A History of the So-Called Jansenist Church of Holland;
with a Sketch of Its Earlier Annals,
And some Account of the Brothers of the Common Life.
By the Rev. J.M. Neale, M.A.
Oxford: John Henry and James Parker, 1858.
LIST OF HISTORICAL WORKS ON THE CHURCH OF UTRECHT.
The principal authorities, printed and MS., for the history of the Church of Holland, are the following. A great part of the former are given in the Recueil des Témoignages, (C. No. 12): that list is reprinted, with additions, in the third edition of the Histoire Abrégée, (A. No. 4); and the present catalogue is still fuller. The MS. authorities are here enumerated for the first time. An asterisk denotes those books which were composed by enemies; a † those of the greatest importance.
† 1. Batavia Sacra: sive res gestae Apostolicorum Virorum qui fidem Bataviae primi intulerunt. Omnia industriâ et studio T. S. F. H. L. H. S. T. L. P. Y. T. Bruxellis, 1714. One volume, folio.
† 2. Historia Episcopatuum Foederati Belgii. Per H. F. V. H. Sac. T. L. Vic. Tr. Antwerpiae et Ultrajecti. 1 edit. 1719, 2 ed. 1755. Two volumes, folio. — Both these works are by Hugh van Heussen, Dean of the Cathedral Chapter, and Vicar-General. He was the first on the list of four whom the clergy proposed to the See of Rome on the death of Neercassel, but was passed over through the influence of the Ultramontane party. The Batavia Sacra contains, in the first place, a general history of the Church of Utrecht from the beginning; in the next, a catalogue raisonnée of all the parishes in the archdiocese, and the diocese of Haarlem; with the succession, as far as known, of their incumbents. The Historia Episcopatuum gives Utrecht in less detail, but contains, in addition to Haarlem, the four other suffragan sees, — Deventer, Leeuwarden, Groningen, and Middelburg. The research and patient labour bestowed on these works render them invaluable. They were united, and translated in
3. Kerkelijke Historie en Outheden der Zeven Vereenigde Provincien, &c., &c., overgeset en met Aantekeningen opgeheldert door H. V. E. [Henricus Van Rhijn.] Leyden, 1726. Six parts, bound in three immense folio volumes. Another edition, in octavo, 1765, contains very large and useful additions to Van Heussen’s work. All three have excellent engravings of the worthies whom they commemorate.
† 4. Histoire abréegée de l’Église Metropolitaine d’Utrecht, par M. G. Dupac de Bellegarde, ancien Comte de Lyon. Troisième Édition. Utrecht, J. A. van Woestenberg, 1852. — The first edition of this work was published in 1765; the next in 1770. Bellegarde left a MS. continuation, extending from 1763 to 1784, (which forms pp. 415 — 499). A new edition was undertaken by the Abbé Van der Hoeven, who proposed to carry it down to the present time. No one could have been better qualified for the task than this able young priest, who was minutely acquainted with the annals of his own Church, and whose laborious accuracy is amply attested by the care with which he had docketed the papers which he proposed to use, and which I have seen at Amersfoort. He died, however, the death of the righteous, after long-continued ill-health, Dec. 30, 1851, when only a few sheets were struck off, and the continuation was not attempted. The edition was superintended and the preface written by the Abbé Karsten, President of the College at Amersfoort. It is in all respects a most able and interesting work.
* 5. Historia de rebus Ecclesiae Ultrajectensis a tempore mutatae religionis. Coloniae et Bruxellis, 1725. A thin folio, the greater part taken up with dissertations. The author was M. Hoynck van Papendrecht, canon of Mechlin, a bitter enemy of the Church of Utrecht. A brief catalogue of the mistakes and self-contradictions of this work takes up thirty-two pages of Broedersen’s celebrated reply. There are two editions.
* 6. La Hollande Catholique. Par le R. P. Dom Pitra. Paris, 1850. A small duodecimo, equally unworthy of the acknowledged learning, and of the good taste and Christian feelings, of the author. Some of the more important mistakes will be pointed out in the notes. The bad taste of the work is aggravated by the fact that Bom Pitra had unlimited access to the Archives, of which, however, he seems to have made but little use.
WORKS CONNECTED WITH THE SUSPENSION OF CODDE, AND THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE SCHISM.
† 1. Causa Coddaeana. 1705. This is a collection of the principal pieces which concern the summons of Codde to Rome, his detention there, and his suspension.
2. L’Innocence du Clergé de Hollande defendue. This is a free translation, with additional matter, of a Latin reply to a “Memoir on the Progress of Jansenism in Holland,” inserted in the Causa Coddaeana. By Quesnel.
5. Avis sincères aux Catholiques des Provinces Unies. 1704. By the same.
6. Divers abus et nullités du Décret de Rome du 4 Octobre. 1707. By the same.
† 7. Declaratio Apologetica D. Petri Coddaei, Arch. Sebasteni. 1707. This, which also appeared in French, is a calm and clear defence of the writer’s proceedings, and produced a considerable effect.
8. Defensio piae Memoriae ill. ac rev. D. Coddaei. 1711. A similar work, indeed all but a translation, appeared in French the same year. It was written by M. Petitpied.
† 9. Defensio Archiepiscopi Sebasteni, et Ecclesiae quae apud Batavos est Catholicae. Par J. C. Erckelium, Eccl. Metr. Capitularem, et Delflandiae Archipresb. 1717. — Van Erkel was undoubtedly the most masterly writer on the side of the clergy. If he had not the prodigious acquaintance with the Archives of Utrecht that was possessed by Broedersen, he was at least as good a canonist, a much more able reasoner, and a far more interesting writer. This quarto of 173 pages is in reply to Theodore de Cock’s mischievous and ungenerous attack on Codde after that prelate’s death, — De Petro Coddaeo, &c., Vicariatus Apostolici potestate potito, functo, defuncto, Libri tres.
WORKS IN DEFENCE OF THE RIGHTS OF THE CHAPTERS.
1. Motivum juris pro Capitulo Harlemensi. 1703. [Printed in Van Espen’s works, vol. v. pp. 351 — 381.]
2. Refutatio Responsi ad Motivum. 1703. These are by Van Espen, but they were adopted by De Swaen, Dean of Haarlem.
3. Assertio Juris Eccl. Metr. Ultrajectin. R. C. Per J. C. Erkelium, ejusdem Eccl. Canon. 1703.
4. Cleri R. C. praecipuarum in Hollandia Australi civitatum Protestatio. 1709.
5. Protestatio … asserta. 1710.
6. Protestatio … denuo asserta. 1712.
7. Protestatio … tertium asserta. 1714.
8. Mémoire pour l’Église et le Clergé d’Utrecht. The first edition was published in 1716, and it was one of the most popular books on the side of the clergy. De Bellegarde ascribes it to M. Boulenois: but in the copy preserved in the Archives, Quesnel is named as the author, in a hand which I believe to be Bishop Van Stiphout’s.
9. Instrumentum Appellationis ad Futurum Grenerale Concilium a Constitutione Unigenitus.Delphis, 1719. This appeal was composed by Van Heussen, though not published till after his death. Besides the instrument itself, it contains the adhesions of the clergy of Utrecht and Haarlem, and others.
10. Justification du Droit des Chapitres. By Quesnel.
11. Responsio Epistolaris Z. B. Van Espen de numero Episcoporum ad validam ordinationem requisito. 1725. [Also in Van Espen’s works, tom. v. pp. 484 — 493.]
12. Vindiciae Resolutionis Doctorum Lovanensium … de Subsistentiâ, Eccles. Ultraject., &c. Amsterdam, 1727. [Also in Van Espen’s Works, tom. v. pp. 494 — 576.]
† 13. Defensio Eccl. Ultraject … contra fictiones. A. D. C. P. Hoynck, per J. C. Erkelium. Amsterdam, 1728. This is the masterpiece on the side of the Chapters, and is quoted in the preceding pages as Defens. Eccles.
14. Considerationes ad VI. Epistolas D. Hoynck. Per J. C. Erkelium. Amsterdam, 1730. Verhulst wrote the sixth.
WORKS IN DEFENCE OF THE RIGHTS OF THE ARCHBISHOPS.
1. Samen-spraek tusschen Pieter Regthart, en Joan Waermond. Five of these dialogues were published by Van Erkel. (1.) On the right of the Church to elect a Bishop. Delft, 1722, pp. 64. (2.) On the subject of elections generally, with an answer to objections. 1723, pp. 72, &c., &c.
† 2. Causa Ecclesiae Ultrajectinae. 1724. Published by Van Erkel, and contains, (1.) A Short History of the Church. (2.) The Consultation of Louvain, Dec. 12, 1722. (3.) The celebrated Dissertatio de misero Ecclesiae Trajectinae Statu. (4.) The letters of the Chapter to Innocent XIII., of June 11 and September 30, 1722; April 27, 1723; and August 1, 1724; and another of the same year to the Bishops, the Cardinals, the Deans and Chapters, and to the Universities. Also the reply to the circular of Spinelli, bearing date May 4, 1724. These various publications seem to me not to have been reprinted, but merely bound together, with a general title-page and the preface, the paging and lettering commencing afresh at the beginning of each document.
3. Seconde Mémoire pour l’Église et le Clergé d’Utrecht. 1725. This is by M. Boulenois, and is attributed to him by Bishop Stiphout, as well as De Bellegarde.
† 4. Kort Historisch Verhael van ’t gene de Kerke van Utrecht wedevaren is. Amsterdam, Nicolas Potgieter. These Annals appeared in nine duodecimo volumes, from 1725 — 1728, now bound in three. They were compiled by Willebrord Kemp, Canon of Utrecht, and pastor there, and contain a vast number of documents, though all translated into Dutch.
† 5. Première et Seconde Apologie de M. l’Evêque de Babylone. Amsterdam, 1728, quarto, pp. 54 and 511. Of this magnificent refutation of Ultramontane tenets I have spoken at p. 247.
6. Quinque Epistolae Presbyteri Trajectensis de Consecratione Archiep. Traj. adversus Diss. D. Damen. These are by Verhulst, and marked by his well-known ability.
7. Antwoord op zeekere Brief (28 Mar., 1727,) &c. In defence of Barchman Wuytiers. Amsterdam, 1727.
8. Causa Ecelesiae Harlemensis. 1728.
9. Acta quaedam Eccl. Ultraject. The Hague, 1737. Quarto, pp. 176. Contains the proceedings connected with the consecration of Van der Croon, and his correspondence with the Archbishop of Mechlin.
† 10. De drie hoofdgeschillen tusschen de Rooms-Katholyken. 1. Wegens het Formulier tegen Jansenius. 2. Wegens de Bulle Unigenitus. 3. Wegens het Aertsbisdom van Utrecht. Opgehelderd in xxii. Brieven tegen een Schrift van David Pierman. Door Ph. Vlaming. Utrecht, 1741. They are by Verhulst, and created a great sensation at the time of their first appearance. The work is bound in 3 vols. 12mo., but the pages run on continuously to p. 1351.
11. Lettres d’un Prêtre Français refugié en Hollande. 1754. By Vasquier, ex-Grand-Vicar of the diocese of Lectoure.
† 12. Recueil de divers témoignages de plusieurs cardinaux. archevêques, évêques, universités, facultés de Theologie et de Droit, docteurs, dignités d’églises cathedrales et collégiales, abbes, chanoines, curés, superieurs d’ordres et de communantés, magistrats, jurisconsultes, et autres personnes célèbres, en faveur de la Catholicité et de la légitimité des droits du clergé et des chapitres, archevêques et évêques de l’Église Catholique des Provinces Unies contre le schisme introduit dans cette Église depuis le commencement de ce siecle par les manoeuvres des Jésuites et de leurs adherents. Utrecht, 1763.
This 4to., of more than 400 pages, is the grand magazine for the historian, next to the Archives, of the letters of communion received by the Church of Utrecht. It was compiled and arranged by Dupac de Bellegarde.
† 13. Acta et decreta secundae synodi Provenciae Ultrajectensis: in sacello Ecclesiae Parochialis S. Gertrudis, Ultrajecti, celebratae. Utrecht, 1764. A preface of 62 pages is added, containing a brief history of the Church of Utrecht, by the editor, Dupac de Bellegarde. Two editions, in large 12mo, and 4to.
14. Mémoire de quelques jurisconsultes Hollandais, sur les maximes Ultramontanes mises en usage pour opprimer l’église Metrop. d’Utrecht. Utrecht, 1764. In German, Venice, 1782; and in Italian, Pistoia, 1785.
15. Nouveaux Témoignages. Utrecht, 1769.
16. Lettre de M. l’Archevêque d’Utrecht, et de MM. les évêques de Haarlem et de Deventer, a M. l’Archevêque de Toulouse. Utrecht, 1774. We have spoken of this letter, p. 330.
17. Del cattolicismo della chiesa d’Utrecht, e delle altre chiese di Olanda appellante, o confutazione della Storia compendiosa dello scisma della nuova chiesa d’Utrecht,del Conte L. Mozzi. Milan, 1786; and in French, Paris, 1788 and 1796. This is by M. Bossi, Canon of Milan, as well as the next.
18. Lettere Ultrajectine, in reply to Count Mozzi’s Delle revolu-zioni della chiesa d’Utrecht. Milan, 1788.
† 19. Declaration des évêques de Hollande, addressée à toute l’Église Catholique, et acte d’Appel des Bulles d’excommunication lancées contre eux par Leon XII. Paris, 1827. This contains, besides the Act of Appeal, published in Latin and French, (Haarlem, 1825,) a Historical Sketch of the Church of Holland, and the Procès Verbal of the elections of Bishop Vet and Archbishop Van Santen.
20. Rome en Utrecht: of korte schets, van den oorsprung, voort en tegenwoordigen staat hunneer drie hoofdgeschillen. Door P. Buys.
21. Herderlijk onderrigh van H. J. van Buul, Bisschop van Haarlem, over die kerk scheuring onder de Katholijhen derer gewesten. 1844. A French translation in the same year. Paris: Lebegue.
22. De Regering en de Klerezy. Amsterdam: Diedrichs, 1845.
† 23. Schets eener Geschiedenis van de Rooms-Katholyke oudbiss-choppelijke Klerezy in Nederland. Utrecht: J. A. van Woestenberg, 1853. A very able sketch, with the latest statistical information.
24. Ill. et Revv. D.D. Johannis Van Santen, Arch. Ultraj., et Henrici Joannis Van Buul, Episc. Haarlem. Epistola ad S. Patrem Pium IX. de Literis Apostolicis, Ex quâ die. Mart. 4. 1853. Utrecht, 1853.
25. Een Woord van eenen zoogenaamden Jansenist over de woorden Monster en Pest in de Apostolische Breve van Z. H., Paus Pius IX. Utrecht, 1853.
Of the other appeals I have given no list, as most of them will be found in some one or other of the works to which I have referred.
The greater part of the Archives are kept in the library attached to the church of S. Gertrude “in den Hoek.” Some of the documents, especially those relating to the period subsequent to the episcopate of Van Nieuwenhuisen, were removed to Amersfoort for the convenience of the editor, when the third edition of Bellegarde’s History was being brought out. The greater part of the papers are admirably arranged and bound, and great pains have evidently been taken in their classification. The principal volumes are as under, mostly folio: —
Five of the letters written by Sasbold Vosmeer.
Eight of the letters addressed to Sasbold Vosmeer.
One of the letters addressed to Tilman Vosmeer.
One of the letters written by Philip Rovenius.
One of the letters addressed to Philip Rovenius.
One of letters to and from Jacques de la Torre.
One of the letters to and from Baldwin Catz and Zachary de Metz.
Ten of letters written by John Van Neercassel. (4to.)
Twelve of letters addressed to John van Neercassel.
Twelve of letters written by Peter Codde.
Three of letters addressed to Peter Codde.
Two (small) extracts addressed to Peter Codde while at Rome.
One, a diary of proceedings in his cause.
One, a diary kept by him at Rome.
Three, Causa Coddaeana.
One, of letters to and from Cornelius Steenoven.
Those subsequently to this period are not yet arranged. Those above mentioned I have examined, and they are quoted in the course of the history.
The MS. authorities, from which the last portion of the History of the Church of Utrecht must be related, are mainly, —
1. A collection of documents relative to the endeavour after union under Archbishop van Nieuwenhuisen.
2. A collection of detached pieces, relative to the long vacancy of the see (1808-1814).
3. The correspondence of Archbishop van Os with the minister of Catholic worship, during the vacancy of the see of Haarlem (1814-1819).
4. A detailed account of the proceedings at the Hague in 1823, between the nuncio Nazalli, and the Bishops of Holland: written by Archbishop van Os and Bishop Bon.
5. The negotiations which passed between the Bishops of Holland and the nuncio Capaccini, at Brussels, in 1827, on occasion of the Concordat. These papers are, I believe, at Rotterdam.