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Governor General of Australia

















Transcribed by the Right Reverend Dr. Terry Brown
Bishop of Malaita, Church of the Province of Melanesia, 2005

[3] Letter from Sir W. Denison to the Bishop of New Zealand.


Government House, 16th June, 1856.

My Dear Lord,

While thinking over the subject of our conversation on Friday last, I have been led to the belief, that I did not make my views with relation to the Pitcairn Islanders so clear as I might have done. I have thought it better therefore to state them in writing, in order that you might not be led stray with regard to them by a misconception of expressions used by me in conversation. The wishes of her Majesty's Government, as communicated to me, not only in Dispatches from the Secretary of State, but also by a verbal message from Mr. Labouchere, are,-- "that these Islanders should be left as much as possible to themselves, that no interference should take place with the rules under which they have hitherto been living; that in point of fact, they should be enabled to carry out at Norfolk Island, the same primitive or patriarchal system which have produced such good effects upon their moral conduct at Pitcairn's Island."

[4] These views have been so far carried out, by the removal of the entire community, Magistrates, Chaplains, etc. from Pitcairn's Island, to their new residence, where each will resume his usual place, and be invested with the same authority as before.

The Secretary of State, however, having before him the possibility, that a change of circumstances as well as of position, might call for the appointment of some person unconnected with the present inhabitants, to act as a magistrate, has given me authority to nominate such an officer, should I be fully convinced of the necessity of so doing. I should not, however, think of making such an appointment without first visiting the Island, and making myself thoroughly acquainted with the feelings and wishes, as well as the wants of the people.

I understood your Lordship, on Friday, to express a wish or intention of sending a Chaplain to Norfolk Island at once, with the view of assisting Mr. Nobbs. I objected to this at the time, as being to a certain extent, opposed to the views of Her Majesty's Government, and as being likely to increase dissention, rather than induce peace among the people. Upon further consideration, I am the more confirmed in the view which I then took. The Rev. Mr. Nobbs is the regularly appointed Chaplain to the Islanders, of whom there are only 180 in all, including children. It can hardly be said that his ministrations are insufficient, looking to the good conduct of the people. The presence of another Chaplain would, I am afraid, tend to lower Mr. Nobbs in the opinion of his flock, and to increase a feeling of doubt as to his position, which prevails already among a portion of the Islanders; a feeling which (as I gathered from you on Friday,) has been engendered by the presence of the Chaplain of Admiral Moresby's ship.

I am still therefore of opinion, that your Lordship had better defer sending a Chaplain to Norfolk Island until some positive evidence of the necessity of such a step shall have been afforded: then it can be taken in concert with the Government, and the necessary arrangements can be made, for the accommodation [4/5] and support of such a person. Now, as the whole population is maintained at the expense of the Government, no provision can be made for him; he would therefore be obliged to quarter himself as a guest upon some of the inhabitants, either upon Mr. Nobbs, or some other heard of a family; in either case, his presence must be a burthen, and in the latter will probably have the effect of creating a party feeling, which it is of all things most desirable to avoid.

I have stated my opinions to your Lordship frankly, my only object being the success of the experiment which is now being made, but should you still think it advisable to send a Chaplain to Norfolk Island, I shall not of course throw any difficulties in the way of your doing so.

Believe me, my dear Lord,

Yours, very truly,



[6] Letter from the Bishop of New Zealand to Sir W. Denison.


Sydney, 19 June, 1856.

My dear Sir William,

Your Excellency's letter of June 16th has entirely removed from my mind the fear which I had entertained, after our interview of Friday, that the Civil and Ecclesiastical friends of the Pitcairn Islanders, though all desiring the same end, might differ widely on the question of the plans to be adopted for their benefit. I am therefore encouraged to lay before you a full statement of the views and wishes of a very numerous and liberal body of friends to the Pitcairn Islanders, who are desirous in a thankful sense of the merciful Providence which has caused this branch of holiness to spring out of a root of sin, to enable them by the aid of the same overruling Power, to make Norfolk Island, once too truly called by Judge Burton, "a hell upon earth," the fountain of Christian knowledge to the Islands of the Western Pacific.

Your Excellency, I believe, agreed with me in opinion, that the present state of primitive simplicity in which the Pitcairn Islanders are living, cannot be maintained in their new position, in the midst of the great and wealthy colonies of Australasia, and in the track of the ships of all the great maritime nations.

We therefore believe that they will need some more active salt to preserve them from corruption than the pre-[6/7]sence of their own Island Pastor, and the discharge of their own duties of religion. And we cannot consider any work more likely to interest them than the Evangelization of the heathen Isles of the Western Pacific, of which it was proposed in England, to make their new Island the centre, and some of them, if possible, the instruments.

It has been found in the London Mission, that no other or higher prize is required to be held out to the Native Students in the Missionary College at Samoa, than the hope that they would be appointed to spend or to lay down their lives in the Loyalty Isles, or the New Hebrides. Your Excellency's knowledge of the feelings of young officers in the army, though actuated by a far lower motive, will enable you to conceive and to accept the soundness of our reasons for believing that the best way to maintain and exalt the character of the Pitcairn Islanders, would be to interest and engage them from the first, in some vigorous and expansive work in the Church of Christ. With this view, Sir George Grey, the late Governor of New Zealand, before his departure from his government, recommended that a portion of the Island should be allotted to a central School, for the education of select scholars from the Western Islands of the Pacific.

To this letter, addressed to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle, I am not aware that any answer has been returned, but, being fully convinced that a proposal so reasonable in itself, and so full of promise of good to the Pitcairn Islanders, and through them, under God, to all the other Island Races, would ultimately be approved by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, I collected funds while I was in England to the amount of £10,000, of which, £8,000, is already invested in Exchequer Bonds, for the endowment of a Bishopric, the see of which should be on Norfolk Island; as the Bishoprics intended to act over Borneo and China, have their sees respectively on the Isles of Labuan and Hong Kong; to satisfy the scruples of the Ecclesiastical Lawyers, who seem to think that no Bishopric of the Church of England can have its see in any spot, which [7/8] is not in Her Majesty's Dominions. It would be understood, of course, as in the case of China and Borneo, that the real work of the Bishop of Norfolk Island would have a far wider range than the limits of his Island See.

As I consider Norfolk Island to be included in my Spiritual charge, by my Letters Patent, by its contiguity to New Zealand, and by my Commission from the late Archbishop of Canterbury, except so far as for special civil reasons it may be annexed from time to time, either to Sydney or Tasmania, and only for the purposes for which it is so annexed, such as the superintendence of convict chaplains; I shall feel it to be my duty to carry forward, in communication with and with the consent of the Pitcairn Islanders, whatever plans I may believe to be necessary to promote their Spiritual welfare, and the extension of the Kingdom of our Blessed Lord.

But I can assure your Excellency, that I am so well aware of the difficulty of the problem to be worked out, and of the danger of failure, that I shall proceed with the utmost caution, and shall take care above all things that no Chaplain or other person acting under me, shall hold communication with the Islanders, who would be likely in the least degree to cause any such dissatisfaction or dissention as has, I fear, already begun. It would be to support Mr. Nobbs against any upstart person, who might set himself up as the pastor of a section of his flock, that I might feel it necessary to leave such an educated and Christian man as Mr. Patteson, to allay the first beginnings of party strife. Such points as these I respectfully submit to your Excellency, are scarcely within the competency of civil intervention. But I am ready at once to give you the assurance, that I have no wish to take any such step; but that I would very much prefer the course suggested in your letter, of awaiting the issue of the first year, and then judging of the best course to be adopted for the future.

In close connexion with this step, and in the hope that your Excellency may see fit to communicate the substance of this letter to Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, [8/9] I desire to draw your attention to the Islands which I am now about to visit for the eighth time. I mention the number of visits, in order to give point to the statement which I have pressed repeatedly upon the various authorities in these Colonies and at home, that I have never made a voyage among the Isles of the West Pacific without hearing of some new atrocity, revolting to humanity, which has resulted from the lawless conduct of the English traders, and the vindictive spirit of the Natives. It is worse than useless in the case at least of the Islanders, to attempt to punish the offenders, for they believe themselves to have been in the right, in taking the blood of the white man in payment for some former aggression, and therefore punishment produces in them no conviction of sin, but leads only to some new act of retaliation upon any innocent person who by shipwreck or otherwise, may fall into their power. But I assert most confidently, that a single ship of war of the smallest class, commanded by such an officer as Capt. Erskine or Capt. Drury, and commissioned for five years, for the express purpose of visiting annually, or oftener, if necessary, every Island within certain limits, with power to enquire into all complaints or other causes of misunderstanding between the two races, and to apprehend all ill-conducted foreigners, would have the effect of making all these Islands, fifty at least in number, with which I am acquainted, perfectly safe and accessible to either the trader or the missionary. Our proposed station on Norfolk Island, if it pleased God to prosper our work, would furnish interpreters, which would save the Captain of a Man of War from the humiliating necessity to which I have often see Her Majesty's Officers reduced, of taking evidence on the gravest questions from the natives, through the interpretations of white men living in the most dissolute manner, and unworthy of credit.

I have written thus freely to your Excellency, because I am sure that though our thoughts and plans have not hitherto been guided into the same channel, yet having the same object at heart, we shall agree in the adoption of measures, which are [9/10] not put forward as mere theory, but as the result of much experience, and from a conviction of their necessity.

I have the honour, &c. &c.



Letter from Sir W. Denison to the Bishop of New Zealand


Government House, 20th June, 1856

My Dear Lord,

My only motive in addressing you on the subject of your expressed intentions of sending a Chaplain to Norfolk Island, was to induce you to refrain from so doing until I could make a reference to the Secretary of State. As I now understand you to say, that you are willing to adopt the course suggested in my letter, of waiting the issue of the first year's experience, there is no question at issue between us. I will forward your letter to the Secretary of State by the first opportunity. It must be evident to you, that under present circumstances it would be altogether out of my power to further the views, as explained in your letter, of making Norfolk Island the site of a Bishop's See. I could not grant land for such a purpose, nor permit the alienation of land by the settlers; in fact, my instructions are so clear and distinct in specifying the object for which the transfer of the Pitcairn Islander to Norfolk Island [10/11] has been made, that I should not be justified in taking steps which might in any way interfere with the working of the plan which I am doing my best to carry out. I think, it is true, that the present state of primitive simplicity in which the islanders are living is not likely to last long but my reasons for coming to this conclusion appear to be different from yours. You appear to think that external influences will be brought to bear upon them; of this I have but little fear: for though, as you say, "Norfolk Island is in the midst of the great and wealthy Colonies of Australasia, and in the track of the ships of all the great maritime nations," it is yet so far distant from any of the Colonies, has so few attractions in itself, and is besides, so difficult of access, that I do not anticipate much action upon the inhabitants from this source. The change which I anticipate will be the natural result of increased facilities of procuring the necessaries and luxuries of life: of greater leisure, and of more opportunities of self indulgence. New wants, however, induce mental application in devising means to gratify them, so the change, when it does come, will not be altogether a change for the worse. Whether we should act wisely in attempting either to accelerate or retard this change, I am not prepared to say. I must therefore refrain from expressing any opinion with regard to the Plan sketched out in your letter, until I have seen the Islanders, and have made myself better acquainted than I now am, with their character and prospects.

In the general object which you have in view, namely the extension of the blessings of the Gospel to the inhabitants of the Islands of the Pacific, none more cordially sympathizes than myself; and you will always find me ready to afford assistance, either as an individual, or as Governor, in furthering this great undertaking.

Believe me, my dear Lord,

Yours very truly,


[Transcriber's note: Pages 12-23 of the original pamphlet contain the "Memorandum of the Bishop of New Zealand" and "Remarks of Sir W. Denison, Kc.B., etc., etc., etc." on facing pages, the Bishop on the left (even-numbered) pages, the Governor General on the right (odd-numbered) pages, with common discussion on the same topic aligned. For transcription purposes, I have inscribed each piece separately without interruption, rather than following consecutive page numbers.]

[12] Memorandum of the Bishop of New Zealand


2nd of August, 1857

Memorandum for the consideration of the Magistrate of Norfolk Island, to be submitted, if he should think fit, to a General Meeting of the heads of families.



Norfolk Island was originally part of the Diocese of Australia, of which Dr. Broughton was Bishop.

In the year 1841, the Diocese of New Zealand was formed, by Her Majesty's Letters Patent, including the three Islands of New Zealand, and the adjacent islands. Norfolk Island lies within the Geographical limits assigned to the Bishop of New Zealand, in his Letters Patent; and is nearer to New Zealand than to any other Colony, being

400 miles from New Zealand
800 miles from Sydney
1300 miles from Van Dieman's Land.

In the year 1842 the Convict Establishment, of which Norfolk Island was a branch, being removed from Sydney to Hobart Town, an Act of Parliament was passed, giving the Bishop of Tasmania authority over the Convict Chaplains on Norfolk Island.

When the Convict Establishment was removed from Norfolk Island, the Bishop of New Zealand immediately resumed his [12/14] his connexion with the Island, writing at the same time to the Bishop of Tasmania, to acquaint him with his reasons for so doing.

The following is the answer received from the Bishop of Tasmania:--

28th March, 1857.

"At once, I not only express my readiness to relinquish all right of Episcopal supervision in and over Norfolk Island, but say further, that were I not to act thus, I should be guilty of obstructing the progress of the Gospel of our Redeemer."

"You have the means of constantly visiting the place: I have none. It lies quite out of the line of my ordinary work: it is directly in the path of yours."

In retaining the charge of Norfolk Island for the present, the Bishop of New Zealand has the following objects in view.

First, to save Norfolk Island from being made a mere appendage to one of the neighbouring Dioceses, whether of Sydney, Tasmania, or New Zealand: in which case, the whole benefit of Episcopal Superintendence would be reduced to an occasional visit from a Bishop, once in three or four years, and then only for a day or two.

Secondly, to make Norfolk Island itself the seat of an island Bishopric, including the New Hebrides, and the other groups to the Northward, For this purpose, the required Endowment to the amount of £10,000 is already paid up, and invested in the names of


It is scarcely necessary to point out to the Community of Norfolk Island, the benefit which it is likely to be to them, to have a Bishop resident among them, to train up, and it may be hoped, to admit to Holy Orders, those among their young men, who may be led by the Spirit of God, to desire to serve Him [14/16] in the Ministry of His Church: and especially in that wide field of at least a hundred Islands, over which the Missionary efforts of the Bishop of Norfolk Island would range.


Before it was in any way known that the whole Pitcairn community would migrate to Norfolk Island, the Bishop of New Zealand was brought to the Island by Sir George Grey, the late Governor of New Zealand, in H.M. Colonial Brig Victoria, to see whether the situation would not be favourable for a Melanesian School. This was in December, 1853. The result of this visit was, that Sir George Grey wrote a letter to the Home Government, recommending that the use of some of the buildings and a portion of some of the land should be granted to the Bishop of New Zealand for the above purpose.

About the same time the Pitcairn's Island Committee, in London, put in their application for the Island.

In the year 1854, the Bishop of New Zealand went to England, and while there was elected a Member of the Pitcairn's Island Committee.

Following up the plan recommended by Sir George Grey, the Bishop of New Zealand, on the first occasion of his meeting the Pitcairn Committee, proposed the following plan:--

1. That the greater part of the land and the smaller buildings should be given to the Pitcairn Islanders.

[18] 2. That a small portion of land, and some of the large buildings suitable for a Boarding-school, should be given to the Bishop for a term of years for the purposes of the Melanesian School.

3. That the division of the land, the choice of houses, and the power of framing laws and regulations should be vested in three persons; of whom one should be appointed by H.M. Government, one by the Pitcairn community, and one by the Bishop.

This proposal was not accepted by the Pitcairn's Island Committee, who seemed to wish to obtain the whole Island for the one purpose; and the Bishop of New Zealand seeing this, withdrew his application, and told the Committee that he should be content to carry out his plans for the Melanesian School, through the agency of the Pitcairn Community, without requiring for himself any right over the houses or land, or any authority in framing regulations.

Since that time, no communication of any importance has taken place between the Bishop and the Pitcairn's Island Committee.

The Bishop still adheres to the same wish of carrying out these plans of extended Missionary efforts, through the agency, and subject to the regulations of the Pitcairn's Island Community, now in Norfolk Island: and that in the following ways:

1. By some of the body going annually in the mission vessel, to visit the islands and bring back scholars.

2. By the establishment of a Mission School on Norfolk Island, with such a number of Native Scholars from other islands, as the Magistrate and Councillors may deem expedient. The Bishop will of course be responsible for the maintenance of these Scholars, though all contributions of food, &c. for that purpose, would always be thankfully accepted.

3. By the employment of one or more widows or married couples from among the Pitcairners, to take the domestic charge [18/20] of the Native Scholars, attending to their clothing, food, and dwellings, as they would in the case of their own children.

4. By the employment of some of the young men, from 17 to 21 years of age, to assist in teaching the Native classes, receiving themselves a certain amount of education from the clergyman in charge of the School.

5. By the training up of some of the young men of the Island to be missionaries to the Islands: to act first as above, as teachers in the Schools, and then to be ordained by the Bishop.

The person whom the Bishop of New Zealand has in view as the head of the Mission School, is the Rev. Mr. Patteson, son of Sir John Patteson, late one of Her Majesty's Judges in England, and a Member of the Privy Council. Mr. Patteson having been often seen by the Community, it will be for them to judge whether his residence upon Norfolk Island during seven or eights months of the year would be for their advantage or not. On this point the Bishop, having known Mr. Patteson from a child, can have no doubt.

The young man now assisting Mr. Patteson, is Mr. Dudley, son of an excellent Clergyman at Lyttleton, in New Zealand.

It must be distinctly understood, that if a second Clergyman is brought into the Island, he will in no way interfere with the charge of Rev. Mr. Nobbs, who has been recognized by the Bishop of London, and by the Bishop of New Zealand as Pastor of the Pitcairn Community. It would rest entirely with Mr. Nobbs to decide, whether Mr. Patteson should assist him in his ministerial duties, and in what manner. That Mr. Patteson would be willing to do so, at Mr. Nobbs' request, there can be no doubt. If no such request should be made, Mr. Patteson's duties would be confined to his own Native scholars, and to the young Pitcairners who might be acting as assistants in his school.

If this plan or any part of it should not be found to work for the good of the Community, it will be in their power at any time, to alter any part, or even to abolish the whole.

[22] The Bishop of New Zealand will only add further the reasons, which make him desire to see this plan carried out on Norfolk Island, rather than at any other place.

1. For the good of the Pitcairners themselves, upon whom so large a measure of the Divine blessing has been bestowed: and who therefore cannot fail to remember, that "to whom much is given, of him shall much be required."

2. Because the Native Scholars would not here be exposed to the fearful stumbling-block, of seeing and hearing things which are contrary to the law of God.

3. Because the genial temperature of this island, would allow of the Scholars remaining here, if it were thought desirable, during the whole of the year.

These are the main reasons which induce the Bishop of New Zealand to wish to forego the advantages which the College at Auckland offers, with ample building at command; 1500 acres of land; and a secure anchorage for the mission vessel.

May the Holy Spirit give to the Pitcairn Community a right judgment in this and in all things.


[13]Remarks of Sir W. Denison, Kc.B., etc., etc., etc.

Remarks of Sir WILLIAM DENISON, Kc.B. Governor General, &c. &c. on the Memorandum of the BISHOP OF NEW ZEALAND, September 24th, 1857.


I, THE QUESTION OF THE BISHOPRIC is one with which the inhabitants have nothing to do; the Head of the Church in England having already decided the question; and included the Island within the Diocese of Tasmania.

The Bishop of Tasmania's power was not limited in any way; he was invested with all the powers of a Bishop in regard to Norfolk Island, and he still retains them. I wrote to him a few months ago, proposing to him to accompany me on my first visit to the Island, and he gladly accepted my offer: had I not been obliged to come away from Sydney at a very short notice, I should have brought him with me.

[15] The Bishop of New Zealand cannot legally retain the charge of Norfolk Island, which is not in his Diocese, whatever may be the object which he may wish to see carried out.

As the Bishop of New Zealand has paid five visits to the Island in the course of fourteen months, it is evident by making the Island an appendage to one of the neighbouring Dioceses, the benefits of Episcopal superintendence would not necessarily be reduced to an occasional visit from a Bishop once in three or four years.

By making Norfolk Island the seat of an Island Bishopric, which would include the wide field of at least 100 Islands, it is evident, that the amount of pastoral superintendence which the Bishop would be able to exercise over the inhabitants of Norfolk Island, would be very limited: the attention which he would have to pay to the scattered portions of his Diocese (an attention the more constant in proportion to the ignorance of the people,) would necessarily withdraw him from the Island for long periods.

I may also remark, that if there is one Island less fitted than another for the head quarters of a Missionary Station, it is Norfolk Island; there is no anchorage, no shelter for a vessel: [15/17] so that the Bishop, if desirous of visiting the other Islands of his Diocese, must be altogether dependent upon the casual visits of vessels from the adjacent Colonies, or if he have a Yacht, must keep it at some other station, leaving orders for it to call for him at specified times.

I have said thus much with regard to the question of the Bishopric, for the purpose of explaining my opinions to the inhabitants. It is as I have said before, a question which can only be determined by the proper authorities of the Church, and is really one as to which the people of Norfolk Island have no power placed in their hands, and as to which I think they would be unwise to express an opinion.


With regard to the Scheme, as submitted by the Bishop to the Pitcairn's Island Committee, it is not necessary that I should say much, inasmuch as it appears that the Scheme was not favourably entertained by the Committee nor by Her Majesty's Government; for instead of vesting the Executive Government of the island in the hands of these people, as proposed by the Bishop, the Queen has, by the Commission which I read to the Inhabitants yesterday, vested the Executive Government in the hands of the Governor of New South Wales for the time being.

I do not think, that it is any way desirable that the Bishop should intermeddle with the administration of the Government or more generally with the secular affairs of a Community.

[19] While, however, I think that there were valid objections to the mode in which the Bishop proposed to carry out his scheme of a Melanesian School, I am not prepared to say that an Institution of the kind might not be established with advantage upon Norfolk Island; before, however, such an Establishment could be sanctioned, a full explanation of all the details of the Scheme must be laid before the Inhabitants, and then submitted for my comment and approval.

The outline given in the paper is too vague to enable either the Inhabitants or the Governor to form an opinion of the manner in which the Institution is likely to answer.

The principal objections which occur to me at present are as follows:--

1. The whole Scheme appears to be framed on the idea that the Community of Norfolk Island must consider itself as subsidiary to these Missionary arrangements.

[21] 2. The annual trips in the Mission vessel, by withdrawing the people from their legitimate and ordinary occupations during a large portion of the year, are likely to encourage habits of idleness, and dislike to labour which are certain to produce bad moral effects upon their character.

3. The presence of any large number of Native Scholars on the Island, some of whom would probably be nearly grown up, would be very likely to introduce bad habits among the children, both boys and girls.

I do not think it necessary to allude to the arrangements proposed for the appointment of a master or masters, as these must of course be contingent upon the adoption or not of the general scheme.

The Rev'd Mr. Nobbs having been duly appointed as Pastor of the Community, will of course continue to exercise his function as heretofore, and no person can be admitted to interfere with him in the exercise of those functions.

If any arrangements be entered into for the execution of this Scheme of a Melanesian School, it must of course be contingent upon the approval of the people and of the Governor; and [21/23] especial care will be taken in drawing up the conditions of the agreement, that nothing in it should be considered to give to the Trustees or managers of the School any vested interest in the land or buildings which they may be permitted to occupy.

There can be no question, that Norfolk Island does possess advantages for the carrying out of the Scheme of a Melanesian School far superior to those which the College at Auckland offers. The climate is better adapted to the constitutions of the children of the Islands: and the simple, confiding, and religious character of the population, contrasts most favourably with that of the people among whom the pupils would be thrown in New Zealand. My doubt however is, whether in attempting to carry out this Scheme we may not be inflicting a most serious injury upon a single-hearted and happy community, and I most certainly should not think myself authorized to assent to the scheme, unless I were better satisfied than I am at present, that harm would not result form it.



I. Extract from the Laws of Norfolk Island.

7. "The Chaplain shall preside at the Election, and shall open the proceedings with prayer. In case of an equality of votes for two Candidates, he shall be entitled to give a casting-vote. He shall not himself be eligible for the office of Chief Magistrate or Councillor."

34. "Care will be taken to secure the services of a properly qualified schoolmaster, who will be placed under the general superintending of the chaplain."

II. Extract from Royal Instructions to Sir William Denison.

"We do hereby further enjoin you to exercise the authority so vested in you, so far as you may find it practicable, in conformity with such laws and usages as aforesaid, which you may find established among the inhabitants in question, in relation to the possession, use, and enjoyment of land."

III. Extracts from a Paper of Suggestions by Sir William Denison.

"I am not aware that there is any person on the Island who knows how to use a plough. In the same way, the Islanders are now placed in possession of buildings constructed of stone, and plastered within and without; yet they are not in a position to carry out any repairs of these houses, as they know not how to burn lime, to make mortar, to plaster walls and ceilings &c.; in fact, there are several trades which ought, for the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants, to be practiced on the Island, but of which the present settlers are ignorant."

"They have watermills and windmills; yet, for want of a competent millwright and smith, they must grind their corn in handmills."

"How, then, can these immediate and prospective wants be adequately supplied? With regard to the millwright and smith, I do not think it at all improbable that a competent person might be induced to settle upon the Island by the grant of a watermill and windmill, subject to a condition that he would grind all the corn of the community at a fixed rate; that is as in Canada, for a fixed proportion of the quantity brought to the mill, say one twelfth. The same person would be qualified to act as smith for the repair of tools, and as wheelwright. Were a circular saw attached to the mill-wheel, all the timber required for the use of the Community might be cut up at a cheap rate."

"For the repair of the houses, a mason and plasterer will be required; and a shoemaker is very much wanted. It may be possible to induce a few persons of this stamp to settle on the Island: but beyond these whose services may be said to be actually indispensable to the comfort and welfare of the inhabitants, I should not be disposed to admit of the introduction of any strangers."

"I will conclude, then, by assuring the Islanders of the affectionate interest I take in their welfare; and by praying them to remember that all the blessings which they have received are God's gifts, and are so to be employed in His service; not necessarily by any special dedication of them, but by striving in every thing, to do His will, and walk in His way."


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