Project Canterbury

A History of the So-Called Jansenist Church of Holland;
with a Sketch of Its Earlier Annals,
And some Account of the Brothers of the Common Life.

By the Rev. J.M. Neale, M.A.

Oxford: John Henry and James Parker, 1858.



Acunha, Portuguese ambassador at the Hague, 277.

Albizzi, Cardinal, attacks the Church of Holland, 167.

Alsace, Cardinal d’, 278.

Alva, the Duke of, his commencements, 110.

Amor Poenitens, the, 171; analysis of its contents, 179, &c.; applause it receives, 183; controversy about at Rome, 185; formally denounced, 189; condemned till corrected, 189.

Angélique, the Mère, 24.

Antwerp, Bishop of, consecrates his brother without any assistant prelate, 255.

Apostoli, the letters so-called, 49.

Appeals to the Future Council, examples of, 46.

Arboreus, his intrigues, 138.

Arckel, John of, 67.

Arnauld, Antoine, the Doctor, his commencements, 14; letter to a duke and peer, 21; ejected from the Sorbonne, 21; his description of Holland, 173, &c.

Arnoldsen, Cornelius, 127.

Articles of Louvain (1677) adopted by the Church of Holland, 287.

Augustinus, the, 11; contents of, 12.


Babylon, Bishop of: see Varlet.

Baius, condemnation of his propositions, 8.

Barcelona, affair of the Bishop of, 332.

Barchman Wuytiers, Cornelius John, Vicar-general, 261; elected Archbishop, 262; his consecration, 267; his attempts at a union of the Eastern and Western Churches, 270; his proposed mission to the Laos, 271; he appoints Theodore Doncker Bishop of Haarlem, 273; miracle said to have been wrought by him, 273; his death, 274.

Baronius, opposed to Molina, 8.

Basle, Council of, 71.

Bellegarde, Dupac de. 320; his death, 338.

Berruyer, De, his History of the People of God condemned by the Council of Utrecht, 304.

Bishoprics, erection of fourteen new, 104; discontent excited by, 105.

Blood, the Council of, 110.

Bock, Jerome de, Bishop of Haarlem, 284.

Bon, John, Bishop of Haarlem, 349.

Bonaparte, Louis, king of Holland, 343.

Boniface, S., 62.

Borgia, Abbé, his negotiation with Archbishop Codde, 227.

Bosche, Lubert Ten, 90; his death-bed, 92.

Boswell, James, arrives at Utrecht, 294.

Brinkerinck, John, 89.

Broekman, Adrian John, Bishop of Haarlem, 337; his death, 343.

Broedersen, Nicolas, his Tractatus Historici, 264.

Brothers of the Common Life, object of the Institute, 79.

Brons, Wynand John, President of the Fourth Congregation, 299.

Bruhezen, John de, Vicar-Apostolic, 117.

Brune, Henry, 95.

Buren, Amilius de, 95.

Bussi, Internuncio at Brussels, his correspondence with the Chapters, 214; nuncio at Cologne, 230; his Instructions, which commenced the schism, 231.

Buul, Henry John, Bishop of Haarlem, 365.

Byeveld, John, Bishop of Deventer, 293; President of the Second Congregation, 299; his death, 337.

Byevelt, John, his persecution of the National party, 236; he is banished, 237.


Capaccini, the Nuncio, his mission, 359.

Carthusians, thirty-one, join the Church of Utrecht, 269.

Case of conscience, the, 35.

Cathedral of Utrecht, its reconciliation by the Cardinal de Boulogne, 169.

Catti, conversion of the, 62.

Catz, Baldwin, Archbishop of Philippi, 160; his insanity, 161; his death, 161.

Catz, Jacob, Pro-Vicar of Utrecht, 209; sketch of his life, 220; his death, 233.

Chaise Dieu, description of the, 55.

Chapter of Haarlem, its boldness in defending its rights, 213; the Motivum juris for, 219; it retires from the contest, 221; refuses to nominate a Grand-Vicar, 262.

Chapter of Utrecht, how composed, 64; its anomalous condition, 143; appeals against the Unigenitus, 240; its letter to all Catholic bishops, 253; to all Universities, 254; to the nearest bishops, 255. — And see Vicariate.

Christian Republic, the, of Rovenius, 151.

Church of Holland, its lowest ebb, 148; its state in 1701, 206; and 1836, 284.

Churches, construction of the, built in the persecution, 145.

Cibo, secretary to the Propaganda, discovery of his fraud, 175.

Cistercians, fourteen, join the Church of Utrecht, 269.

Clement IX., pacification of, 31; medal struck in honour of, 32.

Clement X., his courteous reception of Van Neercassel, 166.

Clement XIV. suppresses the order of Jesuits, 331; his death, 337.

Codde, Peter, Grand-Vicar of Utrecht, 199; sketch of his early life, 204; Archbishop of Utrecht, 205; his dangerous illness and protest, 207; invited to the jubilee at Rome, 209; his journey thither, 210; protest in his favour, 211; his suspension, 212; his critical situation, 217; his return commanded by the States, 217; his decision not to exercise his archiepiscopal authority, 220; calumnies against him, 222; his last illness, 227; protest, 228; and death, 229.

Collegiate churches of mediaeval Holland, 77.

Comminges, Bishop of, his five articles adopted by the Church of Holland, 285.

Concessiones Ephesinae, 154.

Convulsionists, 58.

Cornet, Nicolas, delates the Five Propositions, 15.

Council of Utrecht, Second: its convocation, 294; Acts, 300, seq.; Canons of Discipline, 318; conclusion, 321; condemned at Rome, 326; and by the Assembly of the French Clergy, 328,

Cousebant, Joseph, nominated for Utrecht, 200.

Cracht, Stephen, pastor at Amsterdam, 126.

Crucifixion of Convulsionists, 58.

Cum Occasione, the dogmatic constitution, 18.


Daemen, Adam, Archbishop of Adrianople, and Vicar-General, 225; his resignation, 226.

Damen, Abbé, attacks the validity of Steenoven’s consecration, 264.

David of Burgundy, Archbishop, 71.

De Auxiliis, the Congregation, 9.

De Berghes, Archbishop of Mechlin, 177.

De Caylus of Auxerre, his appeal never retracted, 57; he urges the consecration of Steenoven, 255.

De Cock, Andrew, martyr, 149.

———, Theodore, agent of the clergy at Rome, 202; his treachery, 208; he asserts the non-existence of the Chapters, 214; his work against Codde, 238.

Debitum Pastoralis, privileges conferred on the Church of Utrecht by the Bull, 72.

De Haan, Francis, President of the Third Congregation, 299.

De Hauranne: see S. Cyran.

De Jong, Gisbertus, Bishop of Deventer, 343.

De la Torre, James, elected Archbishop, 150; his banishment, 153; offers made to hip by the Jesuits, 154; he goes to Rome, 154; his insanity, 157; his death, 157.

De Metz, Zachary, coadjutor to De la Torre, 156; his death, 157.

De Rastignac, Archbishop of Tours, his Pastoral Instruction on Christian Righteousness, 310.

De Swaen, Dean of Haarlem, defends the rights of the Chapter, 216.

De Faucel, Van Neercassel’s agent at Rome, 184.

Deventer, 75; re-erection of the bishopric of, 293.

Diephold, Rodolph de, his contest for the archbishopric, 69.

Direito do Padroado, 175.

Dirutius, Remigius, first Bishop of Deventer, 107.

Discernants, 58.

Dogmatic fact, the meaning of a, 21.

Dolgorouki, Princess, her reception by Archbishop Barchman, 270.

Dominus ac Redemptor, the Bull, 331.

Doncker, Theodore, slain by a Papal Brief, 267; preaches on the Brief, 268; Bishop of Haarlem elect, 273.

Dort, Synod of, 139.

Dubois, Cardinal, his wealth, 60; his fearful death, 50.

——— Nicholas, his retractation, 175.

Duivenvoord, Henrietta de, 142.

Dusseldorp, Francis, 138.

Dyke of Couvestein, battle of the, 118.


Eastern Church, the, censured by the Council of Utrecht, 301.

Ecclesiastical problem, the, 35.

Edict of Nantes, its revocation, 190; persecution in Holland consequent on, 190.

Efficacious grace, 21.

Egmont, George of, Archbishop of Utrecht, 73.

Embrun, pseudo-Council of, 52.

Emmerik, Van Neercassel at, 194.

Enchvoort, William, Archbishop of Utrecht, 73.

Erasmus, Desiderius, a scholar of the Brothers of the Common Life, 99.

Exposition de la Foi, Bossuet’s, adopted by the Council of Utrecht, 298.

Ex quâ die, the Bull, 367.


Fact and right, distinction between, 30.

Fagan, Luke, Bishop of Meath, ordains on the Chapters’ letters dimissory, 235; his device to screen himself from enquiry, 236.

Families, the six, of the Brothers of the Common Life, 101.

Figurists, the sect of, 58.

Fitz-James, Bishop of Soissons, his Pastoral Instruction, 305; adopted by the Council of Utrecht, 306.

Five Propositions, the, from the Augustinus, 15; condemned, 18.

Flight of the clergy in the Reformation, 124.

Four Bishops, appeal of the, against the Unigenitus, 48.

Fraterheeren, another name for the Brothers of the Common Life, 96.


Galen, Bishop of Munster, 65.

Giffard, Bishop of Madaura, declines to assist the Chapter, 235.

Glan, Van Neercassel’s funeral at, 196.

God, how often we are compelled to love, 25.

Gouda, stained glass in the church of, 74.

Gorcum, the nineteen martyrs of, 111.

Grace, the doctrine of, supported by the Church of Holland, 8; systems of S. Augustine and S. Thomas, and Molina about, 16; traditional teaching of the Church of Holland on, 164.

Grammont, Count de, 20.

Granvelle, Cardinal de, 105.

Grimaldi, Cardinal, in favour of the Amor Poenitens, 186.

Groenendael, collegiate church of, 68.

Grolle, Grotius’s history of its siege, 141.

Groote, Geert, his birth, 75; his conversion, 76; his sermons, 77; he is inhibited from preaching, 77; his death, 81; his works, 82.

Gueux, the, harsh conduct pursued with respect to, 109.

Gyselinck, John Baptist, president of the Fifth Congregation, 300.


Haarlem, the Nones of, 112; Chapter of, its vigour in defending its rights, 154; retires from the contest, 221.

Habert, Bishop of Vabres, 13.

Heiligerlee, battle of, 110.

Heykamp, Herman, Bishop of Deventer, 374.

Hierarchy, Intrusion of the new, 367.

Hieronymians, Brothers of the Common Life, why so called, 96.

High Mass, music forbidden during the Canon by the Council of Utrecht, 319.

Histoire du Peuple de Dieu, the, 305.

Hochkirchen, Antony, attempts to reconcile the Church of Utrecht with Rome, 291.

Holland, invasion of, by Louis XIV., 168.

Hooks and Codfish, the, 65.

Howard, Cardinal, defends the Church of Holland, 201.

Hoynck, van Papendrecht, his history of the Church of Utrecht, 263.

Huissen, Van Neercassel at, 170, 192.


Ineffabilis, the Bull, Protest of the Church of Holland against, 374.

In Eminenti, the Bull, 13.

Inquisition, establishment of the, 109.

Innocent X., Pope, 16.

——— XIII., addressed by the Chapter of Utrecht, 248.


Jansenism, decline of French, 56.

Jansenius, Cornelius, a sketch of his life, 4; his monument broken down, 29; his journey to Spain, 142.

Jemminghem, battle of, 111.

Jesuits, corrupted morals of the, 25; enter Holland, 119; intrigues of the, 123, and passim; suppression of the, 331.

Jube, the Abbé, his mission into Russia, 270.


Kafenza, Archbishop of, his account of the Klopjes, 146.

Kempis, Thomas à, 97; the “Imitation” not written by him, 98.

Kettel, John, the cook, 91.

Klopjes, the, 145; placards against the, 147.

Krys, Jacob, interests the Bishop of Babylon in the Church of Holland, 242.


Ladies of Charity, the, 5.

Laus tibi Christe, the Sequence, 93.

Lay Controvertists, school of, 147.

Le Camus, Cardinal, in favour of the Amor Poenitens, 186.

Le Clerc, Peter, his protest to the whole Church, 294; condemned by the Council of Utrecht, 300; he is excommunicated, 323.

Lecture of six weeks, the, 176.

Le Tellier, Jesuit, the real author of the Unigenitus, 39.

Leeuwarden, the States of Friesland oppose the re-erection of the Bishopric of, 292.

Lindeborn, John, Grand-Vicar of Utrecht, 199.

Lorraine, labours of S. Vincent de Paul in, 2.

Louis XIV., death of, 46.

Louvain, idea of the University of, 176.

Luffy, Godfrey, agent of the Chapter of Haarlem at Rome, 202.


Maurice, Prince, his tyranny, 139; his death, 141.

Mixed marriages, question of, 162, 320.

Martin V., his decision reversed by Eugenius IV., 70.

Medenblick, Rumold, 135.

Meganck, Francis, Dean of the Chapter, President of the First Congregation, 299.

Meindaerts, Peter John, his ordination, 235; his consecration to the archbishopric, 282; brief against him, 283; convokes a provincial council, 295; his death, 329.

Mierlo, Godfrey de, Archbishop of Haarlem, 114.

Mookerheyde, battle of, 111.

Molina, his Concord of Free-will, 8; system of, 10.

Motivum juris pro Capitulo Harlemensi, the, 219.

Montpellier, Bishop of, 51.

Münster, Treaty of, 152.


National Church, statistics of, in 1701, 206; in 1736, 284.

Nazalli, Archbishop, Nuncio to the Hague, 350.

Nellemanns, Nicolas, Bishop of Deventer, 338; his death, 343.

Nicolini, the Marquis, negotiations of, 292.

Nieulant, Nicolas, First Bishop of Haarlem, 106.

Nieuwenhuis, John, Bishop of Haarlem, 343.

Noailles, Cardinal de, 34, 49.

Noordstrand, Isle of, 172.

Norbert, Father, negotiations of, 292.

Nymegen, Peace of, 170.


Oldenzaal reconquered by Spain, 130.

——— Collegiate Church of, its desecration, 141.

Onderwys voor de Eerste Communie, 311.

Oudshoorn, his election as Bishop of Utrecht, 66.


Palafox, B. Juan de, 399.

Paludanus, Augustinian, candidate for the Vicariate Apostolic, 153.

Paris, miracles attributed to the Deacon, 56.

Parroquet, the Church of the, 145.

Passart, Flavie her perfidy, 30.

Passionei, Cardinal, defends the Church of Holland, 285.

Pastoralis Officii, the Bull, 49.

Paul, S. Vincent de, 3.

Pavilion, Bishop of Aleth, 29.

Perrier, Marguerite, miracle of, 27.

Persecution, the, of 1630,144; of 1685, 190.

Petersen, Cunerus, Bishop of Leeuwarden, 114.

Petersen, Gerlach, the second to à Kempis, 88.

Petrus Aurelius, the, 6.

Pichon, Father, his work on Frequent Communion, 309.

Placards against the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion, 119.

——— ecclesiastics, 147. Plague, the, at Deventer, 80.

Port-Royal, the recluses of, 14.

——— des Champs, destruction of, 36; desecration of the cemetery, 37.

Postulaets-gulden, 70.

Potcamp, Gerard, Vicar-Apostolic, 223; his death, 224.

Pitra, Dom, misstatements of, 162, 171, 224.

Predestination, gratuitous, asserted by the Bull Demissas preces, and by the Council of Utrecht, 300.

Primacy, the Roman, decree of the Council of Utrecht on the subject, 302.

Printing, its employment by the Brothers of the Common Life, 100.

Rohrbacher, the Abbé, his book called A History of the Catholic Church, 39.

Probabilism condemned by the Council of Utrecht, 314.

Proostenhuis, the, at Mydrecht, 118.

Protestant violation of oaths with respect to Catholics, 112.

Provincial Letters, the, 22.

Pure Nature, the state of, 13.


Quesnel, Pasquier, his Moral Reflections, 33; sketch of his life, 34.

Questions, the three, put to candidates for the Common Life, 89.


Radewijnzoon, Flores, successor of Geert Groote, 82; his studies in Bohemia, 83.

Regius, Martinus, 127.

Respectful silence, the meaning of, 35.

Rights of the Canons not infringed by the cession of temporal sovereignty, 72.

Right of patronage, 174.

Rovenius, Henry, 137.

——— Philip, Dean of Oldenzaal, 130; nominated to the archbishopric, 138; consecrated, 140; fixes his residence at Utrecht, 142; erects the Vicariate, 143; his narrow escape, 148; his banishment, 149; he approves the Augustinus, 150; his death, 151.

Rugens, John Martin, missionary in Norway, 151.

Ruysbroek, John, 68.


Salvavarilla, William de, 79.

Samenspraek tusschen Pieter Regthart, &c., 248.

Sardinia, Church of, supports the Church of Utrecht, 324.

S. Charles Borromeo, his instructions to confessors, 311.

Schenk, Frederic, Archb. of Utrecht, 105; his death, 114.

Schep, William, nominated for Utrecht, 200.

Schism, the great Roman, 79; commencement of that in Holland, 231.

Scholars formed by the Brothers of the Common Life, 98.

S. Cyran, the Abbé, 3; imprisonment of, 6.

Separated clergy, rights of the, preserved intact by the Council of Utrecht, 297.

Sermons, Ultramontane, at the commencement of the schism, 232,

Sextius, Sibrand, 126, 138.

S. Gertrude in den Hoek, church of, 145; at Utrecht, church of, — opening of the Council in it, 295.

Sisters of Charity, institution of the, 3.

S. Medard, scenes in the cemetery of, 57.

Smith, Dr., Archbishop of Chalcedon, 6.

Soanen, Bishop of Senez, 51; his protest against his judges at Embrun, 53; his appeal overruled, 54; his condemnation, 55.

Sorbonne, the, — its appeal against the Unigenitus, 48.

Staer, John, put forward by the Jesuits for Utrecht, 202.

Stappart, affair of, 132.

Steenoven, Cornelius, agent from the Chapter to Bussi, 232; his election, 251; he writes to the Pope, 252; his consecration, 256; his letter to Benedict XIII., 257; his consecration declared execrable, 258; his last protest, 259; his death, 260.

Sticht, the, of Utrecht, 63.

Stouthandel, Agatha, miracle of, 273.

Suda, James of, endeavours to obtain the See of Utrecht, 67.

Sufficient Grace, Thomist and Molinist meaning of, 23.

Suitbert, Saint, 62.

Super Universas, the Bull, 104.

Sweder de Culenburg, his contest for the archbishopric, 69.


Temporal sovereignty of the See resigned by Henry of Bavaria, 72.

Tencin, Archbishop, his infamous character, 53.

Theodosius, Archbishop of Novgorod, in favour of the union with Rome, 269.

Thierry de Viaixnes, 35, 230, 255.

Three bishops — question of their necessity to a valid consecration, 264.

Tosini, Abbé, his Storia e sentimento sopra il Giansenismo, 233.

Treatise on Missions, the, of Rovenius, 150.


Unigenitus, abstract of the, by Rohrbacher, 40; by Guettee, 42; opposition to the, 45; appeal of the four bishops against the, 239.

Universal redemption taught by the Council of Utrecht, 307.

Utrecht, an archbishopric, 62; reduced to a bishopric, 63; temporal power of the bishops of, 63; degeneracy of its medieval bishops, 65; public exercise of the Catholic religion abolished in, 113.


Van Brienen, Abraham, 154.

Van Cort, Oratorian, 172.

Van der Croon, Theodore, pastor at Gouda, elected Archbishop, 276; writes to Clement XII., 277; his consecration, 277; his correspondence with the Cardinal D’Alsace, 278; his defence, 279; his death, 281.

Van der Gronde, John, 87.

Van Dorschot, Adrian, 134.

Van Erkel, John Christian, cited to appear at Cologne, 230; excommunicated, 231; his defence of Codde, 238; he is elected Dean, 239; his Dialogues on the Schism, 248; his Defensio Ecclesiae Ultrajectinae, 264; death of, 292.

Van Espen, Zegers Bernard, his commencements, 175; sketch of his early life, 176 — 178; his Dissertatio de Misero Ecclesiae Ultrajectinae Statu, 249; his Responsio Epistolaris, 265; it is condemned, 265; he flies to Maestricht, 266; his death at Amersfoort, 274.

Van Gent, Admiral, 143.

Van Heussen, Hugh Francis, elected Archbishop, 198; difficulties as to his confirmation, 199; excluded by the Cardinals, 203; his joy on the occasion, 204; Dean of Utrecht, 233; his death, 238.

Van Mook, Godfrey, secretary to Rovenius, 149.

Van Neercassel, John, his early history, 159; Bishop of Castoria, and coadjutor of Catz, 160; succeeds to the archbishopric, 161; his decision on mixed marriages, 162; his correspondence with the French Jansen-ists, 161; he goes to Rome, 166; to Paris, 169; in exile, 170; his works, 171; his decision as to the patronage of livings, 174; his Amor Poenitens, 178; his correspondence with Arnauld, 184; his last visitation, 191; his death, 195.

Van Nieuwenhuisen, Walter Michael, elected Archbishop, 331; his death, 339.

Van Os, Willibrord, Archbishop, 345.

Van Rhijn, John Jacob, Archbishop of Utrecht, 340; his death, 344.

Van Santen, John, Archbishop, 356.

Van Stiphout, John, Bishop of Haarlem, 285; his death, 337.

Van Velde, Martin, martyr, 149.

Van Vianen, President of the University of Louvain, 177.

Van Wevelinckhoven, Florentius, Archbishop of Utrecht, 76.

Van Wyck, put forward by the Jesuits for Archbishop, 201.

Van Zeller, Procurator of the Council of Utrecht, 296.

Van Zerbolt, Gerard, 88.

Varlet, Dominique Marie, Vicar-General of Louisiana, 241; Bishop of Babylon, 241; confirms at Amsterdam, 243; arrives at Schamake, 244; suspended, 245; returns to Amsterdam, 246; his appeal to the Future Council, 247; consecrates Archbishop Steenoven, 256; visits the Helder, 266; his second apology, 264; attempt to carry him off from the Castle of Zeist, 277.

Viaixnes, Thierry de, urges the election of an archbishop, 250.

Vicariate, erection of the, 142.

Vineam Domini, Sabaoth, the Bull, 36.

Vosmeer, Sasbold, official to the Grand-Vicar, 117; Grand-Vicar, 118; Vicar-Apostolic, 119;.Archbishop of Utrecht, under the title of Archbishop of Philippi, 121; banished, 122; his contests with the Jesuits, 123; his Concordat with them, 128; his Pastoral against them, 129; his death, 135.

Vosmeer, Tilman, 120.


Wachtelaer, John, 135.

Warmond, church of, 229.

Willibrord, Saint, Apostle of Friedeland, 62. Windesheim, Canons of, their union with the Brothers of the Common Life, 101.

Writers, the principal, of the separated Church of Holland, 378.

Wyk-by-duursted, 64.

Wynhovius, another name for Rovenius, 142.


Zegers, publisher of the Augustinus, 11.

Zutphen, Gerard of, 95.

Zuyder Zee, the sluice-gates opened, 169.



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