IN a former Number of the "Church in the Colonies," entitled New Zealand, Part I., an account was given of the Bishop of New Zealand's arrival in his Diocese, and of his First Visitation Tour, from July, 1842, to January, 1843.
The Journal then published, concluded with an account of the Bishop's return to the Waimate, on the 9th of January, 1843; to which was added a brief notice of the death of his Chaplain, the Rev. Thomas Whytehead, on the 19th of March following.
The following Extract of a Letter from the Bishop, (which, by the kindness of the friend to whom it was addressed, the Society is now enabled to publish,) seems to form a suitable Preface to the Second Part of the Bishop's Visitation Journal.
It has not been thought necessary to re-publish the Map of New Zealand. It may be found prefixed to the First Part of this Journal, which is still sold at the places mentioned in the Title-Page of the present Part.
"I HOPE that you have not been altogether without letters from me, though they have not been so frequent as I wished. My last communication to you announced the death of my dear young friend, Willie Evans, whom I buried at Wellington. My present letter must be of the same character, for it has pleased God to deprive me of another of our little community--my bosom friend and chaplain. We laid him in his grave on the 21st March, at the eastern end of the Waimate Church, where I hope, at some future time, the chancel of the permanent Church, which we hope to build, will cover his remains. When I first received the account of his declining state, in a great forest on the eastern coast, I confess that my spirit, for a time, sank within me; but when I returned home in the beginning of January, and found him still alive and in possession of his faculties, so that I was permitted to enjoy nearly ten weeks of intercourse with him, I learned, I trust, to resign into the hands of God, without a murmur, a gift of which I had been unworthy from the first. I can now look upon his grave as a proof of the overflowing mercy of God to this country, that such a man should have been sent here only to die. And yet not strictly so, for he was well enough on his first arrival from Sydney to read with one of the candidates for holy orders, Mr. Davis, late the manager of the Society's farm, and has left an impression on his mind which will never be effaced. The end of my dear friend was as peaceful and holy as his life. Early on the morning of the 19th of March (Sunday), Mr. Cotton, who had been his constant attendant, sharing with Mrs. Selwyn the duties of nurse, came to tell me that a rapid change had come upon him during the night. The evening before, he had been with us in the drawing-room till the usual hour. I went to his room, and saw that the hand of death was upon him. He joined in the parting prayer, in the service for the Visitation of the Sick; and then faintly said, that he could follow no longer, for his head was wandering; but for a few moments only, and even then, his words were those of the righteous man, who regardeth the life of his beast, begging that we would feed a dog, which he supposed to have been sent to him. In a few minutes more his breathing gradually ceased, without any of the painful gaspings which occasionally occur in the last stage of consumption, and his face immediately settled itself into an expression of the most tranquil slumber, with a cast of thought as if it were under the influence of a heavenly dream. Mrs. Selwyn, Mr. Cotton, Mr. Butt, and I, were at his bed-side, and all, I believe, felt, that in this hour of seeming separation, we were united more closely one with another, and with him. His meek and gentle spirit has been a bond of union between us all, and by his death I trust we shall not be divided.
Immediately after his funeral, I was obliged to set out to our northernmost station, Kaitaia, to endeavour to pacify two parties of natives, whose quarrels threatened to involve the northern portion of the island in war. I was not very successful; but happily no outbreak occurred during the week that I spent among them. In this journey I saw the natives entirely in a new character, and in a less favourable point of view than in my former journey. Still there was something even in their warfare, which shewed the influence of religion. I arrived on the Saturday, and immediately took up my position midway between the hostile camps, in a field of Indian corn, which had been partially destroyed. From this neutral ground I opened my communications with the rival chiefs. On the next morning, Sunday, the whole valley was as quiet as in the time of perfect peace, the natives walking about unarmed among the cultivations, it being perfectly understood that neither party would fight on the Lord's day. Going early in the morning to one of the Pas, I found the chief reading prayers to his people. As he had just come to the end of the Litany, I waited till he concluded, and then read the Communion Service, and preached to them on part of the lesson of the day,--"A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another." I spoke my opinion openly, but without giving any offence; and the Chief, after the service, received me in a most friendly manner. This, you will say, was an unusual combination: a New Zealand war chief reading prayers, and an English Bishop preaching; but you must not at present judge us by the ordinary rules of Church discipline. Finding that my remonstrances were not so effectual as I wished, I removed my camp to a more elevated spot, from which the whole field of battle could be seen; and a safer position in case of the renewal of hostilities. Here I was joined by Mr. Puckey, one of the missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, from Kaitaia. Our party then consisted of Mr. Puckey, Mr. Kemp, (Assistant Protector of Aborigines,) Mr. Nihill, myself, and four natives. We hoisted a white flag, which, with our tents, formed a conspicuous object. On the Friday the face of things was changed for the better by the arrival of 140 men armed with muskets, and determined to keep the peace. After a conference with them, I thought the prospect so much better, that I determined to go to Kaitaia, where Mr. Nihill and I arrived on the Saturday afternoon, and found a party of 300 or 400 on their way to the field of battle; but their leaders, whom I visited in the evening, expressed very pacific intentions.
On the Sunday Morning, April 2d, we had a church full within, and a church-yard full without. The number inside was at least four hundred, but being chiefly strangers their behaviour was not very orderly. Kaitaia is a very beautiful situation, with a neat wooden church and spire, with the mission houses on either side. This is the principal settlement of the Chief Nopera Para-Kareao, whom I have mentioned as reading prayers to his men.
On Monday, April 3d, we ascended a high ridge, Maunga Tanewha, where night overtook us, and we had to descend a steep wooded bank. After many falls, the natives lighted large faggots of supple-jack, by the aid of which we reached the bottom, and encamped for the night.
The next day we came to Hokianga, where I hope soon to build a chapel. The Hokianga river, or rather rivers, for there are many, form a most beautiful series of landscapes, with something occasionally of the character of the Thames at Cliefden.
On Wednesday, April 5th, I returned to the Waimate, and found, thank God, all well.
St. John's College is now open, with seven students all duly arrayed in caps and gowns; and a goodly sight they arc in church; and a goodly hearing too, for they chant the psalms most reverentially. When the school opens, we hope to be able to select some good trebles among the boys. With regard to the Candidates for Holy Orders, if their progress should answer my expectations, I hope to admit one to Deacon's Orders on Trinity Sunday, and four in September. These four will be young men, designed for service at the outposts. My present plan is to charter a ship at the beginning of November, and go with them, with frames for houses, and every requisite for settling, taking with me my whole college to spend their long vacation, in planting four new stations; one on the Chatham Islands, one on Stewart Island, one probably on the east coast of the middle Island, and one at Taupo. Our whole effective force is about twelve men, all able and willing to work. But I cannot look upon these plans at a distance of six months, without feeling that past events ought to teach me how little I can depend on the future.''
ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, WAIMATE,
April 11, 1843.
ON Thursday, August 17, Mr. Bolland and myself left the Waimate for Kaitaia, taking the road by Wangaroa. A good walk of twenty-five miles, over an undulating country, partly wooded, brought us to the Wangaroa River, which we forded four times, and then came to the house of a respectable English settler, named Spikeman, who lent us his whale-boat, in which we rowed eight miles across Wangaroa Harbour to Mr. Shepherd's house, where we arrived at seven P.M.
August 18.--Natives came for examination for Baptism and the Lord's Supper, in number more than seventy.
August 19.--Native baptism and confirmation. Six adults baptized; sixty-one confirmed.
August 20--Sunday.--Two native and two English services: in the morning at the chapel attached to Mr. Shepherd's house; in the afternoon at a small village called by the English St. Paul's. Strangely enough, two high and remarkable rocks, laid down in the charts as St. Peter and St. Paul, on opposite sides of the harbour, have been bought, the former by the Romanists, the latter by Mr. Shepherd, the Church Missionary Society's Catechist. After afternoon services, we rowed back four miles to Mr. Shepherd's from the chapel at St. Paul's. The small island off which the Boyd was lying at the time of the massacre, was pointed out to us. One of the natives, whom I confirmed and received at the Lord's Supper, was represented as having been engaged in the massacre, but is now a peaceable and consistent Christian.
August 21.--Left Mr. Shepherd's house in his boat. Lovely morning. The varied and broken outline of the rocky scenery of the harbour was shown to great advantage by the deep shadows of the morning contrasting with the hill-tops, upon which the sun was shining brightly. St. Peter and St. Paul stood grandly out, with a great gulph of bright water between. Rowed four miles across the harbour, and landed on the other side. Walked over fern hills, to a small village called Taupo; and on, through swampy plains, to Mangonui, once a promising English settlement, but now almost deserted in consequence of a dispute between the native tribes as to the ownership of the land. Almost all the settlers having left, we had some difficulty in finding the means of crossing a deep river, which flows into the harbour, and is not fordable except at low water. At last we found a small canoe, in which we crossed by instalments, and walked on to Oruru, the field of battle of the Karawa and Ngapuhi tribes. Hearing that the Pas had been burnt down when the hostile forces retired from the ground, I made my way to a single house, which I had remembered in my former visit, hoping that it might have escaped the general demolition. [A Pa is a fortified native village, generally on a height.] We found it still standing, and it afforded a good shelter for my men for the night. We pitched our tent, as usual, with the Oruru River flowing below us, and the fertile valley stretching out on all sides, now utterly deserted. On my last visit there were not fewer than 1,000 natives on the ground.
August, 22.--Crossed Oruru River. Passed my former encampment, midway between the two fighting Pas. The house in which my men had lived had been burnt; but my fern-bed still remained on the place where my tent had been pitched. Walked on to Kaitaia, over an open country, through several deserted villages, the inhabitants of which had retired further to the northward for fear of the Ngapuhi. Arrived at Kaitaia at half-past three P.M. and went to the house of Mr. Puckey, Church Mission Catechist.
I have before described the pleasant appearance of the Kaitaia Mission Station, from the path to Oruru. The brow of the hill looks down upon it, as it lies nestled under a fine wooded range of hills: on the east a vast plain with a dark forest in the middle, extending out to the flat marshy estuary of the Awarua River, ending in the sandy Bay; to the northward a bright line of sand marks the district of Muriwenua, which reaches to the north Cape; on the westward, the wooded range of Maunga Tanewha bridges the whole inland country between Kaitaia and the Waimate. A horse path was cut along this ridge under the direction of the Missionaries, some years ago, to obtain access to the Kaitaia Station without incurring the danger of interruption from the Oruru and Mangonui natives, who were then troublesome. The same reason which led to the making the road, now causes it to be discontinued, as we always prefer going by the most populous paths.
August 23 to 26.--Examined candidates for Confirmation and Baptism. Found the minds of the natives very much unsettled by the late war. Many held very conscientious scruples about renewing the public profession of Christianity and coming to the Lord's table, when they were liable at any moment to be called out to war. Many stayed away in consequence. Among this number was a party who came in a body to a "Wakawakanga," that is, to call me to account, for having threatened, as they said, to bring a body of soldiers among them. I asked them where my soldiers were? Whether they meant my caps and gowns at the Waimate to which they could make no other answer, than that, if I wrote to the Queen, she would send soldiers. I said that was the Governor's business, and not mine; that my soldiers were clergymen, and their arms books; with which they went away satisfied. I traced the report to a piece of advice which I had given to some neutral tribes, allied to both the contending parties--to place themselves between the combatants, and not allow them to fight, which was ultimately done, the peacemakers being twice as numerous as the fighting men of both sides.
August 27--Sunday.--I confirmed one hundred and twenty-two natives, but refused to administer the Lord's Supper till I should hear that the desire for war was at an end. In the afternoon I baptized fifteen adults and nineteen children. In the evening the principal Chief, Nopera Para-Kareao, who had stood aloof from me in consequence of my reproof of him at Oruru, came in to make it up with me. I asked him what he had been angry about? He said, because I had threatened to take away his baptismal name, and that I was under a mistake, because at the time when I thought he was going to attack the opposite party, he was only standing on the defensive, in expectation of an attack from them. I said that it was my duty to tell him when he was acting wrongly, and that a dumb dog was of no use; to which he assented; and, after a good deal of conversation, he promised me that he would not rise again, unless the Ngapuhi should attack him.
August 28.--Left Kaitaia at half-past seven A.M. and reached Mangonui at half-past three. Slept at the house of a settler named Captain Butler, whose child I baptized.
August 29.--Walked from Mangonui to the To-tara, on Wangaroa Harbour. Met Mr. Shepherd with his boat, but could not get up the river at Spikeman's till late in the evening. Arrived at his house at eight P.M., and slept there.
August 30,--Left Spikeman's at half-past seven A.M. and reached the Waimate at a quarter past three P.M., returning by the way which we came.
September 18.--Opened our Native Infant Boarding School with thirty-three scholars: room filled with parents, who were much delighted to see the children formed into order, and going through the usual exercises. The children were much more orderly than the children on the first day of meeting of an English Infant School usually are. Mrs. Colenzo (late Miss Fairburn) and Mrs. C. Davis (late Miss Williams) are the mistresses of the School. Their husbands are members of the College, as candidates for holy orders. The Infant School-room is a building intended for the boys of the English School to play in; but Eton men know well that boys require no place to play in but the open air, so I altered the appropriation of the building.
September 19 to 23.--Ember week. Examination of candidates for holy orders.
September 24.--Ordination Sunday. Admitted to Deacon's orders, at the Waimate Church, William Bolland, University College, Oxford; Seymour Wells Spencer, Student in the service of the Church Missionary Society; H. F. Butt, Student in the service of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. This was my third Ordination, and as all the Deacons were students of my own College, it was an occasion of the deepest interest to me, and a source of great consolation, under the many losses and disappointments which I have sustained. My ordinations have now balanced my losses. I have lost--
1. Rev. T. Whytehead. dead
2. Rev. J. Mason. dead
3. Rev. G. Butt. returned to England.
4. Rev. C. Saxton. returned to England.
I have ordained--
1. Rev. Richard Davis.
2. Rev. S. W. Spencer.
3. Rev. W. Holland.
4. Rev. H. F. Butt.
My little College becomes more valuable to me in proportion as my expectations of assistance from England are disappointed.
September 25 to 27.--General annual audit. Settled all accounts, and provided for the entire breaking up of the College establishment at the end of the month. Engaged Union schooner (20 tons) to take Mrs. Selwyn and myself to Auckland; and the Columbine to take Mr. Spencer and his family to Tauranga: and made application for a passage in the Victoria for Mr. Bolland to Taranaki (New Plymouth), and Mr. Butt to Nelson.
September 28.--Left the Waimate at noon. Walked ten miles to Kaikohe, the station of Rev. R. Davis. Slept at his house, after a reading class with the natives.
September 29.--Walked twenty miles to Mangakahia, on Wairoa River.
October 1.--Mangakahia.--Administered the Lord's Supper to sixty-one natives. Afterwards, native school of thirty-eight children assembled, and answered remarkably well, the parents standing behind, and listening with great satisfaction. I was much pleased with this settlement, as on my former visit. After afternoon service, took leave of the people. One man took my hand, and said, "Though your body is far from us, you will be with us in spirit still." At night I heard the native teacher at his family devotions, praying for a blessing upon me.
October 2.--Returned to the Waimate at 4 P.M.
October 4.--Completed my preparations, and went with my travelling party of natives to the Kerikeri.
October 5.--Wind still contrary. Cleared the Cathedral Library at the Kerikeri-store, of all superfluous lumber. Dusted and arranged the theological parts on the shelves already there, and piled up all the general literature in one corner, to remain till new shelves can be made. Many hands made light work: Rev. H. Williams, Rev. R. Burrows, Rev. W. C. Cotton, myself, Mr. Nihill, and Mr. Fisher, all assisting and receiving payment for their work in Gospels of St. Matthew in the native language.
October 6.--Completed the arrangement of the library. Wind still contrary.
October 7.--A day of literary luxury. Sat looking upon the books, occasionally dipping into them. The very sight of so many venerable folios is most refreshing in this land, where everything is so new. The Eton books have a row to themselves.
October 12.--Went on board the Union; Mr. Cotton, Mr. Nihill, Mr. Fisher, Mr. Merchant (of New Plymouth), Mrs. Watts, and Mary Crump, with Mrs. Selwyn, William, and myself, with my travelling party of seven natives, all on board the little vessel; which, however, is much more comfortable than would at first be believed, and being a regular trader between the Bay of Islands and Auckland, is in good repute for safety and despatch. We beat out of the Kerikeri River, but found the wind still contrary, and therefore anchored off Kororareka.
October 13.--Strong wind from the south, with much rain. Detained at the Bay of Islands all day.
October 14.--At six, wind light from the west. Weighed anchor. Breeze freshened, and came off more from the north. At two P.M. rounded Cape Brett, and had then the wind directly astern. Our little vessel rolled about like a tub, in the heavy swell remaining after a week of easterly weather; but, as the wind was fair, we made considerable progress. At sunset we were off Wananaki River. During the night squalls and rain.
October 15.--Sunday.--Attempted morning service on the deck of the Union, but a strong squall coining on obliged us to give over. Ran rapidly down, and reached the north head of Auckland Harbour at two o'clock. Beat in against a strong west wind. Anchored off the Chief Justice's house. Landed, and went to afternoon service at St. Paul's Church. Mr. Churton read: Mr. Maunsell preached an excellent sermon.
October 17.--Confirmation at Auckland. Fifty-five natives, eight English, confirmed. Native chapel on church allotment, adjoining Chief Justice's house, begun; intended to serve also as the private chapel to my house at Auckland, when I have any money to build one. I hope to see the chapel completed on my return. It will be a great convenience to Mrs. Martin, who is unable to go to church.
October 18.--We set sail in the Union at sunset, and anchored for the night under the Island of Waiheke.
October 19.--Ran rapidly, with a fair wind, to Orere, midway between Auckland and the mouth of the Thames--the spot selected for a new Mission Station for the district of the Thames. I inspected the place set apart by the natives for the residence of the Missionary, which pleased me much, as it commands on one side. the whole Frith from Coro-mandel Harbour to Auckland, and on the other, the mouths of the Thames and Piako. Went on board again, and sailed to the mouth of the river, but not having a pilot could not get in. I went on shore in the ship's boat, and sent off the Government pinnace, which happened to be in the river, to bring the rest of the party on shore. They lost the tide, and were obliged to lie all night on the mud bank at the mouth of the river. Mr. Clark, chief Protector of Aborigines, and Mr. Nihill, remained on board. Mr. Cotton walked to the shore through a considerable extent of shallow water.
October 20, 21.--Examined candidates for Confirmation and Baptism, who, in consequence of the rough weather, came in slowly; so that I did not finish till late on Saturday night. The Thames is not so fine a river as its namesake. Small vessels can enter the mouth, and proceed thirty or forty miles up to a native village, Opita, but the shoals at the mouth prevent any vessel, drawing more than eight or ten feet, from entering. Mr. Preece, of the Church Mission, is the Catechist of this station, with whom I had previously been acquainted in my former visit, in June 1842.
October 22.--Baptized fifteen children and eighteen adults. Confirmed sixty-one natives, and administered the Lord's Supper to sixty-eight communicants.
October 23.--Started at sunrise in Mr. Preece's canoe, manned by eleven natives, who, however, proved an insufficient crew for the very heavy and clumsy boat against a strong flood, and the Pakehas (English), who usually sit still, were therefore obliged to work. The lower part of the river is wide, with flat marshy land on the left bank, in the midst of which stands an extensive wood of Kahiketea trees. The. right bank is a range of wooded hills, leaving a belt of land, varying from one to two miles in width, between the river and their base. In three hours, against the tide, we come to Puriri, the former Mission Station, now deserted, as being unhealthy. After nearly twelve hours of heavy pulling, or rather paddling against the tide, we came to the house of a Mr. Thorpe, whose child I baptized, and drank tea with him, while the canoe was taken round a long bend of the river. At seven P.M. reached native settlement, Opita; went into a large house formerly built for an Englishman engaged in the pig trade, and there slept, after holding a reading class with the natives. The tide flows as far up as Opita, about thirty miles from the sea; but, as we started at high water, we had no benefit from it. The scenery in many parts is pleasing, but not so strikingly beautiful as on many other of the New Zealand rivers. It is of uniform character throughout: on the right bank a range of undulating hills; on the left, a vast plain of swamp and fern, with occasional patches of wood. The width of the river at Opita is about as great as that of the Thames at Eton.
October 24.--Very wet day. Started at quarter past eight, and paddled rather uncomfortably. In the afternoon, the natives knowing that they were approaching the conclusion of their work, paddled most vigorously, and made the heavy canoe fly. At four, we came to the first of the many landing-places to Matamata; named Te Rua Kowhawha, where we gladly parted with our conveyance, and prepared to pursue our journey by land. We might have gone up further by water; but the windings of the river, and the heavy flood, would have made it more tedious than going by land.
October 25.--Wet morning--started at eight. Rain soon cleared. The great wall of the Thames was on our left hand; on the right, the plain, bounded by hills of moderate elevation; in front, the same endless plain, dotted with small woods, one of which, at a great distance, was pointed out as the situation of Matamata. The walking was excellent, with the exception of an occasional swamp of small size and depth. In two hours we reached the second landing-place, Mangauwhena, which would probably have cost us half a day's hard work, if we had come by water. Going from Matamata to the Thames, the highest landing-place is of course the best. In two hours more we passed the third landing-place, Manawaru. On a small stream, a few feet in width, we found a native eel-weir, with a net full of eels; the construction of the whole weir and net would have done credit to an Eton waterman. Our natives looked very wistfully at the eels; but concluding that they belonged to a tribe with whom none of them had any relationship, they let the long belly of the net drop down again into the stream and went on. Their honesty was rewarded; for they had not gone many miles before they met the owners of the net, who good-naturedly blamed them for not eating as many eels as they pleased, and invited them to eat of some which they had already cooked. They were busy drying eels for winter consumption, which they do by toasting them over wood ashes. Many hundreds were on the ground, and more were over the fire, laid on horizontal sticks, in a square shallow pit, ten or more eels in a bundle of flax neatly tied up. After our eel dinner, we went on towards the Matamata swamps. On the edge of the first swamp, we met a large party of natives, who had heard of our approach, and had come to conduct us. Declining the offer of being carried nearly a mile in all, through a quagmire, at the risk of a worse immersion by breaking through the under crust of the swamp by the double weight, we walked through the swamps, three in number, besides what the natives called "half swamps," that is, of less breadth and depth, and found them much better than we expected. None were so deep as the hips; the general depth a little above the knee; and the water from the late rains was so pure, that it was little more than wading a river. After clearing them all, and reaching the dry ground, the natives pointed out a large new canoe in a wood, full of rain water, in which they advised us to wash off the mud that remained. We were thus enabled to make a respectable entry into Matamata, where we found Mr. Brown, now Archdeacon of Tauranga, with Messrs. Morgan and Ashwell, Catechists of the Church Mission, who had come to meet me from the Waikato district. We had thus an encampment of five tents in the garden of the old Mission Station, which was obliged to be deserted in consequence of native wars. The son of the old chief, under whom these wars took place, is now the principal native teacher, one of the many instances of sons of principal men being converted, while their fathers have adhered to their old usages.
October 26.--Matamata.--Morning service; afterwards examination of candidates for confirmation. Thirty-one confirmed at the afternoon service. After service, the heathen portion of the inhabitants came in crowds round the tent. In manner, they were very different from the Christian converts, being rude, vociferous, and quarrelsome: many of them were very urgent for books. Matamata chapel is a noble building, erected solely by the natives; the area is about as large as Windsor Church, eighty feet by forty. Mr. Brown intends to give them some English windows, upon a plan which we agreed upon. In the evening, the natives were thrown into great alarm, by the appearance of a relapsed native Teacher, who, having been deposed for gross sin, had become very troublesome, and came to the Meeting, threatening to shoot some one. Of course we took no notice of him, and, after the usual blustering, which ended in nothing, he retired.
October 27.--After the usual morning service, we started at half-past six A.M. for two long days to Rotorua. The natives said we could not get there in two days, but we thought that we would try, Mr. Brown being a very good walker. We were naturally anxious to spend our Sunday at the Mission station rather than in the wood. This day's journey lay still over the great plain of the Thames, which must be, at least, seventy miles in a direct line from the mouth of the Thames to the edge of the great wood, between the plain and Rotorua Lake. After walking seven miles, we came to a very deep but narrow stream, with a tree for a bridge, but the water was so high, that when crossing on the trees, the natives were up to their shoulders in the water. Mr. Brown was carried across, but Mr. Cotton and I preferred swimming, lest a false step of the natives should send us into the deep water on either side of the tree. We then came to a deep ravine, through which the Thames (Waiho) was rushing rapidly. A rude bridge of logs and brushwood has been thrown over a narrow "strid," under which the water seems to be of great depth. About twenty miles from Matamata we passed the direct road to Taupo, avoiding Rotorua, and probably making a journey of only two and a half days. When facilities of travelling are provided, by relays of saddle-horses, an active man might go from Auckland to Wellington in nine days. At four o'clock came to Te Toa, a new Pa, built on the brow of a steep descent, formed, as it appears, by the subsidence of a portion of a high shelf of tableland, in some volcanic convulsion. On the eastward, was the whole range of the great wall of the Thames, with Aroha, its highest mountain, standing out in sunshine from a mass of rain-cloud behind it. The whole line of hills is wooded to the summit. To the left, or west, are the beautiful wooded hills of Maungatautari and Pirongia, on the Waikato River, over which the sun was declining, forming the most vivid rainbow that I ever saw, on the dark clouds which hung over the wooded mountains to the eastward. Below us, beyond the deep fissures of the foreground, the plain of the Thames stretched off, till it was lost in the distant mist, against which the fires of a few native clearings cast up their columns of light smoke, and the dark forms of the woods were visible as far as Matamata. For extent, richness, and variety, this surpasses any view that I have seen in New Zealand, and we saw it under the most glorious effects of light and shade. Finding that Rotorua was considered more than a day's journey from this place, we had evening service with the natives, and then pushed on a few miles further, to the edge of the great wood, where we encamped.
October 28.--Started at half-past five A.M. Walked all day through the wood, from which we did not emerge till a quarter to six P.M., when we came to a small settlement. A walk of four miles through an open fern country, and over a good path, brought us to the edge of Rotorua Lake, to the native village of Ngongotaha; but Mr. Chapman's boat was not there. Mr. Cotton did not arrive, and we waited for him an hour and a half; but, as we found afterwards, he took another path to the lake, and found Mr. Chapman's boat, which made him think that we must have lost our way: so he also waited for us two hours. At last, when we had finished evening service, we started in a beautiful light canoe, and paddled across the lake, by moonlight, in an hour and a half. Mr. Cotton also started from his point, but the mission-boat was four hours sailing across, and the natives were too sleepy to row. At last, at one A. M. we were all safely assembled at Mr. Chapman's house, Te Ngae, on Rotorua Lake. Mr. Spencer had just arrived from Tauranga, but had gone to bed tired.
October 29.--Sunday.--Mr. Spencer and Mr.Cotton read prayers, and I preached, in the morning, and the same in the evening. In the middle of the day, a numerous school assembled, among the rest a class of forty children, whom I catechised--the principal chief, Te Kairo, assisting me in keeping them in order. Mr. Spencer related, that he arrived at Tauranga in the Columbine, and left Mrs. Spencer there. The first step of my rather complex plan of effecting a junction with my young Deacons, and accompanying them to their new stations, was thus happily accomplished. When I form my plan for the summer, I write down all the days in my Journal, with D.V. against the name of the place which I hope to reach on each day. If I succeed, I add a D.G. to the name. Almost all my marks of D.V. have this year been so changed into D.G.
October 30.--This day was devoted to visiting the natives at the great Pa, Ohinemutu. After breakfast I requested that the boat might be got ready; but, after going on board, we found that the wind would not serve, so we came on shore, and walked along the lake, over a flat fern land. On our way we visited Wakarewarewa Hot-springs, by far the finest at Rotorua, about seven miles from Mr. Chapman's, and about three from Ohinemutu. Here are to be seen all the varieties of Ngawha (hot-springs). There are mud cauldrons, black, blue, grey, green, yellow, and red, the very emblem of laziness; a faint stream rises from them, and ever and anon a solitary bubble of gas disengages itself slowly from the surface, which then returns to its usual dulness. Close by the side of these, and in strong contrast, are the clear pools of boiling water, of great depth, and of bright azure, enclosed in precipitous walls of sulphurous formation; from some of these hot streams flow down, which are guided by the natives either into artificial baths, or into natural hollows of the rocks; the supply of hot water being so regulated as to keep the bath at the right temperature. Among these cauldrons and pools, a strong and rapid stream of cold water rushes down, in some places not a yard from the spot at which the natives are sitting up to their breasts in hot water, shelling Tawa berries, or peeling potatoes, or, failing these employments, enjoying their never failing resource of smoking. But by far the most beautiful springs are the boiling jets, which are thrown up to the height of many feet from a narrow orifice in the top of an irregular cone, formed of the matter held in solution by the water, which is deposited as it cools, and forms a substance of a pinkish white colour, sometimes also tinged with yellow by crystals of sulphur. It is perfectly safe to stand upon the tops of these cones, to the windward of the spout, and from that position it is grand, first, to hear the roaring and boiling of the cauldron, and then to see the jet spring up into the air, shiveled by the force of its projection into silvery foam, and accompanied by a volume of white steam. The hot water, in its descent, trickles down the sides of the crater, and falls into several natural baths of most agreeable temperature, formed in the pure and white substance of the cone, and lined with the same matter in its half formed state, still yielding and elastic. Here the traveller may lie at his ease, and watch the bursting of the boiling fountain above him: but if the wind should happen to change, he must shift his position, or his place will soon be too hot for him. A small native village is here, with the usual appurtenances of a native steam kitchen at the hot-springs; namely, hot plates, made of large slabs of stone, laid over boiling water to dry the Tawa berry upon; steam hanghis, or native ovens, always in readiness, and holes of boiling water in which fish and potatoes can be speedily cooked. A native swing completes the equipment of this fashionable watering-place, which, together with the game of draughts, relieve the ennui of those who resort to the baths.
We walked on to the great Pa, passing another hot-spring on the way. Ohinemutu is built on a small hill, apparently formed entirely of the incrustations of the hot-springs, which burst out from its sides in all directions, and flow in rivulets down into the lake, after supplying all the baths and steam kitchens of the inhabitants. The main spring is a boiler of great size, throwing out gushes of hot water, with clouds of steam; but the phenomena are not so striking or beautiful as at Wakarewarewa, and the native buildings and fences have destroyed all the natural wildness and beauty of the spot. Here we found the natives engaged in cooking white bait (Inanga), a small fish of the size of a minnow, caught in great abundance in Taupo and Rotorua Lakes.
After Divine Service in the chapel, I had a long conversation with the principal chief, Korokai, who is still an unbeliever. His son, Warekeikei, a mild and pleasing young man, was apparently dying of consumption, and listened with great attention; but the old man met all my remarks with the usual answers, spoken with a singular mixture of native politeness and sarcastic repartee. Towards sunset, we took a small canoe to cross a bay of the lake, by which we should save five miles of walking, and had just reached our point, when a breeze sprang up, which made the short waves curl over the sides of our little vessel. We were just in danger of being swamped, when we reached the shore; but, being all swimmers, and having no baggage, we looked upon the prospect of an immersion without any very serious apprehension. After walking five miles along the flat land on the shore of the lake, we reached the Mission Station at eight P.M. One circumstance, which we observed to-day, seemed to explain at least one cause of the decrease of the native population in other parts of the country; namely, the neglect of cleanliness in the children; especially in infancy. Here, where the children are nursed and cradled in warm water, and where they dabble in it at all hours of the day, as soon as they can walk, their appearance is similar to the healthy and ruddy countenances of English children.
October 31.--Mr. Brown having completed the previous examinations, I confirmed fifty-five natives, and distributed, as usual, a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel to each, as a memorial of the day. Afterwards I stayed at home and wrote letters, to be taken on board by Mr. Brown, Rotorua being considered the limit of the circle of communication with Auckland.
November 1.--Started at a quarter to ten, and walked, in two hours, to Kokareka, a small and pretty lake, on the way to Taupo. I may here mention that Wyld's map, with its single lake, gives no idea of this district. The one lake is correct enough in itself, with its island, Mokoia, in the middle; but the name Rotorua implies two lakes, and there are, in fact, in the district, not fewer than eleven. The lakes which have caused the name Rotorua are joined together by a small stream, like a chain shot, the second being named Rotoiti. The names of the others are Tikitapu, Rotokakahi, Tarawera, Rotomahana, Okataina, Rotoehu, Rotoma, Kokareka, and another Rotoiti. Of these, the most remarkable for beauty is Tarawera, and for natural curiosities, Rotomahana (the warm lake). A large party of natives had assembled on the little lake, Kokareka, returning from the confirmation, and only three canoes could be procured to carry us over, two very small, and one of considerable size. Knowing the practice of the natives, of crowding their canoes till they are down to the water's edge, and not wishing to lose or damage our baggage, I took possession of the larger -canoe, and stowed in it all our bags, my own travelling party, and as many other natives as I thought that it could safely carry, besides ourselves. The precaution was not unnecessary, for the other two canoes were crowded as usual, and before we could reach the other side, though the distance was only a mile, the wind freshened, and very soon filled one of them. As the canoe filled, the natives slipped off their blankets and rolled them up, carrying them with one hand over their heads, while they held the gunwale of the canoe with the other. Finding that they were in no immediate danger, and fearing that they would sink our canoe if we took them into it, we paddled as fast as possible to the shore, and sent the large canoe back, with a light crew, to pick them up; our party in the mean time, making a large fire to receive them. In the course of a quarter of an hour they were all safe on shore. We then walked a mile to the ends of the lake, and, crossing a narrow isthmus, came at once upon the gem of the lake scenery of New Zealand, Tarawera. The lake is not so large as Rotorua, but much more beautiful, a lofty mountain overhanging it on the southern side, with a broad serrated top, looking like the frustrum of a large cone from which the point had been violently torn off, leaving a jagged outline. The principal Pa is beautifully situated on a long isthmus overhanging the lake, and strongly fenced on all sides. Here we stayed two hours in conversation with the natives, who were most earnest in their request for a Clergyman to be placed among them. I told them that Mr. Spencer would visit them on his journeys from Rotorua to Taupo, and that, if it should please God to send us more labourers, I would endeavour to station a Clergyman there, if they would undertake to supply him with food, which they promised to do. About five in the evening we took a large canoe, not of a single tree, but suited to a large lake, with an upper streak, tied on to the main trunk, which forms the body of the canoe. We found this a good sea-boat, for the wind was very strong, and the swell on the lake considerable. However, we were well manned, and not too heavy; so we crossed, thank God, safely, to a part of the lake where we had smooth water, and found ourselves gliding under the crags of Tarawera, the top of which was just then gleaming with the setting sun. At dusk we came to the landing-place, where we left the canoe, and walked through a flat valley about a mile and a half, along the bank of a small stream, running from Tarawera into Rotomahana. By this time the moon had risen, and showed us distinctly the clouds of steam which were rising from the cauldrons of Rotomahana. On turning a corner of the valley, we saw before us what appeared to be a large waterfall, apparently fifty feet in height, and about the same in width. As we came nearer we were surprised to hear no noise of falling waters, but still the appearance was the same in the moonlight. In a few minutes we found ourselves walking upon what had appeared to be water but which was, in fact, the white deposit of the hot spring, covered with a very shallow stream of warm water, trickling down from the boiling pool at the top of the staircase. We walked up the shelves of white deposit, which, in the moonlight, had the appearance of a glacier, but, being wrinkled like the sand left by a rippling sea, were not slippery. On each shelf were natural baths, similar to those of Wakare-warewa, of perfectly clear water, of a milkwarm temperature. The pool at the top was of considerable extent, the main boiler being concealed behind a projecting part of the hill, above which volumes of steam were continually rising. There is no danger in the ascent of the staircase itself, which is uniformly solid; but, on descending to the level of the lake, great caution is necessary in walking: the whole surface of the ground being undermined with runnels of boiling water, which gurgle underneath, and occasionally form vent holes for the escape of the steam. Some of these are used by the natives for cooking; some are covered over with flat slabs of stone, to form hot plates for drying the Tawa berries; serving also, as we found, for a most comfortable couch on a chilly evening after a long sitting in a canoe; but the greater number remain open, for any careless traveller to put his foot into.
November 2.--Roto Nihana.--In the morning we breakfasted upon, mutton boiled in the kettle, which was always ready boiling outside the little native house in which we slept. We then went to look again at the hot cascade, which lost some of its moonlight mystery under the bright sunshine, but was still singularly beautiful: the bright blue colour of the pools and baths of warm water having the appearance of sapphires set in the pink white substance of the deposit of the springs. Below, was the little lake of Rotomahana, about a mile in length, with the whole of its eastern shore apparently sending out jets of steam, which seemed to rise out of innumerable crevices of the earth, as well as from two little islands, covered with native huts, which added their tribute to the general volume of vapour. On the western shore, the whole of the subterraneous heat seemed to be concentrated on one spot, where another staircase and cascade of hot water is seen, similar to that which we visited at the northern end. Over the southern extremity of the lake, a conical hill rises of great height, formed, as is evident by the material of which it is composed, by the action of hot springs; but the fire appears to have been long extinct. We paddled about a mile along the warm water of the lake, the temperature of which, I should guess, is about eighty, and landed at the southern end, to begin our walk over the dreary country leading to the great plain and lake of Taupo. After crossing a succession of bare hills, with, short tussocky grass, interspersed with pumice-stone, we came in view of the plain, bounded to the south by a high hill, Tauhara, the well-known mark of the north-east extremity of Taupo Lake. A hollow valley, between two conical hills, led us down to the plain, over which we walked, with a flat unbroken line of low hills to the eastward; and to the west, sharp abrupt peaks, which seemed like a sea of lava cooled while in a state of violent agitation. Our path led us across several small streams, some of considerable depth, especially as we approached the Waikato River, into which all the water-courses of the plain discharge themselves. The only remarkable object on the plain is a large Ngawha, looking, in the distance, like a railway train crossing a flat country. The hot-spring is close to the Waikato River, and after leaving it about a mile on the right hand, we came at once upon the river--broad, deep, and rapid, with steep banks, of white pumice, partially covered with small trees, which give a very beautiful appearance to its windings.
At dusk we came opposite to a small village, Takapau, on the left or west bank of the river, and were paddled across in a canoe to the village, where we were received by Mr. Spencer, who had gone on a day before us, by a different route.
November 3.--Taupo.--Starting at half-past eight, after morning service, we recrossed the Waikato, and proceeded along the same dry plain, unvaried by anything, except occasionally an expiring Ngawha. The path lay under the western slope of the fine hill, which had been before us for the last day, and whose base we were now rounding. Before noon, we came in sight of the corner of the lake from which the Waikato finds its outlet; and at half-past twelve, we came to the beach, at a warm spring, by name Waipahihi. A strong southerly blast, fresh from Tongariro, was lashing up the lake; a mass of dark clouds rested upon the great mountains to the south, while to the northward bright gleams of sunshine burst upon the foam of the waves, which rolled up with crests of brilliant white. We were so fortunate as to see Taupo under the most striking atmospherical effects, during the time that we were walking along its eastern shore. A walk of three hours and a half, round the hollow of a bay, brought us to Rotongaio, where we found a kind and hospitable party of natives of our own communion, to whom I presented Mr. Spencer as their appointed Minister, an announcement which they received with great satisfaction, and promised immediately to build a new chapel, and a small house for him to live in during his visits. A pig was immediately ordered to be killed, and all the resources of native hospitality put in requisition, including a large supply of the "white bait" of the lake, already mentioned.
November 4.--Rotongaio.--The morning was spent in Divine Service, and in taking a census of the inhabitants, that Mr. Spencer might know his own. I was glad to find the population of the district larger than I had expected, and amply justifying the appointment of a Clergyman to minister to them. The population of this part of the country used to be a terror to the neighbourhood; but the majority are now converted to Christianity, and are no longer disposed to go to war. About ten A.M. we started to go to the next village, Orona, the place recommended for Mr. Spencer's chief residence. It proved to be only six or seven miles from Rotongaio. The clouds had passed away, and the whole lake lay before us in perfect repose. The western shore was distinctly seen, receding into the deep hollow bay of Karangahape, guarded at each of its points by noble cliffs, many hundred feet in height. On one side, high scarps of pumice-stone of dazzling whiteness shone out against the deep blue sky, beyond the furthermost of which the landscape was closed in by the snowy cone of Tongariro, with its small bright jet of steam escaping from the Ngawha at its summit. We soon reached Orona, but found the Pa itself anything but a desirable resting-place on a hot day, being built on a flat of dry pumice-shingle, which reflected the heat of the sun upwards in a manner that would soon have made our tents uninhabitable. But, espying a lovely grove of Karaka trees, about a quarter of a mile from the Pa, we removed thither, and found about six acres of very fertile ground nestled under the hills, and a shade so perfect, that it seemed made for a place to spend the Lord's Day, and to assemble the people to Divine worship. The Pa being quite new, they had not yet built their chapel. We pitched our tents under one of the largest of the Karaka trees, upon a carpet of soft grass, and backing upon a large canoe, which kept off the wind from the lower part. Mr. Spencer remained behind to take the services at Kotongaio, and Mr. Cotton and I prepared for the duties of the next day at Orona.
This being the day on which, in May last, I had formed an engagement with the Chief Justice to meet him, God willing, at Taupo, I was much pleased, and a good deal amused, to receive the news, this evening, of his having arrived at the other end of the lake; but that he would not join me till Monday, as he wished to spend Sunday with the principal Chief of the country, who lives at the south-west extremity of the lake.
November 5.--Sunday.--At nine A.M. the natives assembled under the Karaka trees to morning service. The Lord's Supper was laid on the large canoe, which, I have already said, protected the hinder part of our tents. Here I confirmed six natives, who had been previously baptized by Mr. Brown, and afterwards administered the Lord's Supper to them. In the afternoon, I baptized five children, and confirmed three other natives, who had not been in time in the morning. Great joy was expressed by all at the arrival of the "Minita," and it was generally agreed that the spot on which we were, was the best place for his residence; but on this point I said that I must consult the principal Chief Te Heuheu, before I made up my mind.
November 6.--After morning service the natives assembled to mark out the boundaries of Mr. Spencer's ground. A line was drawn enclosing all the Karaka trees, which they consented to make over in perpetuity to me, for the use of the Minister. After the conference, Mr. Spencer arrived from Rotongaio, and was duly presented to the meeting. We then walked on, round a beautiful rocky path, to Motutere, a Pa built on a sandy peninsula jutting out into the lake. On the road we met the Chief Justice: it was a most welcome meeting, as he and I had travelled together overland so long, that it seemed quite natural to see him in the heart of the country. We returned together to Motutere, where we dined, and afterwards parted, regretting that we had not been able to spend the Sunday together. His Registrar (Mr. Owthwayte), and Mr. St. Hill, the agent of the native reserves, were with him. At this place, I fell in with a native of whom I had heard much on the way to Taupo, as having stripped an Englishman travelling near Rotoaira. Of course, I thought it my duty to send for him, and demand restitution of the goods. He came, and sat in my tent door to listen to my reproof. He had formerly been a native teacher, but had relapsed into sin. He told me that God had departed from him, and that the devil had taken possession of his heart. After admonishing him to repent, and pray to be forgiven, I urged him, as a first step, to give up every thing that he had taken, which he consented to do, and went to his house, and brought me three blankets, a coat, and a cloak, with some smaller articles, which I took with me to Wanganui, and left them to be claimed. I afterwards met the owner at New Plymouth, and informed him where he might meet with his property.
In the afternoon most of the party went in the canoe which had brought the Judge's party from Te Kapa, to which place I intended to walk in order that I might see a native village, Wai Marino, on my way. On reaching the village I found the whole party, who had been driven on shore by one of the sudden squalls which are common on these lakes, and make the navigation dangerous for canoes. The wind moderated in a short time, and the canoe started again, and met us at a point of land jutting out into the lake, on which is an immense fighting Pa, now deserted, sufficient to contain some thousands of men. Our party being too large to cross at once from this point to Te Rapa, with some difficulty I induced some of them to stay behind, the same disposition to overload the canoe being apparent. We had not more than two or three miles to go, but, before long, a fierce gust came down from the hills, directly in our teeth, ploughing up the lake, and raising as much bubble as our canoe could bear. The men, however, paddled stoutly, and every stroke brought us more under the lee of the land, till, at last, we came into smooth water, and were thankful to land safely at Te Rapa, the residence of Te Heuheu, the great man of Taupo. A bright full moon shining upon the strong ripple of the lake, showed us its beauties under another very striking appearance. Immediately that we had landed, my travelling party of natives, much to their credit, went back in the canoe, to bring over the strangers whom we had left behind. After shaking hands with the old Chief, who had retired to rest in his baronial mansion, (a long building full of men, women and children, with three fire-places,) we also retired to rest in our tents.
November 7.--Taupo.--At the morning service I preached to the natives, urging them to receive Mr. Spencer as their appointed minister. The old Chief listened very attentively, and when the service was over began a speech in reply. Pie professed himself displeased at the plan of placing Mr. Spencer at a distance from him, and said that the Chiefs of New Zealand had always taken the Missionaries under their protection; that he was the only one to whom no Missionary had been entrusted. His own backwardness of belief, he said, was owing to the bad conduct of the baptized natives, who discredited their profession; but that ho was considering the subject, and when he had made up his mind between ourselves, the Wesleyans, and the Papists, he should join that body which he should see reason to prefer. After a long speech he desired us to go and look out a piece of ground as the site of a chapel and dwelling house for Mr. Spencer, during his temporary residences. After further friendly conversation, we took our leave, and walked by the hot-springs of Tokaanu, to Rotoaira Lake, about ten miles distant from Te Rapa. At the evening service at this place, I baptized two adults and their infant child; the porch of the house serving us for a chancel, and the open air as the nave of our church, where a large number of natives sat in picturesque groups round their fires.
November 8.--Rotoaira.--Rotoaira Lake is immediately under the north side of Tongariro, whose snowy and rugged top contrasts very strikingly with the soft woodland scenery with which the opposite side of the lake is adorned. The Waikato River runs out of this lake, and after a very winding course falls into Taupo Lake, about three miles from Te Rapa. Leaving this place at ten A.M. we were on our way towards the Wanganui River by a path by which we heard that Mr. Taylor, one of our Missionaries, was coming to meet me. Mr. Spencer returned from Rotoaira to Taupo, having now seen the furthest limit of his district.
We had not walked more than an hour, when we met Mr. Taylor, with a large party of natives. He reported that he had been detained by a flood for a whole week, and that he had some doubts whether the river would have subsided sufficiently to allow us to cross. As the weather was fine, I determined to make the experiment; but Mr. Taylor, wishing to see Taupo, went on to the lake, intending to rejoin me by another route. After we parted, the rain fell so heavily, that I had no hopes of being able to ford the river; we therefore turned back, and, making a forced march, overtook Mr. Taylor, encamped three miles from Taupo Lake.
November 10.--Proceeded, in company with Mr. Taylor--a party of thirty-two in all; and after some little difficulty, arising from ignorance of the road, we reached the Wanganui River, about noon on the 11th. The ford was rapid and about breast high, but the natives carried Mr. Taylor over safely. Mr. Cotton found a quiet part of the stream, higher up, and swam across. I forded, with the aid of a tent-pole. We then came to a tributary of the Wanganui, the Wakapapa, which gave us more trouble, the natives being very unwilling to cross. Foreseeing that there would he more rain, I blew up my air bed, which is my state barge on such occasions, and the natives having made a frame of sticks for it, Mr. Taylor (who cannot swim) crossed in safety upon it, as I had before in the passage of Wananaki. The rest of the party soon followed by the more summary process of wading and swimming. The water was up to the neck, but the strength of the stream made it difficult to walk. The delay at this river made it necessary to encamp for the Sunday on the opposite bank, where we found a beautifully sheltered place, under a high bank, with the three requisites of a New Zealand camp in high perfection--fern, firewood, and water. The two parties of natives soon constructed houses for themselves, in front of our three tents; and before night all our preparations were complete for the repose of the morrow, which was as perfect as the greatest admirer of solitude could desire. Our little congregation of twenty-eight natives furnished us with suitable employment for the day.
November 13.--We arrived at the navigable part of the Wanganui River, but found no canoe. After some search the natives discovered two paddles.
November 14.--This day the flood increased so much, that it was evident the canoes which Mr. Taylor expected from below could not reach. We therefore blew up the air bed again, and placed jt as usual upon a frame of sticks; and upon this two natives paddled down to the next inhabited place, reaching it, as we afterwards learned, the same evening.
November 15.--Flood still continuing, we put ourselves upon a ration of half a pound of rice and a small piece of ham. The natives added to our store by catching a parrot, five Tuis, and a Weka (a species of rail), living themselves upon fern root, and insisting upon our taking their small remnant of potatoes, because, they said, we had no bread. We had difficulty in inducing them to keep a portion for themselves.
November 16, 17.--Digging fern root, roasting, pounding, and eating it, occupied the time of the natives. We, of course, had our own resources of reading and writing, with which I should have been quite content, if I had not been afraid of being too late for the Government vessel at Taranaki, which would have delayed me a month, and added 240 miles to my summer's walk. On the 17th, we were amused by reports that guns had been heard and fires seen,--the senses of all the party being by this time sharpened by hunger.
November 18.--At eleven A.M., to our great joy, a canoe appeared, but of a size insufficient for our party, a portion of which was obliged to be left to find their way by land, under the guidance of a native of the country, who came up in the canoe. The rest paddled merrily down the swollen river, passing some rapids, which made me thankful that we had not overloaded the canoe, and, in about two hours, we arrived safely at Kaiatawa, the highest inhabited settlement on the Wanganui River, and probably nearly 150 miles from the sea, by the windings of the river. Here I left Mr. Taylor, Mr. Cotton, and Mr. Nihill, with the main body of the natives, and, selecting three men upon whom I could depend, I took a small canoe, and started under the escort of an inhabitant of one of the Pas lower down on the river, being resolved, if possible, to reach Taranaki on the day appointed, namely November 25. This evening we paddled to Te Mai, where I assembled the natives to Divine Service, and afterwards slept.
November 19--Sunday.--Having ascertained the distances of some of the principal Pas, I resolved to take a service at each, in order to see the greatest possible number of natives, being disappointed in my hope of spending the week on the river by the delay of the canoes. We started at daybreak, and at a quarter to nine, the usual time for morning service, arrived at Utapu, where I found a congregation of more than one hundred preparing for Divine worship, in a very neat native chapel. After spending two hours with them, I went on a short distance to Riri-a-te Po, where I superintended the usual mid-day school, at which the natives read the New Testament, and repeat the Catechism, ending with singing and prayer. Two hours more brought me to Piperiki, where I gave a short address to about two hundred natives, and inspected a new chapel which they had lately opened--a most creditable piece of native workmanship. From thence we proceeded to Pukehika, the most populous of the river Pas, where I assembled, at the evening service, a congregation of three or four hundred natives. A quiet row of one hour brought us, at sunset, to the residence of my companion at Ikurangi, where we slept. A more lovely day, in respect of weather, or one more full of interest, in respect of its moral circumstances, or of pleasure, from the beauty of the scenery through which I passed, I never remember to have spent. It was a day of intense delight from beginning to end--from the earliest song of the birds, who awakened me in the morning, to the Evening Hymn of the natives, which was just concluded when I reached the door of the native chapel at Ikurangi.
Monday, November 20.--Paddled down the river without stopping, till we arrived, at half-past two P.M., at the small English settlement on the right bank, four miles from the mouth. Here I went on shore to inspect the new church, now in progress: a plain wooden building for temporary use, for which the inhabitants have contributed in money and labour, to the value of 70l., to be met by a similar sum from my Church fund. The English settlement contains about one hundred inhabitants, but they are reduced to great straits by the unsettled state of the land question. The scenery of the Wanganui River is very beautiful throughout; in many places the river is enclosed in walls of rock, leaving no footing on either side. The wood is, as usual, most luxuriant. The mouth of the river forms a harbour for small vessels, but like all the rivers on the west coast, has a dangerous bar. After visiting the English settlement, I crossed the river to the Mission Station, on the left bank, where I spent two hours with Mrs. Taylor, in the house in which I had stayed last year with Mr. Mason, my first spiritual son, ordained Priest by me in September 1842, but drowned while crossing the Turakina River, on January 5th, 1843. His widow is now at Wellington. At six P. M. I went, in Mr. Taylor's boat, to the heads of the river, enjoying, in my way, a lovely sunset view of Tongariro and Taranaki mountains, and encamped about two miles from the mouth.
November 21.--Walked to New Plymouth by the same rout as in November 1842.
November 25.--Went to the house of Mr. Wickstead, resident agent of the New Zealand Company, who received me with his usual hospitality. In expectation of my arrival this day, he had ordered the temporary church to be prepared, which was nearly ready for use.
November 26--Sunday.--Two native services and two English; the native congregation about fifty; the English about a hundred and fifty.
November 27, 28.--Visited various parts of the settlement; and walked to the Waitera River. Beautiful fertile valley.
November 29.--Her Majesty's Colonial brig Victoria came in sight. Wind contrary.
December 3--Sunday.--At nine A.M. boat landed Mr. and Mrs. Holland, Mr. and Mrs. Butt. Went to church with my two Deacons, who divided the services with me. Small attendance of natives this day, the greater number having returned to their own places. Very thankful for the successful completion of the second point of my journey, the establishment of a Clergyman at New Plymouth, and one who had been given to me when I should scarcely known where to look for another.
December 4.--At four P.M. went on board the Victoria, and set sail at sunset.
December 5, 6.--Wrote letters, as usual, when on board. Taranaki Mountain visible at least eighty miles off.
December 7.--Stood off and on at the mouth of Nelson Harbour during the night.
December 8.--Entered harbour at nine A.M. Went to the Rev. C. L. Leay's house, built since my last visit. Found a very comfortable and pretty cottage, with six rooms, built substantially of brick, for the sum of 150l. Visited the Church buildings, the interior of which forms a neat little church.
December 10--Sunday.--At seven A.M. native service; at eleven, English service. I preached from Isa. v. 30, "If one look unto the land, behold sorrow," with reference to the unhappy event at the Wairau. The whole place seemed so changed since my last visit, by the death of most of the persons who had been kind to me on my arrival, that I felt a weight upon my mind all the time I remained. Captain Wakefield and Mr. Thompson were men whom I valued much. Mrs. Thompson was still living in Nelson, till she could receive letters from home. I invited her to the Waimate; but she cannot come at present, being on the eve of her confinement. Many of the labourers killed at the Wairau have also left widows and children.
In the afternoon, I rode to Waimea Plain, a rural district of Nelson, where a thriving village is springing up. The settlers expected a visit from Mr. Reay; but I took his turn for him, leaving him and the Rev. H. Butt, his new Deacon, to divide the afternoon services between them. I found the congregation ready to assemble in the barn of a Scotch farmer, by name Kerr, whose wife insisted upon my regaling myself with girdle cakes, fresh butter, and milk. In the barn, I found a very orderly congregation of fifty persons, chiefly labouring men. After service, I went to inspect the new church, which is to be opened next Sunday,--a new little wooden building, to hold one hundred persons, with small bell tower. The whole cost is 105l., of which 35l. was contributed by the inhabitants in money, materials, and labour, entitling them thereby to two grants to that amount, one from my General Church Fund, and the other from the interest of the Company's grant for Nelson, by which the whole cost will be discharged. In the evening, I returned to Nelson. My third Deacon, Rev. H. Butt, had read himself in.
December 13.--Went on board the Victoria at two P.M. Perfectly calm from Nelson to Wellington; light breezes, only sufficient to propel the vessel, without agitating the water. Began this letter to my dear father.
December 15.--Anchored at Wellington at nine P.M.
December 17--Sunday.--At half-past seven native service; nine, barrack ditto; half-past ten and three, English services; five, native ditto, assisted by Mr. Cole.
December 18.--Rev. Mr. Hadfield, Rev. W. Cotton, and Mr. Nihill, arrived from Kapiti.
December 21.--This is our Midsummer-day, but the weather is very temperate. The brig Victoria has just sailed out of harbour, on her return to Auckland; a tantalizing sight, but I was obliged to content myself with sending a letter, which I hope will be received at Auckland as a new year's gift.
ON the Bishop of New Zealand's appointment to his Diocese, he was informed by the New Zealand Company that they would make very liberal grants towards the endowment of the Church in their different settlements, provided the Bishop would meet these grants by equal contributions on the part of the Church. To this arrangement the Bishop gladly acceded; and by the assistance of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and of his private friends, has been enabled to proceed to a certain extent in the fulfilment of his engagement. In consequence, however, of the present pressure on the funds of the Society, it is unable to continue to contribute to the fund so largely as it had hoped and desired.
In the mean time, the planting of the Church in the Settlements belonging to the Government, and to the Company, has been commenced in a most encouraging manner. A large expenditure of money is necessary in the first instance; but the readiness of the settlers to exert themselves for this purpose, combined with the zeal of the native inhabitants, affords a good ground for hoping that, if assistance be freely given at first, the Church in this new colony may, under the Divine blessing (which hitherto has been so abundantly shed upon it), be built up in all its integrity, and be enabled to support itself without further aid from the mother country.
Under these circumstances, it is earnestly hoped that the friends of the Bishop, and other persons interested in this mission, may be willing to give the required assistance, either by Donations or by a promise of Annual Subscriptions.