A Harmony of Anglican Doctrine
with the doctrine of the catholic and apostolic church of the East:
being the longer Russian catechism:
with an appendix consisting of notes and extracts from Scottish and Anglican authorities.
Appendix: Consisting of Notes to the Foregoing Catechism, with Extracts from Public Documents of the Scottish and Anglican Churches, and from the Writings of Some of their Most Celebrated Divines;
Designed to shew that there is in the Anglican Communion Generally, and more Particularly and Pre-eminently in the Scottish Church, an Element of Orthodoxy, Capable, by a Synodical Act, of Declaring Unity and Identity with the Eastern Catholic Church.
by William Palmer [M]
Aberdeen: A Brown, 1846.
A. Baptism is a Sacrament in which a man who believes, having his body thrice plunged in water in the Name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, dies to the carnal life of sin, and is born again to a life spiritual and holy.Orthodox Catechism, p. 56.
I. See above, under Note I.: and the Baptismal Offices of the British Churches. In the English Catechism there are the following Questions and Answers on this subject:
"Q. How many parts are there in a Sacrament? A. Two; the outward visible sign, and the inward spiritual grace. Q. What is the outward visible sign, or form in Baptism? A. Water, wherein the person is baptized, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Q. What is the inward and spiritual grace? A. A death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness: for being by nature born in sin, and the children of wrath, we are hereby made the children of grace." See also the Preface to the same Catechism: and the Scottish Catechisms of Bishop Innes; (pp. 7, 8, 9, 36.) of Bishop Jolly; (pp. 3, 36, 57, 68.) and of Bishop Moir; pp. 7, 11. 43, 46. 99.
II. Dr. Rattray, Bishop of Dunkeld in Scotland, has the following:
"We are first entered into this society of the Church, and made members of this, which is Christ's Body, by Baptism; in which the baptized person 1. renounceth, &c.; 2. gives himself up to Christ's service, &c.; 3. professes his belief of Christ's doctrine, promising to hold fast that profession; and 4. engageth to live in obedience to His laws: upon which, God granteth him 1. a full remission of his original sin, and of all his antecedent actual transgressions, if he hath committed any, cleansing him from all stain and pollution of them in the water of Baptism. 2. He giveth him a title to the Holy Spirit, as a principle of new life to the Mystical Body of Christ, derived from Him the Head: 3. and by this Spirit he is .XXIIL entitled to the Resurrection of his body, &c.; and 4. to a happy Immortality, if he continues stedfast in the performance of the conditions undertaken by him. 5. God promises to accept of a sincere though imperfect obedience to His laws, provided it be universal, and that he keep free from all heinous and mortal sin, and still be improving and going on to perfection. And, lastly, 6. if he shall be so unhappy as to pollute his baptism by any such heinous and mortal sin, God is graciously pleased in this covenant to promise, that upon a laborious and thoroughly practical repentance, He will pardon his lapse, and receive him again into favour.
"The symbol by which this covenant is transacted is Water, in which the person is baptized"(by trine immersion, or affusion; See Rubric of the Baptismal Office in the English Ritual, 1548.) "to signify his being washed from all stain of sin. And he is thus baptized in or into the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; whereby is signified his being made the disciple of the Blessed Trinity in the School of Christ, the Doctrine of Christ being that of the Father, and the Holy Spirit receiving it from Christ, to teach it to His Church; and likewise his being made a member of that Body, of which the Father and the Son are the Heads, the One in subordination to the other, and the Holy Spirit the Bond of unity, and principle of spiritual life to it, derived from the Father, by or through the Son. And by his being dipped in this water, (or, in case of necessity, having it poured upon him,) is represented, and consequently in this symbolical way of covenanting, effected, on God's part, his being buried with Christ into His death; the death of Christ being applied to him, as made a member of that Body, for which He suffered as the Head. And being thus dead, and buried with Christ, with respect to the former life of the old man, by his going under the water, he is, by his rising out of it again, made partaker of Christ's Resurrection, 1. to a new and spiritual life, which is mystically a new creation, or formation of him, his regeneration or second birth, whereby he is made a pure and holy temple, fitted for the inhabitation of the Holy Spirit, the principle of this new life; by which Spirit he is 2. to be raised also to a glorious immortality at the Last Day. And on the part of the baptized person is signified, and thereby undertaken, that he shall reckon indeed himself to be dead unto sin, so as not to let it reign any more in his mortal body, but alive unto God in Jesus Christ our Lord, by walking in newness of life: and likewise that he shall be ready, if God in His providence call him to it, not only to part with whatever is dearest to him here, but also to die for the name of the Lord Jesus; seeing that if we suffer with him, we shall also partake of the glory of His Resurrection."P. 6, &c. Û vi. and vii.
III. For Baptism of Children, Sponsors, and Exorcism before Baptism, and the Chrysom or White Garment, see the First and Present English Rituals. For Exorcism, as still recognized by the British Church, see the Canon, (A.D. 1602.) forbidding any to Exorcise without first obtaining the license of their Bishops.
Of "the force of the Sign of the Cross used at Baptism and on other occasions."Orthodox Catechism, p, 58.
I. In the First English Ritual the Sign of the Cross is prescribed to be used both at Baptism and on other occasions; as at Confirmation, the consecration of the Eucharist, the benediction of Matrimony, and the Unction of the Sick with oil, the Coronation of Kings, &c. The retention of the order for its use at Baptism giving great offence to the Puritan or Calvinizing party, the Church of England in 1603 framed a canon expressly to defend this usage, from which the following is an extract:
"The honour and dignity of the name of the Cross begat a reverent estimation even in the Apostles' times of the Sign of the Cross, which the Christians shortly after used in all their actions: ... and this Sign they did not only use themselves with a kind of glory, when they met with any Jews, but signed therewith their children, when they were christened:... And this use of the Sign of the Cross in Baptism was held in the primitive Church, as well by the Greeks as the Latins, with one consent and great applause. At which time, if any had opposed themselves against it, they would certainly have been censured as enemies of the name of the Cross, and consequently of Christ's merits, the Sign whereof they could no better endure. This continual and general use of the Sign of the Cross is evident by many testimonies of the ancient Fathers."Can. XXX.
II. It is related of Archbishop Laud, that before the Coronation of King Charles I. "finding the old Crucifix among the regalia, he caused it to be placed upon the altar, as in former times." (Heylins Life, p. 144.) He restored too the broken Crucifix in Lambeth Chapel.State Trials, i. 423.
III. "By the Sign of the Cross," writes Bishop Montague, quoting the words of Athanasius, "all magic spells are disappointed, sorcery and witchcraft coming to nothing, all idols are abandoned and forsaken.. . . We have also spiritual conjurations;' saith Chrysostom, 'the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the power of the Cross.' I could tell," continues the Bishop, "some experimental effects thereof, some experimented effects of my own knowledge. What, if upon divers extremities I have found ease and remedy by using that ejaculatory prayer of our Litany, Per Crucem, &c.; and when I said it, what if I made the Sign of the Cross? . . . The Cross of our Saviour, in the external Sign thereof, being as much vilified and despised by furious Puritans in these days, as ever it was by frantic Pagans of old, why may not God, to teach men better manners, and to check this exorbitancy against the Sign of our dear Redeemer's death, do now, as He hath done in the days of old, and shew some sign and token to magnify the thing so much despised."Appeal, p. 275, &c.
And again, to the charge of the Puritans, that he used the Sign of the Cross "not only in Baptism," but elsewhere, he rejoins thus:
" Not only in Baptism,' ye say: tell me then, are ye come so far towards the Church of England, as to allow signing with the Cross in Baptism? . . There is hope you may grow in time, upon better advice, in love and practice with the Sign of the Cross in the forehead and elsewhere. If it be not superstitious to sign it in the forehead, why is it to sign any other part of the body? Why more out of Baptism, than in Baptism? What hindereth but that I may sign myself with the Sign of the Cross in any part of the body, at any time; at night, when I go to bed, in the morning, when I rise; at my going out, or at my returning home? The ancient Church so used it out of Baptism, ordinarily; and so may we."Ibid.
IV. Dean Hickes writes thus, expressing his regrets for the loss of the ordinary use of this Sign of the Cross:
"As for the transient Signs of the Cross which in the pure ancient times were used in religious worship, I very much approve of the use of them; as we do in Baptism; and as I would have done in Anointing the Sick with oil, and persons Confirmed with Chrism, were we so happy as to have those primitive religious rites and usages restored."Supplement of Additions to the Third Edit, of Dr. Hickes' Two Treatises, p. 46.
A. Unction with Chrism is a Mystery, in which the baptized believer, being anointed with holy Chrism on certain parts of the body, in the Name of the Holy Ghost, receives the Gifts of the Holy Ghost for growth and strength in spiritual life.Orthodox Catechism, p. 59.
I. According to the First English Ritual Confirmation was administered both by Unction with Chrism and by the Imposition of the Bishop's Hands: by that now in use the Imposition of the Bishop's Hands alone is retained, prayer being made at the same time for the seven-fold Gifts of the Holy Ghost. And it is acknowledged in the Russian Catechism that the Apostles themselves conferred the Gift of the Holy Ghost in this way.
II. Thorndike, going over the Five lesser Sacraments in order, speaks thus of Confirmation: "The Gift of the Holy Ghost, which Baptism promiseth, dependeth upon the Bishop's blessing."P. 118.
III. The Scottish Bishop Rattray has the following:"As in the first creation, God first made Man, and then breathed into him the Breath of Life; so in this New Creation or Regeneration, after our death unto sin, and burial with Christ, by going under the water, we are raised out of it again pure and clean, as created anew in Christ Jesus, and made a holy temple for the divine Spirit to dwell in. And being thus regenerated in Baptism, the Holy Ghost, the principle of this New Life, answering to the Breath of Life in the first creation, is infused into this His temple by Confirmation." And then he continues thus:
"The Symbol by which this Spirit was conferred in the primitive Church, from the very days of the Apostles, was Chrism, with the Sign of the Cross, and the Laying on of the Hands of the Bishop: and the Spirit itself, as thus conferred in Confirmation, is called Unction, and is the Seed of the Father, the Spirit of Adoption, by which we cry Abba, Father, and have freedom to draw near unto God in full assurance of faith; by which we become the sons of God, and if sons, then heirs, and co-heirs with Christ, our elder Brother, of the heavenly inheritance. And thus our Baptismal regeneration is completed by our being born again both of Water and of the Spirit."Instructions, &c. p. 17. Û ix. and x.
IV. The same writer quotes as follows from Dr. Hickes' Translation of St. Pacian, To the Catechumens:
"For neither will he seem to be admitted into the Church, who has not believed, or to be begotten by Christ, who has not received the Spirit... But these things cannot be accomplished otherwise than by the Sacrament of Baptism, and Chrism, and the Bishop. For they are purged from Sin by Baptism; by Chrism the Holy Ghost is shed upon them; and both these we obtain by the hand and mouth of the Bishop. And so the New Man is born again, and is renewed in Christ.' (P. 536.) The same excellent Dr. Hickes to Mr. Nelson writeth thus: ' Pray, Sir, do but recollect upon how many subjects I was invited to discourse by this very citation of St. Pacian, concerning the way whereby fallen man recovers the supernatural principle of the Spirit of God, by which we are regenerated, and made new men. If you can remember no more than what from thence I discoursed on the subject of the moral Shechina, from the New Testament and the Book of Wisdom ; of receiving the Spirit by the ministration and prayer of the Priest or Bishop in Baptism, and by Imposition of the Bishop's hands, and by Chrism; and in discoursing of which I gave you my reasons, for which I thought it a Rite of the Apostolical age, and wished it restored to the Church; and what I wrote of Repentance, by which we recovered the Spirit again, when we had lost it by deadly sin afterBaptism and Confirmation, I hope you will discharge me from the labour of making my discourses upon them again."Thus far Dr. Hickes, as quoted by Bishop Rattray.
V. In the Scottish Catechism of Aberdeen, we have the following: "Q. What is the next thing (after a valid Baptism) necessary to qualify us for the holy Communion? A. Confirmation by a Bishop of the Catholic Church. Q. Why is this necessary? A. To implant that Principle of spiritual life in us, which the holy Eucharist is designed to nourish."P. 41.
And again: "Q. What is Confirmation? A. The Seal or completion of Baptism. Q. What is its effect? A. The being Anointed with the Holy Ghost, in order to be perfect Christians. Q. How is this blessing to be obtained? A. Every baptized person is to be presented to the Bishop. Q. When? A. As soon after Baptism as may be. Q. How does the Bishop convey the Holy Ghost to him? A. By Laying his Hands upon him, and praying that he may receive the Holy Ghost. Q. Was there no outward sign or symbol anciently used at Confirmation? A. Yes; the Person Confirmed was signed or sealed with the Sign of the Cross, and anointed with Holy Ointment? Q. What was the signification of the Chrism or Ointment? A. It represented the inward Unction of the Holy Ghost. (See John ii. 20. 27.) Q. How do you know that all Christians were Confirmed? A. Because Confirmation, or the Laying on of Hands, is placed among the Fundamentals of Religion, as well as Baptism."(Heb. vi. 1, 2.)P. 30.
VI. And in the Catechism of Bishop Jolly, used in the Scottish Church: "Q. How does the Holy Spirit operate in that sacred Institution, by which we are made Christians? A. He sanctifies the waters of Baptism to the mystical washing away of sin, and thereby prepares for Himself a temple to dwell in. Q. And by what means does He enter more fully into this His temple? A. By prayer, and the Laying on of Hands in Confirmation, which, being used by our Lord's Apostles, has been wisely continued by the Church. Q. For what end is the Holy Spirit thus given to Christians? A. To be a principle of spiritual life within them, the sacred bond, which unites them as members to Christ their Head."(p. 30.) And at pp. 57, and 58, Confirmation is called a "Mystery" and a "Sacrament;" and is said "to have spiritual efficacy, conveyed in a supernatural way by virtue of Christ's institution." And again: "Q. What account does the Scripture give us of that Apostolic Ordinance? A. We are told, that the Apostles, by direction of the Holy Ghost, and in imitation of our Lord's own practice, did Lay their Hands upon baptized Christians, 'that they might receive the Holy Ghost.' Q. And did such Christians receive the Holy Ghost in a miraculous manner? A. Not always in a miraculous manner, but in an ordinary way, for all the purposes of Sanctification. Q. And is this benefit of very great consequence to Christians? A. Surely it is; because in the sixth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, It is mentioned next after Baptism among the fundamentals of our religion. Q. How do you distinguish the respective benefits of Baptism and Confirmation? A. By Baptism we are made members, by Confirmation we become living and animated members of Christs Mystical Body, and are sealed as His unto the day of redemption."P. 59.
VII. And lastly, in the Scottish Catechism of Brechin, we are taught that;
"The ordinance of Confirmation has always been considered as the Seal or Completion of Baptism." And afterwards more fully: "Q. What is the purpose of Confirmation? A. It is to confirm and perfect that which the grace of God's most holy Spirit has already begun in Baptism. Q. What particular grace, or spiritual benefit, is conveyed in Confirmation? A. They, who receive it rightly. .... receive an increase of the manifold gifts of the Holy Ghost the Comforter, to strengthen and establish them in the faith and obedience of the Gospel. Q. What authority does the Church furnish for the use of this Rite? A. Ecclesiastical history proves that it has been practised by the whole Christian Church from the earliest time, and that the ancients deemed it necessary to the completion of Baptism. Q. What (besides miraculous gifts in some cases) did all receive by the Laying on of Hands? A. All, who were duly qualified, received a Gift more precious than the power of working miracles, namely, the ordinary graces of the Holy Spirit, which ever were, and ever will be needful for the sanctification and salvation of Christians."P. 54, &c.