Project Canterbury

A Harmony of Anglican Doctrine
with the doctrine of the catholic and apostolic church of the East:
being the longer Russian catechism:
with an appendix consisting of notes and extracts from Scottish and Anglican authorities.

by William Palmer [M]

Aberdeen: A Brown, 1846.
[pp 246-260]


I. "The Institution of a Christian Man, &c.;" a Book subscribed by the Archbishops and Bishops in England in the year 1637; commonly called The Bishops' Book; reprinted in 1543 in a somewhat varied form under the title of A necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man. A Latin translation appeared in 1544 under the title of Pia et Catholica Christiani Hominis Institutio, which is often quoted with approbation by Bishop Forbes of Edinburgh in his Considerationes Modestae. The Book itself is recognised as of authority by Archbishop Cranmer writing to the King in 1546; and appealed to by Gardiner in 1551 against Cranmer's opinion on the Eucharist, which had then become Zwinglian, as containing "the doctrine confessed by the whole Clergy of England in an open Council, and never hitherto by any public Council or any thing set forth by authority impaired" (Palmer on the Church, vol. i. p. 389. third ed.) It may indeed have been modified in some points by the enactment of the XXXIX Articles in 1662; but this is a matter for private judgment to decide, on comparing the two Formularies. Certainly the Institution of a Christian Man has never yet by any public act been repudiated or condemned: and not only such men as Bishop Forbes and Bishop Jolly in Scotland, but even the disciples of Cranmer himself (and that too after his latest change of opinion, and after his death,) and the English Annalist Strype concur in speaking of it as "a very godly book of religion."

II. "The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, after the use of the Church of England;" authorized by the Synod or Convocation of the Clergy in the year 1548; revised, and reprinted with some alterations and omissions in 1552; again in 1559, after the accession of Queen Elizabeth ; in 1604, under King James I.; and finally, after the Restoration, in 1662. In these different revisions several of the alterations and omissions of the year 1552 have been modified or restored, so that the present English Prayer-book, which was settled by the Convocation of 1662, approaches somewhat nearer to the original Book of 1548 than any intermediate edition.

In the foregoing pages both the First English Prayer-book of 1548, and That now in use, since 1662, are occasionally quoted. Besides the Vespers, Matins, Litany, and Liturgy or Communion Office, and the Orders for administering the other Sacraments and Occasional Offices, these Books contain also The Catechism of the Church of England; the latter part of which, concerning the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, was added in the time of King James I., and was drawn up by Bishop Overall.

III. "The Ordinal;" or Book containing "The Form and Manner of Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, according to the Order of the Church of England." By the Convocation of 1662 this Book (which was first authorized in 1552, and had since received some additions), was attached to the Book of Common Prayer, and is now generally to be found joined with it even in those editions which are printed for common use among the Laity.

IV. "The Book of the XXXIX Articles," first drawn up by Archbishop Cranmer (assisted probably by Bishop Ridley), with the idea no doubt of conciliating and uniting the different parties and opinions of all those, whether followers of Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, or Zwingle, who were then contending for a Reformation. It must further be admitted that Archbishop Cranmer's own opinions had then already gone very far towards Zwinglianism on the subject of the Eucharist, and about the same time shewed their influence in the changes and omissions of the Prayer-book of 1552. Early in the year 1553 the Articles were published, being then in number XLII; but were of no authority, not receiving the sanction of any Synod or Convocation till after the accession of Queen Elizabeth; when they were revised, reduced to their present number, and with some slight modifications accepted by the Convocation, in the year 1562. It was not however till 1571 that the Clergy generally were required to subscribe them by decree of Convocation. Afterwards, as the Puritans took advantage of their apparent spirit, and strove to develope out of them the doctrines of Calvinism, a Declaration was prefixed at the instance of Archbishop Laud, requiring that all persons should subscribe them only in their "plain, literal, and grammatical sense." The Scottish Church, after having been long subjected to severe civil penalties in consequence of the Revolution of 1688, obtained an Act of Toleration from the British Parliament in 1791, on condition of their Clergy subscribing the xxxix Articles, like the Clergy of England. For the sense in which they consented to do this, see below under the notice of Bishop Jolly, p. 155. LII.

V. "The First and Second Books of Homilies;" often called together The Homilies; appointed to be read in Churches; and approved, as to their general substance and purport, by Article xxv. of the Thirty-nine. (A.D. 1571.) The First Book was published under King Edward VI., in 1547; and republished after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, in 1560. The Second Book was published in 1564: since which time the Two have ever been published together.

VI. A Book entitled "A Testimony of Antiquity, skewing the ancient Faith of the Church of England, touching the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of the Lord, here publicly preached, and also received, in the Saxon time, above seven hundred years ago." This hook consists of a Homily and portions of two Epistles of the Anglo-Saxon Abbot Aelfric, embodying the substance of the Treatise of Ratramn the Priest, De Eucharistia, written at the desire of Charles the Bald. It was printed in English by Archbishop Parker in the time of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1566, and subscribed by the two Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and thirteen other Bishops, in testimony of their faith, and the faith of their Church. It is important, as shewing that the English Bishops and the Church of England in Queen Elizabeth's time, though they had admitted the xxxix Articles, were yet far from intending thereby to deny the doctrine of the Real Presence, or even that of a change of substance, in a certain sense, in the Eucharist.

VII. The Canons of the Synod or Convocation held in the year 1571: Of which Synod it is remarkable, that while it was the first which required all the Clergy to subscribe the xxxix Articles, it at the same time framed a Canon requiring all Preachers to take Catholic Tradition, or the consent of Catholic Fathers and ancient Bishops, as their rule for the interpretation of holy Scripture; thus shewing, that the principle upon which, and the sense in which, they received the xxxix Articles were at any rate not intended to be Anti-Catholic. See above, Note n. iii. p. 20.

VIII. The Canons of the Synod or Convocation held in the year 1601. These are in number cxu; and are now generally to be found appended to the Book of Homilies.

IX. The Order for the Coronation of a King or Queen according to the use of the Church of England. This was first used in its present form and in the English language at the Coronation of King Charles I., A.D. 1626. It is important, as shewing the sense and doctrine of the Church both on the subject of the Oblation and Real Presence in the Eucharist, and also on the mutual relation of the Sacerdotal and Regal Offices.

X. An Order of Divine Service for the Day of the Martyrdom of King Charles I.; put forth by the Archbishop of Canterbury, upon the Restoration, A.D. 1661, under King Charles II., and appointed by authority to be used for that year in all churches throughout England.

XI. The Scottish Liturgy or Communion Office; first compiled (some years after the restoration of the Episcopal Order in Scotland) by the Scottish Bishops, in concert with Archbishop Laud and the Bishops of England. It followed rather the First English Liturgy of 1548, than that in use at the time in England, the earlier form being confessed by the English Prelates to be the better. It was afterwards at different times revised; and finally brought to its present state in the year 1761.

XII. A Liturgy in MS., slightly differing from the above, sent in Greek to the Eastern Patriarchs and to the Russian Synod by certain Scottish and English Bishops, during a Correspondence which took place between the years 1716 and 1725. This MS., together with the originals of the whole Correspondence, is still preserved in the Archives of the Russian Synod.

XIII. The Correspondence referred to under the last head, as having taken place between the years 1716 and 1725. The names of the Bishops who took part personally, at one time or another, in this Correspondence, so far as the present writer has been able to learn, were the following: The Scottish Bishop Campbell, then residing in London, and acting as the representative of his brethren for what related to their Communion, was the originator of the whole affair; and was assisted in it by two other Scottish Bishops, Gadderar and Rattray, the latter of whom seems to have taken part in translating the Proposals and other Documents into Greek. Nor was either the whole or any part of what they did in this matter ever blamed or disowned by their Church; or, so far as it appears, by any one of its other Bishops, for whom they acted. Of the English Nonjurors, Bishops Collier, Spinkes, Hawes, Brett, Gandy, and Griffin joined in it. All these owed their Consecration to the Scottish Bishops above mentioned, and to the English Bishop Hickes, who died in 1715. The Documents of this Correspondence are quoted in the foregoing pages from an English version left by Bishop Brett, and preserved in Scotland, among the papers of the late Bishop Jolly. A copy has been communicated to the present writer by the kindness of J. R. Hope, Esq., of the Temple, London.

XIV. The Scottish Catechism composed by Bishop Innes between 1778 and 1781, and since reprinted at various times. The edition quoted in the foregoing pages is that published at Aberdeen in 1829; and it is often cited simply as The Catechism of Aberdeen.

XV. The Scottish Catechism composed by Bishop Jolly of Moray, "for the use of the Scottish Church." The edition quoted is that of 1837.

XVI. The Scottish Catechism composed by the present Bishop of Brechin, Dr. Moir, for the use of his Diocese, published at Brechin in 1841. This is cited as The Catechism of the Diocese of Brechin.

XVII. The Canons of the Church of Scotland; as revised and enacted by a Synod held at Edinburgh, A.D. 1838, with an Introduction or Preface subscribed by all the Bishops and other Clergy present at the Synod.

XVIII. A Pastoral Letter, addressed by the Scottish Bishops to the Clergy and Laity of their Communion, A.D. 1839.

XIX. The Prayer-book of the Anglo-American Church; in which the Liturgy resembles that of the Scottish Church in respect of the Form of Consecration. There is also a Form of Institution peculiar to the American branch of the Anglican Communion; In other respects it more nearly resembles the present English Prayer-book.


I. Hugh Latimer: b. 1470; as a Priest and member of the University of Cambridge was at first strongly opposed to all Reformation, but afterwards preached eloquently, though roughly, in favour of it: was made Bp. of Worcester in 1635; but in 1638, on the passing of the Act of the Six Articles, he resigned his See. He was imprisoned during the last six years of King Henry's reign: On the accession of Edward VI. in 1547 he refused to return to his See, and resided with Abp. Cranmer. In 1555 he was burned at Oxford together with Abp. Cranmer and Bp. Ridley.

II. Nicholas Ridley: b. about 1505 ; educated at Pembroke Hall, Camb.; took the degree of B.A. in 1523; was Chaplain to Abp. Cranmer, and to K. Henry VIII.; in 1541 Prebend, of Canterbury; in 1547 Bp. of Rochester; assisted in ordering the first English Prayer-book, 1548; was transl. to London, 1550; aided Abp. Cranmer in drawing up the Articles in 1551. He was burned at Oxford under Queen Mary, in 1555.

III. John Poynet: b. about 1516; a member of King's Coll., Camb.; in 1646, Bp. of Rochester; in 1551 transl. to Winchester: on Queen Mary's accession in 1553 he retired to Strasburgh; where he died, in 1556. When abroad, he wrote a treatise entitled, 'Diallacticon viri boni et literati de veritate, natura, atque substantia Corporis et Sanguinis Christi in Eucharistia;' which was published the year after his death.

IV. John Donne: b. 1553; ordained Priest in 1621; Dean of St. Paul's in 1624; chosen Prolocutor of the Lower House of Convocation; d. 1631.

V. Richard Hooker: b. 1554 ; educated under the patronage of Bishop Jewell at Corpus Christi College, Oxford; in 1581 was ordained Priest; in 1584 was made Master of the Temple, where he became engaged with the Puritan Travers in a controversy, which gave occasion to his great work 'Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity:' d. 1600.

VI. Lancelot Andrewes: b. 1555; Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth 1589; Dean of Westminster 1601 ; Almoner to K. James I., and Bp. of Chi-chester 1605 ; Bp. of Ely, (and Privy Councillor) 1609 ; Bp. of Winchester, and Dean of the Chapel Royal, 1618: d. 1626. He left behind him a book of his own Private Devotions in MS., in Greek and Latin, the pages of which were, as is related by his biographer, 'worn through by his fingers, and stained and wetted with his tears.' He was a great Preacher, and author of several learned works: he exercised both during his lifetime and after his death a very blessed influence upon the character of English Divinity.

VII. John Overall: b. 1559; Fellow of Trinity Coll., Camb.; in 1596 Regius Professor of Divinity, and soon after Master of Catherine Hall; in 1601 Dean of St. Paul's: on the accession of K. James I. he was chosen 'Prolocutor of the Lower House of Convocation: in 1614 he was made Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry; and in 1618 transl. to Norwich; where he d. 1619. Wood observes, that "he had the character of being the best scholastic Divine in the English nation." Bp. Cosin, who had been his Secretary, put into an Inscription for his monument in 1669 these words ; "Vir undequaque doctissimus, et oinui encomio major."

VIII. Richard Field: b. 1561; in 1598 Chaplain to Q. Elizabeth, and Prebendary of Windsor: he was also Chaplain to K.James I.: in 1610 he was made Dean of Gloucester; and was selected to be Bp. of Oxford; but died before he was appointed, in the year 1616.

IX. Christopher Sutton: b. about 1565 ; educated at Lincoln Coll., Oxf.; in 1605 made Prebend, of Westminster by K. James I.: d. 1629.

X. Francis Mason: b. 1566: Chaplain to K. James I., and Archdeacon of Norfolk: d. 1622. He left in MS. a book entitled, "Vindiciae Ecclesiae Anglicanae," afterwards printed, in 1625, and dedicated to the King.

XI. Marcus Antonio De Dominis: b. 1566; as Abp. of Spalatro, sided with the Venetians against Paul V.: after 1615 came to England, and there printed his work, "De Republica Ecclesiastica." King James I. gave him the Deanery of Windsor, and other preferments, which he held without any abjuration, or change of religion". Being vexed by the Puritans, who were then numerous in England, and being offered an amnesty by the Pope, in 1622, he returned to Rome; but was there imprisoned; and died in 1624, some say by poison. His body was disinterred and burned.

XII. William Laud: b. 1573; Fellow, and afterwards President of St. John Baptist's College, Oxford; where he contended strenuously against the Puritans then dominant. In 1611 he was made Chaplain to K. James I.; and in 1616 Dean of Gloucester: in 1617 he accompanied the King into Scotland, to endeavour to bring that kingdom to conform to the English Church: in 1621 he was made Bp. of St. David's: in 1626 he officiated as Dean of Westminster at the Coronation of King Charles I.; and in the same year was transl. to the See of Bath and Wells; and in 1628 to London: In 1630 he was elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford: In 1633 he succeeded the Puritan Archbishop Abbot in the Metropolitan See of Canterbury; and the very same morning received the offer of a Cardinal's Hat from the Pope; which offer was repeated a fortnight afterwards: his answer both times was, that "something dwelt within him which would not suffer that, till Rome were other than it is." In 1640 his Palace at Lambeth was attacked by a mob; and in 1641 he was seized by the Parliament and imprisoned in the Tower for three years, suffering all manner of indignities: In 1644 he was brought to a mock trial, in which nothing was even alleged against him, but his opposition to Calvinism and rebellion; and in 1645 he was by order of the Parliament beheaded. He left behind him, besides other works and papers, 'A Conference with Fisher the Jesuit,' a 'Diary,' and 'Private Devotions.' His body was recovered by his friends, and buried under or near the Altar of his College of St. John Baptist in the University of Oxford.

XIII. Joseph Hall: b.1574; Fellow of Emmanuel Coll.,Camb.,1595; made Dean of Worcester by James I., 1616; and in 1627 Bishop of Exeter: in 1641 transl. to Norwich: imprisoned and impeached by the rebel Parliament in 1642; and soon after ejected from his Cathedral. He died in 1656. His works were published in 1808 in 10 vols. 8vo.

That preternatural cure, for which Bp. Hall's testimony has been cited above, under Note XX, is by no means the only one of the kind which is related by credible witnesses as having occurred within our Communion even since the schisms of the sixteenth century. One still more to the purpose of Section XX, and resting equally on episcopal testimony, has been noticed to the writer by a friend since the foregoing sheets were sent to press. It is recorded in Evelyn's Diary. "On the 16th of September, 1685," (Evelyn himself being then one of the Commissioners of the Privy Seal in the absence of the Earl of Clarendon, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland;) he waited, as he tells us, "on the King at Winchester, and heard Bishop Ken "of that See,) " inform His Majesty of a great miracle happening in that city to his certain knowledge, of a poor miserably sick and decrepit child, who immediately on his Baptism recovered; as also of the salutary effect of King Charles the Martyr's blood, in healing one that was blind."

XIV. Lewis Bayley: b. probably about 1576: about 1611 he was Chaplain to Prince Henry: in 1613 he took the degree of D.D.; and being much celebrated as a Preacher, he was appointed Chaplain to K. James I.: in 1616 he was made Bishop of Bangor; where he died in 1032. His fame rests chiefly on his work entitled, 'The Practice of Piety;' of which the 59th edition was published in 1735.

XV. Richard Montague: b. 1578; Fellow of King's Coll., Camb.; and afterwards of Eton College; where he assisted Sir Rich. Savile in preparing his edition of St. Chrysostom: After the death of Casaubon, in 1615, being then Chaplain to K. James I., he was desired to write some Animadversions upon the Annals of Baronius: In 1617 he was made Archdeacon of Hereford: he was also Canon of Windsor; where he preached the Theological Lecture in the Royal Chapel for eight years: In 1625, soon after the accession of Charles I., being accused by certain Calviuists to the Parliament, which encouraged that faction, he published his "Appello Caesarem:" however, he was proceeded against by both the Parliaments of 1625 and 1626: extracts from his writings were censured; and an Address presented to the King, that he might be punished, and his books burned. The King on the contrary, in 1628, made him Bishop of Chichester. In 1638 he was transl. to Norwich; and died in 1641, Among his works are, 'Origines Ecclesiastics;' and 'Versio et Notre in Photii Epistolas.' He materially assisted Abp. Laud in rooting up the doctrine of the Dordrecht Calvinists upon the Quinquarticular Controversy out of the Church of England.

XVI. Thomas Jackson : b. 1579; Fellow of Corpus Christi Coll., Oxf., 1606; D.D. 1622; President of Corpus Coll. 1630; Chaplain to K. Charles I., and Prebend, of Winchester, 1635; Dean of Peterborough, in 1638; d. 1640. His works were published in 1672, in 3 vols. fol.

XVII. William Forbes: b. 1585, at Aberdeen in Scotland: in 1603 he went to study abroad in Germany and Belgium, and in England, where he was for a short time Professor of Hebrew at Oxford: in 1608 he returned to Aberdeen in Scotland, where he was received with public honours. For 24 years he discharged the duties of a Presbyter in the Scottish Church, partly at Edinburgh (whence he was driven out by the Calvinism of the people, who had however at first themselves invited him) but chiefly at Aberdeen, where he was greatly esteemed. When K. James I. came into Scotland, he was appointed with other Divines to meet the King at St. Andrews, and was there noticed by him with honour. Soon after he became Principal of the Marischal College at Aberdeen, where he taught Hebrew and Theology: next, he was by the Bishop and the Senate of the University made Dean of the Faculty of Theology there; and after that, Rector of the University itself. In 1633, Charles I. came to Edinburgh, and was there crowned King of Scotland ; at which time he determined, with the consent of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, to found an Episcopal See at Edinburgh, hoping thereby to repress Calvinism and to promote orthodoxy. The King of himself named Forbes to be the first Bishop, saying that " he deserved well that a new See should be founded expressly for him." Thereupon he was consecrated by the Archbishop; but before he had sat many months, he fell sick; and finding himself to be dying, confessed his sins, and received Absolution; and so, with the viaticum of the Body and Blood of Christ, departed out of this world in peace, in the 44th year of his age, A.D. 1634. His "Considerationes Piae Modestae et Pacificae" were published after his death, in a small volume in 12mo. Perhaps no writer of our Communion has shewn so much charity, patience, learning, impartiality, reasonableness, and love of truth.

XVIII. Joseph Mede: b. 1586; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, and chosen a Fellow through the interest of Bishop Andrewes: he twice refused the Provostship of Trinity College, Dublin, which was offered him in 1627, and again in 1630, by the influence of Abp. Usher: d. 1638. He left, among other learned works, various ‘Treatises concerning Churches, and the Worship of God therein;' 'Of the Christian Sacrifice;' in nine chapters; 'Of the name Altar, or Qusiasterion, given to the Holy Table;' a 'Concio ad Clerum,' &c.; which exercised a very considerable influence afterwards upon the Anglican Divinity on those subjects.

XIX. William Nicholson: b. 1589; educated at St. Mary Magdalene College, Oxford; in 1629 had a Cure of Souls in Caermarthenshire; and was afterwards Canon of St. David's, and Archdeacon of Brecknock: was ejected by the rebels: in 1661, was made Bp. of Gloucester: d. 1671.

XX. John Bramhall: b. 1593; Chaplain to K. Charles I., 1631; Bp. of Londonderry, 1634 : in 1644 he fled to Brussels; where he remained till 1648: was proscribed by the rebel Parliament in 1652: on the Restoration, in 1661, was made Abp. of Armagh and Primate of Ireland : d. 1663.

XXI. John Cosin: b. 1594: Dean of Peterborough 1640: but soon ejected by the rebel Parliament: on the Restoration in 1661 he was made Bp. of Durham: d. 1671. He had been Secretary to Bp. Overall. Besides other learned works, he was author of a book entitled, 'Regni Angliae sub imperio Elizabethae Religio et Gubernatio Ecclesiastica.'

XXII. Peter Heylin: b. 1600; Fellow of St. Mary Magdalene Coll., Oxf.: in 1629 Chaplain to the King: was ejected from his benefices by the rebel Parliament, and proscribed: on the Restoration he would have been promoted in the Church, but died in 1662. He published, amongst other works, a 'History of the Reformation in England;' a ' History of the Presbyterians;' and the Life of his patron, Archbishop Laud.

XXIII. Herbert Thorndike: b. about 1600; Fellow of Trinity Coll., Camb., in 1642; in 1638 Proctor of that University; in 1643 elected Master of Sidney College; but obliged to give way to another: soon after he was ejected from his benefice by the Puritan rebels: on the Restoration he was made Prebend, of Westminster. He assisted Dr. Walton in the Polyglot Bible. His works are voluminous, all directed to the bringing back of men's minds to the laws and religion of the Primitive Church. He was one of the Commissioners at the Savoy Conference in 1661: he died in 1672; and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In his last Will there were these words; "As for my body, I charge my executors to write these words upon my grave-stone: 'Hic jacet corpus Herberti Thorndike, Prebendarii hujus Ecclesiae, qui vivus veram reformandae Ecclesiae rationem ac modum precibusque studiisque prosequebatur. Tu, lector, requiem ei et beatam in Christo resurrectionem precare.'"

XXIV. Henry Hammond: b. 1605; Of St. Mary Magdalene Coll., Oxf.: in 1643 Archdeacon of Chichester: proscribed by the rebel Parliament: in 1645 Canon of Christ-Church at Oxford; and afterwards Public Orator of the University. He attended King Charles I. as his Chaplain during his confinement by the rebels; was ejected by them in 1648 from Christ Church; and imprisoned for ten weeks: on the Restoration he was to have been Bp. of Worcester; but died April 25, 1660.

XXV. Jeremy Taylor: b. between. 1600 and 1610; Fellow of All Souls' Coll., Oxf., 1636; Chaplain to K. Charles I. 1642: ejected from his benefice by the Puritan rebels: on the Restoration in 1661 made Bp. of Down and Connor in Ireland, and Privy Councillor: he died in 1667, leaving voluminous works, with the reputation of having been one of the most eloquent and learned of English Divines.

XXVI. Peter Gunning: b. 1613; ejected from his College at Cambridge by the rebel Parliament: at the Restoration made Prebend, of Canterbury, and Head successively of Corpus Christi and St. John's Colleges at Cambridge; also Regius Professor of Divinity in that University. He was one of the Committee of Convocation which made the last revision of the Prayer-book in 1661. In 1669 he was made Bp. of Chichester; and in 1674 was transl. to Ely: d. 1684. He wrote in favour of conformity in all things to the rules of the Primitive Church; particularly in Praying for the Dead, in the use of Oil, and other ritual observances. The titles of two of his works are, 'A View and Correction of the Common Prayer;' and, 'The Paschal or Lent Fast Apostolical and Perpetual.'

XXVII. John Pearson: b. 1613; Fellow of King's Coll., Camb.; soon after the Restoration made Prebendary of Ely and Archdeacon of Surrey; in 1661 one of the Commissioners appointed by Convocation to revise the Book of Common Prayer; in the same year appointed Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge; and in 1662 Master of Trinity College: in 1672 made Bp. of Chester: d. 1686. He was one of the greatest Scholars of his age. He published an 'Exposition of the Creed,' which has become a classical book of English Divinity; and the 'Vindiciae Ignatianae:' he was also one of the Editors of the 'Critici Sacri;' and he compiled the 'Annales Cyprianici,' prefixed to Bishop Fell's edition of St. Cyprian in 1682. Other writings of his were published by his nephew after his death; viz., 'De Serie et Successione primorum Romae Episcoporum Dissertationes duae; Quibus prreliguntur Annales Paulini, et Lectiones in Acta Apostolorum, &c.' His minor Theological works have recently been collected and edited by the Ven. Archdeacon E. Churton.

XXVIII. William Saywell: b. 1644? Fellow of St. John's Coll., Camb.; D.D.; Master of Jesus Coll., and Preb. of Ely, 1679: d. 1720.

XXIX. Anthony Sparrow: b. probably about 1620; Fellow of Queen's Coll., Camb.; whence he was ejected in 1643 by the Puritan rebels: after the Restoration he was Archdeacon of Sudbury, and Prebend, of Ely: about 1567 he was chosen Master of Queen's College: in Nov. 1667 he was made Bp. of Exeter; and in 1678 was transl. to Norwich; where he died in 1685. He is the Author of the 'Rationale of the Book of Common Prayer,' 1657; of a 'Sermon on Confession and Absolution;' and of a 'Collection of Articles, Injunctions, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, &c.' 1671. 4to.

XXX. John Fell: b. 1625; expelled from his benefice by the rebel Parliament in 1648; on the Restoration in 1660 made Canon of Christ-Church, and soon after Dean; and Chaplain to the King: from 1666 to 1669 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford; in 1676 Bp. of Oxford: d. 1686. He is well known by his edition of St. Cyprian.

XXXI. Thomas Tenison: b. 1630; Bp. of Lincoln in 1692; and in 1695 raised to be Abp. of Canterbury: he was a strenuous opponent of 'Popery,' and a useful servant of the Revolution of 1688: he died in 1715.

XXXII. George Bull: b. 1634; educ. at Exeter Coll., Oxf.; retired from the University to avoid taking the oath to the rebels in 1649. For his 'Judicium Ecclesiae Catholicse,' published in 1694, he received through Bossuet the thanks of the Gallican Church assembled in Convocation at St. Germains. In 1705 he was made Bp. of St. David's. His 'Harmony of St. Paul and St James, on Justification,' has become the standard authority for the Doctrine of the Church of England on that subject. He died in 1710.

XXXIII. Gabriel Towerson: b. about 1636; in 1660 Fellow of All Souls' Coll., Oxf.; in 1677 D.D.: was a distinguished Preacher: d. 1697. He published 'An Explication of the Catechism of the Church of England.'

XXXIV. William Beveridge: b. 1637: in 1672 dedicated his 'Synodicon' to Abp. Sheldon; in 1689 refused to be intruded into the See of Bath and Wells; in 1704, under Queen Anne, Bp. of St. Asaph: d. 1708.

XXXV. George Hickes: b. 1642; successively a member of St. John's College, St. Mary Magdalene College, Magdalene Hall, and Lincoln College, Oxford: In 1677 he accompanied the Duke of Lauderdale, then High-Commissioner, into Scotland as his Chaplain; and received the Degree of D.D. from the University of St. Andrews, which was conferred upon him at the instance of Abp. Sharp: In 1680 the King made him Prebend, of Worcester: In 1681 he was Chaplain to the King; and in 1683 Dean of Worcester. At the Revolution in 1688, refusing to take the oaths to the Revolution Government, he was ejected from his benefices. In 1694 he was consecrated by the ejected Bishops Suffragan Bishop of Thetford: d. 1715.

XXXVI. Jeremiah Collier: b. 1650; educated at Caius Coll., Camb.; ordained Deacon by Bp. Gunning of Ely in 1676; and Priest in 1677: after 1688 he refused to take the oaths to the Revolution Government; was imprisoned; and outlawed: he published many works, especially an 'Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain.' He was in 1713 consecrated a Bishop in the Communion of the Ejected or Nonjuring English Bishops and of the Scottish Church. He took an active part in the Correspondence with the Easterns between the years 1716 and 1725; and died in 1726.

XXXVII. Nathaniel Spinkes: b. 1653; Scholar of Jesus Coll., Camb., 1673; Chaplain to the Duke of Lauderdale in 1681; Prebend, of Salisbury, 1687; deprived of his benefices in 1690, for refusing to take the oaths to the Revolution Government. In 1713 he was cons. a Bishop in the Communion of the English Non-juring and of the Scottish Church; He took part in the Correspondence with the Easterns between 1716 and 1725: he died in 1727. He was a man of great learning, and published various works.

XXXVIII. Robert Calder: b. perhaps about 1660: ordained at Edinburgh in 1684: on the Revolution was ejected by the Presbyterians from his benefice: and soon after the whole Scottish Church, with all its Bishops and Clergy, was disestablished by the Revolution Government, and Presby-terianism established as the National Religion of Scotland in its stead. He was imprisoned 11 months; and prosecuted for treason, as it was then called, (i. e. for disapproving the Revolution.) He suffered many persecutions; and published various works; among others one entitled, "The True Difference betwixt the principles and practice of the 'Kirk' and the Church of Scotland exemplified, &c.," 1172.

XXXIX. John Johnson: b. 1662; in 1687 was presented by Abp. Sancroft to the Cure of Boughton: after 1688 he refused to take the oaths to the Revolution Government: in 1707 he was collated by Abp. Tenison to the vicarage of Cranbrook: in 1710, and again in 1713, he was chosen by the Clergy of the diocese of Canterbury to be one of their Proctors for the Convocation. He died in 1725. He published, with other works, 'The Clergyman's Vade-Mecum;' 'Propitiatory Oblation in the Eucharist;' 'The Unbloody Sacrifice;' and 'A Collection of Ecclesiastical Laws.'

XL. Thomas Wilson: b. 1663; educated at Trinity Coll., Dublin; in 1697 was made Bp. of the Isle of Man. He was zealous in enforcing Discipline; and in 1722 having interdicted the wife of the Governor of the Island from the Holy Communion, he was with his two Vicars General thrown into prison, and there kept for some time with great severity: he died in 1755. His works were published in 1780, in 2 vols. 4to.; and reprinted soon after in folio. His fame was so great, and he was so universally respected, not only within his own Diocese and the British Dominions, but even abroad, that it is related of Cardinal Fleury the French Minister, that in time of war between the two countries, he forbade the French Cruisers to make any descent on the Isle of Man, merely to shew his respect for the Apostolic virtues of its Bishop.

XLI. William Nichols: b. 1664 ; Fellow of Merton Coll., Oxf., 1684; presented to the benefice of Selsey in Sussex, 1691: d. 1712. He published a 'Comment on the Book of Common Prayer' in 1710; and, in 1711, a 'Supplement' to the same: he wrote many other works.

XLII. John Ernest Grabs: b. at Konigsberg in 1666; renounced Lutheranism in 1695; came to England, and was ordained Deacon in the Anglican Church in 1700; received the degree of D.D. from the University of Oxford, 1706; and d. 1711. His chief works are, his edition of the Septuagint; 'Spicilegium SS. Patrum;' ‘Justini Apologia Prima;'' Irenaeiis adv. Hsereses, Libri V.;' 'De Forma Consecrationis Eucharististiae, Hoc est, Defensio Ecclesiae Graecae contra Romanam;' and a beautiful edition of Bishop Bull's Works. He left also many unpublished MSS., which are preserved in the Bodleian Library. It is remarkable that a Treatise, ‘De Erroribus et Schismate Lutheranorum,' has been torn out from among these MSS, and stolen, though the first leaf as well as the Title in the Catalogue remain to mark the theft.

XLIII. Thomas Brett: b. 1667; being convinced by Bishop Hickes of the unlawfulness of taking the oaths to the Revolution Government, he gave up the benefices which he held in the English Church: he was consecrated a Bishop about 1714 by Bp. Hickes, and two Scottish Bishops of the Nonjuring Communion. He took part in the Correspondence with the Easterns between the years 1716 and 1725; and d. in 1743. He left many works, especially one 'On the Primitive Liturgies.'

XLIV. Joseph Bingham: b. 1668; Fellow of University Coll., Oxf., 1689; Tutor to Abp. Potter; in 1695 presented to the Rectory of Headburn Worthy, in Hants; in 1722 completed the publication of his 'Antiquities of the Christian Church;' which were in 1724 translated and published in Latin, with a Lutheran preface, by Grischovius, at Halle: d. in 1723.

XLV. Nathaniel Marshall: b. 1680; educated at Emmanuel Coll., Camb.; D.D. 1717; Chaplain to the King, 1715; Prebend, of Windsor 1721: d. 1729. He published in 1714 his ‘Penitential Discipline of the Primitive Church;' and in 1717 a 'Translation of St. Cyprian.'

XLVI. Charles Wheatley: b. 1686; a member of St. John's Coll., Oxf.; presented to the vicarage of Furneaux Pelham in Herts, 1728: d. 1742. He published a valuable 'Commentary on the Book of Common Prayer.'

XLVII. Randolph Ford: Priest, and Curate of St. Mary-la-bonne. He published a Latin Treatise on the XXXIX Articles, in 1720.

XLVIII. Thomas Rattray: b. 1687; Bp. of Dunkeld in the Scottish Church, 1727: In 1739 he succeeded Bp. Freebairn as Primus: d. 1743. He published 'The Ancient Liturgy of St. James, with an English Translation, Notes, and an Appendix;' also, an ‘Essay on the Nature of the Church;' and 'Some Particular Instructions concerning the Christian Covenant, and the Mysteries by which it is transacted and maintained'; together with other pieces, concerning Confirmation, and the Nature of Man. He has also left various MSS., which are as yet unpublished.

XLIX. Gloucester Ridley: b. 1702; a member of New College, Oxf.; took the degree of D.D.; a learned Divine. In 1763 he published a 'Life of Bp. Ridley;' was made Prebend, of Salisbury in 1768; and d. 1774.

L. George Innes: Cons. Bp. of Brechin in Scotland 1778; d. 1781. He was the Author of a Catechism, for which see the List of Documents, XIV.

LI. James Milne: Presbyter in the Scottish Church: The 2nd ed. of his Tract, 'The Difference Stated betwixt the Presbyterian Establishment and the Church of Scotland,' was published at Aberdeen in 1811.

LII. Alexander Jolly: b. 1756: for ten years Priest at Turriff in the Diocese of Aberdeen; the civil law prohibiting at that time the celebration of the Service of the Church even in any private house in Scotland, in presence of more than four persons, on pain of six months' imprisonment for the first offence, and transportation for the second; and imposing a fine of £5. upon every person who should be present at any such illegal meeting, without giving information to the nearest magistrate. Upon the extinction of the line of K. James II., in 1788, the Bishops Clergy and Laity of the Scottish Church declared publicly their recognition of King George the Third as their Sovereign de jure, as well as de facto; and prayed for him as such by name in their Congregations. In 1791 the Penal Statutes affecting them were repealed by an Act of the British Parliament; but only on condition of the Scottish Bishops and Clergy taking the Oaths to the Crown required in England, and also subscribing the XXXIX Articles in the same manner as the English Clergy. When this was resolved upon, and had been notified beforehand to the then Primus, Bp. Skinner of Aberdeen, he replied, that "he believed the Scottish Clergy had no objection to the general Doctrine of the XXXIX Articles, although they might not altogether approve of some particular expressions made use of in them." On this head he received for answer, that "it was only the general doctrine of the several Articles, to which the subscription was required even in England; that many expressions in them might no doubt be altered for the better;" &c. Thirteen years after the passing of the Act, in the year 1804, the Scottish Bishops convoked a Synod or Convocation, in which it was resolved, in compliance with the terms offered by the Act of Parliament, to adopt the XXXIX Articles. On this occasion Bp. Jolly (having been in 1786 consecrated to the See of Moray) made an Address to the Convocation, which is preserved in the Archives of the Scottish Church, and in which he declared fully for himself and his brethren in what sense the xxxix Articles were then received; viz., I. In such sense as was consistent with the substantial unity and identity of the Faith of the Church in all ages; II. In such sense, as made the Articles themselves consistent with the First English Liturgy, composed, as an Act of Parliament expresses it, 'by the aid of the Holy Ghost,' and by the same persons as drew up the Articles; and III. In that 'plain, literal, and grammatical sense' which was enforced by Abp. Laud and K. Charles I. against the Puritans, who wished to go beyond the letter, and to develop out of them the doctrines of Calvinism. The following are extracts from the concluding part of his Address, as published by Mr. Skinner, now Bp. of Aberdeen and Primus, from the MSS. of his Father and Predecessor the late Primus, who presided at the Convocation in question:—

"From the writings of Abp. Cranmer, and others his contemporaries, it has been proved that the expressions in the Articles which Calvinistic divines lay hold of, and misinterpret, do not, in their original meaning, favour their peculiar tenets. The 'Institution and Erudition of a Christian Man,' with the 'Reformatio Legum, &c.,' drawn up by those first Reformers, explain and amplify here and there what is more condensed and less perspicuous in the Articles. And, happily, we too in Scotland have of late got our authentic 'Institution of a Christian Man' in a book called, 'A Layman's Account of his Faith and Practice, published with the approbation of the Bishops of the Church.' In adopting therefore the Articles of the united Church of England and Ireland we must be candidly understood as taking them in unison with that' Book, and not thinking any expressions, with regard to the Lord's Supper, in the least inimical to our practice at the Altar in the use of the Scottish Communion Office; in which we are supported by the first reformed Liturgy of England, not to look back to all the ancient Liturgies, which prevailed long before the corruptions of popery had a being. Some of the greatest Divines of the Church of England, Poynet, Andrewes, Laud, Heylin, Mede, Taylor, Bull, Johnson, and many others, have asserted and maintained the doctrine which in that Office is reduced to practice. Yet these Divines did all subscribe the XXXIX Articles; and must therefore have understood them consistently with their belief of the Commemorative Sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist, using the present Liturgy of the Church of England as comprehending it. Our subscribing them in Scotland cannot then be justly interpreted as an inconsistency with it, &c." .... And again: "The learned Mr. Daubeny, in his work above referred to, agrees with those who acknowledge that some of the Articles ‘might have been better expressed,' and that... they are 'an improvable form of sound words.' Much more might we in Scotland claim our right of expressing that true sense of them, which he, and other worthy Churchmen, have so fully evinced in words less liable to be misunderstood."—Skinner's Annals of Scottish Episcopacy, p. 215, 346. and Appendix III.

Bishop Jolly died in 1838. The aim of his whole life, to quote from Mr. Cheyne and Mr. Pressley, his biographers, had been to realize the spirit of the Church; and he followed humbly and earnestly in her ways; observing religiously the Vigils of the Saints, and other Fasts, and keeping Lent especially with great strictness; reciting the canonical Offices of the Church morning and evening, and using more particularly for his private exercises such books as Bp. Andrewes' 'Private Devotions,' Dr. Hickes' edition of Austin's 'Devotions, &c.', 'The Church of England Man's Companion, &c.' edited by Dr. Spinkes, Deacon's 'Collection of Prayers,' Sherlock's 'Practical Christian,' &c. He used special Prayers for the Wednesday as well as for the Friday in every week; and certain short ejaculations for the different Hours of each day. It is related of him, that his habit was never to begin any work, or the reading of any book, without a prayer to God for the assistance of His grace; nor to enter into conversation with any of his friends, without first mentally invoking the Divine blessing upon the person with whom he was conversing. While composing himself to rest, he used continually to repeat the 51st Psalm. He published an 'Address on Baptismal Regeneration;' a tract 'On the Constitution of the Church;' 'Observations on the Sunday Services;' and 'The Christian Sacrifice.'

LIII. LIV. Besides the above, two Living writers are quoted in the foregoing pages, the present Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Philpotts, formerly of St. Mary Magdalene Coll., Oxf., and the Rev. W. Palmer, of Worcester Coll., Oxf.


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