveniret ... et fructum afferunt in patientia75.
THE EPISTLE. 1 Cor. xiii. i. Ad Corinthios i xiii. Si linguis hominum loquar et angelorum ... major autem horum est caritas77.
THE GOSPEL. St. Luke xviii. 31. Secundum Lucam xviii. Assumpsit Jesus duodecim ... et omnis plebs ut vidit dedit laudem Deo78.
1 See Zaccaria, Bibliotheca Ritualis, tom. i. p. 39, &c.
2 The Lectionary, sometimes called "Comes," or "Liber Comitis," often contained the Gospels as well as the other lessons; but generally the Gospels were read from a separate volume, entitled, "Evangelistarium," or "Evangeliarium." See Zaccaria, p. 35-39.
3 The Antiphonary was often called "Graduale," because some of the anthems were chanted on the steps (gradus) of the ambon or pulpit. Zaccaria, p. 28, &c.
4 Zaccaria, p. 49, 50.
5 See Zaccaria, p. 17, 18. Cave's second Dissertation, at the end of his "Historia Literaria," contains an account of all the ritual books of the Greek church, in alphabetical order.
6 Liturgia Basilii Copt.. Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. tom. i. p. 2-8.
7 Liturgia Marci, ibid. p. 131-137.
8 Cassian. Instit. lib. ii. c. 5, 6, &c.
9 See the passages quoted above in chap. i. part i. §. 16.
10 Thus the custom of alternate chanting, according to which the choir were divided into two parts, who sang alternately, was brought from the east by Ambrose, according to Paulinus and Augustine. The council of Toledo, A.D. 589, introduced the Constantinopolitan Creed into the liturgy, in accordance with the eastern churches. "Constituit synodus ut per omnes ecclesias Hispaniæ et Galliciæ, secundum formam orientalium ecclesiarum, concilii Constantinopolitani, hoc est 150 episcoporum, symbolum fidei decantetur." Concil. iii. Toletan. can. 2. This custom was followed afterwards at Rome. Bona, Rer. Lit. lib. ii. c. 8. p.387. Theform Kyrie eleëson was evidently derived from the east, and the council of Vaison, directing it to be used, refers to the custom of the cast. Concil. ii. Vasens. can. 3. Litanies and processions were also introduced from the east. Gregory the Great certainly imitated the liturgy of Constantinople in placing the Lord’s Prayer immediately after the Roman canon; and the circumstance gave great offence to some who were zealous for the superiority of the see of Rome above that of Constantinople. Gregorii Mag. Epist. lib ix. Epist. 12. p. 940. tom. ii. Oper. edit. Benedictin.
11 Menard. Sacram. Gregorii p. 61, &c.
12 "Exerce contra orationes ecclesiæ disputationes tuas, et quando audis sacerdotem Dei ad altare exhortantem populum Dei orare pro incredulis, ut eos Deus convertat ad fidem; et pro catechumenis, ut eis desiderium regenerationis inspiret; et pro fidelibus, ut in eo quod esse cœperunt, ejus munere perseverent, subsanna pias voces." August. Epist. ad Vitalem Carthag.
13 Cœlestinus in Epistola ad Galliar. episcopos de gratia Dei pro Prospero et Hilario, c. 11.
14 See Dissertation on Liturgies, section xi.
15 De precibus ad altare dicendis canon ciii. "Placuit etiam hoc, ut preces quæ probatæ fuerint in concilio, sive praefationes, sive commendationes, seu manus impositiones, ab omnibus celebrentur, nec aliæ, omnino contra fidem præferantur, sed quæcumque a prudentioribus fuerint collectæ dicantur." Labbe, Concilia, tom, ii. p. 1117. See also, Concil. African. can 70, Labbe, tom. ii. p. 1662. "Preces" here mean collects, "præfationes" prefaces; "commendationes" refer to the part after "hanc igitur." in the canon of the ancient Roman liturgy, which was often varied on special occasions, Bona, Rer. Lit. p. 438. "Manus impositiones" signified the long benedictions before communion, See Bona, Rer. Lit. p. 465, &c.
16 For notices of these ancient English rites, see Dissertation, section xi.
17 Now in the Bodleian Library.
18 For an account of the sacramentaries of Gelasius and Leo, see Dissertation, section vi.
19 See Dissertation, sect. vii.
20 See Dissertation, section ix.
21 Chap. iv. sect. ii. iv. v.
22 Chapter iv. sect. ii.
23 The beginning words of each epistle and gospel are inserted in the margin of this manuscript by some later hand than that which wrote the text: but the character of these annotations is so ancient, that we are justified in referring them to a period long prior to the Norman Conquest.
24 Pamelii Liturgicon, tom. ii. I have referred to this lectionary, which bears the name of "Comes Hieronymi" in the work of Pamelius, because it seems to be at least as old as any other ancient Roman lectionary that has been published. Jerome is said to have arranged the lectionary of the Roman church; but as this only rests on the authority of writers of the eleventh or twelfth century, it is not worthy of attention.
25 A post-communion prayer for Advent, in the sacramentary of Gelasius, seems to resemble the collect. "Preces populi tui, quæsumus Domine, clementer exaudi: ut qui de adventu Unigeniti tui secundum carnem lætantur; in secundo eum venerit in majestate sua, prœmium æternæ vitæ percipient. Per." Gelasii Sacr. Muratori, Liturg. Rom. Vet. tom. i. p. 683. Ambros. Sacr. ap. Pamel. Liturgic. tom. i. p. 441. MS. Leofr. fol. 154. The introduction of this collect is evidently derived from the Epistle.
26 Miss. Sarisb. Dom. i. Adv. fol. x.
27Miss. Sarisb. fol. xi.
28 The collect is founded on the epistle. In the liturgy of S. James, there is a good collect after the reading of the scriptures, which may be thought to merit transcription. Ho enêchêsas hêmas Theos ta theia sou logia kai sôtêria, phôtison tas psuchas hêmôn tôn hamartôlôn eis tên tôn prolechthentôn katalêpsin, hôs mê monon akroatas ophênai tôn pneumatikôn asmatôn, alla kai poiêtas praxeôn agathôn, pistin meterchomenous anupoulon, bion amempton, politeian anegklêton. In the very next prayer part of our collect is embodied. Despota zôopoie, kai tôn agathôn charêge, ho dous tois anthrôpois tên makarian elpida tês aiôniou zôês, ton kurion hêmôn Iêsoun Christon, k. t. l. Lit. Jacobi Assemani Cod. Lit. tom. v. p. 14, 15.
29 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xii. Dom. ..2. Adventus.
30 Miss. Sar. fol. xii.
31 This collect resembles some very ancient prayers for Advent. "Excita Domine corda nostra ad præparandas Unigeniti tui vias, ut per ejus adventum purificatis tibi mentibus servire mereamur. Qui tecum vivit et regnat," &c. Miss. Sar. Dom. 2. Advent. fol. xii. MS. Leofr. 150. "Conscientias nostras quæsumus, Omnipotens Deus, cotidie visitando purifica; ut veniente Domino Filio tuo, paratam sibi in nobis inveniat mansionem." Gelas. Sacr. Murat. tom. i. p. 681. Gregorii Sacr. Menard. p. 202. Ambros. Sacr. Pamel. tom, i. p. 443. MS. Sacrament. Leofr. fol. 154.
32 Miss. Sar. Dom. 3. Adv. fol. xiii.
33 Miss. Sar. Dom, 3. Adv. fol. xiii.
34 Miss. Sar. Dom. 4. Adventus, fol. xv; MS. Leofr. fol 153; Sacr. Gelasii, Murat. tom. i. p. 680; Gregorii, Menard. p. 201; Ambrosii, Pamel. tom. i. p. 445.
35 Miss. Sarisb. Dom. 4. Adv. fol. xv.
36 Miss. Sarisb. Dom. 4. Adv. fol. xv.
37 Though the collect for this day is not directly translated from the ancient offices of the church; yet we may trace a similarity of ideas between it and two collects in the sacramentary of Gregory and the liturgy of Sarum. "Almighty God, who hast given us thus thine only begotten Son to take our nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure virgin: Grant that we being regenerate, and made thy children by adoption and grace, may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ," &c. "Præsta quæsumus, Omnipotens Deus, ut natus hodie Salvator mundi, sicut divinæ nobis generationis est auctor, ita et immortalitatis sit ipse largitor. Qui tecum vivit, et regnat Deus." Miss. Sarisb. fol. xviii. Sacramentar. Gregorii Menard. p. 7. "Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui hunc diem per incarnationem Verbi tui, et partum beatæ Mariæ Virginis consecrasti, da populis tuis in hac celebritate consortium, ut qui, tua gratia sunt redempti, tua sint adoptione securi. Per eundem." Sacr. Gregor. Menard. p. 7.
38 Miss. Sarisb. 3. Missa in die Nativit. Domini fol. xviii. Miss. Mosarabic. Mabillon, de Lit. Gall. p. 107. Comes vel Lectionarius Pamel. Liturg. tom.. ii. p. 2.
39 Miss. Sarisb. 3. Missa in die Nat. Dom. fol. xviii. Capitula ap. Marten. tom. v. p. 65.
40 Miss. Sarisb. in die Sancti Stephani, fol. xviii. Gregorii Liber Sacrament. Menard. p. 8. MS. Sacrament. Leofric. Exon. fol. 158. "It is ordered in the missal and breviary, that every day till the circumcision, ‘fiat commemoratio de Nativitate.’" MS. Annotations of bishop Lloyd on B. of C.P.
41 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xix. MS. Leofric. 158. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 2.
42 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xix. MS. Leofric. 158. Capitula Marten. p. 66. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 2.
43 Miss. Sarisb. In die sancti Joannis evangelista. fol. xix. MS. Leofric. 159. Gregorii Liber Sacr. Menard. p. 10.
44 Miss. Sarisb. in die 8. Joannis evangelistæ, fol.xix. MS. Leofric. 159. Capitula Martene, p. 66. tom. v. Comes Pamel. Lit. tom. ii. p. 3.
45 Miss. Sarisb. in die Sanctorum Innocentium martyrum, fol. xix. MS. Sacramentar. Leofr. 160. Sacramentar. Gregorii Menard, p. 11. Sacr. Gelasii Muratori Lit. Rom. tom. i. p. 499.
46 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xix. MS. Sacr. Leofr. fol. 160. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 3.
47 Miss. Sar. fol. xx. MS. Leofr. 160. Capitula Martene Anee. tom. v. p. 66. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 3.
48 The same collect as that for Christmas-day.
49 Miss. Sarisb. 6 die a Nativ. Dom. fol. xx. MS. Leofr. 69. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 3.
50 Miss. Sarisb. in Vigil. Nativ. Dom. fol. xvi. Capitula ap. Martene Anecdota, tom. v. p. 65. Comes Pamel. Lit. tom. ii. p. 1.
51 Benedictio in octavis Domini Gregor. Sacr. Menard. p. 13. MS. Leofr. Sacr. fol. 70.
52 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xxi. MS. Leofr. fol. 69.
53 Miss. Sarisb. in die Epiphaniæ, fol. xxii. MS. Leofric, fol. 71. Gregorii Liber Sacramentorum Menard. p. 15.
54 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xxii. MS. Leofr. fol. 71. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 4.
55 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xxiii. Dominica prima post octavas Epiphaniæ. MS. Sacr. Leofr. fol. 73. Gregor. Liber Sacr. Menard. p. 17. Ambrosii Liturgia Pamel. Liturg. tom. i. p. 316.
56 Miss. Sar. fol. xxiii. MS. Leofr. 73. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 4.
57 Miss. Sar. fol. xxiii. MS. Leofr. 73. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 4.
58 Miss. Sarisb. Dom. secunda post octavas Epiphaniae, fol. xxiv. MS. Leofr. 73. Gregorii Liber Sacr. Menard. p. 18. Ambros. Miss. Pamel. I;iturg. tom. i. p. 316.
59 Miss Sarisb. fol. xxiv. MS. Leofr. fol. 74. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 5.
60 Miss. Sar. fol. xxiv. MS. Sacr. Leofr. fol. 74. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 6.
61 Dominica tertia post oct. Epiph. Miss. Sar. fol. xxv. Ambros. Miss. ap. Pamel. Liturg. tom. i. p. 317. Gregorii Liber Sacr. Menard. p. 25. MS. Sacr. Leofric. fol. 73.
62 Miss. Sarisb. fol. xxv. MS. Leofr. fol. 75. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 6.
63 Miss. Sar. fol xxv. MS. Leofr. fol. 75. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 6.
64 Miss. Sar. Dominica quarta post octav. Epiph. fol. xxv. MS. Leofr. fol. 74. Gregorii Liber Sacr. Menard. p. 26.
65 Miss. Sar. feria vi. post Dom. i. post octav. Epiph. fol. xxiv. The Epistle for this Sunday is taken from the same chapter, a little further on.
66 Miss. Sar. fol, xxv. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. P. 7.
67 Miss. Sarisb. Doininica v. post octav. Epiph. fol. xxvi. Ambros. Miss. Pamel. Liturg. tom. 1. p. 325. Gregorii Liber Sacr Menard. p. 26, MS. Leofr. fol. 75.
68 Miss. Sar. Dom. v. post. octav. Epiph. fol. xxvi. Comes. Pamel.. tom.. ii. p. 8.
69 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvi. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 8.
70 Miss. Sarisb. Dominica in Septuagesima fol. xxvi. Ambros. Miss. Pamel. Liturg. tom. i. p. 324. Gregorii Sacram. Menard. p. 32.MS. Leofr. fo1. 78.
71 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvi. MS. Leofr. f. 78. Cones Pamel. tom. ii. p. 9
72 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvi. MS. Leofr. f. 78. Cones Pamel. tom. ii. p. 9
73 Miss. Sarisb Dominica in Sexagesima fol. xxvii. Gregorii Sacramentar. Menard. p. 32. MS. Leofr. f. 78.
74 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvii. MS. Leofr. 79. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 10.
75 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvii. MS. Leofr. 79. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 10.
76 The collect in Miss. Sar. fol. xxviii. and in MS. Leofr. fo1. 79. is different from ours, which is beautifully formed from the ancient epistle.
77 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvii. MS. Leofr. fo1. 79. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 10.
78 Miss. Sar. fol. xxvii. MS. Leofr. fo1. 79. Comes Pamel. tom. ii. p. 10.