Hints to Missionaries
to Melanesia . .
The reason for writing the following notes, intended as they are for use in the Melanesian Mission, is found in the words of Bishop Patteson, written during one of his early stays in the islands: "I wish," he writes, "I could contrive some remedy for the dry food, everything being placed between leaves and being baked on the ground, losing all the gravy. If I could manage boiling; but there is nothing like a bit of iron on the island. I must commence a more practical study than hitherto of 'Robinson Crusoe,' and the 'Swiss Family Robinson.' Why does no missionary put down hints on the subject? My three months here wil1 teach me more than anything that has happened to me, and I daresay I shall get together the things I want most when next I set forth."
The manual will be divided into seven parts:
(1) General Introduction to the work of the Melanesian Mission.
(2) Outfit needed. (a) For Norfolk Island. (b) For Melanesia.
(3) The circumstances of the Missionary's life.
(4) Melanesian Language and Language learning.
(5) Management of Natives.
(6) Boat Sailing.
(7) Health Hints.
In the Melanesian Mission there have hitherto been two main divisions of the work. (1) The Norfolk Island School. (2) The work in Melanesia. The missionaries used to spend a certain time every year at Norfolk Island and a certain time in Melanesia, and the practice of continuous residence in Melanesia was only begun quite recently, the smallness of the Staff making it imperative for some of the men to return to Norfolk Island, in order that the main school there might be kept going. Of late years, however, the Staff has increased, and many of the missionaries have begun to reside permanently in the Islands, and have been provided with suitable dwelling-houses at their main stations. But until a permanent Staff is provided for Norfolk Island, men here and there will be asked to return at the end of the year for a few months. [3/4] Several of the present Staff have now stayed for over three years on end in their own districts, and it would seem that the character of our work is changing, and the fact that there is an ever increasing number of European traders settling in the Islands seems to show that a more prolonged term of residence is demanded from us.
Hitherto, the missionary in the Melanesian Mission has held a sort of roving commission for work amongst a scattered people, and the majority of our men have been clergy or men reading for Holy Orders. Of laymen pure and simple there have been but few. But new features of the work have developed, and there would seem to be openings now for laymen. Two subsidiary schools have just been opened to act as feeders for Norfolk Island: one in Banks' and one in Solomon Islands, and in both of these laymen will be needed for teaching and for supervising the farmwork. There is a. probability of the number of such schools increasing with the number of missionaries, and such an increase of missionaries will mean the employment of small sailing vessels, which vessels should be manned by laymen. All this will mean the specialization of duties, so that while the priests are away visiting the villages, examining, instructing, baptising, settling disputes, opening up new ground, getting new boys, the laymen will be fully engaged at the preparatory schools. Each district will have its headquarters, where there will be a good house to which the priest can return after his visitations, and where he can enjoy some measure of comfort.
The number of women workers on our Staff is increasing very largely, and many of them are proceeding to the Islands. They, of course, will not have to "rough it" as some of the men do, but will in all cases live at Christian places, where they can help the native Christian women.
It is desirable that all new workers should serve some apprenticeship, if possible, at Norfolk Island, before proceeding to Melanesia. It is of great importance that the Mission's traditions should be maintained, and Norfolk Island exercises a strong formative influence on those who go there, both Europeans and natives. After all, it is the "University" of the Mission, and only there is the spirit of the Mission to be caught. We can be absolutely certain of a succession in our methods provided that our new workers stay there for a time. Most new men are naturally keen to get away to the islands, but it is always well for them to learn the proportions of the various parts of the work, and to be imbued with the traditional methods of the work which we inherit from the great men of the past. We owe too much to our Mission ancestors to lightly put on one side the lessons they have taught us. Our safety lies in developing along the lines laid down by them. At Norfolk Island, too, the new women workers will get their first insight into Melanesian girls' characters, and will there see how best to teach them, and will learn what they are most in need of.
 At Norfolk Island the language of Mota is used for all purposes in the school, and this language should be thoroughly learned by all new workers. But some new worker may say:--"I am only here for a year; why should I bother about learning Mota? When I get to ----- I shall have to learn the language there, and I shall not need Mota again." However, Mota is the only one at present of our languages with a dictionary and a fully-worded grammar in print, and Melanesian languages are thus much alike that one skeleton grammar would almost serve for all. Moreover, familiarity with the construction and word store of Mota will be of material assistance in beginning the study of any new language; so to properly learn Mota is to qualify for learning any other Melanesian tongue. And, too, wherever one goes in the Mission, Mota is usually understood by the teachers. Nor must we forget the influence that Mota books have had on translations into other tongues. Most of us used the Mota books at first as a guide in translating, and something in one of the books may be unintelligible till read in the light of the Mota version, and the Mota rendering of many words and ideas, e.g., baptism, repentance, forgiveness, redemption, &c., supply the method on which such words can be formed in most Melanesian languages. Possibly there may yet come a time when Mota shall be the Lingua Franca of the whole Mission, but at present the Mission prints its books in sixteen languages, and it seems right to encourage the study of the various languages in order that they may be known, their grammars studied, and the rules noted. The way to the heart of our people is through their vernaculars, and it is a great joy and privilege to be able to render the wonderful things of GOD into the various tongues.
In the Island Preparatory Schools, Mota will be the language used, and the Norfolk Island School will assume a new importance when these subsidiary schools have got into full working order. Moreover, the Norfolk Island life serves as an introduction to the life in Melanesia. A great deal of experience is to be gained at Norfolk Island in the management of natives, and the farm work is a splendid introduction to the out-of-door life that the men have to lead in the islands.
Hear what Bishop Patteson wrote about the attitude of mind required in a new worker: "Any man who would come out and consent to spend a summer at the Mission School (in Norfolk Island), in order to learn his work, and would give up any preconceived notions of his own about the way to conduct missionary work that might militate against the Bishop's (Selwyn's) plan, such a man would be, of course, the very person we want." Again, as to missionary qualifications: "I can hardly tell you how much I regret not knowing something about the treatment of simple surgical cases. Many trades need not be attempted, but every missionary ought to be a carpenter, a mason, and a cook. To know how to tinker a bit is a good thing."
 Of spiritual qualifications, the two most needed are: (1) sympathy and love. (2) The power of the Holy Ghost.
It is written of Bishop Patteson: "It was very pleasant to see him amongst his boys. He had none of the conventional talk so fatal to all true inf1uence about. 'degraded heathen.' They were brethren, ignorant indeed, but capable of acquiring the highest wisdom. He brought his fresh, happy, kindly feelings towards English lads into constant play among the Melanesians, so that they loved and trusted him."
The Melanesian missionary will soon learn that all advance in the work is not by might, nor by power, but by the Spirit of GOD.
Let us assume then that new workers proceed first to Norfolk Island for a year's stay, after which they go on to the islands.
We shall now deal with the outfits required for (1) Norfolk Islands. (2) Melanesia.
CHAPTER 2 Outfit.
(a) For Norfolk Island.
Norfolk Island has a moderate climate, and, indeed, the winter months are comparatively cold. In January and February the weather often gets very uncomfortable, owing to the presence of a hot damp fog coming from the north, but in the spring and autumn the weather is delightful. Light clothing may be worn in the day time, but the evenings are chilly. A waterproof is needed for the wet weather, but an overcoat is hardly required at all.
The Mission community is divided by a road; on the one side is the Chapel, hall and boys' dormitories, and on the other side are the houses of the married missionaries, and of the single ladies. The native girls have rooms attached to these various houses. On the boys' side there are six houses containing dormitories, with two rooms for the master, in each. There is no Clergy house, but extra men are accommodated in the "New" house, while St. Mary's Home is set apart for the use of the single ladies who are to proceed to the islands.
Each house-master has his two rooms, and should take most of the furniture with him. All the masters' rooms have bookshelves, but chairs and writing tables are not provided. Some furniture may be bought there second-hand, but each man had better take a table and two chairs. Simplicity should be the main object. Carpets are apt to hold vermin. Pictures add much to the brightness of a room. There is a Mission carpenter, who, though always busy, will yet doctor any furniture. It is always advisable to take a hammer, screw-driver, gimlet, bradawl, &c.
St. Mary's Home has "furnished apartments," but a few extras will materially add to the comfort of any lady staying there.
 For the bedroom, take a wide stretcher bed with wire frame and a mattress, and all the necessaries for a bed. A hanging looking-glass will be found most convenient. Take a large, well-stocked "house-wife." Take also a hip bath, a jug and basin and accessories. Some of the rooms have linen cupboards, but a chest of drawers is always useful. In the case of people going from England, all large articles had better be purchased in New Zealand or in Sydney; clothes, and more easily packed things, can be taken from England.
There are mosquitoes at Norfolk Island, but they are not of the Anopheles variety, and there is no malaria there. However, a mosquito net may be taken, and it should be made in accordance with instructions given below under, "Outfit for Melanesia."
Anyone going permanently to Melanesia could easily add to this list, and it is well to remember that whatever is required for the decencies of civilisation elsewhere, will be required in the Mission.
Clothes. As a rule the Clergy do not wear white when attending Chapel, but white duck clothes are frequently worn at other times. It will probably be found that black can be worn at most times with comfort. For field work, cotton or flannel or cellular shirts are worn, and rough trousers, khaki or other, with a wide leather belt. A leather watch-pocket is attached to the belt. Ordinary hats can be worn, but a Panama straw hat is useful. Boots never seem to wear out at Norfolk Island. Most of the washing is done in the Mission at sixpence per week, but collars and white shirts are "put out" amongst the Norfolkers. The two boys who look after the men's two rooms get sixpence a week, or one boy may do the whole, and the boot-boy gets threepence. Blacking brushes and boot polish must be taken.
Some men have a hack, and the boy gets sixpence a week for catching and looking after the horse and gear. If a man is going to stay for good, a saddle is indispensable, also a horse brush and curry comb. Leather must be well cared for, and kept soft with vaseline, or it will soon perish. (1-lb. tins are the best).
On Sundays there is one offertory in Chapel, and also upon Saints' Days.
The Melanesian Bank is the Union Bank of Australia, Queen Street, Auckland, and cheques drawn upon it are accepted in Norfolk Island and in Sydney. If desired, it would be possible to arrange for a part of stipend to be paid in England. For Missionaries in the Islands, payments may be made to a Sydney Bank for convenience in ordering goods.
The Mission Agent in Auckland is G. O'Halloran, Jnr., Esq., Melanesian Mission, Shortland Street. In Sydney, it is E. H. Rogers, Esq., Melanesian Mission Bible House, 242, Pitt Street.
The mails at Norfolk Island are one inward and one outward a month, leaving Sydney the first of the month, arriving at Norfolk [7/8] Island the 6th of the month, and leaving again, outward bound, about the 12th. New South Wales stamps are used. Sydney is the Postal Town.
Those coming from England will find it best to get their outfit in England, but any furniture and clothes can be got at Lassetter's Stores, Sydney. Clothes in New Zealand are somewhat dear. Clothes' measurement should be left with one's tailor.
Ladies will find that they can wear ordinary English spring and autumn clothes at Norfolk Island. For the winter, flannel blouses will be found comfortable; Ceylon or French flannel is the best. Cellular garments of all sorts are much recommended. The wearing of cotton or linen underclothing is not advisable in the case of the wearer perspiring freely. Washing dresses are the most useful; cuffs and collars can be washed and ironed in the Mission.
A reading lamp should be taken, and a candlestick. Oil is obtained from Sydney. It is sold in cases, each containing four gallons. There is a Customs duty at Norfolk Island on oil, candles, tea, sugar, tobacco, fancy biscuits, but it has to be paid either in Sydney or in Auckland. To keep wine or spirits, a permit has to be obtained from the Norfolk Island doctor through the head of the Mission. No one, on arrival, would be refused to take an opened bottle of spirits ashore.
A spirit lamp will be found invaluable for making coffee or cocoa for oneself.
The Norfolk Island Stores keep supplies of ordinary things, but when a number of things is required it is best to send a cheque to Sydney. If an order is sent up by a steamer on the 12th, the goods will arrive by the 7th of the following month. It is well, however, to take from Auckland or Sydney a sufficient supply of all that is likely to be needed on arrival: oil, candles, 2-lbs. of tea, cocoa, a tin of biscuits. The Mission Agent will help in the purchasing of these, and will advise about Customs duty. When once one is settled, an order may be sent to Sydney to a firm there. Lassetter's is perhaps the best. Keatings' powder should be taken for vermin; Elliman's Embrocation (for horses); Sanitas or Jeyes' fluid will all prove useful. Take a good pair of scissors (nickel-plated), and razors. It may be advisable to try the Gillette Safety Razors. The Mission Store will supply you with many of the things needed for your house, viz:--bucket, broom, kettle, and with fish-hooks as occasional presents. Moths have to be guarded against, and "silver-fish"; napthaline balls are the best preventative. Clergy should take cassocks, light-weight or unlined, and surplices and coloured stoles.
The sports at Norfolk Island are Cricket and Football (Association), and tennis. In the two former the Missionaries play with the natives.
 For the sea journey a Hold-all of Willesden canvas may be found useful for soiled linen.
(b) For Melanesia.
(1) For more settled life at one of the preparatory schools, or at a district headquarters where there is an English house.
The tables and chairs which have been in use at Norfolk Island will do for the Islands. A good deck chair will he found useful (it will also be required for the journey out), and the same bed and net that was used at Norfolk Island will do for use at the station. Blankets may be coloured; at night, coverings may be dispensed with, but a thin "Jaeger" sheet will be found useful to draw over one towards morning. Two widths of red flannel sewn together will do as well. A couple of good rugs would also do instead of the blankets, but a heavy covering of some sort must be kept handy in case of fever. In nearly every place there will be some native woman who has learned to wash clothes at Norfolk Island, so that while sheets are unnecessary, pillow slips, towels, handkerchiefs, &c., can be used. It will be best to take a large zinc tub for washing, buckets, soap, a little starch and blue, also a box-iron or two flat ones, an enamelled wash basin, and metal soap box.
All of these things can be ordered from Norfolk Island, or can be obtained when in Sydney or Auckland, in the case of anyone proceeding direct to Melanesia.
"Army and Navy" Canteens, for two or three, hold useful enamelled ware in plates, mugs, &c., and also horn-handled knives and forks, but it is best to supplement these with plates (enamelled for travelling), and with cups and saucers, and extra knives, forks, and spoons. The Canteens must be ordered in England. Get a good tin-opener, and remember that tins open easiest from the bottom. A cork-screw will also be needed.
Ants are apt to be troublesome, and get at the provisions, especially at the sugar, so a cupboard should be improvised on legs, and the legs placed in shallow tins containing water. Double earthenware saucers can be bought for the purpose; care should be taken that the water in such tins or vessels be kept free from dirt, for ants can walk on a thick scum, and mosquitoes should be prevented from breeding by the addition of a little kerosene oil.
If cooking is done in an outhouse, a couple of iron bars will be best to set the saucepan on. Take a kettle and saucepans of two or three sizes. The Canteens contain a frying-pan. For quick heating of water a "Primus" No. I should be taken. This is an oil-stove, but it is actually lighted with methylated spirits. The best candles [9/10] for the tropics are Price's Belmont Sperm. Possibly a "Hitchcock" or an "Empress" lamp may be found the most useful. A "hurricane" lantern can be bought at Norfolk Island. It is difficult to know what to advise as to ovens for a permanent house. A good type is the "Electric." It is important to remember that iron things, such as stoves, etc., should not be in native houses or they will rust badly. A three-legged camp oven is useful, but needs experience.
Take dishes for the oven, and tins for bread-making; an enamelled basin for flour mixing, and a paste board. Coco-nut husk will do for a pot brush, but take tea-cloths and rags, and Sunlight soap.
(2) Outfit for Missionary Life in the Villages.
Take a portable bed. The folding bed, or "Army & Navy" Officers' Swinging Cot, or Compactum Bed are the ones recommended. A sewing palm, needles, twine and canvas should be provided for repairs. Mosquito nets should be made to fit these beds. In the case of a net for a swinging cot, the ends should be of canvas. It will be found best to use wooden boxes for travelling. These can be ordered from the carpenter at Norfolk Island. They measure about 30 inches by 16 by 18. Get a moveable till made for the top, and see that two wooden battens are nailed underneath outside. Ordinary portmanteaus are not of much use in Melanesia, as leather tends to perish very quickly. In the damp air inside a native house everything gets mouldy, and all clothes should be frequently dried and brushed.
Great care must be taken of books when travelling.
A large leather satchel, 15 ins. by 12 ins., will be found most useful when travelling, to carry robes, clothes, &c. A waterproof sheet, 7 ft. by 5 ft., is carried to wrap blankets or rugs and pyjamas in: it is secured by a rope. The blankets should be stowed in the boat's locker, with the canvas portion of the bed. All buckles should be of brass, since iron rusts. A small hand-glass is required for travelling, and a nickel shaving dish will fit inside the box till.
Pigeons abound, and a shot gun should be taken, No. 12 bore. A single-barrelled gun will do quite well. No.2 shot is required for pigeon shooting, and may be bought in New Zealand or Sydney. Guns must be well looked after, so take oil, cleaners and rag. The "leg of mutton" case is the most convenient for stowing in a boat's locker.
Clothing Generally. According to some of the best authorities, it is not necessary to wear flannel in such a climate as that of Melanesia. Flannel tends to produce prickly heat, and "cellular" clothing is the sort most recommended for wear at all times, both by day and night. The "Deimel" linen-mesh underwear is much recommended, 83, Strand, London, and Gibbs, Bright and Co., Melbourne. The "Aertex" Cellular Clothing Co. have [10/11] branches everywhere. The foundation material of "Diemel" underwear is linen, that of "Aertex" is cotton. "Ceylon" flannel is recommended for those who wish to wear flannel. It is advisable to protect the stomach, but in place of the "Cholera" belt, a cellular belt should be tried. Many people do not wear such belts at all, but it is a question whether those who do not wear them do not run a risk of attacks of diarrha or dysentery. Care should be taken to keep the loins warm at night.
There does not seem to be any greater risk of chill in Melanesia than there would be under the same conditions in England. Get out of wet clothes as quickly as possible, but the general uniformity of temperature minimizes very largely any dangers that might arise from excessive perspiration, or from a wetting. All macintoshes should have sewn seams; gabardine is recommended, but a real good oilskin is perhaps the best of all. Distinctive clerical dress is not much worn. Most men dress in white duck coats and trousers, but coloured trousers, cloth or other, may be worn, and for rough work a pair of "shorts," with putties and boots, will be found very serviceable. Shirts with collars attached are the most fancied, and coats are only worn for dress occasions, at prayers, meals, etc. Short-sleeved singlets are very comfortable; they will be worn under a white coat with a close fitting collar buttoned up to the neck.
Socks or stockings should be of cellular material. They wear out very quickly, and a good supply should be taken. If shoes are worn, the ankles should be protected with spats. All boots should be stoutly made to stand the constant wetting from wading in the streams or from wading ashore, and to protect from the coral. Nails rot the leather, and the soles should be plain. Keep all boots well oiled. Boots wear out quickly, and so a good supply is necessary, but orders may be sent to Sydney or Auckland. White canvas shoes (pipeclayed) with leather soles, may be worn for special dress occasions.
Let all clothes be on the large side to allow of shrinking in the rough washing. All coat buttons should be detachable. For head gear it is best to wear a Panama straw hat. The heavy rain-fall makes a helmet of not much use. Take several cheap close-plaited straw hats for ordinary use. A strip of blue print wound round the hat adds to its protective powers, and to the feeling of comfort; the ends may be allowed to hang down the back. A cap is useful for wet weather, and for bush travelling.
Too much care cannot be exercised in the provision of a mosquito net, and any hole in a net must be at once darned. If the net shows signs of wear, put up a new one at once. The U.M.C.A. recommend their people to use nets of 8 ft. by 6 with a calico strip on the bottom outside, to just above the height of the bed. Tapes should be fastened on for hanging the net. When travelling, a smaller net may be taken to fit the bed, but the larger the net the greater the chance of immunity from malaria.
 In women's clothes cellular material is also recommended. Ceylon flannels may be worn. Some women can wear cotton or linen underclothing with safety. All dresses should be of washing material, linen, piqué, or drill will be found most useful. In places where there are mosquitoes, spats worn in the evening will protect the ankles from being bitten.
Needles should be in mitrailleuse cases.
The Mission makes an allowance towards outfit, pays passage money out, and gives a competent salary.
CHAPTER 3. The Circumstances of the Missionary's Life.
(1) Norfolk Island.
The Life at Norfolk Island is the life of a big school, only there are no times when the strain is relaxed, since the scholars are always there. The responsibilities of the teachers are great, for they are training and organizing a whole race, raising it from Heathenism to the moral and social life of Christianity. The communication of religious truth by word of mouth is but a small part of the work. "The real difficulty is to do for them what parents do for their children--assist them to, almost force upon them--the practical application of Christian Doctrine. This descends to the smallest matters, washing, scrubbing, sweeping, personal cleanliness, introducing method and order, industry, regu1arity, division of labour." (Bishop Patteson). The boy or girl has to get his or her ideas of life from the teachers, and has to be laying up in store for the years when they too, in their turn, shall be centres of life and light for others.
The native, if well equipped, is a far better instrument for the conversion of his brethren than is the European. The really spiritually minded native, taught of GOD, and having learned of his white masters the value of energy and perseverance, and being led on the path of prayer and dependence upon GOD, and having seen care and thought for others exemplified in the lives of his teachers, will go to his work with a determination to lead others as he has himself been led. In two things the native teacher is superior to the white--in knowledge of the language, and in physical qualifications.
There are no servants in the Mission. At Norfolk Island the boys and girls do various works for which they receive a small payment. All work is shared alike, and no portion of it is counted menial. The c1ergy go and work in the fields along with the boys, and the ladies help with the sewing.
Time Table at Norfolk Island is as follows:--
Rise 6 a.m. Matins 7  Breakfast 7.25 Housework till 8.10 School 8.15 to 9.45 School [and/or] Sewing 9.45 to 12.30 Dinner 1 p.m. School 2--3 Recreation 3--5. Cricket, Football. Girls to out to get firewood. Tea 6 Evensong 7 School 7.30 to 8.15 Preparation 8.15 to 9.45 Bed 9.50
Holy Communion 7 a.m. (and on Saints' Days) Breakfast 8 School 9 to 10 Matins 11 Dinner 1 p.m. tea 6 Evensong and Sermon 7
Wednesday is half-, and Saturday is whole holiday. The boys generally go fishing, and the girls get their own midday meal. A certain amount of game is to be found at Norfolk Island. Rock pigeons, quail, pheasants, plover. There is also plenty of fruit generally: bananas, oranges (in winter), lemons, guavas, passion-fruit, figs, loquats, and peaches abound.
The Mission keeps many cattle and horses, and has a small flock of sheep. Fowls do well.
Breakfast and dinner are served in Hall for everybody, but the married Missionaries and the ladies have "tea" in their own houses. The natives usually eat kumaras (sweet potatoes) or rice, with meat or fish on certain days, and bread or biscuits in the evenings, with tea on certain days. On Saturdays a good many fish are caught.
(2) Melanesia. (a)--Missionary Life in the Villages.
When living in the villages the plan of the day will be:--Rise at 5.45 a.m., matins 6.30, school to about 7.40, then breakfast. The natives usual1y have no morning meal, but at once disperse to their various duties till the afternoon. Evensong is at 6 p.m. followed by an Instruction. The middle of the day is occupied with pastoral work, voyaging, teachers' classes, baptism and confirmation classes, translation work, building, boat-repairing, gardening, etc. Lunch about 2 p.m., and dinner after evening school.
When travelling it is always well to take a dry shirt and trousers, and if on land take a dry pair of shoes. Have dry clothes [13/14] handy when in a boat. Never drink unboiled water, but carry tea or coffee in a flask, and have a few biscuits in your bag. If going to a Heathen place where there are not likely to be European conveniences, such as kettle, etc., take a small "billy" or enamelled saucepan, for you will want a hot drink. Cocoa (Van Houten's) is very satisfying. Alcoholic drinks are not necessary as a routine accompaniment of food, but as medicine they are very valuable. Always have a cup of coffee or cocoa in the morning. The "Primus" will quickly heat water, and the methylated spirit to light it can be easily carried in a bottle. Candles are more easily carried than a lamp. Kerosene oil is sold in 2-gallon tins (two tins in a box), and a Kerosene pump (6d.) is the best means of getting the oil out.
(b) Life in the Preparatory Schools, or at a head station, will be similar to the Norfolk Island life, only the field work will be done early in the morning.
In choosing a site for a permanent residence of any sort, great care should be exercised. Naturally the desire is to be near a good anchorage, but a healthy situation is worth more than anything else. Attention should be given to air, and to the chances of catching the breezes. Thus a point of land will be better than a bay, and to be directly under a hill generally means missing the wind, which is carried over and away. The need for the exercise of care in the choice of such a site has been accentuated by the recent discoveries as to the infection with malaria caused by mosquitoes. The dangerous mosquito Anopheles infests native houses, but it cannot fly more than a quarter of a mile, so a permanent residence should not be built less than half a mile away from the nearest native village. Native children up to five years old are filled with malarial germs, and it is on them that the Anopheles chiefly feeds, so while it is impossible for Melanesian Missionaries to completely carry out the idea of segregation, yet there should be no small native children sleeping at headquarters, and the fewer casual natives there are sleeping there the less chance of infection will there be.
Everyone ought to have a copy of "Ross on Malaria," Liverpool School of Medicine, 2/6, and Howard's "Five Years' Medical Work on Lake Nyasa, U.M.C.A." is strongly recommended. When engaged in his visitations the Missionary can hardly hope for complete immunity from infection, so when he returns to his headquarters he should be as free as possible from danger of further infection.
The Mission undertakes to spend about £100 on a small wooden house, with verandah and iron roof, for each man at some central place. Heat and malaria are the two main difficulties; they must be mitigated as far as possible. No one as yet has tried to build a house of concrete, though lime is readily obtained, and rubble and sand are on every beach. Such a house would be much cooler than [14/15] a wooden one, and a board ceiling with a thatch (or shingle) roof would add greatly to the comfort of life. Bricks have not yet been made in Melanesia, but a good clay for brick-making can be found in most of the islands. White ants will live inside concrete and the tops of the walls should be protected with zinc plates to keep the ants from the wooden ceiling. All wooden floors ought to be high enough to allow of inspection. There are certain kinds of piles that white ants do not much affect, as Tora (Mota), Gugula, 'U'Ula (Solomon Islands). White ants move inside an earthen tunnel which connects with the ground; when seen, the tunnel must be destroyed. An absence of headquarters causes unsettlement, and houses at headquarters should be as comfortable as is consistent with right. To afford further protection from mosquitoes, gauze frames can be made for doors and windows. Every man should try to have a good garden, and as far as possible all forest trees and vegetation should be cleared away to a considerable distance from the house, since trees harbour mosquitoes. If ornamental trees are desired, there is in the Solomons' a very handsome tree called in Ulawa, Taoaoro, good specimens of which may be seen at Mwadoa. Cuttings will grow readily. This tree affords good shade, but otherwise the air should be allowed free course round the house. The reddish dwarf coconut is a very handsome tree. Life should not be lived on ascetic principles. Luxury is always to be avoided, but comfort is not luxury. A pioneer has to rough it, of course, but as soon as possible a healthy and convenient site should be chosen for a permanent home. In Melanesia hard work is good for people as hard work is in England, but to live like natives when there is no necessity, is to incur unnecessary dangers, and to cripple usefulness.
Baths. It is not advisable to go in for cold baths. Never take a morning bath if feeling feverish, or for a day or two after fever. The most suitable time to take a bath seems to be about 4 p.m., the time when the natives have their bath. In places it is impossible to swim in the streams or in the sea; in the streams in some places there are little sharp-pointed snail she1ls which may get into the skin, and the salt water has a deleterious effect on sore places. It seems best not to stay in the water too long, and some authorities advocate merely pouring water over the body as the natives do.
Food. Melanesia does not provide any fresh meat, except pork! Fish is to be had in a great many places, but the native does not understand the European's desire to cook the fish himself, and will often bring him his fish that is already cooked in the native ovens, dry and unpalatable. However, in many places the judicious distribution of fish hooks, small and large, with the injunction that fish will be expected in return, will generally insure presents of fish, and in some places it will be found possible to appoint regular fishermen. Saturday is ""fishing-day"" everywhere, and the missionary ought, with care, to be able to get fish on that day at least.
 Fowls and ducks could be bred at all head stations, and the eggs kept from iguanas by wire netting. The Brush turkey's eggs (Mwalau, Mota) and turtle eggs are well enough for omelets. The age of the former is often suspicious! Pigeons can be shot everywhere, and there should be a gun in every place. Pigeons need a lot of boiling, as they are very big. They may be first boiled for an hour, and then roasted, or, when camping out, they may be hung before or over a fire as on a spit. In some places duck may be shot. Bacon can be easily carried when on a journey, and by hanging it in the smoke over the kitchen fire it can easily be kept quite good. In many villages fowls' eggs can be bought for a few sticks of tobacco.
The native vegetable foods palatable to the white man are (1) Yams, Tomago (Mota), also called Pana or Hana in the Solomons. (2) Tara, caladium eculentum; the young leaves may be used as spinach. (3) Native cabbages (Toape, Mota), an esculent hibiscus, like a spinach. The southern variety from Banks' Islands should be obtained, and planted in the Solomons. (4) Edible leaves which make good salad, or which might be boiled, such as (a) the yellow lettuce tree of the Solomons, called in Mwala. Ai huri; (b) the top shoots of Palako (Mota), or as it is called in Mwala, Amusi; (c) the top shoots of a tree known as Sua, in Ulawa. This latter is a most useful tree, and is worth cultivating both for its looks and its usefulness. Its bark is used in the manufacture of fish lines at Santa Cruz, and in the Solomons; its berries are edible; they look like a coffee berry, and the male species has catkins called Rami in Ulawa, which are edible as a vegetable, and which can be boiled in soup. Palako shoots may be used in stuffing for fowls. All of these trees are ornamental, and should be planted. (5) Pawpaws. (6) Kumaras. There is a special sort, yellowish, which can be dug in three months after planting, and which is very good eating, not too sweet. The Rev. Clement Marau has it at Ulawa. (7) Bananas. These are good boiled in their skins. Plunge them into boiling water, and let them stay for twenty minutes. Green bananas make good invalid food for natives. Ripe bananas may be fried as a vegetable in a little fat or butter. The best sort in the Islands are "Sydney," but anyone going from Norfolk Island should take a few plants of the red banana (Dr. Codrington's). Be sure to carefully wash all leaves before using.
The itinerating missionary should be able to get all the above things in the native villages, and all head stations should be provided with them as well.
Each head station will have its own garden, and it should be possible to grow a good many things in addition to what the country naturally provides. Melons, pumpkins, chokos, shalots, Indian corn, pine-apples, cucumbers (the small, yellow variety, such as the Rev. R. P. Wilson has at Pamua), limes, lemons, oranges, and mandarins, all do well. Oranges, etc., should be grafted plants, to prevent their "throwing back" to lemons. It should be possible to grow radishes, [16/17] greens, spinach, mustard and cress in a clayey soil and under a leaf frame. It would be worth while also to try tomatoes, lettuces, and beans (broad, French, and Czar), and watercress. At Norfolk Island there is a bean called "Wahoo," which ought to do very well in Melanesia. June and July are the best months for planting any seeds.
All stores may be ordered from Auckland, New Zealand, to come three times a year by the "Southern Cross." The Mission's Agent will order these if required, and for the Islands most goods are duty free. From Sydney goods may be ordered through the Agent, but freight will have to be paid. However, it is now possible to get regular supplies from Sydney delivered in the Solomons and in the Banks and New Hebrides, but there is no steamer calling at present at Santa Cruz. The ordinary articles of trade, carried by Missionaries, are tobacco (twist), pipes (Irish clay), matches, cloth (blue and red prints), fish hooks, axes, large and small knives. New Zealand tinned meats (Hellaby's) are better than Australian. As a rule, tinned meats will readily keep six months in the tropics. Soups are the cheapest; these are good by themselves, or may be added to pigeon soup or fowl broth, and are nourishing after an attack of fever. Varieties of meat can be ordered. The ordinary boiled or roast beef and mutton is not very appetising. Tongues are dear. Bad tins as a rule bulge at the bottom, and the contents of any bad tins shou1d be at once destroyed. It is no kindness to give them to the natives. All varieties of tinned fish can be used, but beware of lobster. Tinned white bait (New Zealand) is expensive but is excellent. For a single person, or for two, meats, &c., are best ordered in single pound tins. Turn all meats out at once; never leave them any length of time in an open tin, and never eat meat that has been left overnight. Tinned meats may be curried. Some people can eat rolled oats for breakfast. Coconut milk is much fancied by some; the natives scrape the nut, squeeze the scrapings, and a rich white fluid is strained out. This is good with tea, &c., and for most ordinary purposes will serve as milk for cooking when diluted with water, e.g.--scone-making. Yams are good at all times, and are most wholesome and nutritious. A light lunch will be best, biscuit or bread, coffee and bananas. Then have a cup of cocoa before Evensong and School, and have dinner after School.
Yams may be grated; they run into a viscous state resembling batter, and they may then be fried in cakes. The pana may be cut into chips and fried like chip potatoes.
American tinned fruits are good and fairly cheap (2lb. tins). Tinned butter does not keep very we1l; nut butters may be tried, as recommended below. "Dried" milk (Cow and Gate Brand) is perhaps the best form of tinned milk. In this form it is said to be as good as fresh milk. Haricot beans (white and brown) are a good article of diet. The best arrowroot can be obtained at Norfolk Island 6d. per lb. Onions are useful and can be ordered by the case. [17/18] Possibly bread-making may be attempted. Flour requires very careful storage, and should be ordered in tins. There is a recipe for making bread with a yeast comprised of rice and sea-water, _ pint rice to quart of sea water, cork up and let stand for 24 hours. Sugar should, if possible, be shot into tins, or into a stone jar as it tends to melt. All sugar should be put out of the reach of ants. A "nest" of tin billies will be found convenient. Rice will keep well. Salt should be ordered in bottles. A cookery book recommended is: "A Practical Guide to Cookery in West Africa and the Tropics," by Sister Cockburn. (The Scientific Press, 28, Southampton Street, Strand, W.C. 3/-).
Mails for Solomons direct leave Sydney on the 8th, and for New Hebrides and Banks on the first of every month. Letters may also arrive three times a year per the Southern Cross from New Zealand. At present, New South Wales stamps are used, or letters and money are entrusted to the Purser, but probably the Solomon Islands will soon have their own Postal Orders and stamps, and it will then be possible to use the Imperial Postal Orders for transmission of money.
All tools likely to prove of use should be taken: hammer, saws, chisels, brace and bits, axes, clearing knives for undergrowth, hatchet, rule, level, etc. All tools should be well vaselined, and constant attentions must be given to them.
A thermometer will be useful, also a rain gauge. Notes should be taken of the sun's heat, and rain. The observation of the tides will form a useful study. Anyone living amongst the native should have a copy of the Anthropological Society's Manual, "Notes and Queries on Anthropology," 5s; and all Melanesian Missionaries should have Codrington's two books "Melanesian Anthropology and Folk-Lore," and "Melanesian Languages" (Clarendon Press). The first will make it possible to understand the natives, and the second will open the way to, and will help in the study of any Melanesian language.
One does not like to leave this section without adding something on the score of "vegetarian" cookery. Tinned meats are dear, and are not over palatable, and soon pall on the appetite, and it is an open question whether they are as nourishing as the so-called "vegetarian" foods. These foods can be procured in New Zealand and Australia (Pure Food Cafe, 45, Hunter Street, Sydney, or 37, Taranaki Street, Wellington, N.Z.) There is a great variety of them, and they can be easily cooked. The vegetarian authorities maintain that meat is an unnecessary food, and they certainly supply many excellent substitutes. The following books give recipes and lists of foods:--A Comprehensive Guide Book (1/-), S.H. Beard. The Penny Guide to Fruitarian Diet, Dr. Josiah Oldfield (both published by the Order of the Golden Age, Paignton, Devon. [18/19] Vegetarian Cookery, 1d. (The Birmingham Vegetarian Hotels, Corporation Street). Broadbent's "Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables," and "Forty Vegetarian Dinners," 1d. (Alfred Broadbent, Manchester).
CHAPTER 4 Languages.
At Norfolk Island, and at the preparatory schools, Mota is the language adopted. For learning this there are special facilities: dictionary, grammar (in Dr. Codrington's book on Melanesian languages), and a good deal of literature.
Every missionary in Melanesia should try and properly learn the language of the place where he is at work. Lists of words should be made and committed to memory. Small sketches of a great many languages appear in Dr. Codrington's book, and unless a man is beginning in an absolutely new place, he will have the benefit of previous translations, from which the particular language may be learned. And, probably, there will be some bi-lingual native there, some teacher from the place, who knows Mota, and his help will be invaluable in learning the language of the place. Let no one be daunted when face to face with the problem of having a Melanesian language to learn: Bishop Patteson always said that anyone could learn one of these languages by dint of genuine work and prayer. To know many tongues is not given to every man, but to know one is within the power of every missionary who feels that he has been called of GOD to his work. The difficulties of the language question have been exaggerated.
Anyone learning Mota should be prepared to commit to memory large parts of the grammar. The pronouns should be written out and learned, the inclusive and exclusive forms noted in 1st person plural, the suffixed pronouns studied, the prepositions catalogued according to whether they can be followed or not by the demonstrative na before the noun; the composition of nouns should also be noted. The prefixes and suffixes of verbs, the use of adverbs, the numerals, all require careful attention. No Melanesian tongue uses relative pronouns.
The chief characteristic features of Melanesian languages are as follows--(Note supplied by S. H. Ray, Esq.):--
1.--Possession shewn by suffixed pronouns: my head, your hand, his father.
2.--The method of indication a possessive or genitive case with nouns: as, wing of a bird, man's hand.
3.--Use of possessive nouns: my pig (for food), my coconut &c. (for drink).
4.--The pronouns: Singular, Plural, Dual, Trial, Inclusive and Exclusive form in 1st person.
 5.--Verbs. (a). Use of temporal particles with verbs.
(b). Pronoun when used as object is suffixed to verb.
(c). Consonantal and syllabic suffixes added to verbs to make them transitive or give them a more definitely transitive force.
(d). Causation shewn by a prefix.
6.--Use of directive words: come hither! Go away! &c.
7.--Use of interrogative who for what: in, what is your name?
8.--Prepositional phrases, as: the bird is on the stone. Note difference from English construction when from or to is intended, as: he comes hither at the place, for, he comes from the place.
9.--Formation of words.
Nouns by prefix from verbs, or by suffix.
Adjectives by suffixes or prefixes.
Natives never generalize. They seldom have a name for their island, but only names for each tiny headland, and bay, and village. Just so, they find it very difficult to classify any ideas under general heads. Ask for details and you get a list of them. Ask for general Principles, and only a few can answer; e.g.--" To carry," is used in English, of any way of carrying; in Melanesian languages, different words will always be used for carrying on the head, the shoulder, the back, in the arms, in the hand, or by two or more persons. Mis-use of one of these terms will often be most ridiculous. One who wishes to learn a native language, should not be content with any native word which occurs as an equivalent to an English one, he must find out what is the image presented to the native mind by the native word, the particular thing or action it pictures, not the general class of things or actions, which is in his own mind more vaguely conceived. Native languages are in this way fuller in vocabulary than the ordinary speech of Englishmen.--(Codrington). The Melanesian mould of thought to be noted. An Englishman says, "When I get there it will be night." The Melanesian says, "I am there, it is night." The one says "Go on, it will soon be dark," the other, "Go on, it has become already night." The one possesses the power of realising the future as present or past; the other does not exercise such power now, whatever he once did.
"The real genius of the language is learned when I can write down what I overhear boys saying, when they are talking with perfect freedom, and therefore idiomatically, about sharks, coconuts, yams, etc. I wish some of our good Hebrew scholars were sound Poly--and Melanesian scholars. I believe it to be quite true, that the mode of thought of a South Sea Islander resembles very closely that of a Semitic man. The Israelite thought and talked child's [20/21] language; we Melanesians think and speak such languages. The Hebrew narrative, viewed from the Melanesian point of thought, is wonderfully graphic and life-like."--(Patteson).
The real difficulty in learning a Melanesian tongue is in understanding what the people say. As a rule they talk fast, and their voices are thick. When talking to a teacher, whose mind may be more or less trained, something may be learned about a language, but the real difficulty comes in when trying to get information from some Heathen. It is a matter that has no interest for him; he has never thought about it, and does not understand the meaning or the mind of his questioner. Of Patteson it is said, "His vocabulary was so large and accurate, and his feeling of the native ways, of looking at things and representing them in words so true, that he spoke to them more clearly and forcibly than any native ever spoke. He was an enthusiast about these languages, and jealous of their claim to be considered true languages, and not what people suppose them to be, the uncouth jargon of savages."
Some Melanesian sounds are difficult to pronounce, e.g.--initial NG, D and R also are difficult, and Q and G. Always listen to the children's pronunciation and try to copy it. With the elders, articulation is often rendered difficult by the use of areca nut. Some natives are much better teachers than others, and will use a great deal of brain and time in trying to make their language intelligible to the learner.
The present system of spelling in Melanesian Mission books, was first used by Patteson, and was perfected by Codrington, and it cannot well be improved upon. The vowels are given the Italian sound.
The Mission makes use of italic letters in printing: n = ng (as in Singer); m = mw; g = ngg and ng (in Finger). There is also a sound gn = Spanish n, but gn is printed. In writing, there are two practices in representing these letters: either they are written with a diæresis, thus: n, or with a line above, thus: n; the latter method would seem to be better than the diæresis, for n badly written is often taken for double i. These italic letters should never be used when writing for English readers in ordinary publications, but the English equivalents should be put. In some languages there are modified vowels, which are printed in italics. The diæresis might be employed in writing these.
Sweet's "Primer of Phonetics"--(Clarendon Press, 3/6), is supposed to help in the study of longs and shorts in consonants and vowels. If you want lo teach or preach well, learn the native proverbs. Too much stress cannot be laid on the value of learning lists of words by heart. "Let each object bring some native sound ringing in your ears, so that the sound brings the object before your eyes. Do not be content to speak as an European, but aim at perfection. You will find that the real and most stringent test of [21/22] knowledge of a language, is, whether you can understand the natives speaking among themselves. I believe we must learn like children, through the ear, not by books much. The office of books is to enable us to make up and understand when we hear spoken words and sentences, which only constant hearing (whether by repetition to ourselves aloud, or by hearing others say them) will teach us to know in an instinctive way, which is necessary to real speaking or understanding. To know thoroughly by book is a different thing from knowing by ear."--(Pilkington of Uganda).
In making translations for religious purposes, it will be found that the Missionary's first work will be to give the converts the forms of faith and prayer (the Prayer Book), which Christianity has accepted, to guide them. Then will follow parts of the New Testament, of which the Prayer Book will be the natural interpreter. "In making such translations, nothing is to be more deprecated than the substitution of general, for particular terms, or the turning of a metaphorical expression into dull prose, because such a metaphor is not in native use. A true and natural metaphor will make itself at home among Melanesians, as images from the Hebrew Scriptures are in English."--(Codrington).
Patteson's life should be carefully studied as a guide to how best to teach, and what most to insist upon. "It may be dangerous to admit it, but I am convinced that all we can do is to elevate some few of these islanders well, so that they can teach others, and be content with careful, oral teaching for the rest. I feel that but few of these islanders can ever be book-learned, and I would sooner see them content to be taught plain truths by qualified persons than puzzling themselves to no purpose by the doubtful use of their little learning. I do teach reading and writing to all who come into our school, and I make them read passages to verify my reading."--(Patteson).
Note supplied by S. H. Ray, Esq., on the Study of Melanesian Language.
1.--METHOD. In trying to acquire a new Melanesian language the points to be aimed at are:--
(1). Familiarity with a well known language like Mota
(2). A knowledge of a language geographically near to the one to be investigated, or what is better,
(3). A knowledge of the language used in the district for trade purposes. A bi-lingual native is useful for interpretation. (A boy from the district who has been to a Mission School and has learnt Mota, will prove invaluable).
(4). Get a copious vocabulary of common words with simple sentences or phrases.
 (5). Get finally, a connective narrative, stories, descriptions of occupations, of planting, harvesting, fishing. When possible, these should be read to a native auditor for criticism. But remember that a native will often pass a fault rather than criticise. Because he understands a certain expression, although wrong, he will assent.
(6). Finally elucidate (by means of direct questioning) all idiomatic and difficult phrases met with. The analysis of compound words and metaphorical expressions should be studied as evidence of mental capacity.
(2).--Possibility of forms of languages in some parts of the Solomon Islands that may be classed as Papuan rather than Melanesian.
The chief differences in the "Papuan" forms are:
(1). Nouns and Pronouns are defined by means of suffixed particles, e.g., "my hand" is not "hand my," as in Melanesian, but "me of hand"; "bird's wing" is not "wing of bird" or "bird its wing," but "bird of wing," &c.
(2). Similarly nouns have various case suffixes instead of prepositions:
(3). Adjectives usually precede the noun.
(4). Tenses of the verb are expressed by means of suffixes, not as in Melanesian by a variation in a preceding particle.
(5). Number and person in the verb expressed by (1) a prefix, (2) by a change in the suffix, or (3) shown only by the pronoun.
(6). Number and person of the subject and object indicated sometimes by a compound prefix.
CHAPTER 5 Management of Natives.
The Missionary is necessarily brought into very close contact with the native, so it will be well to state some rules which experience has shown to be the ones most to be insisted on.
(1).--Never be in a hurry to make rules. Melanesians are generally conservative, and are very slow to see the need for an alteration in anything they have once learned, so be careful of things in the beginning, and never make a rule that is likely to be [23/24] only temporary and to be abrogated later on. Be content to endure what for the time is faulty, if by waiting a permanent good can be secured. A native is always a laudator temporis acti, and the newcomer must be prepared to hear of the virtues of his predecessors, but their loyalty to those they know is very remarkable, and they are most biddable and teachable. Any command in a school, if expressed in writing, is implicitly obeyed.
(2).--Be firm and always fulfil a promise. From the days of Bishop G. A. Selwyn onwards, it has always been a rule that promises made to natives, even to heathen, should be religiously kept, and any decision made should be abided by. Natives have a very keen sense of justice, and are wont to repay like with like. If wrong, think it no harm to apologise.
(3).-- There must be no favouritism. Of course, we are certain to like some more than others, but to manifest our preference will prove fatal to the character of the favourite. Natives cannot stand special favouring, and undue influence must never be exercised on a Native to make him or her develop in a way foreign to his true nature; openly to make exceptions in treatment is to foster conceit on the one side and to create jealousy on the other. Let the Melanesian Missionary study Patteson's life, realise his intense spirituality, his earnest love for, his engrossing interest in his scholars; let him be filled with a fervent desire to bring the knowledge and love of GOD to the hearts of these Natives, with a ready will to spend and be spent in the service, and then he will not err on the side of undue partiality to anyone individual, nor will he go to the other extreme and be unduly strict and severe. In all things let us seek the eternal welfare of those placed under us. Melanesians, like other native races living in the tropics, have not naturally got the power of choice and of vigorous action, of following a certain line of conduct and action because it is right. (Vide an article on "The Colour Line," by Bishop Montgomery, in "East and West," Ap., 1905.) A motive power has to be supplied to them through the influence of GOD, the Holy Spirit. The aim in the education of our scholars ought to be to lead them to the power of Duty, to the choice of Right, and to the holding of it through thick and thin. Natives are too ready to please, to be obsequious and submissive, and it is far nobler to lead them by an impartial love for their welfare, to do hard things, and to stir up the gift of GOD which is in them, than by undue notice to force them out of their true line of orderly development in Christ, and to foster an unhealthy spirit of superiority certain to cause trouble.
(4).--Never be familiar. A Native quite understands the while man's stooping to conquer, but he has a very keen sense of what their teaching ought to be, and he expects them to show him an example of dignity. To follow Christ and to "empty" oneself is very different from being merely familiar.
 (5).--Respect Native etiquette. A Native's perception is very keen and he is always inclined to give like for like. Natives are only too quick to detect flaws in manner or in bearing, and in heathen places, to disregard heathen etiquette and customs is often to court death. With all our enthusiasm for those among whom we work, we must remember that they are only human, and it is best to take a spiritual, if prosaic view of our duty, and ever to keep our calling in view, to make these natives Christian in the true meaning of the word.
(6).--Be patient. Do not be disheartened if there are falls or lapses amongst the Native teachers, or amongst the congregations. Have a high ideal, but remember the circumstances of their lives, and if they fall, love them all the more, even while you inflict punishment. A Native quite understands being punished for wrong doing. When settling disputes, let them be as long-winded as they please. Jealousies will occur, and scandals and gossip are only too rife. In enquiries into charges and accusations, be prepared for exaggeration and for unfounded reports, and carefully wait for evidence, and sift all you hear. Read Bishop John Selwyn's Life to see how natural impatience may be overcome.
(7).--Make your people missionary; teach them of their duty to their fellows, of the unity of their race in Christ. It is necessary to guide and supervise them, and often one has to suggest a course of action, or even at times one may have to gently compel them. Above all things, teach them to pray, and see to it that they do pray.
(1).--The great difficulty is to get a hold upon them at all. In most cases they are friendly enough; the white man himself is a persona grata to our Natives, and many of them now realise that there may be white men who have a higher motive for their presence among them than mere curiosity or desire to trade. The ordinary Heathen person is plausible, and one may say quite correctly that he has no knowledge of truth. He has no moral standard in the matter, and mere convenience is his test of what to say. His life is a life of suspicion and he is servile in his belief in the ghosts and spirits of his ancestors and in his fear of others. He is utterly conservative and 'rutty.' He seldom, if ever, acts from deliberate choice, but from custom. Reason makes no appeal to him, but he can be won by the representation of a life different from, and superior to, his own, and when in sickness or sorrow he can be won by the exhibition of the Christian life, to desire to know more of the good Way of Life. But all extension work will necessarily be slow, owing to the Native character, to their manner of life, and, in the Solomons, to the scattered nature of the population.
(2).--It will be necessary at times to live for a day or so among the Heathen; to win their confidence, and to try for some opening amongst them. Be prepared for inconvenience, for being the [25/26] cynosure of all eyes, for having all that you do commented on, and for being asked for all and sundry things that any Native is ever likely to want (the ordinary Native expects that the white men qua white are naturally the purveyors of all things English, and when one is far away up in the hush one may be asked for a needle). The Mission's way has always been to try and open up a new place by obtaining a boy from there.
(3).--When visiting a Heathen place, remember that you are perfectly safe when you see women on the beach. A Native never fights in the presence of his women. If the women suddenly disappear, get into your boat at once. Do not pry into their sacred things, and do not wi1lingly do despite to anything which they revere. Try to get those who have relatives in Christian villages to go and live in the Christian vi1lages. Beware of the non-Christian returned labourer; as a rule they are plausible, good-for-nothing fe1lows.
The Melanesian Missionary's view of Heathenism is given in the following extract from Bishop Patteson's life:--"The great principles of Patteson's action and teaching was the restoration of the union of mankind with GOD through Christ. It never embraced that view of the Heathen world which regards it as necessarily under GOD'S displeasure, apart from actual evil committed in wilful knowledge that it is evil. He held fast to the fact of man having been created in the image of GOD, and held that whatever good impulses and higher qualities still remained in the Heathen, were the remnants of that image, and were to be hailed accordingly." Or, as he himself said: "The spark of Heavenly fire may have been all but quenched, the natural wickedness of the heart of man may have exhibited itself with greater fearfulness where no laws and customs have introduced restraints, but the capacity for the Christian life is there, though overlaid with monstrous forms of superstition or ignorance; the conscience can still respond to the voice of the Gospel of Truth."
CHAPTER 6. Boat Sailing.
Missionaries of the Melanesian Mission will find that previous experience of boating, rowing or sailing, will be of great use to them, and they should know how to swim.
Owing to the dense forest which completely covers most Melanesian Islands, and to the general lack of roads, and also owing to the discomforts of journeying in a hot damp climate over country that is frequently hilly, it will be found better, when possible, to travel by sea. The Mission provides the priest in each district with a good open whale-boat, about 27 feet long, and pulling five oars. These boats are built by Bailey Bros., Auckland, New [26/27] Zealand, and are very good sea boats. They cost about £32. When under oars they are steered with a long steer oar inserted on the port side in a steering brace, which passes through the stern post. Generally, this steering brace will be found to have been inserted upside down. The loose end should be inserted in the hole that has been bored in the stern post a little above the water mark, and then passed through the stay on the port side, and on through the end of the stern post, and then passed round a cleat on the starboard side fastened on the top of the locker. This method of fastening will enable the brace to be slacked off for the insertion of the steer oar, and the tightening of the brace will give more command over the oar. When steering thus, always sit to starboard, i.e., with the oar on the left hand side.
The ordinary Melanesian Mission boat is rigged with a standing lug sail and jib. (For explanation of terms, the reader had better get a copy of H. Knight's Manual on Sailing, All England Series, 2/-). The main sheet is first passed through a hook cleat fastened on the gunwale just forward of the locker (these cleats are perfect for tearing clothes!) and then passed round a cleat fastened on the gunwale just forward of the locker. The tack is made fast to an iron hook on the mast. There is no boom; the yard is swung at about one-third of its length, where it has a strop to pass over the hook on the traveller--an iron ring on the mast to which the end of halyard is permanently fastened, and which prevents it's blowing away from the mast. The traveller is likely to jam if the mast is not kept well greased. Coconut oil would do for greasing. The peak of a lug sail should be cut high to ensure a good sail. It is a common fault to cut the head of a lug sail too square.
The Me1anesian Mission boats are double-ended, i.e., are sharp at both ends. When landing in a double-ended boat, or when putting to sea, it is always best to go bow foremost. If landing in a place with a bad sea, or in a place where a hostile reception may be given, turn the boat round on the beach so as to be ready to go out at once. In some places it will be found best to attempt landing or starting at high tide, for then the waves come farther in, and the break is not so dangerous. When outside a place with a bad landing, do not rush in without any care, but watch the waves, and get your time, and then pull hard. It may possibly be necessary, if the sea be heavy, to back the oars against any heavy sea on its approach, so as to check the boat's way, and to allow the sea to pass. Backing the weather oars wil1 check any tendency the boat may have to broach to. Natives are inclined to take it easy in a difficult place, and at times need stirring up to make them row hard. All the crew, including the steersman, should jump out as soon as shallow water is reached, and hold the boat or run her up on shore. The native, as a rule, is very slow to jump out of a boat, and will delay getting wet as long as he can. Of course, when landing in any dangerous place, all sails will have been lowered beforehand and [27/28] carefully stowed away, and the steer-oar will have been inserted in place of the rudder. Always have the row locks made fast with a line. Keep a baler handy, and never cumber up the stern sheets so that you are prevented from baling.
Bring the principal weight in the boat towards the stern end, but not to the extreme end. If, when landing, the bow is unduly depressed, the sea, acting on the stern, throws the bows up, and causes the boat to broach to, and will throw her broadside on the beach, or will capsize her. Natives always tend to crowd into the bows of a boat. When under sail, and at all times, keep the bows fairly empty. It sometimes happens that a crowd of natives, sailing with the wind right aft, will fail to make their destination owing to their crowding into the bows and so rendering the rudder useless, and forcing the boat up into the wind. If you have a permanent crew, accustom them to move about in the boat so as to right their balance.
All boats should be provided with anchor and chain, and water cask, and, possibly, with an awning for calm weather. A locker in the bows will be found useful; this is obtained by covering in the space from the bow thwart forwards. The door of the after locker should be in the face above the stern thwart, and not on the top. This door should be big enough to admit blanket-roll, guncase, etc., and should have a lock and hasp so that if necessary things may be left in it. For sailing, a tiller will be found better than yoke-lines, and the rudder should be on the large side so as to grip well.
Never fasten the sheet but pass it once behind and over the cleat, and then back so that it is caught in a loop under the mainsheet and held there by the sheet's tautness; a pull at the loose end, which should be kept handy and free, will let everything go. In a strong wind hold the sheet in your hand, having taken one turn round the cleat. Have the halyards ready for lowering at once. If the sails of a boat are well cut and balanced, they will tend to drive her up into the wind, to give her what is called "a weather-helm," and any boat with good sails, if left to her own devices in a squall, will at once do the right thing, for she will luff up into the wind and be in safety. When boarding a vessel, lower your mast before going alongside, and get to leeward, if possible. Do not try to board her if she has sternway on. If she is going ahead make in for the bows, throw the painter, and then with the steer oar stern the boat in alongside. When the vessel is anchored, make for her quarter, and then round up alongside, taking in the oars.
The Mission only provides one type of sail, but it is open to any missionary to have what sail he chooses, provided he pays for it. The old Southern Cross boats had dipping lugs, and in the past some of the men have used sprit-sails. The sprit-sail has no boom [28/29] or gaff, but is extended by a long diagonal spar called the sprit, the upper end of which fits into an eye on the peak, the lower into a loop on the mast called the snotter. The snotter is a grommet which is placed round the mast and then seized in the middle so as to form an eye for the sprit. The sail is hoisted first; then one end of the sprit is inserted into the eye of the peak, and the other into the snotter. The snotter is then pushed up the mast as far as it will go, bringing the sail quite flat. A sprit-sail can be brailed up along the mast in a moment by means of a line leading through a block on the mast and passing through the sail. The sprit sail rig is said to be safe and handy, and is more powerful than the standing lug.
The Norfolk Island rig is much to be recommended. This rig consists of a gaff main-sail with boom and jib. It is a very powerful rig, and once a man has learned to handle the main-sail, he will feel perfectly safe and can be sure that, given fair weather, he can make certain of his boat doing well. The sail is attached to the mast by rings, the top ring being made fast just under the lawn of the gaff. The mast is raised and set in place and pinned; then the two back stays are unwound and passed through cleats and made fast. Then the brail and the halyards are loosed, the sail unfurled and the after leech with the sheet passed aft, and the end of the boom is then inserted into the eye. Next the boom is shoved out, and the inboard end made fast some distance up the mast so that the bottom of the sail is level. The boom had better be bored and the rope fixed in it, and two small wooden brackets may be nailed on the mast to prevent the boom slipping down. Next, the peak is hauled up and the halyards made fast, much in the same way as the main sheet is made fast; the loop being held in position by being passed once round the pin and then back under the halyard. Finally, the sheet is hauled in and the jib set. When in a squall, let go the peak halyards, and at once you will be in perfect safety; letting go the sheet will also cause the boat to ride safely.
When taking down the sail, put the boat up in the wind, take in the jib, let go the peak halyard, and pull on the brail, then loose the sheet and let the boom go; then roll up the sail with the sheet inside, and fasten it with the brail, getting the gaff close to the mast. If the brail be not fastened, it will foul the sail and prevent your hauling up the peak. Roll the sail well up to the mast (never roll a sail round any yard or mast), with the ends of the brail inside, having partly secured the sail with the halyards; then let go the back stays and twist them in opposite directions round the mast to the bottom, making both ends fast. Then take down the mast.
The ordinary Mission boats are only single-fastened, and are meant to be rigged with a lug-sail. The Norfolk Island rig needs a strongly built boat and double fastenings; a double-fastened boat will cost a few pounds more, but there is no comparison [29/30] between the value of the Norfolk Island rig and the standing lug rig.
It would be quite worth while to study this rig at Norfolk Island where the sails can be made. Given a fair breeze and not too much sea, one can make sure with the Norfolk Island rig of reaching any place one wants to, and even of beating to windward, and this is scarcely true of the lug-sail, though doubtless it is true of sprit-sail. However, the addition of a mizzen to the ordinary lug-sail will increase its value considerably. The following are a few rules that apply to sailing:--
(1).--Be careful that your halyards do not get entangled; else, when they are let go they may jam. Keep your main sheet clear of obstacles. Many a boat has been capsized owing to the sheet becoming entangled.
(2).--Sit to windward when steering.
(3).--If struck by a squall, luff up to it, or ease the sheet, or do both. Luff up in the wind before hoisting or lowering sail.
(4).--Never climb the mast of a small boat. If anything is wrong aloft, lower the mast to set it right. Melanesians are only too fond of climbing masts.
(5).--Be careful about jibing. If your sail has a peak, lower it before you jibe; haul in the main sheet and pay it out on the other side, so as to lessen the jerk when the boat jibes. Do not have all your crew sitting to windward unless they are experienced men. A little ballast steadies a boat wonderfully.
(6).--With a beam or head sea, luff up to any big waves.
(7).--When the sea is on the quarter, bear away to bring the big waves aft.
(8).--When running, the seas should strike right aft. Be careful about breaching to.
Take care of your sails. If a. sail is furled when it is damp, the inner folds are liable to mildew; a wet sail should be furled loosely, and then shaken out and dried at the earliest opportunity. If the weather is bad continuously and the sails are wet, do not wait for the sun, but shake the sails out and air them, even if it is raining. Be careful when you stow your sails that they do not get eaten by white ants.
In the matter of caring for your gear, trust no native to do it for you, but see to it all yourself.
A sewing palm, needles, and a hank of thread will be found useful. All crews have to be paid for by the Missionaries. The usual rate is from 4d. to 6d. per day. Tobacco, cloth, pipes, matches, fish hooks, are the things most demanded as payment.
 CHAPTER 7. Health Hints.
At Norfolk Island there is a resident doctor, but in Melanesia proper, everyone has to be his own doctor. A dentist from Sydney makes occasional visits to Norfolk Island, or upon necessity the resident doctor will extract teeth, but if your teeth are likely to be troublesome, get them seen to before you join the Mission. Everyone going to live in the Islands should be provided with a "Burroughs and Welcome" medicine chest. This may be procured on Missionary terms, from their London House, in Snow Hill, or from the Sydney house. The recommendation of the Organising Secretary will be necessary in England, and that of the Bishop of Melanesia in Australia. With this chest, Burroughs & Welcome & Co. supply a very useful book called "Tabloid."
At Norfolk Island, the unmarried missionaries have their doctor's bills paid by the Mission. There is a hospital for Melanesians at Norfolk Island, but none as yet in Melanesia, though a good deal of money has been collected for a general hospital in the Solomons. Medical Missions as such have no place in Melanesia, for the heathen natives generally attribute sickness to the power of spirits, and they have no idea of taking care of their health, and even with the Christians there is often no idea of submitting themselves to treatment, and of carrying out instructions. They have a knowledge of certain illnesses, such as coughs, asthma, lung troubles, meningitis, but generally they lump them all together and call it "a sickness." Many of them have ulcers that would kill a white person, and are seemingly careless of their state of health. The most that a Missionary can hope to do at present with them is to make up certain medicines and to leave them with the patient.
For the Missionary himself, we not three things from which he is most likely to suffer:--
(1).--Malaria (i.e., Fever and Ague). (2).--Sores. (3).--Eczema.
As was said above, Malaria is preventable to a very great extent. The Missionary who is stationary ought never to get it at all. When sitting in the house at night, the ankles can be effectually protected against mosquito bites by wearing two pairs of socks, or by wearing a pair of spats. Fumigation by means of pyrethrum powder thrown on burning charcoal will keep mosquitoes away for an hour or two, and a little burnt under the table before dinner time is very effectual. Oil of lavender rubbed on the face or hands or ankles is a fairly efficient preventative. These measures need only be used in places where mosquitoes are troublesome.
There are three sorts of mosquitoes to be guarded against: Culex, Stegomyia, Anopheles. Mosquitoes can live for months in native houses or in undergrowth, but they cannot breed without water. The female lays the eggs on the surface of water, and they [31/32] soon hatch out into larvæ. The larvæ of the commoner Culex are popularly known in England as wrigglers, and are found in tubs, pots, ditches, and occasionally in puddles, and when disturbed they wriggle immediately to the bottom. Culices bite chiefly in the darkness and sleep in the day. They generally have plain legs and wings and a clumsy body. When at rest, their bellies approach the surface of the thing on which they rest. This kind of mosquito carries the parasite of Elephantiasis (Mota, pura). Stegomyia is somewhat like Culex, and is known as the brindled or tiger mosquito. It frequently carries its last pair of legs tilted on its back. Its wings are plain, but its legs are profusely barred. It bites during the day, and is very voracious. This mosquito carries yellow fever. Its larvæ are more confined to vessels of water, especially pots, broken bottles, empty tins, and hollows in trees. Anopheles breed mainly in natural collections of water which are not quite stagnant, but are kept fresh by rain or by a natural trickle through them. Thus they breed at the edges of streams, and in water holes. Fresh water fish destroy the grubs where they can get them. Anopheles has a more elegant body, and a straight body axis. The wings are generally spotted. When at rest on a surface, its body projects away at an angle from the surface, the head being nearest the surface, and the extremity of the tail farthest away from it. The larvæ float on the water like sticks, and when disturbed, they skate with a backward jerk on the surface, before diving to the bottom. Anopheles bite chief1y in the darkness and carry both malaria and elephantiasis. This mosquito lays its eggs chiefly in pools of water on the ground, and seldom in vessels of water. The Anopheles will be found in bush country and in marshes, and its larvæ will be found in the small pools at the margins of the swamps. Anopheles in and near native houses will always be infected, though in places not near human habitation their bite will not necessarily convey malaria.
The Anopheles seldom hum and hover round their victims, but bite without giving any warning of their presence. The bite of a single infected Anopheles may produce a malarial infection which may cause attacks of fever for years. Ross on "Malaria," p.p. 15 and 48, has some remarks on the old "miasma" theory, which those who disbelieve in the mosquito theory would do well to read. Mosquitoes are poor fliers. They seldom travel a quarter of a mile, and never half a mile from the water in which they are bred, and to which they return to lay their eggs. Hence, in choosing the site for any permanent station, a knowledge of their breeding places is of prime importance. The malarial germ is acquired by the mosquitoes from already infected subjects, and native children are the main source of infection. Practically all native children under five are in a chronic state of malaria, and many suffer terribly from it and even die of it. A feed of blood is necessary for the female mosquito before it can by its eggs. With the blood it acquires the malarial parasite, which grows in [32/33] the insect and produces a number of spores. These spores enter the salivary gland, and are injected into the skin through the proboscis when the insect bites, and so pass into the blood and cause infection.
It is possible in any place to destroy the mosquitoes' breeding places, but it is seldom possible to move a native village, so a good site which is all right so far as its isolation from native houses is concerned, and is otherwise desirable, need not be rejected on account of the proximity of a breeding place of mosquitoes. In quick running water there seems to be no danger of mosquitoes breeding, and in most of our island streams the fish would eat the larvæ. When a breeding place has been discovered, if it is in a vessel of some sort, pour the water and all on the ground, the larvæ will then die at once. If they are in puddles, brush the water out. If in cisterns and tanks containing water used for domestic purposes, and if the water is drawn off from the bottom, pour a little kerosene oil in. The oil forms at once a film over the whole surface and prevents the larvæ breathing. If the water in these cisterns is baled out from the top, then eucalyptus will be preferable to kerosene. Pools of water may be dealt with by an oiled rag tied on to a stick. Never allow broken bottles or tins to lie about, and fill up all puddles with earth.
When the Missionary is away visiting he will be far more liable to infection, for he will have to live in a native house, surrounded by Natives, and with mosquito breeding places untouched. He must then pay great attention to his net. "I cannot say enough for the mosquito net. I believe that if all Europeans in the tropics could be induced to use it as carefully as some of us do, malarial infection would be reduced among them to less than a quarter" (Ross on "Malaria.") Directions have been given above, as to size and make of net. Be sure to get a large one.
(a).--The giving of Quinine. Quinine destroys the parasites in the blood, and will prevent their multiplication in the system. In the tropics, in malarious districts, quinine should be taken in regular doses as a prophylactic. Dr. Howard, of U.M.C.A., recommends the giving of 20 grs. per week, to be given in two 10 gr. doses, preferably on Sunday and Monday evenings when at meals. Bi-hydrochloride is the best form of quinine in tabloids. Tabloids in some cases irritate the stomach. Immerse the tabloid in water, and probably it will dissolve of itself, if not, add a little diluted sulphuric acid. Sugar coated tabloids are not to be recommended, they take longer to dissolve, and if swallowed without dissolving, may pass through the body without being dissolved at all. The object of the quinine is to act on the blood, and bi-hydrochloride of quinine acts quickest and is easily dissolved. The great point in quinine taking is to take regular doses. Spasmodic "heroic" doses are apt to be dangerous.
 (b).--During an attack of malaria, quinine is only to be given with a falling temperature, the dose to be 20 grs. a day, till the attack is over. With the first dose give a purgative: one tablespoonful or more of Epsom Salts in hot water; and 20 drops of tincture of opium after the purge. During the cold stage put blankets on, and get hot water bottles. Hot tea without milk or sugar is good, and will control vomiting, but never give spirits. During the hot, dry, non-perspiring stage, a cup of hot tea or soup will do good. When the sweat has set in and the temperature is falling, give quinine and some food. While the fever lasts the diet should consist of soft food. If the temperature falls below normal and the patient is hungry, some more solid food can be given. Don't worry constantly about the state of the bowels, and don't molly coddle yomse1f or worry yourself about your "symptoms." Native babies suffer much from malaria, give them castor oil and dissolved quinine. Burgundy will be found useful after recovery from fever, and Coco-wine is also recommended. Use both as medicines.
(2).--The skin needs special attention in Melanesia. Any scratches on the legs and feet tend to become sores. The skin must be protected as much as possible, so to wear boots is a protection to the ankles. Never walk barefoot, and never wade barefoot. Clean all wounds and scratches at once. Tetanus is apt to result from certain wounds, e.g., arrow wounds. Every arrow tip is dirty, and tetanus germs are in dirt and are conveyed thus to the body. If necessary, suck a wound to cleanse it. Corrosive sublimate is a good thing for cleansing a wound or as an antiseptic lotion, gr. 1.75 in four ounces of water makes a weak solution; chinosol is well recommended also. Always well bandage up sores or even scratches on legs or feet. Soak a piece of lint in the antiseptic lotion, put it on the sore, cover with oiled silk, and well bandage it. If you have to take a boat journey, always protect a sore from the sun. Iodoform dusted into an ulcer often tends to promote healing.
(3).--Eczema is a common complaint in Melanesia. Rub the afflicted part with Hazeline, then rub in lightly just as much chrysophanic acid powder as will cling to the top of the finger. Be very careful not to apply too much, then wrap up the afflicted part. Spots and patches of "bakua" must be treated in the same way. "Bakua" is a form of ringworm and is contagious. It may be caught from natives, or it may be caught by bathing in waters infested with the parasite. With Europeans, it especially attacks the buttocks, the crutch, the arm-pits, it may also appear on the face, or on the legs and body. A light application of Chrysophanic Acid with Hazeline will kill the parasite. Sometimes, natives are covered all over with these scales; to clean them, half a teaspoonful of Chrysophanic to a quart bottle of kerosene will form a strong [34/35] solution which can be rubbed on with a rag. Two applications should cure the worst cases. Chrysophanic leaves a yellow stain on clothes.
With some people, an attack of fever is heralded by a swelling in the glands in the thigh, or in the arm-pits. Give a strong purge at once, and rub with a liniment. If it be necessary to apply a poultice, yams or "pana" may be used for a poultice. Castor oil is useful as a purge for children, and Epsom salts for adults. The latter are best bought by the box (1 gross). Smelling salts are very serviceable. Be very careful to avoid constipation and diarrha. Evacuation should be procured daily by natural means. Vegetables are useful for this purpose. An attack of constipation is best treated by a mild purgative: one or two Cascara tabloids at night, followed by a dose of salts in the morning. Never neglect a slight attack of diarrha.
In order to stock a medicine chest, a list is given of the chief diseases and ailments common in Melanesia, with suggested medicines. The list is founded on the one in "Tabloid."
Anæmia Bland Pills. Arsenious Acid. Asthma Nitre Blisters on Feet Boric Acid. Chill Dover Powder Colic Ginger Essence. Opium Tincture. Ipecacuanha (emetic). Constipation Cascara Diarrhoea Castor Oil. Aromatic Chalk Powder. Peptonic Tabloid. Dysentery Ipecacuanha. Opium. Eczema, Ringworm As above. Insomnia Sulphonal. Liver Tabloid Cathartic Compound. Tabloid Sodium Sulphate (Effervescent). Malaria Quinine Bi-Hydrochoride. Iron and Arsenic. Neuralgia Phenacetine. Potassium Bromide. Ophthalmia Zinc Sulphate. Corrosive Sublimate. Pneumonia As directed in "Tabloid." Prickly Heat Carbolic Acid. Rheumatism Sodium Salicylate. Asperine. Sunstroke As directed in "Tabloid." Syphilis " " Toothache " " Ulcers As wounds. Worms Tabloid Santonin. Male Fern. Stings or bites of insects Ammonia Carbonate. Hypodermic. Strychnine Nitrate. Wounds Boric Acid. Corrosive Sublimate. Chinosol.
A hypodermic syringe, an enema, and a clinical thermometer are all necessary.