Report of the Jubilee Ceremonies of Nashotah House, with Historical Papers.
Milwaukee: Houtkamp and Cannon, 1892.
THE fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Nashotah, was celebrated on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, May 31 and June 1 and 2, A. D. 1892.
The ceremonies began on the morning of May 31 with early celebrations of the Holy Communion in the Oratory of Bishop White Hall, and in the Chapel.
Morning prayer having been said at an earlier hour, at ten o'clock the students and clergy robed in Dr. Adams' recitation room (the old chapel) and proceeded to the Chapel in the order given:
The students of the House.
The visiting clergy, including delegations from Milwaukee, Chicago, Maryland, Minnesota, [5/6] Michigan, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania and Fond du Lac.
The Bishops of Mississippi, Quincy, Milwaukee and Fond du Lac.
The Bishop of Milwaukee, president of the Board of Trustees, said the bidding prayer, after which the Holy Communion was celebrated by the Bishop of Fond du Lac.
The sermon was preached by the Rev. John J. Faude, rector of Christ church, Minneapolis, from the text St. Matt. xxviii, 20.
Certificates of graduation were given to the four graduates of the present year, viz: Messrs. De Lou Burke and Harry Wright Perk.ini3,, of the Diocese of Milwaukee, William J. Cordick, of the Diocese of Fond du Lac, and Richard Colgate Talbott, of the Diocese of Nebraska.
The degree of Bachelor of Divinity, in course, was conferred upon the Rev. John Leach Porter, tutor at Nashotah.
At the conclusion of the service a lunch was served in Shelton Hall to the Alumni and other guests, and immediately after lunch the Alumni held an enthusiastic informal meeting. Resolutions were passed by the Alumni unanimously requesting the Trustees to confer the degree of [6/7] B. D. upon the Rev. John J. Faude, formerly a student at Nashotah.
At three o'clock in the afternoon, the Alumni, and other visitors, with the professors and students, assembled in the chapel to listen to the reading of papers by several of the professors and older members of the Alumni.
The papers related chiefly to the early history and traditions of Nashotah. The first by the Rev. Dr. Adams, one of the founders of the institution was read by president Gardner. The Rev. E. Steele Peake, B. D., Chaplain of St. Mary's Hall, Faribault, Minn., a graduate of 1852, read a paper on the early days of Nashotah under Dr. Breck.
A paper on early reminiscences of the institution, prepared by the Rev. J. P. T. Ingraham, D.D., of St. Louis, of the class of 1847, was read by the Rev. Colin C. Tate, B.D., the author being prevented by sickness from being present.
The Rev. Richard F. Sweet, D.D., rector of Trinity church, Rock Island, an alumnus of the class of 1864, read a paper on the work of President Dr. Cole.
The Rev. Theodore M. Riley, S.T.D., professor of Ecclesiastical History and Polity, read a paper on the presidencies of Doctors Carter and Gardner.
President Gardner also read an interesting extract of a letter written to Dr. Adams by the [7/8] first graduate of Nashotah, the Rev. Gustaf Unonius, B.D., now residing in Sweden.
Evensong was said in the chapel at the close of the historical exercise, and afterwards a delightful evening was passed at the residence of Dr. and Mrs. Adams, who gave a reception to the assembled guests.
The services of Wednesday, June 1, were similar to those of the previous day, there being early celebrations, followed by a High celebration at ten o'clock, at which the Bishop of Milwaukee was celebrant, and the Bishop of Mississippi, the Rt. Rev. Hugh Miller Thompson, D.D., an alumnus, and formerly professor of Ecclesiastical History at Nashotah, was preacher. He spoke of "Changes everywhere as marks of progress. Nashotah was changed, but its change was inevitable if it was to continue to progress. The church itself changes in its outward aspect and would continue to change in all the future."
The request of the Alumni having been granted by the Trustees, the degree of B.D. was conferred upon the Rev. John J. Faude, of Minneapolis. The degree of D.D. in course, was also conferred upon the Rev. William Dafter of the Diocese of Fond du Lac, an [8/9] alumnus of the class of 1861, and a Trustee of the institution.
After service, lunch was served in a large tent erected for the purpose, and was followed by interesting speeches by the Bishops of Mississippi, Milwaukee and Fond du Lac, and by the Rev. Dr. Gardner, who acted as toastmaster--the Rev. Dr. Sweet, the Rev. W. C. Pope, the Rev. R. H. Weller, Jr., and Mr. Jackson Kemper, grandson of Bishop Kemper, and son of the Rev. Dr. Lewis A. Kemper, of blessed memory, of the class of 1852, and long time professor of Exegesis, Biblical Literature and Hebrew at Nashotah.
Letters of regret were read from Bishops Knickerbacker, Tuttle, Seymour, and Worthington; the Deans of the General Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Philadelphia, Faribault, Western, and from a number of the Alumni. There were between thirty and forty Alumni present, and upwards of two hundred other guests.
At 4.00 o'clock P.M., the Alumni held another informal meeting in the old chapel, at which resolutions were passed relative to amending and printing the Constitution and By-Laws of the Alumni Association, and also in reference to printing the proceedings of the Jubilee meeting, with the Historical papers read on the occasion.
 At 4.30 P. M. the corner stone of Breck Hall, a handsome stone building to be erected to the memory of the first president of Nashotah, was laid by the Bishop of Milwaukee, a brief address being delivered by the Rt. Reverend Alexander Burgess, D.D., Bishop of Quincy, an old and dear friend of Nashotah and classmate of the founders of the institution.
The third day there was an early celebration, and the guests took their departure.
A temporary Altar had been erected on the campus, the intention being, on the second day of the Jubilee ceremonies, to have an out-of-door service and celebration, with a sermon preached from the stone preaching-cross that stands near the site of the first Altar erected on the grounds, but owing to the wet weather all the services were held necessarily indoors. The continuous rains also necessitated the abandonment of the camp-fire, much to the regret of the students and assembled guests.
BY THE REV. WILLIAM ADAMS, D.D.
I HAVE been desired to say a few words to you, on this our semi-centennial, and as I am now almost the only one living who was familiar with our early struggles and our first work in Wisconsin, I would fain, before I too am called away, tell you of the work God has carried on these fifty years at Nashotah. What lessons it teaches us, what hopes it gives us, and what trust it should inspire in His ever ruling hand!
To most of you the mere facts in our history are familiar. When Bishop Kemper was appointed the first Missionary Bishop of the Church, in 1835, he found his great need to be more and better prepared clergy. He was thus obliged every year to visit our Theological Seminaries--particularly the one in New York,—endeavoring with each succeeding class, to arouse their missionary zeal. I have lately read a letter he [11/12] wrote in 1839 or '40, urging some such plan as was soon after carried out by ourselves, viz: an associate clergy, ministering to the scattered members of the Church and in due time preparing young men for Holy Orders. He particularly urged such an enterprise either in Iowa or Wisconsin; indeed, at that time lands were offered for the purpose in the former Territory.
I was then in my middle year in the Seminary in New York and our hearts used to burn within us, after such letters and after his visits to us. One evening two members of the class, who had entered in 1838, were talking together in the room of one of them. Before they parted, long after midnight, they had laid out almost the very plan on which, two years after, Nashotah was begun. The next morning they spoke to others of their class and eight joined in it with enthusiasm. Among them were Breck, Hobart, Miles and myself. We then went to him to whom we each and all owed so much, our greatest theological professor, Dr. Whitingham. He entered into our plan with the whole-souled ardor of his nature; corrected many of our crudities, suggested many new ideas, and by our desire compiled for us a form of devotions which we used together during the rest of our theological course, that God would guide, bless and direct us. By his advice we entered into correspondence with Bishop Kemper, with whom [12/13] we had many interviews during 1840 and 1841. Dr. Muhlenberg also felt great interest in the work. The general plan we all agreed upon, but each had his own particular preference in its details. Hobart's was for the missionary work; Breck's for a united brotherhood, tending to a religious life; mine,—then, and as it has ever since continued for fifty years,—for theological training; but we each and all were willing to work in the one united plan. Mr. Miles' Diocesan refused his consent to his joining us, to our deep regret, as his deep-thinking mind had been one of the two to whom the whole of this project, under Goo, had been owing.
We three were ordained in the summer of 1841. As we were only deacons, and had been awakened under the teaching of Dr. Whitingham to a sense of the blessedness and importance of the Sacraments, we were most anxious to have a priest at our head. We were considered, however, the advanced men of our day, and it was a difficult matter to find one who would be in sympathy with us. Mr. Cadle was appointed but never joined us. Mr. Hobart came out in August to travel with the Bishop and settled on Prairieville,—the present Waukesha,—as our center for the winter. There Mr. Breck and myself joined him in September, 1841, living in one room in a log house in that place. We at once began services in the neighborhood within [13/14] a radius of fifty miles. Time fails me to dwell on the many interesting incidents that occurred,—many are mentioned in the life of Dr. Breck—but we soon found that we must have a house and land of our own. I began to discover young men anxious for an education preparatory to preparation for the ministry, and for this, means were wanted, our only resources being our missionary stipends of $250 a year, which were thrown in one common fund. Mr. Hobart, accordingly, in the spring of 1842, went on to New York for this purpose. He soon wrote that what was absolutely necessary was secured, and we began looking for a site. The Rev. Mr. Hull, rector of St. Paul's Church, Milwaukee, went with me in search of what we wished, and, after riding on horse back some 1,500 miles, we selected the present grounds of Nashotah. The claim for 450 to 460 acres was purchased, ( the business being transacted by myself,) and in the latter part of August we moved into a little claim house of one story, on the road between Summit and Delafield. The need of a priest at our head was now most imperative, and at the earnest desire of Mr. Hobart and myself, enough sorely against his own humble wishes, we begged the Bishop, as soon as Mr. Breck was ordered priest, to place him in charge. On Sunday, October 9, 1842, he and I received Priest's Orders in Hobart Church, Duck Creek. [14/15] A winter of hard work followed. The Blue House, known to many of you, was built. One room in it was at once set apart as our Oratory and a temporary altar erected there. Daily morning and evening prayer, and the weekly communion were at once begun and have never since been omitted, even for a single day. The claim house was drawn up to be used as a kitchen. Two or three young men joined us to prepare for the ministry, but my health failed, and, with much reluctance, I was obliged to go East in the summer of 1843. Hobart had already determined to withdraw, but remained for some months. Dark, indeed, then seethed the outlook, and had it not been God's work, as we now see in looking back, all would have come to naught. Mr. Walsh, of the class of '42, came to Mr. Breck's help for a time; young men as students were constantly joining him; small buildings were erected, among them the old chapel as it now stands; friends continued interested. Dr. Pusey and Dr. Newman spoke of the work with interest and hope. The Bishop was ever a steadfast friend and spent most of the winter of 1843 and 1844 with them; but a theological teacher was greatly needed, and, at the earnest solicitations of Bishop Kemper and Mr. Breck, I returned to my first work in the fall of 1844, with the understanding clearly defined that I was to be teacher and theological [15/16] professor, do such ministerial work as I could, but not resume the business cares in which I had taken a share before. This position, for these forty-eight years, I have always maintained with the exception of two interregnums of the presidency.
I must hasten on and not linger over the details which are full of interest to myself. Others will dwell on Mr. Breck's work here. In the beginning of 1850 he decided to press further West. The missions around Nashotah had become parishes; his hopes for the renewal of a religious house were, perhaps, too early. Thus, for the second time in the life of Nashotah, did it seem as if the work so brightly begun was to be a failure; but again was God’s hand visible in the cloud. We had an admirable set of candidates, among them Bishop Thompson, Mr. Peake and Dr. Kemper. They and Bishop Kemper determined that the work should continue, and I consented to transact the business as well as fill my professorship until a president could be secured. The Rev. Azel D. Cole, who had been our classmate in the seminary, and an intimate friend of my own, had lately taken the parish of Racine. Although, strange to say, he had not been one of those who had been interested in the plans for an associate mission, my mind at once reverted to him, and at the meeting of the Trustees in June I urged his name. [16/17] Mr. Cole visited us, took the call into prayerful consideration and with rare faith and trust began the work. I leave to others the story of his long and eventful presidency. Nearly all of you Alumni were with him as well as with myself. The work grew and prospered. Bishop Kemper ever continued his loving interest. He and Bishop Upfold raised the funds for the erection of the first permanent building, Bishop White Hall, and on several occasions he went East to solicit funds. The Bishop, Dr. Breck, Dr. Hobart, Dr. Cole, nearly all of our original Trustees, have entered into their rest, but I, an old man, am still left to welcome you, my sons in the Church, to this our early home.
The simple story of Nashotah's foundation and early life teaches us a deeper lesson than any I can draw from it. Looking back over these fifty eventful years, we have seen the steadfast hand of God guarding and directing His work. For what has Nashotah been preserved in the face of so many difficulties if not to be a great power in the Church? To-day, may her past history, her present vigorous life, be the inspiration and the promise of a future infinitely more wide, more useful, and more glorious.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE REV. JAMES LLOYD BRECK.
BY THE REV. E. STEELE PEAKE, B.D., Chaplain
St. Mary's Hall, Faribault, Minn.
AS we look back fifty years to the beginning of Nashotah, a romantic halo encircles the name of its head and first president, James Lloyd Breck.
The missionary spirit, roused by the rapid movement of population westward, led the Church to send the great hearted Missionary Bishop, Jackson Kemper, in 1835, to prepare the way for future laborers. He was a gentleman by instinct and education who could be at home with princes and brother to the humblest. At this time Breck was a youth of seventeen at St. Paul's college, Flushing, L. I., New York, where, under the influence of the learned and saintly Muhlenberg, whom he speaks of as his spiritual father, he [19/20] was moulded for devotional leadership in the religious house and wide mission field.
Reared in a Christian home, with habits of industry, his three years at Flushing, two at the University of Pennsylvania, and three at the general theological seminary in New York, gave him ample preparation for his great educational and ministerial labors.
While the missionary Bishop, sustained by the domestic Committee, explored this vast field preaching the gospel and gathering the people into the Church in Missouri, Wisconsin, Indiana and Iowa for five years with such help as could be given by individual clergymen at isolated points, making his appeal for men to aid in the work, the Lord was preparing the hearts of a noble band of Christian heroes to respond and come to the West, ready to endure whatever should be necessary to carry forward the banner of the Cross, to teach the truth of Christ, and extend the privileges of the Church throughout this region. One of these was a son of the great Bishop Hobart, of New York, whose influence was beneficial and valuable. An association was formed in the General Theological Seminary and weekly meetings held for devotional exercises and the discussion of plans.
The conviction that community life of unmarried clergy would be economical, efficient and successful, was so strong that the system was [20/21] adopted and the experiment determined upon. At the age of sixteen Breck had begun to look forward to the ministry, consecrating his heart to this service. Ordered deacon July 11, 1841, at the church of his childhood, near Philadelphia, he came with his two associates to Milwaukee, reporting to Bishop Kemper for duty.
The first year was spent in itinerant missionary work, with Waukesha as the center and home. The Domestic committee provided for their expenses out, and furnished each a small stipend at the beginning. They came out by the lakes, embarking at Oswego, N. Y., spending a Sunday at Niagara, met by the true and noble Shelton and Dr. Rudd, at Buffalo, and received at Milwaukee by the Rev. Mr. Hull. They had a rough and stormy passage across lake Michigan. A foretaste of life they were to lead.
A year passed and this beautiful spot is secured, so that with the last of August, 1842, the local life of Nashotah begins. A small frame building is erected and becomes the brotherhood home.
Breck is appointed head of the house by the bishop, at the request of the associate brethren Adams and Hobart, and his administration at Nashotah commences. At the age of twenty-four this responsibility is thrust upon him. He accepts it with humility and self-distrust, but [21/22] with a firm determination to do his best to carry out the system agreed upon.
The convocation at Milwaukee in September, 1842, enables the brethren to meet the few clergy of the territory, and the next month Breck and Adams go with Bishop Kemper to Green Bay and are admitted to the priesthood in Hobart church at the Oneida Mission.
The first year there is one student, the second year three, the third year thirteen. The fourth year the first graduate, Gustaf Unonius, is ordained and takes charge of two Swedish congregations in neighboring settlements.
In the summer of 1844, Breck is left alone with the student's, and an expedition is undertaken to Green Bay by the way of Madison, a journey of three hundred miles, on foot.
The return of Brother Adams to Nashotah as a teacher and professor, after a year's absence at the East, was an occasion of great importance and encouragement The study of theology was pursued with new interest, and the thorough preparation of Candidates for Orders was his avowed ambition.
In the years 1845, 1846, and 1847 Nashotah trained a class which did her honor and established her reputation as a sound and thorough divinity school.
November 9th, 1846, Bishop Kemper came to reside in the neighborhood and the influence of [22/23] his home was of vast advantage. The annual Epiphany party at his house was one of the brightest events of the year.
Among the visitors to the institution June, 1847, were the beloved parents of the Rev. Mr. Breck. The Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, whose love and sympathy had followed his former pupil all these years made him a short visit.
A brick yard was opened at the south end of the lake and three brick buildings were erected, a parish schoolhouse and two dwellings. Twelve students were added in 1848, and the parish school had fifty pupils.
Among the students at Nashotah during these years were three of the Oneida Indians, from Duck Creek. Cornelius Hill, now the church interpreter, a man of influence in the tribe, was one of them. The beautiful ballad of Bishop Coxe alludes to them, and various other nationalities gathered hero "where, walks his round Nashotah's sentinel." From the visit of Rev. Dr. Bury, of Cleveland, Ohio, and Rev. Dr. Akerly, we learned how low the larder was at times.
The Rev. Dr. Kip, of Albany, N.Y., now Bishop of California, came out in 1848, and wrote the fascinating pamphlet "Three Days at Nashotah" describing in a charming way the daily life and duty of the students.
The strange episode of Gardner Jones, [23/24] professor of Hebrew, occurred in 1848, and taught the authorities to guard against imposition. Claiming to be in Deacon's Orders he could show no paper in evidence, and when pressed upon the subject and charged with being a priest of the Roman church, retired suddenly to the college of Notre Dame, South Bend, Ind.
The labor element had been a very important part of the plan for Nashotah as a matter of discipline, and as a means of independence and self-support. Four hours per day were given in earlier years and two in later years. The garden and farm in summer, the wood chopping in winter, the washing through the year, and various details were thus provided for. The school and the academy took the time of the teaching brothers. This gave the institution a basis of independence, a resource within itself, which enabled it to meet emergencies, and a confidence of life endurance to its management.
As time passed the institution became favorably known, and its wants were in part supplied by the faithful friends of the work, and more time was devoted to study.
Among the neighbors of that period were many who ever gave a cordial welcome to the clergy and students. The honored names of Samuel Breck, of Seymour, Sexton, Gage, Goodnough, and Frisbie will be remembered.
As we are passing let us notice some of the [24/25] buildings of that day. The Blue House was the most dignified building on the grounds, with the president's room, whence issued all the rules and orders. The library with its books of reference and literary treasures, the long row of cottage rooms occupied by students committing to memory Pearson on the Creed, laboring over Scott and Butler, or Greek and Hebrew Scriptures; the ice house, where the sparkling crystal was preserved for summer heat; the milk house, where were stored the pans of milk and later other things; the scene of jokes and false alarms; the wash house at the edge of the lake, where the machine was run by the committee,—if they hesitated, by the president himself,—who shamed them by taking his place at the tubs.
The Sunday scattered the students to gather congregations in the surrounding villages, while the service in the Chapel brought the people from the country around to worship there. St. Sylvanus parish took form around this center.
For recreation the boat club was formed and the boat house built. The skill acquired in handling the oar and the healthy exercise well repaid the effort.
As we see Nashotah becoming the center of Church influence and Christian education at this early day, we are impressed with the remarkable traits of character manifest in the [25/26] young man who stood at the head of the movement.
Unbounded faith in God and in the future results of this venture and labor of love, firm confidence in the co-operation of those who loved the Church and wished to have her teachings and blessings spread through the new region now opening under the supervision of the first missionary Bishop of the Northwest, the venerated Kemper, a perseverance and tenacity of purpose and self possession and self discipline, and the conviction that a pure system of faith and order was in possession of the Church, all combined to fit him to endure the privations and to undergo the hardships and perform the labor required in laying the foundations of this institution.
The religious house was the home for a brotherhood whose members gave their time and labor to the institution, and were provided with the necessaries of life from a common fund under the care of the head, or president, of the Mission. To this fund they contributed according to their ability.
To carry out such a system in a church where all is voluntary, required peculiar qualities in the individual who led and directed the mission. The force of character which attracted and held together this brotherhood was wonderful. The love of Christ our Lord, and the active [26/27] missionary zeal which sent these young men under the plan and order of an associated mission to the surrounding settlements and cabins was the special force upon which all depended.
The need of clergy trained in the field to extend the Church and carry her teachings to the people was realized from the beginning, and the theological school was the natural result..
Our beloved professor, who is with us to-day, the Rev. William Adams, D.D., looks back over fifty years of theological teaching and counts his admiring disciples by the hundred,
After six years of work as a brotherhood and mission and theological school, a charter was asked for and given by the legislature of Wisconsin, and Nashotah House was incorporated with University powers, and placed in care of a Board of Trustees. It now assumed new importance before the Church as a school of the prophets educating men for the ministry in the West. The Rev. Mr. Breck was chosen president of this new organization, and for two years labored to carry out in it the main features of the system to which he was devoted.
Becoming convinced that this could not be done to his satisfaction, and that Nashotah was now to become a permanent theological seminary, he retired from the presidency early in 1850 to enter upon a new mission field farther West.
 Whatever may have existed to annoy and try the brothers of that period the students of that first decade,—and there were many such things,--all were overshadowed by the great end in view —laying broad and lasting foundations for Christian culture and Christian work in this new country.
As we who knew something of those days, recall the bell in the old oak tree, which rang out for the six o'clock roll call on a winter morn and five o'clock in summer from which we went to chapel service and thence to the simple morning meal, we think of the absent and of those who have passed to the other shore. Among the latter are Bingham and Barton, Armstrong and Sorenson, and Schetky—Goodnough, whose life work was in the Oneida Mission, and the Rev. Dr. Lewis Ashurst Kemper, so many years a professor here, whose words and life were a constant benediction.
Around the old chapel how many hallowed associations cluster—the daily prayer, the frequent communions, the holy exhortations of Bishops, priests and deacons, warning, encouraging and building us up in the most holy faith. In the chambers of memory we see the pictures of those times; the tall figure with cassock and girdle and lantern calling the roll, and going on to conduct the morning prayer, and leading in every good work.
 The time will come when the American Church will look upon this movement as one of the grandest ventures of faith in her history, which encouraged and stimulated and educated many sluggish Christian hearts to an active self-denying noble life for the Lord's sake, when it will be regarded as an example of heroism worthy of the days of the martyrs.
DOCTOR COLE'S WORK AT NASHOTAH.
BY THE. REV. R. F. SWEET, D.D.
THE Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of Nashotah House have invited me to read a paper on Doctor Cole's work at Nashotah.
I must therefore, confine my paper within that limit, with the exception of a brief introduction. We may learn something of Dr. Cole's life, from an article published in the "Church Eclectic," reprinted in pamphlet form; also from the memorial sermon by Bishop Brown, preached by request of the faculty of Nashotah House in the chapel, Nov. 8, 1885, and published by order of the trustees, with other matter, in a memorial volume. Dr. Cole was born in Connecticut on Dec. 1, 1818, and in early life trained under strictly Puritan methods.
 He entered Brown University in 1835, and while there he was induced by the present Bishop of Quincy (Alex. Burgess) to attend service, for the first time in his life, at Grace Church, Providence. On leaving the church Dr. Cole said to his companion: "I felt as though everybody was committing idolatry."
He graduated from the General Theological Seminary in 1841, and among his classmates were Adams, Breck, and Hobart. After serving an eastern parish he came to Michigan in 1845, accepting the rectorship of Saint Luke's church, Racine, in 1849.
In May. 1850, he was elected president of Nashotah House, and entered on his duty here Sept. 1, 1850.
Nashotah was eight years old and had graduated eleven men, all of whom had been admitted to the sacred ministry. The grounds comprised the present acreage—about 450 acres—and there was a debt of $2,200.00. The buildings were, the old chapel, the blue house, Lazarus row, embracing kitchen, dining-room, and rooms for students; the carpenter's shop, and a small building of three rooms for students; the library occupied one small room in a very limited building near the center of the campus.
The good doctor tells us of his thoughts as he stood near the chancel of the old chapel on the first morning of his residence; his first thought [32/33] was of the wonderful beauty of the scene; his second thought was of the indescribable tone of the place—as though Nashotah was the house of God and the gate of Heaven—angels ascending with our prayers, and angels descending with unspeakable blessings."
The work for Nashotah to do had already been determined by the trustees; it was to be academic and theological, in preparation for Holy Orders.
While Nashotah had gained many friends, yet she was looked upon with grave suspicion by a very large majority of both priests and laymen.
Her daily matins and even-song, and especially her Sunday and other Holy Day celebrations placed her under the suspicion of being unorthodox in both doctrine and practice. The alarm caused by the Oxford Movement was still ringing loudly and persistently, and Nashotah was looked upon by a large majority of Church people as being the arch-heretic of Theological schools.
To the guiding and strengthening of such a work God called Dr. Cole. Could the good man have foreseen the difficulties and contradictions, the tools of construction in one hand, and the weapons of defense in the other hand, with which the work was to be carried on for thirty-five years, we who know his lion-hearted soul, [33/34] are well assured that he would have looked upon his call to the guidance of the work as a special benediction from the Master.
His work began Sept. 1, 1850, with Dr. Adams and himself as the only professors. Of the students there were ten candidates and four postulants—some of the more advanced students assisting in teaching. There was a debt of $2,200, and no money in the treasury----only the daily mail to supply the daily needs. There were no railways in Wisconsin, and the Dioceses of New York and Pennsylvania, from which most of the supplies came, were indeed a long way off. The first year passed with the blessings of peace and support, and though four were ordained in the spring of 1851, yet the fall term opened with nineteen students in residence. Notwithstanding ordinations every Trinity Sunday the number of students increased, so that in 1859 we find in residence twenty-eight candidates and thirty-one postulants, fifty-nine in all.
In 1852 the faculty was increased by the addition of Messrs. Kemper and Peake, both graduates of that year. In 1854 the Rev. James DeKoven came out as tutor, and the following year the Rev. J. S. B. Hodges became a resident tutor.
On the 9th of September, 1859, Bishop Payne, of Africa, moved the first earth for the erection [34/35] of this chapel, and on the 29th of September Bishop Kemper laid the corner-stone in the Name of the Holy, Blessed and Undivided Trinity.
At the same time there occurred an event of great importance, and one very dear to Dr. Cole's heart. James DeKoven had accepted the wardenship of Racine College. And now, in September, 1859, Nashotah sent a colony of eighteen postulants to receive their Academic training at Racine. For twelve years, or until 1871, Nashotah sustained her preparatory students at Racine.
In 1860 the Rev. Hugh Miller Thompson, the present Bishop of Mississippi (an alumnus), was called to the chair of Ecclesiastical History, to be succeeded in that chair, in 1871, by the Rev. John H. Egar—also an alumnus—the Rev. Doctor Riley succeeding in the same chair in 1881. The Rev. George G. Carter was called to the head of the preparatory department in 1868.
All this was largely effected through the wisdom and influence of Dr. Cole, whose mind was ever active to promote the greater efficiency of Nashotah. In the meantime he had secured the consent of the Trustees to a call for special funds for various buildings. First, Bishop White Hall in 1855; the new chapel in 1859-60; the president's house in 1865; Shelton Hall in [35/36] 1868. "Michael," the great bell, was a memorial gift from Doctor Delafield, and the preaching cross was erected to mark the exact spot where the first altar was erected.
Small sums specially designated had been laid aside for permanent endowment, and on Trinity Sunday, 1871, $25,000 was laid on the altar by personal friends of the good Doctor, as a perpetual endowment of the Chair of Pastoral Theology, which he filled.
The annual income varied of course, and was often affected by death of old friends, or their interests being devoted to new objects of Christian work, and especially the strong and growing claims of the Missionary field, colleges, and seminaries.
The late war, while it removed many of the students, Southerners, also affected the annual income materially, and caused much anxiety to the head of the House and its friends. But during all his thirty-five years of service, Dr. Cole's faith in God's support of the work never wavered.
I may, perhaps, be permitted to relate an incident which came under my own observation in the spring of 1863. The prospects for peace were gloomy, and receipts for the support of the House utterly inadequate, with consequent increase of debt. One morning, after matins, Dr. Cole informed the students of the situation—said that [36/37] the faculty, at a meeting the previous evening, had determined to go on with the work without salary or other support than that afforded by the farm, provided the students were disposed to remain and work the farm, attending recitations as often as farm life would permit. After Dr. Cole had retired the students unanimously decided that they were to begin farm work at once. Dr. Cole was called in, with other members of the faculty, informed of their decision, and after prayers, the faculty and students separated to prepare for work.
In the meantime a letter had reached Nashotah by an unusual route, and been left in the reading-room, of which I had charge at the time. Dr. Cole read the letter with great emotion, ordered the bell rung to call students to the chapel, and made known the substance of the letter. A friend in the East, who decided to remain unknown, had enclosed a draft for $3000, to be followed immediately by a similar draft--half the amount to be applied towards the president's house (for which special gifts had been solicited), and half for daily expenses, giving as a reason for his large offering, the war. After solemn thanksgivings, all returned to the daily routine of labor, study, and prayer. To a man like Dr. Cole such a deliverance would excite no surprise—it would simply strengthen his sense of dependence and gratitude. During all [37/38] his term of thirty-five years, Dr. Cole was president, professor, priest, pastor, preacher and missionary; for many years he was also curator in fact, buying meats, vegetables, butter and eggs, brought to his office door for sale. He often paid for these, and for labor, in cheques, and these cheques were used in the country around as "legal tender," passing from hand to hand, so great was the confidence of the people in his integrity and financial ability. In sudden emergency he could borrow large sums on his own note, as president, without endorser. As a matter of fact, during all the years of the life of this house not one dollar of its invested funds hasever been alienated. No doubt this indemnity from loss is partly due to the counsel and action of that astute financier and friend of Nashotah, David Ferguson, Esq., but to Dr. Cole's business sagacity we also owe much of our exemption from financial losses.
For many years Dr. Cole acted as road master, and took great pride in keeping the roads under his charge in good order. Most of the trees of late growth around Nashotah are the result of his directing care. For a long time he was his own secretary and book-keeper—writing and sending out circulars, annual letters, letters to Sundayschools, and at one time he edited and sent out a, Sunday School paper in Nashotah's interest. He was rector of this parish of St. Sylvanus, and no [38/39] rector was ever more faithful in sickness, affliction, and bereavement. As a missionary he was not only untiring, but most effective. In their turn, Oconomowoc, Summit, Hartland, North Lake, Pine Lake, South Side, Delafield, Sussex, Waukesha, and other places, both near and far off, testify to his faithful and fruitful labors. No weather discouraged him, no fatigue or bodily pain prevented him—wherever there were weary and hungry souls there he delighted to go and minister. No more grateful man ever lived--grateful I mean for any assistance or encouragement in his great work for God and His Church. Under a seeming cold exterior he was warm-hearted and affectionate. He cultivated and maintained a personal interest in all the students. Never permitted himself to lose track of them after their departure, and always gloried in their success. He has said that he frequently took the catalogue of Nashotah House, and on his knees prayed for each man by name in the order of their record.
One who was here as a student six years, and knew him well, writes of him: "I remember him as a faithful pastor, wise teacher, diligent ruler, watchful and prayerful sentinel, always at his post of duty, with erect and stately figure, dark solemn eyes full of kindliness and sympathy, with modest and almost diffident manner, his strong grasp of hand, warm and reassuring greeting to every one; clear, careful, methodical [39/40] and painstaking ways, his marvelous, untiring and calm industry in all duties and transactions both sacred and secular, with his large generosity towards students, and his firm trust that everything would be provided for."
Another, in late years, writes: "He taught me by example and precept so strongly the need of faith under every seeming discouragement."
All this is part of his work at Nashotah. It shows not only on what principles he worked, but also how he trained other men for work. He had as true moral courage as any man who ever lived; once sure of the right course, he was immovable.
1 have elsewhere spoken of him as " the man of prayer." I am sure that I can cannot emphasize this trait or virtue in him too strongly. In this respect he was an immense power in the seminary and surrounding country as an example. No other privilege was so dear to him as this—and especially the worship at the altar. All through his term of office he was ever seeking to make this House of God more beautiful, and to lift the tone of worship correspondingly, in earnest, devout and cheerful exercise. In all his addresses to students he inculcated thorough loyalty to the prayer-book, and in both theory and practice he was faithful to his teaching.
In closing this all too brief study of his thirtyfive years of labor and prayer here on these [40/41] consecrated grounds, I quote from his Commencement Sermon of 1882. He had been speaking most earnestly of the Apostolic doctrine, which, he said, it was the mission of Nashotah to spread over the land, and he closes his address in these words: "We have no desire for Nashotah to be approved by every school of thought. It is not well for so little truth to be taught here that no error shall be rebuked. Neither is a knowledge of all conflicting and erroneous teachings needed. A clear perception such as He gives Who reveals truth to babes, of the theology of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, joined to earnest self-denial, will avail. We need but to imitate the example of Jesus, the Son of Sirach. When it was his duty to water the garden, he said naught of the smallness of the brook; he merely did his duty; and lo! the brook became a river. So it has been with Nashotah. The little rill of '42 is the river as we see it to-day, of '82.
In due time, if we be patient, the river will become a sea, a sea fed from the ocean of the Divine Power, Mercy and Love, and sending its waves of blessing and life to the uttermost parts of the earth."
One more quotation (from his twenty-fifth Anniversary Sermon,) and I am done.
"We cheer ourselves amid the perplexities of the present, by anticipations of a far different [41/42] future—after our day is ended. We see a graduating class of more than one hundred, separating for all time as they go forth to the utmost parts of the earth, drawing nearer to each other by drawing nearer to God, and meeting at last with trophies of their conflict within the gates of the Eternal City. We see also another, and the closing scene of all—the chapel crowded with students—the faithful priest celebrating the Holy Communion. As he shows forth the Lord's death, the trump of God is heard and the voices of the arch-angels, the dead in Christ arise, and with them this school of the sons of the prophets is caught up to meet the Lord in the air."
God rest his pious soul.
MEMORANDA OF THE PRESIDENCIES OF DOCTORS CARTER AND GARDNER.
ON the morning of the 15th of October, 1885, Dr. Cole, after, one may say, a lifetime of devotion to the interests of this House, departed this life, supported by the last rites of our Holy religion, bidding a Christian and smiling adieu to his colleagues, surrounded by the love of his family, and with the affectionate veneration of the student body which carried him to his grave.
No words can too gratefully acknowledge the faithfulness with which, for so many years, in days of good report and evil report, he loved and served this House of his most devoted affection. Nashotah was the one supreme interest of his life. Doubtless he bears its name still upon his heart above.
 Immediately after his death the affairs of the House were taken in hand by the Bishops of Chicago, Milwaukee and Fond du Lac, then acting as the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees. The suddenness of Dr. Cole's departure devolved upon these venerable prelates an undertaking of no common magnitude. All the affairs of the House had to be resettled; its business, step by step, detail after detail, gone over.
The authorities of the House can never cease to be most grateful to the very able Bishop of Chicago in particular for his efficient services at that time, nor to the Bishops of Milwaukee and Fond du Lac now gone to their rest, for their close every-day attention to the government and administration of the House during this critical period.
Bishop Brown for a time assumed the post of Professor of Pastoral Theology and Homiletics and Liturgics. Prof. Adams was made president pro tem, and Prof. Riley pastor pro tem.
After an interregnum of ten months, during which the present Bishop of Milwaukee, Dr. Nicholson, was invited by the Trustees to the presidency, the Rev. George G. Carter, A. M., was finally elected to the same position. Mr. Carter (now Doctor of Sacred Theology) was well known at Nashotah where, as far back as 1868, he had filled the post of tutor in the then [44/45] revived Preparatory Department, with which he remained until 1878. He was well known as a gentleman of exceptionally fine classical and literary culture, a man of distinguished courtesy of manners, and one whose experience in the financial management of a large estate, gave promise of efficiency in a direction of paramount importance, when he assumed headship of the House, in its financial recovery from burdens it had been forced to bear under conditions of exceptional strain.
The hope and expectation of the Trustees was not disappointed. Dr. Carter's career was one of great and permanent value and usefulness to the House, and of services which his successor is accustomed often gratefully to refer to. In the three years of his presidency, which ended Sept. 1st, 1890, the debt was reduced from nearly $50,000 to $25,000, and the endowments increased from $40,000 to $50,000; and matters were put in train for that bettering of things which has continued to go on.
In other respects, also, Dr. Carter's presidency was memorable. During his administration a very wholesome step was taken towards making the Degree in Divinity, hitherto given by the House to all its graduates, to be of still higher significance and value. It became the feeling of the Faculty that the degree should mean exceptionally praiseworthy work, and that [45/46] it should mark a more real academic excellence and scholarship. It was therefore resolved to petition the Trustees that after the commencement of 1890, the Bachelor's Degree in Divinity should not be conferred upon all graduates, but upon such only as should, in addition to the final class examination, pass a special examination in the presence of the entire Faculty, upon all the work of each department for the entire course; and, moreover, that it should be conferred upon graduates only after their advancement to the priesthood, and after their submission of a thesis, upon a subject selected by the Faculty. This step has been distinctly an advance, and it is hoped may lead to good results; first in encouraging a class of students whose gifts and abilities may be practical rather than academic—to seek graduation only without the burden of a Degree which might mislead, and secondly, to encourage those students who have prominently studious tastes and habits, to really earn an academic distinction, which, if it have value at all, must necessarily mean devotion to a line of taste and thinking specially connected with the intellectual side of the sacerdotal pursuits, and which, therefore; should really mean something, as indicating the quality of the man, his tastes, habits, and mental attainments.
During Dr. Carter's presidency, also, the Academic insignia came into use. In the older [46/47] days, our academic life had been exceedingly simple; now it came to be felt that the use of the insignia of the degrees would be stimulating to the imagination of the students, and lead such as had the scholarly instinct to seek proper academic distinction by arduous study and reading. Besides, it was now felt that Nashotah had now reached those years, and that point in her history, when it was becoming that she should take upon her somewhat more of the outward look of an institution of learning, and that her atmosphere should be more distinctly charged with the quality of Academic life.
The social life of the House was also a conspicuous feature of Dr. Carter's administration. Nashotah has at all times been hospitable; its Professors' houses have always been famed for abounding hospitality.
Dr. Carter to some extent systematized the social life of the Institution by throwing open his house on Saturday evenings, and at other times, for music, conversation, readings from the best authors, etc. Those evenings brought professors, students, and the resident neighbors into kindly touch with each other. Mrs. Carter warmly seconded her husband in his endeavors to make the daily life pleasant and humane, and no memories of Dr. Carter's day will live more pleasantly in the recollection of all who [47/48] were his colleagues or students, than the bright evenings about his fireside.
After a presidency of much care, of great personal generosity to the House, and of permanent value to its history, Dr. Carter sought much needed rest in freedom from its burdens, and in a journey abroad; consenting, however, while resigning the Presidency to continue his valued services to the House as one of the Trustees.
On Dr. Carter's retirement, the Trustees elected to the presidency the Rev. Walter Russell Gardner, A. M., now Doctor of Sacred Theology. The new president was a gentleman of large experience, both as man and priest; having an unusual acquaintance with both parochial and missionary life at home and abroad, in great cities, in towns, and, as General Missionary of the Diocese from which he came, a very thorough acquaintance with the conditions of the ministry in the missionary regions of the west. Dr. Gardner brought, in addition, an admirable faculty for business, a most real interest in the House and its history, a strong hand for government, and a quick eye to discern the desiderata yet to be had for the development of the greater efficiency of the House, and for the training of the temper and spirit of its students.
The Eucharist which in all Nashotah's history had been offered at least weekly, on Feast days [48/49] and on Thursdays, now came to be offered daily. Evensong, hitherto chorally performed only on occasions, now came to be chanted daily, and is always an especially bright and pleasing feature of the ending of each day. As it was felt to be of the utmost importance that there should be careful discipline of the interior life of the students, and that they should not be sent forth from the seminary mere mechanical ecclesiastics, but with true consecration of heart and inwardness of spirit, daily meditations and instructions were appended to the celebrations of each morning. Part of the breakfast hour was also devoted to a Refectory reading from some book of edification. The good results of these measures are already apparent and the effect on the whole character and work of our graduates will be, we trust, increasingly evident as the years go on. During the brief period of Dr. Gardner's presidency, the Endowment fund has been raised from $50,000 to $75,000 and the debt reduced to $16,000.
Dr. Gardner's incumbency will be marked by the inception and, we trust the completion, of what we hope will become a great and worthy feature of our now venerable House, namely, its "Great Quadrangle" a collection of permanent buildings suited to the present and future circumstances of the Seminary.
 On the 19th of April, 1892 (St. Alphege's day in the English Calendar), the corner stone of Lewis Hall was laid. This building, with its solid masonry and suggestive tower, will fitly begin the group which eventually will grow out from it. Breck hall will adjoin it and will commemorate a name sacred to the sons of Nashotah as that of one of its heroic founders—a name inspiring to the whole American Church.
Our venerable surviving founder, Rev. Professor Adams' name, will find, we hope and expect, a fitting memorial in the new library building, a most proper monument of the extraordinary scholarship and learning with which Dr. Adams has adorned his Order, and embellished the House he assisted to found and has for half a century served. A Refectory and other buildings will complete the great structure, and these will commemorate the names of Dr. Cole, our faithful president for so many years, and others who have served and honored the House as instructors or benefactors.
And how many such names there are! Bishops Kemper, Armitage, Wells, Brown, Knight; Drs. Cole, Kemper and DeKoven among the departed; together with Prelates, Doctors and Benefactors still in the flesh.
It has been stated in a printed sketch of the history of this House that the examples of St. Boniface, St. Willibrord, St. Ansgar were [50/51] before our founders' eyes in planting Nashotah. What a galaxy of lesser lights link themselves with these great names as we contemplate the motives, history, persons, memories, which have had to do with our annals! Is it wonderful that to the sons of Nashotah this place seems an Iona or a Fulda? Is it wonderful that they expect for our Holy House a stability and a future which may give her a name and a place in the world as Iona, and St. Gall, and Babbio, and Fulda have lived, and to some extent still live, either in present activities or in inspiring memories.
When a beautiful tradition, picturesque locality, richness and fullness of religious privilege, modest pomp of architecture, with personal memories of piety, culture, learning, thorough instruction and sweet and brotherly life shall have grouped themselves in this place, Nashotah will be an ideal home of the spirit and mind, the heart and the imagination. God grant her endurance and power throughout the ages ! God grant her ever a place among the great shrines and sanctuaries of our western world! May squadrons of good angels ever encamp about her, and may abundant fruit ever spring forth from her history and labors, to the glory of God and to the guidance and joy of men.
EARLY REMINISCENCES OF NASHOTAH.
BY THE REV. J. P. T. INGRAHAM, D.D.
Read at Nashotah 1856.
IT was in the year of our Blessed Lord 1841, that a band of young men, Breck Adams, Hobart, Cadle and Walsh, gathered together in one of the rooms of the Theological Seminary in the city of New York, to consult upon some plan of co-operation in the great missionary field of the Church. They were about to graduate together, and knowing the power and influence of combination in laborthat, as Solomon expresses it,—"Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labor; for if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: and if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a three-fold cord is not quickly broken."—Prov. iv, 9.
 Believing this they looked about for some suitable position where they could thus unitedly work for the cause of Christ.
Their minds were first directed to the destitute portions of the city of New York itself. But upon more mature deliberation, and by the advice also of some of the Rt. Rev. Fathers of the Church, they turned their thoughts to the far western field;—to the interest and excitement of "border warfare" in the Church Militant.
How clearly their plans of operation were laid down, whether it was their intention to establish a central mission for preaching the gospel only; or a mission with a school combined, or a school of the prophets, chiefly; or whether to govern themselves as circumstances might direct, I cannot take upon myself to say, and therefore can record no failures, or any changes of plan, but simply the actual steps they took. And if, in this present record of early incidents, it shall prove that, notwithstanding all my care and research as to authorities, errors are introduced, then it will only afford an additional evidence, in the language of our good brother Bartlett "of the danger of perpetuating memorable events by oral tradition."
Having determined upon the Western field, and selected the territory, the first step of this missionary corps was to secure land. To this end they entered upon a correspondence with [54/55] parties then residing in this Territory, especially with the Rev. Lemuel B. Hull, the first rector of St. Paul's, Milwaukee, and a faithful missionary throughout all the country within forty miles of that place. But before any purchases were decided upon, the Missionaries themselves came out. They came immediately to Waukesha, then called Prairieville, at that time a village of between one and two hundred inhabitants.
Here they arrived in the fall of the year, and took board separately with the villagers. Here also they established the services of the Church and missionated in the country round about. They remained in Prairieville until spring, when, having by the assistance and advice of Mr. Hull, secured at government price the beautiful land now called "Nashotah," they left Prairieville early in the spring to locate permanently here. During their brief residence in Prairieville they had won the respect and warm esteem of all who knew them, which respect and esteem remains unto this day.
When these missionaries entered upon their grounds, the country was nearly all unimproved around them. Lisbon was a small settlement of a few farmers. Summit and Delafield had each a few dwellings, while the roads through the country were in the most primitive condition.
 Here, on these grounds, there was but one building, a small shanty of one room about 12x14, and which had evidently been erected by some squatter, attracted by the beauty of the location and its proximity to the lake. That building was situated just under the bluff of the cemetery, near the Delafield road. And this was taken possession of by the missionaries as their residence, their Mission and their College. Here they ate, slept, cooked and studied and worshipped, their beds being buffalo-robes or blankets upon the floor. And from there they issued with the blessed Word of Life, to seek and save the few poor sheep who, like themselves, seemed .truly astray in this wilderness. Nor perhaps, has .there ever been a period in the whole history of this Mission of greater interest, and it may be happiness, than the time of their dwelling in that little hut, planning and laying foundations of future good.
Could we obtain from their memories a photograph of their feelings in those days, I cannot doubt it would prove so. For they evidently enjoyed in hope and imagination, all and more than is now realized, while they were exempt from those weighty and wearisome cares which must clothe like a mantle him who now so well presides, or whomsoever shall hereafter preside, over these College Halls.
 That there were hardships in those days we cannot doubt, although they must have partaken of the hardships, colored by something of the romance of the hunter's life. But post of that portion of the early history of Nashotah is lost to us—being either swallowed up in the past, or modestly and irrevocably buried in the memory of the actors.
Tradition, however, has rescued a few interesting incidents. One relates to the first endeavors of one of the Brethren to make pancakes of a simple mixture of flour and water, which, despite all his efforts, clung tenaciously to his fingers, his hands, the spoon, and at last to the bottom of the pan into which he dropped the dough, that finally he was compelled to give up the effort in disappointment and despair.
It was, perhaps, owing to some such failures as this, in the culinary department, that the good Mrs. Loring, Mrs. McChesney and Mrs. Barstow and other ladies, taking pity on the young bachelors, determined to make them a visit from Waukesha, in order to bake and brew for them, to darn and mend, and to set things in order generally. And they came, and in the kindness of their hearts, remained several hours house-cleaning, baking, etc., until they had set all things for that time to rights. But it seems, that during their visit one of the brethren returned. His consternation upon finding that [57/58] the house had been for several hours in possession of the female sex, may be imagined, for he, like the others, was but a timid bachelor. But still greater was his consternation, when as they, the ladies, were leaving the grounds in their vehicle, he espied the large bread-trough, which they had brought with them for use, but which, in his innocence he imagined to be a cradle. Frightened and alarmed at the thought of such an article being seen in their possession, and knowing that it must have been left by mistake, he grasped it with both hands and rushed after them, not stopping even to place his hat on his head, but followed them, crying: "Ladies, you have forgotten your cradle!"
It was during their residence in this dwelling I have mentioned, that they received their first student, Mr. Wm. A. Leach. He was from England and proved to be a great acquisition, both from his genial disposition and his aptitude for study and from his almost Yankee skill and ingenuity, both in cooking and in everything he undertook.
During these early days, when the foundation of this Institution was being laid, of course "Nashotah Mission," as it then was called, was scarcely known abroad. At that time the writer of this was a student in Kemper College, St. Louis, Missouri. From time to time our beloved Bishop visited that then flourishing institution [58/59] with its large corps of teachers and body of students, and told us of the self-denying labors and confident hopes of Adams and Breck and Hobart and Cadle and Walsh with regard to this place. But it seemed incredible that anything like a permanent school or college could be established in these far Northwestern wilds, and it was often spoken of as a wild and foolish scheme. "With no endowment, they cannot go on," said one of the Presidents of that institution to the writer, "and Kemper College will live when that has long been dead—will live and flourish and absorb all the patronage of the Northwest."
But "man proposes, while God disposes." That Institution in all its pride and beauty, (in sadness be it spoken,) has long since gone to ruin,—while "Nashotah" stands by faith. And may she never have a better endowment!
While a member of Kemper, certainly it never entered the imagination of my own heart, that I should be a member of Nashotah. But circumstances led me hither on a visit in October, 1844. Before reaching it, my imagination had already depicted it, as a cluster of two or three fresh, yellow, pine-board shanties in the midst of a half-cleared patch of forest, and near a dark-looking pond of water; the ground interspersed with stumps and brush and falling trees; with here and there a yoke of disconsolate-looking [59/60] oxen, while ruminating and leaning over them might be seen, a handsome, intellectual face, bravely striving to make religious romance out of a sad reality. This was imagination's picture.
But when I entered by the wagon-stage upon the cleared and quiet grounds, past what has since been dignified and called "St. Lazarus' row," and alighted at the door of the "Blue-house", and saw opposite the neat little chapel, standing where now it does, [A.D. 1856] and before me the beautiful deep blue lake, my picture faded away and vanished.
The president, and most of the students, had at that time gone on the celebrated expedition to Green Bay. A few, three or four, remained behind. It was some days before the expedition returned, and I had a good opportunity to look about me. The kitchen of the establishment, was the old shanty, the missionaries, first dwelling. Adjoining this was the dining room, a shanty building of one story, and in size about 16x24. In this were two long tables, with wooden benches. Beyond and adjoining the dining room, was a continuation of shanty, divided in the center lengthwise, then sub-divided on each side into sections, which were called students' rooms. And although since, they have been [60/61] styled "St. Lazarus row," they were then considered very aristocratic, for each room was in size full 7x9, and, although not plastered, yet but one student was appointed to a room.
The "Blue house," was at that time divided down stairs into a bed room and a grand reception room. The latter was in size about 12x14—and its whole furniture was a couple of chairs and a wooden bench. Up stairs, there were three rooms. One large room about 12x14, and two small ones, each about 6x7. Previous to the erection of the Chapel, one of these little rooms was the place where the Holy Communion was administered; the room being kept for a kind of Chancel, and four persons entering and receiving at a time.
The larger room up stairs, accommodated five bed frames, (which were hinged against the wall, and were let down at night,) and also accommodated six persons with their wardrobes or trunks, their books and chamber furniture. Nor were these bed rooms merely, but sitting and study rooms. One of the occupants of this larger room, was Mr. Breck, the President, who had only his corner for his studies, but which, like Paddle's corner, was the center of the room, through the whole of that winter; while his only study table or writing desk, and where; therefore, he kept his accounts, and wrote his [61/62] letters and sermons, was one end of an empty shoe-case.
The Chapel was then very limited in size. Folding doors shut off the "Chancel," and then it was used for a recitation room. The basement was divided into three or four rooms, while the chamber, like the chamber in the blue house, was filled with occupants.
The food at the dining table was at that time plain and substantial. Jence Jenkinson was the cook.
Nothing of particular interest occurred before the expedition returned, except, that through somebody's carelessness, our own, or our neighbors' cattle, or all together, broke into our cornfield, and destroyed all the crop. This was naughtily considered by some to be the first fruits of said expedition.
In a few days after my own arrival the expedition returned. I was confined to my bed with sickness, having lately had an attack of yellow fever in Mississippi, and was therefore unable to go out and greet them, But upon raising my curtain there was certainly an interesting picture. Falstaff's regiment would not, in all particulars, have compared with the beautiful display. Far in advance, strode, in his long black cassock, the lordly Breck. as though beginning, rather than ending, a wearisome journey. Behind him were half a dozen, in every variety of dress, bravely [62/63] striving to keep pace, as though they were not fatigued. In the rear of these, the two-horse wagon, filled with carpet bags, dilapidated boots and cooking utensils. And above all the military tent wrapped around its pole, as though resting from its arduous services ; and this surmounted by a few foot-sore ones, whose weary limbs refused to bear them longer ; while still behind, there straggled, in irregular groups, the remainder of the party, grinning unfeigned delight, through their dust and sweat, that home was again in view.
Straight for the Chapel, in true crusader style they made their way, to offer thanksgiving for their safe return. Then, in the language of one of Nashotah's many poets in those early days:
"Then to their rooms they hie, as, unto welcome homes,
To gather soap and towels, brushes, fine tooth combs;
Not wherewith to free themselves from fragrance delicate of any new mown hay,
But insects troublesome; that old hay mows infect,
And in chicken coops do stay."
As soon as the Brethren were refreshed we gathered around them, or they around us, to relate the thousand and one, great and small, serious and amusing adventures and incidents of the expedition. And for months, indeed, every little while, from one or another some new item would be forthcoming, which would [63/64] awaken no little mirth and a peal of laughter. The most of these (nearly all indeed) have faded into oblivion, as I have been assured by all to whom I have applied for reminiscences of that journey. [Goodnough] One very kindly wrote to me a few brief memoranda. "On the journey to Green Bay," he says, "many things of interest happened, but they have escaped from my mind. We were dressed in uniform having a fatigue and a Sunday suit. It being summer, the fatigue suit consisted of check-pants and hickory shirts, around the waist we wore a belt to which was attached a tin cup ( this being, as the Methodist preacher said, the Spiritual weapon of our warfare); but nothing but dirty water or coffee, so-called, ever got into them; nothing certainly of the spirit kind.
When we entered a village or town our tall captain marched in front,—we followed in order two together, side by side and shoulder to shoulder determined to conquer or die,—i.e., to march through the town and excite as much wonder as such a proceeding naturally would.
Everyone had some duty to perform on the journey. The poet, Ellis, was the cook. I was woodman and fire-builder. The biggest man fool of the company was appointed to the responsible office of locating the camp. He had been out [64/65] some time or other with a surveying party, and on this account was supposed to know more about locating a camp than all the rest put together. The season was rainy, nearly every .bridge washed away, and sometimes we were compelled to wade through water to our waist. And he took especial pains to impress all with his wonderful knowledge of this science; it was the constant theme Of his conversation. But he is not the first to whom Horace's line could be applied,
"Parturiunt montes nascitur ridiculus mus,"
for he always got us into a ridiculous muss. If there was a barn-yard or swamp, or marsh or mud-hole within a mile of the day's journey's end, he would surely pitch the tent in it. But this predilection of his for muddy and dirty places never forsook him, for he has finally pitched his camp in the dirtiest place in the world.
But leaving him. One night the tent was pitched at a stopping place one day's journey from Green Bay. It was late when the camp was made, and all were both wet and well worn out.
But supper, with a refreshing cup of tea, was enjoyed in the prospective, and after that a good night's rest. But alas! for the vanity of human expectations! After the blessing was asked, the [65/66] supper's chief dish was waited for—alas 'twas missing! Alarm appeared on every face, and inquiries were made, when it came out that the bag containing the tea, had been carelessly left by the cook, Ellis, on a stump. A yearling calf was grazing near, who had his curiosity excited by the appearance of the bag. He commenced eating and devoured both bag and tea. Great was the wrath of Nashotah's students when thus cheated out of their favorite beverage, and compelled to go both wet and almost supperless to bed.
Nor did they soon forget it; their disappointment was impressed deeply on their memory, and even preserved in poetry, for long after their return could we hear from time to time a doleful song of the trials of that journey, of which one stanza was,
"Oh, we were wet as wet could be,
And Halsted's calf ate up the tea,
Long time ago."
It was, indeed, an unfortunate time for the expedition, being almost continually rainy from their start. Sometimes they made but six or eight miles a day through the mud. But all this being accepted as a part of their discipline, as soldiers in the Church Militant (indeed, the whole expedition having been planned to harden them as missionaries in western life), they continued without a murmur.
 On another occasion, however, their skillful engineer pitched their tent in the midst of a wet and muddy prairie marsh, near the present site of Fond du Lac. The soft ground would make no hard bed, 'tis true. But in the night a storm came on,—a storm of fearful power, a perfect hurricane of wind and rain. It came up almost instantaneously, giving them scarcely time to spring from their pallets, and grasp the tent ropes, ere the whole strength of the storm was on them. In the roaring of the wind and thunder, and in the deluge of water,—for it did not rain but pour,—no voice could be heard, but in silence all. and in pitchy darkness they clung manfully to the ropes. But soon it lulled and leaving their posts or pegs, like drowned rats, they began to wade over ankles in water to and the entrance of the tent again, and see or feel what was next to be done,—and whether their beds were left. They had scarcely found their soaking pallets of Buffalo robes or blankets, when a cry from without startled them to their feet again. "It comes, it comes!" was the cry. "What comes?" said Breck, and all rushed out over the ropes,—where they found one of their number still hanging manfully on to his line as he sat upon the ground, bareheaded but fast asleep; "the rain (he answered) comes down on my poor devoted head." Tradition says this was brother Bartlett, but I don't believe it!
 This soaking I believe it was that caused them, despite their military principles, to seek that very night the hospitalities of a neighboring barn. To this they waded, literally knee deep in mud, guided only by the flashes of lightning. Passing through the soaking and richly manured barn yard, they groped and climbed as well as they could in the darkness to the top of the hay mow, where they threw themselves down to sleep. They slept soundly enough, but were awakened rather early by the crowing of cocks and the cackling of hens, which they discovered, to their disgust and regret, had been roosting in double lines directly above their heads.
But every incident of this journey was not ludicrous, neither unpleasant. There were sunny days and cheerful scenes. The woods resounded with many a hearty ringing laugh, and many a cheerful story was told around the evening camp fire. And more than once, I believe, the Morning and Evening daily Service of the Prayer Book was joyfully united in by some wandering churchman who had long been a stranger to the beloved Service of the Church.
It was on the way homeward from Green Bay that a worthy communicant, lying very sick, having heard of the proximity of a clergyman of the Church, sent a request for Mr. Breck to visit him. Accompanied by the students he [68/69] gladly went and administered to him the blessed Supper of our Lord. This incident made a deep impression on all. That in answer to the prayers of this lone sheep in the wilderness, where was no City of God to dwell in—no Fountain of the Water of Life, God had led to his very bedside the Minister of His Church, to break to him once more before he died the blessed Bread of Heaven.
But I must turn to other subjects.
The daily life of the Institution was as follows: We usually rose at four. At five minutes past four, we were all required, rain or snow, cold or hot, to be present at the "Indian Grave " to answer personally to the roll call of our names. At six we had prayers in Chapel. At seven breakfast. At nine prayers again. From ten to twelve out-door labor. At twelve prayers again. At 12:30 dinner. From two to four out-door labor. At six prayers again. At 6:30 supper. At nine prayers. At ten our lights must be extinguished and all be in bed, except the watchman for the week, whose duty was to make a round at 10:30 to see that all was safe from fire. This was our general outline of duties. On extra occasions we had extra duties. As, for instance, with regard to labor, our usual amount of manual labor was four hours per day. This labor was of various kinds, such as clearing lands, felling trees, cutting cord wood, [69/70] hauling wood, splitting fence rails, making fences, ploughing, harrowing, hoeing, and all farming work. Then there were washing, ironing, baking, cooking, carpentering, tailoring, etc. And whenever any of these duties required extra assistance, more or less students were detailed to perform it. Thus in planting time sometimes half of our number would be called off from our studies for several days together. So again in the hoeing season. While nearly all would be engaged in haying time, for a week or more, and so, too, in the harvest season. Then again, we killed and cured our own beef and pork, filled our own ice house, and built our barns and root cellars. But all was done in a most perfect system. Every student had his own regular work, and regular hours appointed. If there were more than one appointed to any work, they were called a committee on that work, and one was the chairman who was held responsible for the faithful performance of the labor. And careful accounts were kept of every hour or half hour's extra labor or loss. Even the sick were nursed, served with tea and toast, bread or toast bread and tea, by a committee, appointed in regular weekly rotation. And all these committees, as a general thing, performed their work faithfully and well. It is true that when called upon for extra labor, as in potato hoeing, or at corn husking, questions in Theology would [70/71] come up—the weary feet and hands would exchange labor with the tongue, and ere they knew it, a full dozen would be roosting for an hour, together, like turkey buzzards, on a fence. But these were exceptions, and only on extra occasions. Usually, every kind of work was well and speedily performed. For then it was a spirit of Christian love that animated every heart and hand. In the language of the Rev. Mr. Goodnough, in a late letter which dwells upon these days: "At first Nashotah was a young Heaven. For two or three years, we were governed by the spirit of love and kindness. Our head was the most lovely man the world ever saw. He ruled us with the mighty rod of gentleness and sympathy. Every one of us would have, during those first years, laid ourselves upon the burning pyre for his sake, or for the sake of the Institution. And then it was that starvation was endured without a murmur. Then it was that from thankful hearts arose the incense of gratitude to the great Father for even the scanty allowance of bran bread. Then it was that the holy and better feelings of our nature were constantly in exercise. We felt that the LORD was with us in reality. Mr. Breck, at that time, was one of the noblest of men. And he had about him the noblest band of young men that could be found anywhere. [71/72] Selfishness seemed to be banished from Nsshotah."
This testimony of Brother Goodnough is true. It was this spirit of love and devotion to Nashotah for Christ's sake, that caused not only trials to be borne without a murmur, but caused every heart to study self-denial for the sake of doing greater good. It was this spirit and this alone, that proposed that our washing, heretofore hired out at a distance from the Institution, should be done amongst ourselves! New applications were being made for admission into the Mission, by young men unable to support themselves. Already there were between thirty and forty members, officers and all, while the income was extended to its utmost. What should be done? Should applicants be turned away? We could live no plainer. Wherein then could self-denial be practiced? The subject was considered by all. When at last it was determined by the students themselves, that the $200.00 per annum paid by the Institution for washing should be saved, or rather devoted towards the support of one or two additional students, and the washing done amongst ourselves, two students, Malcolm Breck and Nicolas Bibby immediately volunteered to learn the mysterious arts of both washing and ironing, and henceforth for several [72/73] years the washing and ironing were done, and well done, and done without a murmur.
And here it will become me to introduce an incident illustrative of the early spirit of Nashotah, in improving every opportunity of doing good to the bodies as well as the souls of men. Being at the time confined to my bed by sickness, and therefore unable to partake in the deed of kindness, I may speak of it without reserve.
A large family (I believe Methodists in their religion), seven in number, was living in a log cabin nearly opposite the old residence of Bishop Kemper. Owing probably to decay in the logs of which the house was built, a fatal sickness commenced in the family. A sickness like a plague. One after another of the family was smitten down, and soon Death commenced his work. The neighbors, alarmed, fled from them; none could be induced to enter the dwelling. It was heard of at the Mission. Immediately a committee of two were appointed to visit the house to see what was needed and to render assistance. And from that day onward for nearly two months, were two students detailed in the morning and two others to relieve them at night, every member of the Institution, from the President down, taking his place in rotation, and so they nursed the family. They carried them food, provided wood, administered medicine, changed their beds and personal clothing, laid [73/74] out and buried the dead; nor did they leave the house alone until death had taken five of the number, and the remaining two were able to leave the place, when the house was purposely burned to the ground. The members of the family were four females and three males, two of the male members only having recovered.
Having spoken of the routine of daily life, I will dwell for a moment upon that of Sunday. But few of the "brethren" remained at the Mission on that day. For all who were able, with the exception of one or two, were sent out on Saturday or Sunday morning early, to layread at different stations. These were distant from five to twenty miles, and had to be reached on foot. The same reader was appointed at the same place usually for a year at least. Many of them continued at the same place for several years. On Saturday afternoon or Sunday morning, therefore, might be seen a corps of students, teachers and clergy, too, starting out of the gate, with stick in hand and pack on back, regardless of the weather, soon to separate to pursue their respective lonely roads. Earlier or later they arrived at their destinations, and were received hospitably by the people. And on Sunday morning they began the services of the Church, in the best place the neighborhood afforded. Sometimes this was a kitchen, sometimes a cleanswept barn floor, but more frequently a solitary [74/75] log school house, with perhaps a bottomless chair for desk and pulpit. From twenty to one hundred persons would gather at these places, many of them joining heartily in the services, and all listening attentively to both service and sermon.
After the service the children were taught the Catechism, and then after a lunch and an affectionate good-bye from many of the "parishioners," the lay-missionary would turn his face homeward, which he must reach before bed-time so as to lose no recitations in the morning.
Sometimes, particularly in vacations, the students were indulged with a general missionary tour. The whole body, clergy and all, would walk in the morning, say to Waukesha, twelve miles, where services would be held; thence after dinner to Lisbon, ten miles further, for an evening service; thence the next day to some other place or else homeward.
But such expeditions were a treat. The most of our vacations being employed in working eight hours per day instead of four, and in making up for studies lost.
And none can doubt the benefit and blessing both to the students and people of this missionary work. Some of the fruits we see in many substantial parishes about Nashotah; but other fruits will not be seen until the last Great Day.
 In consequence of the absence of so many on Sundays, the Holy Communion was administered on Thursdays, at the Mission at 6:30 A. M.
But long before this, the wonder has been excited to know when the students studied. They did study, as our beloved Professor Adams will testify, and they studied faithfully, for he was a young and zealous Professor, and we his first classes, and he drilled us well. Not a moment was lost. Many a lesson was conned over laborious tasks, and along lonely roads.
While in those days, too, when it was a two-days' journey to Milwaukee, and two weeks to New York, the vacations were improved, as already said, by eight hours' labor instead of four, in making up for studies lost.
Neither was it in those days altogether work and study and no play. We had our festivals as well as fasts. Nor with all our duties, was there ever, perhaps, a happier set of young men. Every Festival, religious and civil, even the Fourth of July, was kept. Many, even among the Swedes and Norwegians, now remember and no doubt date some events from the great celebration on July the fourth, 1844. Then when Armstrong delivered the oration, and when the purest-blooded Englishman of our number (Brother Keene), read to the Swedes, Norwegians and Americans, the Declaration of [76/77] Independence, and a procession was formed from the Blue House to a place half way up the lake, where a grand picnic dinner of roast pig and every other native American delicacy was provided, including a glorious Yankee chowder cooked in a huge kettle by Brother Keene himself, the reader of the day, and to which, with the other good things provided for the occasion, several hundred people did justice.
But our greatest Festival was Christmas. Then the larder was opened wide. Then slapjacks and molasses abounded for breakfast and for supper! Then we had coffee and brown sugar. Then we had a veritable English Christmas pudding, which Brother Leach and Bibby sat up all night to cook. Then amateur cooks were permitted to try their hands at delicacies, and we were often astonished at the extraordinary dishes brought on to the table, as the result of self-confident experiments. This was the case, at one time, with a wonderful pudding that Brother Montgomery [Afterward Rector of the Church of the Incarnation, New York City] had prepared all our appetites for, being confident that he could make it, as he had seen his mother do. But, alas! theory and practice are not the same; his pudding, like Brother Hobart's pancakes, proved nothing but a sticky paste, or like a mouthful of warm wax between the teeth.
 Between the great Festivals our food was very plain, even when we lived best. "Prairie tea” without milk or sugar for breakfast and supper, bread, potatoes and fried pork. But on one occasion, I remember, we were favored with an unusual flavor to the tea. Brother Haff was cook that week, and a favorite cook he was. Whether or not he added more tea to the draught than common, I cannot say, but all pronounced it excellent, and each sent for a second cup. In leaving the table several passed through the kitchen to compliment brother H. on his tea; he received the compliments modestly, but when he had gathered us all around him, he assured us that the credit did not belong to him, but that the secret of the flavor was in this—and he drew from the tea-kettle a blanched boiled mouse by the tail, whose sad fate he had but a little before discovered. It was very singular that after that, no student could be found who drank any tea that night, although one of the Professors engaged himself a long time in calculating what proportion of mouse he drank.
I have spoken of living plainly at best. But there was a time when the plainest ordinary fare would have been a feast. This was in the spring of '45. Still we had been forewarned of it. For it was but a few weeks or months, after the expedition had returned from the [77/78] North, that our beloved Bishop Kemper addressed the students, and informed them that some spectator of their journey had published in papers at the East, an untrue account of their conduct and their doings. The writer had represented them as having a cross upon their tent, and crosses upon their wagons, caps and clothes; that they called themselves "Catholics" and performed many Romish and superstitious ceremonies.
These stories, the Bishop informed us, were widely copied even into Church papers, and that he doubted not, they would cause many a hand to stay its gifts, if they did not cut off, for a time, every offering for the Mission. It was now winter; the mails were slow, and it would take a long time to contradict these reports and restore confidence. He stated that there was but little money or food on hand, and that, therefore, there must be suffering. He, therefore, advised that those who could, should leave for home, and others seek employment in Milwaukee, or among the neighboring farmers until spring. The whole matter was taken into careful consideration by the students and their settled determination and conclusion was that they would each and all stand by the ship, as long as two planks held together. That they would not go out until they were driven or starved out. They carefully estimated the [79/80] amount of income that could be depended upon from the students who paid their own expenses, together with the ever-generous Bishop's gifts; then the probable amount to be derived from the sale of a pair of farm horses, which, together with a yoke of oxen, to be slaughtered for beef, they hoped might carry them through till spring. Of course, economy was the order of the day. And economy it was! But, nevertheless, with the strictest care, before the month of April arrived, the food was reduced to the poorest quality and the scantiest allowance. The Bishop's fears had proved well founded. The evil reports had cut off every gift. At last a little coarse bran bread, and a thin soup, not even thick enough to be called a "stew," made of the bones and rinds from the pork barrel, with cold water to drink, was all that was or could be placed upon the table for full six weeks, morning, noon and night! And yet this was borne most cheerfully. It is true that the health of some gave way before relief arrived. Nevertheless the studies went on. The weekly missionary work to the distant stations continued, and I believe that during all that winter not one solitary word was ever uttered by any member of the Institution away from home, as to the poverty and sufferings there. Nor was it ever suspected. On the contrary, all went on cheerfully; we believed relief would come, and then we should [80/81] be stronger for the trial. Even fun, therefore, was made of our poverty as the following lines will show, which were written at the time by Brother Keene and have been preserved and sent to me by Brother Schetky:
Nashotah is a blessed place,
Of credit and renown;
Its situation is not far
From fair Milwaukee town.
Now be not quite alarmed my friends,
While I proceed to tell
The hardships that poor chaps endure
Who at Nashotah dwell.
Their imaginations oft do feast
On pies and good beef-steaks;
But vanity of vanities,
They've nothing but—bran-cakes.
But lest, dear friend, you of our case
Should have a doleful view;
Believe me—now and then indeed
We have a blessed stew.
Tho' Angel's visits, like to these
Are few and far between;
But then, my friend, when stars are kind,
We have the Soup-Tureen!
It was some short time after this hardest fare, (although the larder was not yet by any means full, nor varied as to its contents,) that there suddenly appeared upon the grounds one day, the Rev. Mr. -------, of Cleveland, the Rev. Mr. [81/82] Akerly, of Milwaukee, the Rev. Mr. Unonius, and with him quite a delegation of Swedes and Norwegians to visit and honor our important Mission. Consternation seized all hearts, for at once all thought of dinner. But, like himself, our President received them with all the complacency in the world. Soon, however, the question was buzzed about with anxiety,—what can be had for dinner? "Nicolas," said the President to the cook, "what have you got for dinner?"
"Nothing, sir, but bread, potatoes and cold water."
"But is there nothing on the grounds—none of last year's hens or chickens?"
"There is one old setting hen, sir, with one little chicken."
"Well, Nicolas, you must catch the hen and serve her up for dinner."
Nicolas started; but either the poor hen had a presentiment of what was coming or Nick's haste and anxiety gave her a terrible fright, for she became all at once exceedingly shy and fled as though her life depended on it. Nick started in hot pursuit, but after dodging over half the grounds, he called in despair for help, and the Indian boys, Cornelius, Dan and Glanis, [Since, chiefs at Green Bay] with bows and arrows rampant, all joined in, and [82/83] at last, after an extraordinary chase, the poor old hen was captured. The chicken was caught by Brother Irish, taken to his room and kindly cared for until he could provide for himself; and ever afterwards, as long as he lived, he was not only a favorite, but he had the entire freedom of our grounds, for the sake of his poor mother.
The hen was served up in the form of a "blessed stew." As it came upon the table--"what Festival is this?" said Brother Unonius, who knew our poverty, looking with surprise at the unusual dish. The fowl having been dissected before it was stewed, our worthy President had nought to do but with his usual dignity to dish it out. But so great a delicacy, however, was sent no farther down the table than the guests. And it was interesting, to say the least, if not mortifying, to witness their efforts. Nick had, unfortunately, in his trembling anxiety to make a good dinner, upset the pepper box into the soup itself, which made that portion of the stew too fiery to partake of, while every portion of the hen resisted every effort of the teeth. Dinner at length was ended, though how far it had benefited our guests was a matter of doubt to us all. Our greatest anxiety was for the entire stranger, the Rev. Mr.----, and it cannot be denied that it was a source of relief, when we heard that the good man had somehow learned [83/84] the whole history of the dinner, and that he had enjoyed it better than the richest feast.
It was somewhere about this time, I believe, that the Institution met with a grievous loss in the death of old "Nig." Nig was a favorite black cat, which had been a pet of Mr. Hobart. It was a cat of great intelligence and huge proportions. This was the cat who always went to Chapel when the Bishop was present, but never honored the services at any other time. He was killed by a Dutchman for the sake of his skin. His loss was really much regretted by the students, who honored his memory with a poem, called not doggrel but catrell, and which commemorated his virtues. To this poem nearly every student contributed a stanza, making something like thirty verses. The following are a couple, and for which we are indebted to Brother Bartlett for rescuing from oblivion:
"Old Nig he was a Pussey—ite
And fond of cat-echising,
And the way he brought the Gophers up,
Was certainly surprising."
Old Nig is gone! that good old cat.
Not gone to Pur-gatory
But gone where all good cats do go,
He's gone to Cat-egory."
But it would take me altogether too long to dwell on the varied incidents of that early [84/85] Mission life. I can only mention our military processions, our wash-house, debating club, our regular organized fire-department, our expeditions for ten miles after cranberries, the haying expeditions to the marshes, where, as wrote one of the poets of that day--
"Encased in cow-hide boots called stogeys,
We scared the snakes, called Massa-sogeys."
and our vacation treats of a walk to Mr. Peterson's at Pine Lake for a cup of coffee. And I can only allude to the hair-breadth escapes of those who were either chased by wolves through the forests, or else were thoroughly frightened by some neighbor's dogs.
But I must not forget the names of some who were with us in those early days. There was the generous-hearted Lucius Taft, whose first application to Mr. Breck was to ask permission to study the "Minister business." The poetical Ellis, whose charcoal picture sketches covered the kitchen, who was the chairman of the Gardening Committee—but whose whole energies were devoted to cultivating dahlias instead of cabbages, and which, at one time provoked from our beloved Theological Professor the impromptu couplet
"The students of Nashotah savage
Do Ellis scold for want of cabbage."
 Then there was the witty Irishman, Nicolas Bibby, ready to do penance for any fault. Besides others whose names are familiar to you, as Leach and Goodnough and Irish, and Keene and Haff and Bartlett, Bingham, Montgomery, Wheelock, and Barton, Brainerd, Schetky and Stout, Peterson and Mr. Breck. Noble fellows all!
A thousand associations are awakened by their names. And ever mingled with them is that of Mr. Breck. Nor only his, For there is one, around whose name a laurel wreath of love is growing still—a wreath whose earlier buds were plucked by us, whose leaves are daily closer entertwined by you. But the full circle of whose chaplet, let us pray, shall not be closed till wreathed with blossoms of the almond tree; and from beneath his hand has gone a long and faithful line of Deacons, Priests and Bishops, to labor nobly on the field of Christ's Church Militant!
And despite ourselves and many pleasant memories, we, the senior classes, cannot suppress a feeling of sadness, brethren, when entering again yonder doubly consecrated Chapel, where every spot has associations with the past—a past that none can read but a few--a past that is gone forever. We recall to mind the forms that once sat there; the tones of voices, some of which are now silent in the [86/87] dust; the prayers together of truly Brothers there; the hopes and fears there entertained; the pictures of the future there. And then we recall to mind again the stern realities of life in the midst of which we stand. We think how isolated from one another in the great battlefield of life. How little communion of soul with those who once so long stood together with us side by side. How different the picture from the reality. How little we now care for the applause of men. How deeply—only anxious now to save some souls, and then lie down to rest.
From a letter written by the Rev. GUSTAF UNONIUS, residing in Stockholm, Sweden, to the Rev. Dr. Adams.
MAY 14, 1892.
REV. AND DEAR BROTHER:
On this day, forty-seven years ago, in the then humble chapel at Nashotah, an ordination to the ministry of the Church, was for the first time administered. Our now departed sainted Father in God, Bishop Kemper, laid, that day, his hands upon my head; and of the students in that Seminary I then became the first one admitted to the Holy Order of the Diaconate. Need I tell you what this moment I feel when looking back upon that solemn occasion and the years since past, thereby in my mind also dwelling upon the Fiftieth Anniversary which Nashotah House soon will celebrate, and at which festival I am denied to be present except in my prayers, and perhaps with these lines of mine, that may reach you at that time. In regard to myself I feel but sadness as the time past presents to my mind hardly anything else but failures and shortcomings, while the days that yet might be given me hold forth no prospects, whatever, of my being of any usefulness to the Church. On the other hand, again, when my thoughts turn and rest upon Nashotah, its first beginning, the work it has produced during these fifty years and what, with God's continual blessing, it still may accomplish, then I rejoice in my heart, praising God for times gone by and for the hope given us for days to come.
 At first I had in mind addressing to the Faculty a letter of congratulation upon the approaching solemnity, but after due consideration, and at present more than ever unable to produce anything that might be published, I prefer writing to you. In more than one respect you also deserve a congratulation, or rather a thankful homage on said occasion,—you who are the only one now remaining of those that laid the foundation of Nashotah House, and who ever since has faithfully nursed the little seed then planted, and which by the grace of God has brought forth so much of good fruit. Alas, had but the first fruit been a better one! But for what good it may possess, the thanks are in a great measure due to you. Your teaching has armed me against the manifold errors around me, and while I look back upon this day, forty-seven years ago, I cannot but be mindful of this, and, as one of your scholars, give you individually my heartfelt thanks, when I cannot unite them with those of my fellow alumni who, I suppose, will he assembled around you on the anniversary.
Please remember me to them with my brotherly love. God grant that we may hold fast the truth taught us, and though here on earth we be far separated, we still, in communion with Christ our Savior and with each other, be budded up together in the same one Body and Spirit, as we are called in the same one Hope of our calling.
Do present to the members of the Faculty my sincere regards and well-wishes for them and for the Institution. May the blessing of God continually be over Nashotah House, and faithful laborers in the vineyard of the Lord be sent out from its walls. In these troublesome times, when heretical doctrines and schisms are trying to usurp the very altars dedicated to God, may Nashotah evermore be a city set on a hill, a witness to the truth, and under the shadow of God's wings a shelter to them that come together in its sanctuary.
THE BIDDING PRAYER.
USED AT NASHOTAH.
(Arranged by the late RT. REV. DR. KNIGHT, sometime Bishop of Milwaukee, for use at Commencement, and other important functions).
GOOD Christian people, taught by Holy Scriptures and the ancient Fathers, I bid your prayers for the good estate of the whole Catholic Church on earth, that it may be restored everywhere to purity of faith, to holiness of life, and, when it shall please God, to visible unity; and more especially for that branch of the same which God hath planted in this land; that in all things it may work according to God's will, serve Him faithfully, and worship Him with acceptance.
And ye are to pray for its Bishops; and here, chiefly, I call upon you to remember the Bishops who have immediate relation to this [90/91] House; that they may minister the discipline of Christ faithfully, and perform all their duties well to the furtherance of God's glory, the good of His children, and the benefit of His Church. Likewise ye ought to pray for all priests and deacons, and for all the whole company of the faithful, that each of them, in his station, may live as becomes his place in the community of Christ.
I bid your prayers also for all kings and rulers of Christian realms; and more especially for the President of these United States, and the Governor of this State; that those under their rule may live in godly quietness.
Pray also for all schools and colleges of religious and sound learning; and here I specially bid your prayers for Nashotah House, that the number of its scholars may be increased, that all earthly things needful may be provided for it, and that industry, zeal, and pure religion may ever flourish here. Let us be mindful to pray also for all who travel on land or sea; for all who are captive or in prisons, for all who are in sickness or in sorrow, for all who have fallen into sin, for all who, through temptation, ignorance, helplessness, grief, trouble, dread, or the coming near of death, need our prayers.
Finally, let us bless God for rain and sunshine, for the fruits of the earth, and for all His good gifts, temporal and spiritual, to us, and to [91/92] all men. And let us render to Him high thanks and hearty praise for the grace which He has shown forth in the lives of His saints through all generations; in Blessed Mary, in the Holy Apostles, in Confessors and Martyrs, in Preachers and Doctors of His Church; and in the great company of all holy souls. And let us here commemorate the good deeds of the founders, instructors, and benefactors of this House; such as were Jackson Kemper, Bishop; William E. Armitage, Bishop; Edward Randolph Welles, Bishop; John Henry Hobart Brown, Bishop; Cyrus Frederick Knight, Bishop; James Lloyd Breck, John Henry Hobart, Azel D. Cole, Lewis Ashurst Kemper, and James DeKoven, Priests; William H. Aspinwall, Robert D. Minturn, Peter Hubbell, John Barrett Howe, Mary Todd Hellmuth, Roberts Vaux and Margaretta Lewis, together with many others, who, like them, have departed the life of this world. May their bodies rest in hope, their souls in the peace of God, their memories ever be cherished within these walls, and may they with us all, through mercy, come at the last to a resurrection of glory in the Day of Jesus Christ. Amen.