For our worker in Troy vacations were rare. For a few years the minister of the Holy Cross was absent during two or three weeks in the summer. Before long he gave this up, and remained all through. In later life he was appealed to by all denominations as the one "summer parson," as the cleric who was always at home. At that time the extent of his rustication would be measured by the few days which he would spend with Dr. Ferguson at the latter's place out of town.
Once again, however, he made a trip to Europe. This time the tour was undertaken for the sake of his sister, whose lack of health called for the rest and change of travel.
As before, the traveller kept a Journal. A portion of this has been found among his papers.
Part of the entries, made in his own hand, are here transcribed. They show the man; they grant an insight into his methods of thinking and doing.
Oct. 8th, 1850. We left New York in the Packet Ship Gallia, Captain Addison Richardson, for Havre. We had a bright day to commence our voyage, and were all as cheerful and happy as we could be under the circumstances. Many of the sailors, as is usually the case, were under the influence of liquor, and of those who were not too drunk three or four were disposed to be very fractious and quarrelsome. The consequence was that shortly after the pilot left us, there was a scuffle between the mate and one of the crew; others came to the rescue of their messmate. The mate, Mr. Crocker, was too much for them, and he succeeded in putting one of them in irons, and in setting the rest to work.
I am now writing at Nice, from notes taken on board the vessel. Things do not now seem as important as they did when they actually occurred. I shall therefore not be very particular in recording what took place during the 22 days we were at sea. We were fortunate enough to see whales more than once. Besides we were favored with a fine view of dolphins, and were delighted with the beautiful sight of porpoises playing around the ship at night when the sea was highly phosphorescent. The fish through the waves looked like fiery serpents. They seemed to leave a track of fire behind them.
On Sunday, 13th, I read service and preached, as I did on the 20th. On the 20th I read Divine Service only, I in consequence of a gale blowing, and much motion. On the I5th at about six o'clock in the evening, came up to a wreck. It turned out to be a deserted vessel, but from her appearance the Captain judged that it could not have been long since she had been wrecked.
Many of the passengers were most indefatigable in their efforts to acquire some knowledge, or more perfect acquaintance, of the French language before arriving at Havre. Among the amusements on board the Gallia were shuffle-board on the deck, working out puzzles, and occasionally a divertissement in the cabin, such as mesmerizing by Mr. Lefourcade, a story or imitations and songs by others of the company, and, the night before landing, the reading of a Journal. As one of the contributions to the Journal, I must particularly mention "Lines Addressed to the Captain" by Mr. Storrow.
October 30th. About 12 o'clock a sailor aloft cried "land ahead," and the mate acting under the Captain's orders told him to keep quiet. After dinner, with the naked eye, we could see the land. About seven o'clock we were off Havre, and lay by--unable at that hour to enter the docks--until five o'clock next morning.
31st. Mr. Punnett and also Mr. Whitlock came on board, and kindly offered to do what they could in assisting us at the Custom House, etc.
Havre, to a person who has never seen a French town, offers many sights in the streets to amuse. In general there are no sidewalks. Where there are, the pedestrians seem to prefer the middle of the street. The majority of the women are without bonnets, and the ladies take precious good care to keep their frocks from dangling in the mud, and to show their petticoats.
November 1st. Left by railroad for Rouen. Excellent arrangements and accommodations. There was a lamp burning in the centre of the roof of the car, the use of which we did not discover until we entered a "gallery." We were all particularly struck with the appearance of the old Churches. They are plain, almost destitute of ornament, except in some cases there is a spire with some pretensions to a display of architectural skill. In all cases the spires are surmounted with a cock.
Arrived at Rouen at one o'clock. After luncheon, went to the Cathedral. It being All-Saints' day, we found the Cathedral crowded, and an immense congregation attending the Vesper service. The Archbishop of Rouen was present. We passed through and around the building just glancing at its beauties, and obtaining but a vague idea of the skill and zeal necessary to rear such a grand and magnificent edifice. On visiting these sacred places, these palaces on earth of the great King, I have a more lofty, a larger idea of God. My feelings to God are stretched out. On this very occasion, I should have been much more gratified, my wants have been more really met, could I have fallen on my knees and prayed with the multitude, than in following a valet de place in company with a half dozen inquisitive persons, in search of something to satiate an excited spirit of curiosity. I was as curious perhaps as they; I had perhaps other feelings which they were not conscious of, at least to that degree, that they could, as I did, receive as much pleasure from seeing so many persons at their devotions, as in examining the curious stone tracery, the beautiful rose windows, and in noting the peculiarities of the costume of the motley assemblage. And perhaps if my own feelings were more closely analyzed it would appear that my fondness for Church music is greater than for Church architecture; that may be the reason why I take chief pleasure in visiting the Cathedrals when they are wreathed with incense and ringing with the notes of praise.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame is sometimes severely criticized for its elaborate and profuse decorations. It is probable that the richness and multiplicity of the vast Cathedrals of the thirteenth century is but a type of the efflorescence of the ritual and ceremonial magnificence o£ the Church at this period. The variety and profusion of the ornaments with which the ecclesiastical buildings of this century are embellished may also be an indication of the diffusion and earnestness of the religious feeling that then prevailed. We can scarcely conceive of the possibility at the present day of erecting such vast and magnificent edifices for the worship of Almighty God. Our secular tastes do not tend to such lavish expenditure on buildings reared for religious purposes, where regard is to be had to God's honor and glory and not merely to human pride and individual vanity. That these Cathedrals do indicate a spirituality as generally prevalent at the period in which they were built, we may learn from historical testimony. In a letter written by the Abbe of Saint Pierre sur Dives, to the Religious of the Abbey of Tutberry, in England, we read: "It is an unheard of prodigy to see powerful men, men proud of their birth and wealth, accustomed to a soft and luxurious life, attaching themselves by ropes to carts and haling stone, lime and other materials for the sacred edifice. Sometimes a thousand persons, men and women harnessed to the same cart (so heavy is the load) and still so great the silence that not a murmur is to be heard."
We passed some minutes in examining curious figures carved on the South Portal. These are called "Marmozets." They were in many instances figures of animals mimicking the acts of men. Pigs and apes were in the greatest number. What is the symbolical meaning of this strange kind of ornament on the portal of a sacred building it is not easy to conjecture, except it portrays the animal propensities of man's fleshy nature. I suppose this to be a rational explanation. . . . Immediately over the south door is a large representation in stone of the Last Judgment: in this, devils are seen plunging the damned into a huge kettle. As in many, if not the majority of instances the architects were of the sacred order, they endeavored to impress the people as they entered the House of God with an awful idea of the Judgment of the Almighty which awaits the impenitent; thus endeavoring to hallow their thoughts and stir up their hearts to repentance, and induce them with feelings of greater earnestness to confess their sins, and to engage with greater intenseness of devotion in the sacred services.
We next visited the Church of St. Ouen, which is even larger than the Cathedral, and is generally considered more beautiful and chaste in its ornaments. "It is beyond doubt one of the most perfect Gothic edifices in the world." One of its most striking features is the largeness of its clerestory, which increases the effect of lightness. The "windows seem to have absorbed the solid wall."
We were conducted to the Place de la Pucelle, where a statue without any inscription marks the spot where Jeanne d'Arc was burned alive as a sorcerer in 1431.
On all the public buildings, churches as well as on edifices designated as national property, Liberte, Fraternite & Egalite are painted in most conspicuous letters, so that one is almost tempted to believe that all the Liberty, Fraternity and Equality in France, is just so much as one sees on the walls. And the. thought has often passed through my mind--What a pity the French politicians would not scribble on their walls in chalk! It could be easily rubbed of? at each ebullition of the national feeling, names, party words etc. be exchanged for new ones without injuring the appearance of their public buildings. Over each of the three front doors of St. Roch, Paris (probably the same is the case of every other Church in France) are the three cant words, Liberte, etc.
In our rambling through the streets of Rouen, we saw many old Norman buildings. A row of houses was pointed out to us, remarkably curious from their antiquity. Many of the women we met in the streets, in their curious headgear and otherwise quaint costume, seemed to belong to the houses, and to be the lineal descendants of the illustrious individuals who reared and once occupied them. These houses being unprovided with yards, large tin gutters run from each story on the outside to carry off nuisances, dirty water, etc., which in more cleanly places pass off in other directions. Perhaps the necessity of looking out for heads, in passing by these houses, compelled the Norman French to take to the street; and the custom, even when there may not be the same necessity for its observance, has been perpetuated to the present day.
Opposite to Notre Dame is a flower market where beautiful bouquets may be procured for a few sous. As the next day was All Souls', the flower women were exposing for sale chaplets of eternelles, to be laid on the tombs of friends. The yellow and black flowers were so arranged that they formed inscriptions, touchingly affecting, such as "a ma chere mere," "a amitie," etc. From the number of these chaplets, I infer that they must be in great demand, and conclude that in the French character, in spite of the apparent gaiety which distinguishes it, there is underneath a current of pure affection and love.
In the evening we visited the fair. We found on the Boulevards a crowd of persons, men, women and children and on either side of the broad street, booths, tables and stalls where articles of every description were for sale. Beside these, were shanties where there were wonderful shows--exhibition of jugglery, slack rope dancing, feats of strength and agility, etc. On platforms in front of these shanties or tents were men and women in curious costumes beating drums and blowing trumpets, to "attirer le monde," as our young friend Adolphus, the son of our landlady, said. We were induced to enter some of the saloons of divertissement, and went first to see a talking fish, which turned out to be a seal. It actually did say "pa" and "ma," but we were not as much surprised by its powers of conversation as by the wonderful intelligence and docility it displayed in promptly obeying the commands of its master. We went next into a place where the young of either sex, by looking into a miraculous mirror, could see their future husband or wife. [ can only say for myself that if I thought there was no chance of getting into matrimony without giving my hand and heart to the female individual whose charms were displayed to me in the magic mirror, I would be willing on the spot to make a vow of celibacy.
Next the travellers were astonished by the performance of a mesmerized girl. After that, "the most beautiful exhibition which we witnessed was a diorama of the accident that befell a regiment of French troops in crossing a suspension bridge." Still later, a menagerie in which "the man who showed off the rhinoceros was decidedly the lion of the evening." Concluding:
With the exception of the menagerie, each entertainment did not cost over one or two sous; so that we had this at least to console us, that we got the worth of our money. In answer to certain questions which we proposed as we went along, we were informed that not much was sold. There were plenty of lookers on, but few purchasers. One poor old woman who was selling roasted chestnuts, said that "the commerce" went badly, that nearly all the merchants were complaining, that it was enough to make one almost weep, so little was doing in the way of trade.
Pleasantly domiciled at the Hotel d'Albion.
November 3rd. At ten o'clock went to the Cathedral, where I stayed until it was time to start for the Protestant place of worship. Accompanied by my friend Mr. Degen, went to St. Eloi--in the interior, a shabby looking building. A man, from a reading desk, read prayers from a book, and after the singing of a Psalm, the minister in a black gown and bands, from the pulpit just over the desk, read--as we thought--a sermon printed in pamphlet form. The congregation were not very punctual in their attendance, and we observed that as each took his place or seat, he engaged on his knees in silent prayer. The Liturgy, or form of prayer, except that there were no responses, reminded us of our own. The Commandments were read after the singing of the Psalm and before the sermon. Each Psalm book had the music proper for the Psalm, and the music from its unsecular character, and from the fact of its being familiar to the congregation--they all taking part in it--had a charm about it, though in a scientific point of view anything but pleasing. The sermon, so far as I could follow it, seemed to be an apology for Christianity, setting forth its adaptiveness to man's moral nature.
From the circumstance of having just come from the Cathedral, I had an opportunity of contrasting Roman Catholic with Protestant. One seemed to be an imaginative, the other a rational religion; one addressing the feelings, the other the intellect. The heart, soul, mind and body ought to be united in Christian worship, and any form of worship therefore is so far defective as it exclusively affects the heart, soul, mind or body. T must allow, however, that, although not familiar with the service of the Mass, the idea of Christ's atonement, the great fact of Christ's sacrifice, was more vividly impressed on my mind by the pomp and magnificence of the Roman ritual at Notre Dame, than by the meagre, shabby, spiritual exercises at St. Eloi. There was more to bring my whole being into communion with my Saviour at the Cathedral, than at the Protestant place of worship. If asked in which assembly Christ crucified seemed most clearly set forth, I should unhesitatingly answer--Among the 2000 or more persons engaged in worship at the Cathedral.
In the afternoon, I went again to the Cathedral, and I found two Catechists, in front of the choir, catechising about 200 boys, from 5 to 10 years of age. The boys were questioned on the Incarnation. The answers were given promptly and correctly. In other parts of the Cathedral, other children were at the same time, receiving similar instruction. Probably no less than a thousand young persons were thus employed in learning the doctrines of Christianity as held by the Church of Rome. And from what I have since witnessed at Dijon, I am inclined to believe that great efforts are now making in France by the R. C. clergy, to imbue the young minds of the present generation with the doctrines and principles of their faith and practice.
The music at the Vespers pleased me much. A greater part of it was in unison. The antiphonal chanting was very spirited, the effect being heightened by the full, rich toned voices of the 100 priests, who in two choirs were engaged in singing the Psalms. As an instrumental accompaniment, the voices were occasionally assisted by the organ, trombones and violoncellos. But, except at the beginning of each Psalm, and if I remember correctly at the Gloria Patri, in the chanting nothing was heard but the human voice. The chanting was very rapid, but not so rapid that I could not follow them in the book. The assistants and the congregation were seated during the chanting of the Psalms, and did not always rise at the Gloria Patri. All who were present appeared to he engaged with much devotion in this Vesper service. There seemed to be but few listeners; the crowd were worshippers, if external acts are any indication of the soul's intentions and operations. I think I have never attended a sacred service where the music so fully realized my idea as to the province and uses of this art in connection with the rites and ceremonies of the Church.
In the evening, in company with Messrs. Degen and Eckford, started out for the Cathedral, It was, however, closed, and we continued our walk up to the Boulevards, and found ourselves on the fair ground where there was even greater noise and fun than on the preceding evening. It seemed strange to us, this folly and gaiety on Sunday evening, and excited some conversation between Mr. D. and myself. We agreed that our mode of observing the day hallowed to God's service, seemed most in conformity with the positive institutions of Christianity. However, it must be admitted that the nature of the people must always be taken into consideration when examining this and kindred questions. I mean that even when the same amount of religious faith and holiness prevailed both in France and America, national habits, from national prejudices and temperament, would be different. We cannot infer that we are decidedly a more religious people than the French, because we never desecrate the Lord's day by raree shows and vulgar amusements, because without respect to any religious principle we would never seek pleasure in any such kinds of diversion. We must also remember that of the multitudes whom we met in the streets, the large majority of them, perhaps, had been in the Churches once or twice in the course of the day; and in connection with this, we must consider how many individuals among us who although they may never take part in any street or public amusements on Sunday, still never in any one respect, hallow the day, even so much as to go to Church or read a chapter in the Bible. Without wishing to apologize for the frivolous diversions of the Continental R. Catholics on the Lord's day, it is but fair to them to suggest the probability, that taking the whole week into the question there is much more Church going and praying than prevails even amongst our most rigid and devout countrymen, even when we admit they attend Church three times on the Sabbath and a prayer meeting twice a week.
We had to walk about two miles through the fair to get to our hotel; and although I never saw a more orderly, well behaved crowd, and notwithstanding what I have written now, and then felt, I must confess that my religious feelings were shocked, and that I felt mortified in having, even though unintentionally, witnessed what I did on Sunday evening. Still I have this to console me, when my conscience disturbs me with the thought of my Sunday evening's sauntering at Rouen, that I have had an opportunity of seeing how the French people keep the closing hours of that holy day.
November 2nd. I find that I have skipped over Saturday. . . . Went to the Cathedral, and had a better opportunity of examining its objects of historical interest. . . . Our laquais de place pointed out a tomb and effigy in the wall, and said that a Bishop who murdered his servant in a passion, was buried there. He confessed and died penitent, but on his deathbed he requested that he might not be buried in a sacred place, so they placed his body in the wall.
We were persuaded to mount one of the towers, in order to take a view of the surrounding country. But the ascent was not quite so easy as we imagined; the staircase gradually diminished in its width, until fears were entertained by the stoutest man of the company that possibly he might be wedging himself between two walls. from which he would not be able to extricate himself without the assistance of others. But such fears were unfounded, as we had reached the stairway's minimum, and in safety we got as high as the central spire, which is of iron, with as much architectural beauty as a corkscrew or ramrod. The view was beautiful. It was strange to see how crowded the city was, how closely packed together the houses, and how neighborly the inhabitants of Rouen seemed to live.
One of the towers is called Tour de Beurre, because it was built, between 1485 and 1507, with the money paid for indulgences for eating butter in Lent.
November 4th. Went to the Church of St. Gervais, which is on the outskirts of the town. The Church itself is considered one of the oldest in France, but it is chiefly interesting from its crypt which you enter through a trap door in the body of the Church. Here you find a Church about 50 by 15 feet, which from historical evidence and from the construction of the building itself--the presence of Roman tiles between the layers of masonry--is supposed to have been constructed in the fourth century. It is apsidal. At the end of the apse is a stone altar, on pedestals; it is not solid, and is marked with five crosses. The altar is on a raised floor. Stone scats attached to the wall are on either side of the nave; and there are two low-arched recesses in the wall, which are said to be the graves of two former Archbishops of Rouen.
The arrangements of this primitive Church reminded me of the Holy Cross. It has been conjectured that there is a subterranean passage of considerable extent communicating with this crypt, and they had commenced exploring it a few years since, when the search was discontinued by reason of the Revolution.
I cannot in journalizing about Rouen omit speaking of the strong, powerful horses that are seen in this part of France. They are able to draw 16 or 18 bags of cotton. It has been a matter of surprise to some of us, that some clever Yankee has not attempted a speculation by taking a few of them to America. We have been informed, however, since leaving Paris, that the French government does not allow their exportation.
In the Church of St. Ouen, I read a notice in English, as if chiefly or exclusively intended for English and American travellers, requesting all who should conic to visit this Church to remember that it was the House of God, and to conduct themselves accordingly, abstaining from loud talking, etc. At St. Ouen, and in fact in all the Churches, attached to the pillars are charity boxes, labelled "pour les pauvres," "pour les malades," "pour les prisonniers." Wherever you turn, you meet with silent and speaking appeals upon your charity.
This is the second time I have visited Rouen, and I leave it now with regret.
At half past one left for Paris, where we arrived about half past five. A few trunks--none belonging to our family--were opened, and we hurried off to the Hotel de Lille et d'Albion, which had been strongly recommended to us by our landlady at Rouen. We secured for our party, consisting of eight persons, magnificent apartments for 50 francs a day.
November 5th. It being our intention to leave Paris as soon as possible, we devoted ourselves to making the necessary arrangements for our journey to Italy, and therefore found little time for sight-seeing.
Nevertheless, the travellers find opportunity to inspect the Gobelins Tapestry Works, the Jardin des Plantes, the Palais de Justice, several Churches, the House of the Protestant Sisters of Charity, also one of the largest creches in Paris. At the Conciergerie, then occupied as a tribunal of justice:
The different halls were handsomely furnished, and in every case were sanctified, if I may so speak, with a picture of the Crucifixion. Christian mercy is ever to be associated with Christian justice.
St. Gervais is remarkable for its modern decorations. I have not yet entered a Church in France without finding several persons engaged in their devotions. Here in this Church I was forcibly impressed by the apparent devotion of a man in a blouse, who while I was in the building--about half an hour--was absorbed, as he seemed, in meditation and prayer. If our Churches were opened, would there be any among our working people, any of our mechanics and laborers, who would enter them and spend thirty minutes or more in silent devotion?
The Roman Catholics on the Continent seem to use their Churches as places of prayer, and not merely to resort to them as lecture halls. They appear at home in Church, without any restraint or foolish bashfulness; indifferent to others they fall on their knees, say their prayers, and go out again perhaps to pursue their ordinary avocations.
At St. Eustache, a strange melange of Gothic and Roman architecture, I read a notice which said it was indecent for persons to pass through the Church (to make by it a short cut, in passing from street to street) without stopping for a few moments to offer a short prayer to God. Persons visiting the Church were also requested not to talk loud, and not to spit on the floor or walls, but if compelled to expectorate to use their handkerchiefs for that purpose. This notice reminded me of one, in a meeting-house at Canandaigua, N. Y.: "The ladies of the congregation would request the gentlemen to take the quids out of their mouths before going in, or to bring spitboxes with them."
I heard part of a Mass at St. Roch. As an artistic performance, it was the best music I have heard. There was a delightful tenor voice. The singer wore a moustache, and standing in front of the choir organ, surrounded by a number of men and boys in clerical costume, presented rather a droll appearance. It looked as if the priests at St. Roch had been forced to go to the opera, to get some one to help them out with their service. But, the music was exquisite, and I confess it required no little effort to forego the pleasure of listening to it, in order to attend the English service in the Rue d'Aguesseatt. Here we found the Church well filled. Three priests officiated. The sermon was only fair, suggested as I thought by "the recent papal aggressions," as the English papers style it, on England. The music, most execrable, more like mummery than anything I have yet heard in a Romish Church. It was vile to listen to, and so indistinctly and badly given, that it was almost impossible to take part in it. I cannot conceive how any good can be derived from such a musical performance, either as a tribute of praise, or a mode of expressing religious emotions. It was too shabby to offer to God, and was so repulsive to the ear as to repress rather than excite feelings of devotion. The whole service, although conducted with decency and order, was cold, that is thoroughly English. We paid a franc each for our seat. In the afternoon, as I was a clergyman, my mother and myself were conducted to seats on the ground floor, and not taxed for our accommodations.
Institution of the Deaconesses of the Evangelical Churches of France. I had read of this institution in one of the English reviews, had referred to it in a sermon, and of course was very anxious to see this Catholic phase of Protestantism. It is situated in the Faubourg St. Antoine, one of the worst quarters of Paris. During the revolution of '48, in the very street where it is located, there were no less than nine or ten barricades, to raise which, even women, girls and little children of five or six years of age, had worked together. I obtained without any difficulty, permission to go through the establishment, and was put under the charge of one of the sisters.
Various are the departments in which this admirable institution performs its work of mercy and of Christian love. It has its "Refuge," in which females who have led a dissolute life can retire from the contagion of vicious associates. . . . There is also a place of detention called Retenue in which are received young girls confided to the institution by their parents or the civil authority. In the Disciplinaire, young persons from 7 to 14 years of age, are confided by their parents or protector, for moral training and discipline. The most common vices of the children when they enter the "disciplinaire" are "dishonesty, trickery (la ruse) and lying."--The liaison de Santé has two departments, one for sick men, the other for women.
An important branch of the "Maison de Service des Diaconesses," is that which has for its object the education of the young. This branch includes the Creche, the Salle d'Asile, the School for Mutual Instruction and the School of Apprenticeship.
The Creche (manger, taking its name from the manger of Bethlehem) is a nursery, where poor women leave their infants for the day, to be taken care of, whilst they themselves are engaged in working for the support of their families. Each infant costs the institution about 7 sous; the parent pays perhaps 4 sous. The Salle d'Asile is an infant school, attended by about 200 children.
As an evidence of the appreciation of the Creche and Salle d'Asile by the poor people in the neighborhood, it is stated that on the 24th of February, when in this quarter of the city and in the immediate vicinity of the House, a number of barricades were erected, in the midst of the tumult, through groups of armed men, mothers full of courage and pious confidence, followed their accustomed way, and brought their infants to the Creche and their children to the school.
In the Journal seven quarto pages are filled with descriptions of this institution of benevolence. Nine more are crowded with detailed information about another "La Creche Saint Louis d'Antin," which is under the charge of a Roman Catholic sisterhood. The explanation of so large a devotion to the subject may be found in an entry: "Something like the Creche might be established at home, which apart from its charitable provisions for poor children, would be an excellent school for nurses." The object of this Creche Saint Louis is like the other: They receive in this Asylum, every morning, except on fete days, children under two years of age, whose mothers are poor and obliged to do work away from their own homes. They come to nurse them at the hours of repast, and return for them again at evening.
Here follows an exact and full account of the three rooms filled with cradles, the kitchen, linen room, balcony garden, the nurses, the infants and their uniform, the hygienic regulations, and many other matters. Among the rules given in the "Manuel," under the head of Hygiene, the following is quoted:
Advice to the Mothers. Rock the child but little, let it take the air often. Scold it but seldom, beat it never. Gentleness always. When lying down, place it sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, the head being always a little raised. Never take it up by one arm. Feet warm, the stomach unconfined, the head cool. Let it have no painted playthings. Caress it, but seldom embrace it. Do not wake the child out of a sleep. Never fret it and make it cry. Let the children amuse themselves, and place them near those they love. Much attention; little medicine.
There are special rules for the direction of the nurses; such as, they are never to carry about their persons, pins, needles, scissors or knives. . . . They are to abstain from every vulgar expression and improper word, and interdicted all gossiping.
Amusement. Sleep. In the way of amusement an accordion and a few playthings are all that are necessary in the Creche. The accordion has the power of stopping their crying. This is putting this musical instrument to a happy use, and it was a valuable discovery to ascertain that a kind of music so vile to adult ears can he made acceptable to those of babies.
It is not difficult, as they say, to accustom the. children to go to sleep all at the same time, for they maintain that sleep is sympathetic; a fact which is well sustained by what we often have an opportunity of observing in crowded assemblages. Although I doubt if a R. C. ever goes to sleep in Church.
In passing along the streets of Paris, I have been struck with the strange inscriptions over some of the shops. These inscriptions are a kind of dedication. Over a dry goods store, a grocery or shoe shop, you may read "au bon Pasteur," "a la bonne Providence," "a la Grace divine," "au diable a quatre," "au pauvre diable ": so that the eye as it glances along finds a curious mixture of sacred and profane things, and one cannot help thinking that the French have a strange way of associating holy subjects with ribbons, shawls, pork and vegetables, and a very droll idea of the "diable"--a person whom all good Catholics should regard with dread as man's great spiritual adversary, rather than sport with as they might be inclined to do with a Merry Andrew.
The names of many of the streets and places have been changed to adapt them to the republican fever: the old Palais Royal is now the Palais National. What's in a name! I had an opportunity in company with Mr. Degen, to make frequent inquiries amongst the shopkeepers, as to the present feeling of the Parisians in respect to the existing government. With the exception of a barber, all were of one opinion: that things have not been bettered by the change; that the republic costs very dear, and that under its name little has been acquired in the way of political privileges; that there is nothing permanent in the present order of things; that although the socialists had been crushed, the three opposing parties--the Louis Philippe party, the legitimists and republicans--will keep France in a ferment, until there is another grand convulsion, and the political state of the country be reduced to its first elements. The traders, merchants and decent laboring people are for the government which will give them the best facilities and securities for gaining a livelihood. "To sit still is their strength." They dread any revolutionary movement that may disturb the tranquillity of the nation. I have seen in the passages pictures of Louis Philippe and of his sons, labelled with their royal and princely titles; also portraits of Henry V., King of France as he is styled. In the newspapers, although they are subjected to many restrictions, I have read very bold and able discussions of great political questions, where monarchism and republicanism are contrasted to the advantage of the former, and where it is maintained that there can be no stability in government, no tranquillity in the country, no guaranty for the prosperity and happiness of the people, without going backwards and reestablishing the French monarchy on the ancient foundation, by espousing and maintaining legitimacy in the person of the Duke of Bordeaux.
On the ninth, we engaged our courier, a young German by the name of Ferdinand Bauer, who as yet has proved himself to be all we could wish; and bought our carriages, one calèche which belonged to General La Moncière, and a britzska--the two together costing 1800 francs.
November 14th. Left Paris by railroad for Tonnerre, on our way to Nice, by Dijon, Lyons, Avignon, Aix, Frejus and Cannes. Mr. and Mrs. Degen and Mr. Eckford accompanied us to the station. After having received so much kindness from these friends on board ship and since our arrival in France, we parted from them with many regrets, and our sincerest acknowledgments of their many services and affectionate attentions. The station house is a capacious building, in an architectural point of view remarkable for its lightness and beauty, and admirable in all its arrangements for the accommodation of travellers. On showing your ticket, you are permitted to pass into one of the three compartments, under the same roof, as you may happen to be travelling in the 1st, 2nd or 3rd class, and from thence, at the ringing" of a bell, you are conducted to the cars. The cars are like those formerly used on our railroads, with this difference, that those of the 1st class are much more luxuriously fitted out. Our carriages were placed on trucks, and we remained in them until we reached Tonnerre. There is one feature in the little French towns which flitted before us as we passed rapidly by on the railroad, which made a favorable, and I believe, a lasting impression. The houses all seemed to be clustering around the old Church, as if they had grown up around and were clinging to it, as if it was the nucleus, the sacred spot from which radiated peace and domestic happiness. There was no symbol of disunion; no evidence of dissent and religious bickerings and hostility, which stares us in the face as soon as we come in sight of some little pert American village with its four or five bright red or glistening white meeting houses. No one would think in France of asking where or which is the Church? In our religion, we appear to adopt the formula of traffic "Opposition is the life of trade."
Arrived at Montbard at ten o'clock. Rooms had been ordered for us at the Point du Jour. The fires in our rooms were all lighted, and we were soon refreshed with a capital dinner (trout, partridges, etc.). It is a dirty place, and only celebrated as the birthplace of Buffon.
November 15th. At nine o'clock started for Dijon. The roads are all macadamized. The villages we passed through today had a poor and desolate appearance, the houses of stone and sometimes stuccoed, with roofs hanging down almost to the ground. The only redeeming feature in the landscape is the old, quaint Church which is the prominent object as you approach each town. We arrived at Dijon at 7 1/2 o'clock.
16th. Notre Dame is remarkable as a specimen of the purest Gothic. Its clock is mentioned by Froissart as the most curious one in Christendom or heathen lands. Several churches in this place have been desecrated, and are now occupied as warehouses, corn markets, etc.
"Les Puits de Moise," in the old Chartreuse, is a curious specimen of ancient art. It consists of several beautifully finished statues, figures of Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah. Zechariah, Daniel and David, ranged round a shaft, and was originally a centre ornament in a cemetery. The old woman who pointed out its beauties, in explanation of the two horns on the head of Moses, said that it represented "the glory," and that Moses was always thus distinguished among the Old Testament saints, because he alone was permitted to speak face to face with God.
The Chartreuse which is now rebuilt is occupied as an asylum for lunatics and idiots or "fous." On asking the old woman whether there were many fools in France, she replied "presque toutes."
We find every comfort in the Hotel de la Cloche, and I cannot help mentioning that half at least of our comfort and pleasure here is to be attributed to the amiable Mary Anne, the waiting maid, who by her engaging' manners made a favorable impression upon us all. She is pretty, complaisant, bright and modest withal. Though cheerful she said she was "ennuyed" at times, when she thought of her father and mother who were living about twelve miles from Dijon. They were very poor, and she sent them more than half her earnings. Sometimes, she said, she was exposed to insult; not unfrequently scolded by the proprietor of the hotel, when the fault was in the peevishness of the travellers; and at all times regarded with jealousy by the other servants, who, as she said, if they only would take the same trouble to please that she did, would equally ingratiate themselves into the favorable opinion of the persons whom they served. She convinced us of her artless simplicity and honesty, by refusing to receive any present of money, assuring us that she was not permitted to receive for herself any gratuity, that she would be compelled to place in the servants' box anything we might choose to give her. Hers is a hard service. She has not enjoyed the privilege of going to Church since last Easter. Every night up to twelve o'clock; sometimes, as her turn comes round, watches all night; and her earnings, her portion of the gifts of travellers, amount to about 100 dollars a year. She is worthier of a happier lot. Would that all, especially those whose lot has, by Providence, fallen into a good ground, would be as contented as she is, and as cheerfully and faithfully fulfil the duties o! the station in which God has placed them.
Left Dijon at two o'clock by railroad, passing through the Burgundy wine country, and arrived at Chalons 25 minutes past 4 o'clock.
18th. Left Chalons in the steamer Crocodile at 10 o'clock, and arrived at Lyons 6 1/2. The Crocodile is well named: it is a long, narrow, black painted boat. A passage in her was something like sailing down the river on a log. We remained in our carriages, it being a rainy day, and were right glad when we found ourselves rattling along the streets of Lyons.
19th. At 10 o'clock left in the steamer for Valence. The river very narrow and shallow, shortly after leaving Lyons, and the passengers were obliged to run first to the bows, then to the stern, to get the boat off as she occasionally grounded. Near Tournon saw snow on. the distant mountains. Arrived at Valence at 5 o'clock.
20th. Next morning at 7 o'clock, by steamer, left for Avignon. Many soldiers on board; some look like mere boys. At one of the villages which we passed today, there was a "petite revolution "yesterday; a barricade was raised, one or two men killed, and several wounded.
Avignon was occupied by the Popes from 1305 to 1370, according to Petrarch, the Babylonish captivity of the Church. The Popes gained possession of Avignon by a grant made by Joanna of Naples while yet a minor for 80,000 gold crowns, which were never paid. The palace of the Popes is now occupied as a barracks, the temporal in fact supplanting the spiritual sword. We were disappointed in not seeing the halls of the Inquisition; some alteration having been made in the building-, as we were informed, they can no longer be seen by the traveller. Perhaps Murray's Handbook, Dickens' pictures and other books of the same kind, have given so much publicity to the cruelties and horrors perpetrated, under the name of religion, within these walls, that they have been closed with the hope of blotting out from memory, if possible, this bloody chapter of ecclesiastical history.
November 21st. At 9 1/4 o'clock left for Aix. A person is not long in France before observing (hat in this land of gallantry, the fair sex are compelled to turn their hand to many employments which in other less chivalric countries are exclusively appropriated to the lords of creation. We met a woman driving today a public conveyance, filled with men, women and children. Another woman passed us on the road, conducting a cart drawn by 4 horses, with another horse tied behind. In Paris, on entering the shops, it was often a matter of inquiry to myself--where are the men? I once asked to satisfy my curiosity, and was informed that the men superintend the manufacture of the articles, generally in the rear of the establishment, and the women attend to their sale in front. Close to the road as we approached Aix, we saw olives, almonds and mulberries. Stone crosses.
Arrived at Aix at 20 minutes past 5 o'clock. "Aix was the ancient capital of Provence, the resort of the troubadours, the home of poetry, gallantry and politeness, the theatre of the courts of love and of gay fetes."
22nd. Between 6 and 7 o'clock, went to the Cathedral; a congregation of 30 or 40 were assembled for Mass. . . . At 8 o'clock left for Frejus. For want of a postilion, I was compelled to stay an hour at Le Muy, the other carriage, with the ladies, my father and courier continuing their journey to Frejus, An auvrier made himself very agreeable to me during my compulsory stay in the village, and on giving him a franc to drink my health, he insisted upon doing the civilities of the place, and treated me first to a cigar and then took me to a cafe, where we regaled ourselves with a cup of cafe seasoned with cognac, and discussed American and French politics with the mayor and other official dignities of the village. Before reaching Frejus, Ferdinand met me with a one-horse wagon, and I reached the Hotel du Midi at half past 10 o'clock.
23rd. At 7 o'clock took a stroll and visited the Cathedral, adjoining which is a Baptistery of the 11th or 12th century, resting on eight columns of grey granite with marble capitals. I don't believe that any Baptisteries are to be found of later date than the I3th century, when the doctrine of the Roman Church was settled in respect to the seven sacraments, and the rite of Holy Baptism was levelled in significancy with Absolution, Extreme Unction and Matrimony.
Left Frejus at 8 1/4 o'clock. . , . The ride today exceedingly beautiful, along the shore of the Mediterranean at times, through olive groves, and by the side of orange trees ladened with fruit. We met with no inconvenience, thanks to a five-franc piece, at the douane, and arrived at Nice at 6 1/4.
In a store where I was purchasing a few articles, I asked the shopkeeper whether there were many soldiers here. He replied "Yes, plenty of them. We have not yet emerged from a state of barbarism, where force rules instead of law." I see from the paper which is published twice a week, that the Sisters of Charity have been removed from the hospitals, in consequence of bad management, and their place supplied by others appointed by the city government. The differences between the Pope and King of Sardinia would appear, from what I read in the same journal, not yet to be amicably adjusted. Multitudes of priests, and monks bareheaded with bare or sandaled feet, loaf through the streets as if they had nothing to do, and found it difficult to pass their time. Perhaps they are forced to leave their hallowed retreats to sun themselves.
December 1st. Advent Sunday. In consequence of the carriage not coming in time, we arrived at the Church too ]ate to find seats, and were obliged to return. We engaged in prayer in our room. Attended the Evening Service. Last Sunday evening attended a French Evangelical Service in an upper room; the congregation numbered about 12.
After leaving Nice the travellers ride along the delightful Cornice road--the old Aurelian way--which, "for a considerable distance, runs along the edge of a mountain overhanging the Mediterranean, offering views of the greatest beauty." San Remo as it appeared from the windows of the hotel, its houses pitched one upon another on the side of a mountain, is described as looking like a "gigantic hornet's nest." Departing from San Remo on the 3rd of December:
The weather is very much like one of our brightest September days. Along the coast, at intervals, perched on projecting rocks, are ruined towers, which were built to protect the villages from the piratical incursions of the Algerines. The streets of the towns are so narrow, that in some cases, they are obliged to close the doors of the houses to let a carriage pass through. The Churches we saw today are painted with the gayest colors, and a fresco painting of the Virgin is the chief ornament in the front. Several of the women which we met wore veils; some girls we saw engaged in unloading a vessel, walking two by two with a sack on their heads. The carriage never stops without drawing around it a swarm of beggars, but this is to be said in their favor--they generally are objects of charity from sickness or some bodily infirmity, and are thankful to receive the smallest coin, so that a very moderate degree of charity, and a few coppers, two or more of which would make a penny, go a great way.
Arrived at Savona. Hotel de la Poste; magnificently furnished, repairs not yet complete, cuisine tolerable only; the proprietor seems determined to impress his guests through the eye rather than the stomach.
Again travelling, our journalist notices the. frequent pictures or frescoes of the Virgin, on Churches, houses, and garden walls. A stranger might suppose that "the Ligurians were worshippers of a woman." Genoa is reached on the afternoon of the fourth. Here note is made of the receipt of letters from America. Naturally, much attention is given, in Italy, to palaces, pictures, statues, frescoes, as well as Cathedrals and other Churches. At the same time the works of beneficence are never lost sight of.
Genoa is no less remarkable for the munificence displayed in its provision for the poor and afflicted, than for the splendor of its palaces and Churches.
Albergo del Poveri. The building might be well styled a palace. The object is to provide a home for the poor and aged, for all in fact who are not able to take care of themselves from age or other infirmity; accordingly it includes among its inmates men, women and children, in number about 2000. There is a school for the children, another for the "mutes." On a blackboard which had just been used by one of these poor unfortunates was written in Italian: "Faith is a principle infused by the grace of God, by which one believes what the Church teaches agreeably to the revealed will of God." The men and women who are not incapacitated by age or bodily infirmity, are engaged in manufacturing towels, napkins, table linen, carpets and clothing of various kinds; the girls are employed in needle work, lace making, etc. Two thirds of the avails of the labor are received Jay the operatives themselves; the remainder goes towards the support of the institution. . . . The boys were at play when we passed through, and were amusing themselves with a game like marbles, only they played with oranges. The girls, as they were sewing, were all engaged in singing a hymn. ... I have yet seen nothing in Genoa which has given me more pleasure, and impressed me with a more favorable opinion of its inhabitants, than this princely establishment, endowed and sustained with such munificent liberality.
In like manner, this benefactor of his race gives detailed attention in his Journal to the "Conservatorio of the Fieschine," an institution for orphan girls. On the 6th of December he writes:
San Siro. The oldest Church in Genoa, originally the Cathedral. Here was created the first Doge of Genoa with the acclamation of the people, when the oligarchy was destroyed.
December 7th. Woke up this morning about 5 o'clock by the ringing of bells, and was reminded of Nice where the bells were continually at work telling the hours and calling the faithful to their religious duties. If each stroke of the bell here and at Nice occasioned one humble earnest prayer, these two cities must receive each day from heaven a shower of blessings.
December 8th. At the Church of the Annunciation, at 9 o'clock, attended a military Mass. The Church was crowded, there being about 2000 soldiers in the nave. The glistening bayonets and the red caps of the soldiers, the rich uniforms of the officers, the beautiful costume of the Genoese women who wear a veil covering the head and falling on the shoulders, the gay appearance of the Church itself, presented a most magnificent coup d 'ceil, In front of the altar were two military bands which seemed to take the part of responsive choirs, and to perform the entire music of the Mass. Not a voice was heard but that of the officiating priest. In spite of the roll of the drums, which might be condemned as un-ecclesiastical in its character, and rather secular if not irreligious in its associations, the effect of the brass instruments, bassoons, clarionets and hautboys, at first startling, became highly impressive. The sermon was in French. The reason assigned for this by a friend, was the circumstance of there being many Savoyards among the regiments quartered in this city.
Leaving Genoa, our musician noted:
On our way to the steamer in a small boat, we passed a Sardinian vessel of war, where the sailors were amusing themselves in the waltz, by the music of a hand organ, which a man was playing in a boat alongside. We found among our fellow passengers, Mr. and Mrs. Wolfe of New York, Mr. and Mrs. Spencer, etc.
[After a short stay at Leghorn.] As soon as we were in rough water, dinner was served and few were left to enjoy it. December 10th. Arrived at Civita Vecchia, 6 o'clock. French soldiers were doing duty at this port of the pope. At half past twelve on our way to Naples, where we arrived at half past two o'clock, A.M.
December 11th. As we passed along the streets even at this early hour, Punchinello was seen, surrounded by hundreds of admirers. Looking from the window of our apartment, facing the Villa Reale, much amused we all were at the gay scene below: men with huge baskets of bread on their heads; others walking along under a good sized cart load of vegetables; women with wet clothes,--a stone on the top to keep them down--conically piled up to form a curious headgear; everything is carried on the head except oranges, which are wheeled under our window in little wagons, prettily trimmed with green leaves; monks in every variety of costume; soldiers or officers in rich uniforms; beggars in picturesque attitude and dress and elegant equipages of every description.
In my search for apartments ... a funeral procession passed by. The attendants were all dressed in white garments entirely covering the person, with openings only for the eyes.
Many of the houses which we entered in search for rooms, are exceedingly offensive to the eye and nose; so that a short tramp through the city and but a look and glance at the interior of a few of its best habitations, immediately suggest a satisfactory reason why the Neapolitans prefer living in the open air. The Lazzaroni are philosophers, and men of taste after all!
In every street you find Lottery offices. In one, more showy than the others in its decorations, is the picture of the Virgin as Lady Patroness of the establishment. Certainly the Italians have strange ideas of the Blessed Virgin, and while they worship her with almost divine honors, nevertheless in spite of all their respect and reverence for her as the Mother of God, they extend the limits of her maternal influence and supreme dominion in heaven and earth, so far as sometimes to associate her with places and occupations, which some good Catholics would regard as disreputable and anything but moral in their object and tendency. This was, it is said, an old Greek settlement, and possibly the remains of Paganism have not yet been entirely eradicated. I should judge from the fact of seeing two priests in one of these offices, that there is nothing in Lotteries opposed to the religious principles of the Roman Catholics in this part of the world.
December 12th. I have not yet received from the Custom House, several books which were found in the "vache," and which must be examined by the censors before they can be delivered up. In an extract from a military journal of this city, which I found in the Galignani Messenger, among the proscribed books are: Cosmos of Humboldt, Schiller, Shakespeare, Moliere, Lamartine, Ovid, Lucian and Sophocles.
15th. Attended service twice at the English Chapel attached to the Consulate; the Rector or Chaplain, Mr. Pugh. The Church was crowded in the morning. Music good. Subscribers pay two dollars a month for a seat; non-subscribers are charged every time 50 cents. As far as I could observe, the stores today are all closed.
Museums and Churches are visited continuously. Referring to one of the latter, the journalist notes: "Too late to see the paintings in sacristy. The cnstdde said it was so many minutes of 24 o'clock, which is otherwise called 5 o'clock."
It takes some time for the eye to become accustomed to the style of architecture which prevails in this part of Italy, for sacred edifices. The classical facades and other Roman or Grecian features give them a secular appearance. So great is the contrast, within and without, of a Neapolitan Church and a Cathedral in the north of France, say at Rouen, that it can but with difficulty be imagined, that the two buildings were reared by persons holding the same faith, or could be occupied and used for the same sacred service. They would seem to represent two complete sets of religious ideas. At Rouen you see Roman Catholics in the shade, here in sunlight--too strong a light thrown upon it, its defects too apparent. There is so much flimsy ornament and tinsel in many of the most splendid Churches, that after visiting many of them, you leave with the impression that the Service of the Mass is growing to seed. There is a feeling of awe and reverence produced by the grandeur and massive ornaments of a Gothic Cathedral, whereas in an Italian Church you are at best surprised by the exhibition of wealth and at times lost in admiration when gazing on some masterpiece of the celebrated painters. Besides, in France you are not always repelled and excited to criticism by the miserable little dolls which are to be found in every Church and every street in Italy. I have not seen as much devotion in the Churches here as I observed at Rouen, Paris, Dijon and elsewhere in France.
Upon the 18th, visiting the Monastery of San Martino, after speaking of frescoes, precious marbles, and mosaics, he records:
In the choir, "The Nativity" by Guido, is particularly worthy of mention. Guido died before he finished this painting. His heirs wished to restore to the monks 2000 scuiii which had been paid in advance, but they were so well satisfied with the picture, incomplete as it was, that they refused to receive back the money. In the treasury "The Descent from the Cross" by Spagnoletto, is one of the finest paintings in the world, in point of conception of subject and expression given to the different figures. In the hall leading to the Church is an inscription, historic, connected with the Carthusians who were obliged to fly from England, reflecting pretty severely on Henry VIII.
December 24th. Riding through the Toledo, found the street crowded with people. The fish sellers with their eels were decidedly the most conspicuous and noisy in the busy throng. Over each basket of fish or eels \vas a branch of bay-tree from which hung a picture of St. Pas-quale. A marked contrast in the appearance of Naples and that of New York on the day before Christmas! Instead of sugar plums, fancy books and toys, nothing but the smell and sight of fish! This may be accounted for by the fact that the 24th December, as coming immediately before a great festival, is a vigil.
At 10 1/2 at night, F-----and myself went to the Royal Chapel to attend the midnight service. After Vespers, the Mass commenced about 12 o'clock. The choir was stationed above and in the rear of the altar. Besides an orchestra of about 25 performers, there were 7 singers, three tenors and four basses. The organ was almost too insignificant to deserve any mention. I was surprised, however, by the musical performances of the organist, who in the solemn parts of the Mass, accompanied the priest in an ad libitum movement, which had a most ludicrous effect, and must have been very perplexing to the officiating priest, provided that his ears could discriminate between harmony and discord. As soon as their services were no longer required, the musicians and singers, retired, first blowing out the candles. The chapel was not crowded. I noticed great irreverence on the part of certain females who while on their knees were laughing and joking. The sermon was on the Incarnation, or rather the Nativity, and I listened to it with pleasure although I could understand but a few words; the manner and voice of the preacher were so agreeable. \Ve left the chapel at half past one o'clock. This service has helped me to realize the sacred season.
December 25th. This does not seem like Christmas. It is only with an effort that I can make myself feel that this is the same holy festival to which I have always looked forward with so much pleasure; and now I cannot bear to think of the Holy Cross, as the remembrance of our festival joys only excites feelings of regret. I hope that the girls of the school, and all my parishioners will pass a merrie and happy day. The English Chapel was opened for morning and evening service, and attended by good congregations. I must here express my dissatisfaction at the mode of conducting the Communion Service. There seems to be no rule or custom as to the postures, the majority of the congregation kneeling or sitting during the exhortations and the reading of the Gloria in Excelsis. I was moreover shocked by the irreverence of the officiating priests, who allowed the consecrated bread, which they had carelessly dropped, to lie on the floor of the chancel. The stores are all closed, as the festival is observed as Sunday. December 26th. The stores closed. 28th. Breakfast on board the Cumberland.
1851. January 1st. How little we know of the future! Little did I think as I was "watching- "last January, that before the year passed around I should be here in Naples. Plow foolish and presumptuous to make any anticipations, when we cannot with all our shrewdness tell what a day may bring forth! I almost dread entering upon this year, but with sincerity I say "My times are in God's hand," and I am ready for all events and any contingency. Could we only live for eternity, how easily we could pass through life to the grave! Wherever we are we are in God's sight. How great the importance of each successive year when we consider eternity!
A high festival with the R. C.'s. Our Church is not open. The stores are all closed. There was some visiting among the Americans.
Record is made of a visit to the museum, especially to the rooms containing pictures and inscriptions from Pompeii and Herculaneum; also of notes in detail about the "Hopital des Enfans trouvés" where the party is conducted "by a very interesting Sister of Charity."
Religion never appears under a more attractive aspect than when we see it presented to us in the humble offices and self-devotion of these holy women, who give themselves to the service of their divine Master and to attendance upon His poor.
January 7th. At the Church of St. Januarius of the Poor, my father and myself, with the courier and a guide, descended into the Catacombs. These Catacombs consist of three stories communicating with each other by steps cut in the rock. On either side of the corridors are shelves, as it were, on which bodies of the dead were laid, and furnished with slides into which passed stone or marble slab fronts. Near the entrance are three or more chapels, in which are frescoes roughly finished and now much obscured. On one of these chapels is pictured a saint with the title S. Desiderius. In another there is a + with A Q; in another a picture of what the guide called a woman, but which we suppose to be our Saviour spreading out His hand to bless. One of these frescoes has been marred by an American of Boston, who has there cut in large letters his name. What stupidity, for a man presuming to travel for information, to go to the Catacombs, and then like a vandal deliberately set to work to destroy what has been preserved for centuries, and is among the most interesting monuments of early Christianity! There are pits, which have been opened, along the sides of the corridor through which we passed, that are full of hones and ashes. These Catacombs are supposed to be of great extent, some maintaining that they extend to Pozzuoli. L'Abbe Romanelli in 1792 and 1814 penetrated very far into them, and on the first story found a Church with altar, baptistery, etc. He asserts that his explorations extended beyond a mile. "Le clergé Napolitain y celebrait plusieurs fonctions, et celui qui y était agrégé devait promettre et jurer de visiter les catacombes au moins une fois l'an."
January 10th. In company with Mr., Mrs. and Miss Fanny Russel went by railroad to Pompeii--this railroad, by the way, being so far behind the age (we advance so rapidly in the path of improvement in this century that things very soon become old) that it was almost as curious to us as some of the antiquities at Pompeii itself. And it was a droll thing to find yourself in a railroad car en route to a city which was destroyed almost 1900 years ago. This is the second time that I have made this interesting excursion. I need not be particular in recording what I saw. One of the most extraordinary sights was a musical performer, real flesh and blood, who at the amphitheatre, while we were acting the audience standing on the stone benches, amused us highly with his ludicrous imitations, grotesque dancing, and his singing of national ballads. The whole affair seemed indeed to be a poor caricature of what had once formed the amusement of 40,000 persons. In their anxiety to pick up something antique, two of the party managed to get possession of the fragments of pipes. What was more strange still, one of the bowls of these pipes actually had tobacco in it! Mr. R. thought he would like to pull an orange from the tree at the restaurant, and to his surprise he found that most of the golden fruit was tied on to the branches. This restaurant is quite an accommodation. On their card we read: "For Dinner parties address Before to the Master of the Irons Crown Hotel at Toledo keept by the Same."
I could not observe that there were many changes since I was here in 1839. Certainly not many new objects of curiosity were presented to my view. I should judge from this that the explorations must proceed very slowly. During the revolution of 1848, the excavations were entirely suspended. About three fourths of the ancient city remain to be uncovered. Anything in the way of statuary or painting that is now found at Pompeii, is permitted by the King to remain where it is.
January 11th. Went to Baire; visiting Pomioli, Lakes Lucrine and Avernus, the Cave of the Sibyl, Zero's Bath and the Temple of Venus. Perhaps there is no part of Italy more rich in classical associations than the region through which we passed on our excursion today. I am not certain that our most pleasant reminiscences, gathered up in the past among the recollections of our schoolboy-days, are connected with Virgil and Horace and Cicero; still there is no little satisfaction to see the "facilis descensus Averni," the lake so celebrated by Horace for the oyster suppers of his friend Lucullus, and the remains of Cicero's villa where the orator and philosopher composed one of his best ethical works.
January 14th. In company with Mrs. S. and Mr. K. of New York went on an excursion to Capri. The weather not altogether agreeable; there was a little breeze and something of a swell, and Mrs. S. was laid out on the deck with a basin by her head. Although it was rather rough and there was some little danger of a ducking or something worse, I entered the grotto. The color of the water is a turquoise blue. During the five or ten minutes we were in the grotto, I was more concerned in thinking how we were to get out in case the wind suddenly rose, than in admiring the peculiar hue of the water. We were disappointed in not being permitted to land on the island, and notwithstanding we enjoyed some beautiful views along the bay, we were rather dissatisfied with our water party. We left the St. Lucia at 1/2 past 8 o'clock, and arrived at Naples on our return at 5 o'clock.
I have occasionally met in the streets an extraordinary looking equipage, a carriage or coupe painted gaily with blue or red colors and richly gilded. At first, seeing it in the distance, and only being able to observe its outre appearance and the curious fantastic dress of four little boys on the outside of the carriage, I supposed it was a part of some travelling show. I have at last found out that it is a funeral carriage for children. There is a rough box behind the carriage for the corpse. I presume the idea is that the death of children is not a subject of regret or sorrow. Our friend Spedicato (our Italian master) informed us the other morning of the sudden death of his little boy. Tie said that he had taken the body the evening before to the cemetery, and had left it to the monks to bury it, as his feelings would not permit him to be present at the interment.
Ladies, very richly dressed, are sometimes seen, seated in a sedan chair. This is the way in which mothers take their infants to Church to be baptized.
21st. Visited Royal Palace. The throne room and ball room very elegant. The apparatus to carry the queen up to her parlor is as comfortable a contrivance as could be designed. It is in fact a movable room. Her majesty has only to take five steps on the marble pavement, when she finds herself in this little room, and in a few moments she has reached her apartment. It is something on the principle of a dumb-waiter.
At Rome a large part of the Journal is devoted to the mention of pictures. Now and then a remark is added, as in the Sistine Chapel:
February 15th. I was not more impressed by Michael Angelo's "Last Judgment" than I was when I saw it for the first time on my previous visit to Rome. On looking at it you are more interested with the skill of the painter in foreshortening and anatomical drawing, than excited to fear and awe by the consideration of the subject which it depicts.
St. Peter's. I did not anticipate anything like the pleasure which I actually received on entering St. Peter's. My fondness for the Gothic style of architecture, prejudiced me against it. I had found previously all I had wished in the Cathedral at Rouen, and I did not expect to be impressed very seriously by the grandeur and magnificence of this stupendous edifice. But I was mistaken. In a few minutes I began to feel that St. Peter's was of all other sacred buildings most worthy of the service for which it was reared, most worthy of God's presence. Still I could not forget the means which were used to raise contributions for its erection, nor keep out of mind the great event which grew out of the sale of Indulgences. And I must confess that while I admit that this magnificent Church might be considered as the Tabernacle of God and the abode of angels, I must own it did not seem, in all respects, fitted for the worship of men. It seemed too much like heaven, to breathe more the spirit of the Church triumphant than the Church militant. You miss the props and aids of devotion. The soul is lost in the contemplation of the Supreme Glory of the King of Kings and Lord of Lords. . , . You are not drawn to Jesus Christ; you behold Him afar off surrounded by the dazzling rays of His divinity. It is like standing on Mount Tabor. We "wist not what to say," except "it is good for us to be here."
Many interesting entries must be omitted for lack of space. One of these, however, may not be passed by; it shows whither the heart was turning:
From the Vatican we went to La Trinita de' Monti, to hear the music at the Vesper service. I was disappointed. The music was very simple and very indifferently executed by a choir of nuns. It could in no way compare with the afternoon service at Holy Cross.
In August, 1851, the traveller returned from his second foreign tour, having devoted ten months to the trip. At once he resumed his work at the Holy Cross, which had been entrusted to other hands during his absence.
Agitations and oppositions from without, were not yet over: so it would appear from a story told me by a Trojan parishioner.
In one of the fifties, about the time when Dr. Coit was called to St. Paul's, Troy, it happened that there was an informal assemblage of clergy and others at the residence of Dr. Brinsmade. Among the clerical visitors were to be found Dr. Coxe, afterward Bishop of Western New York; Dr. Coit, Mr. Tucker, and the Rev. Mr. Smith of St. John's. Talk turned upon the services held at the Holy Cross, which was then looked upon as advanced, although nowadays it is considered mild; by certain objectors it was still termed "the Puseyite Church." Mr. Smith entered a protest against the manner in which services were conducted at the Holy Cross; addressing himself to Mr. Tucker, he told him that he was driving; people out of the Church. The Rector of the Holy Cross turned and said: "If it would help to save a man's soul, I would put on a red shirt and preach from a hydrant box." The "hydrant box" of that day referred to a flat-topped square wooden enclosure built around each fire-plug standing at a street corner; one such might be easily improvised as a temporary pulpit out of doors.
A correspondent writes to the Church Journal in March, 1853, affording a glimpse of a "bright Easter "at the Holy Cross. The order of service included: Te Deum and Jubilate by Mendelssohn; Anthem: "Behold now, praise the Lord," by Nares; Dr. Hodges' Trisagion and Novello's Gloria in Excelsis. At Evensong, the Anthem was the solo, "I know that my Redeemer liveth," with quartets and choruses from the "Messiah." The Versicles and Responses were sung as given in the Directorium Chori Anglicanum, "where the Plain-song is given--if we may trust the compiler--harmonized according to primitive purity and simplicity."
In June of the same year Dr. Muhlenberg pays a visit to the home and parish of his pupil. He accepts the position of preacher for the anniversary service of the Brotherhood of St. Barnabas, holden on St. Barnabas' day, June n, 1853. Many of the clergy are present at the Holy Cross, and there is an unusual attendance of the laity.
The Morning Prayer was choral, the Service being "Nares in D" and the Anthem "Blessed be Thou," by Kent.
A few days later Mr. Tucker is in line with other clergy, upon the occasion of the laying of the corner-stone of St. John's Church in Troy. That there was need of a stimulating example like that afforded by the Holy Cross may be inferred from the words of one present at the ceremony: "I dislike to find fault when all were so well pleased, but I must say that the effect of black coats, mixed with black gowns, half and half in the procession, was neither good nor imposing. It had a shabby, unprepared, undecided, private-judgment look about it."
On the 20th of June, 1854, Mr. Tucker appears in the pulpit of St. Paul's Church, Albany, as chosen preacher for the first anniversary service of the "Church Brotherhood "of the capital city--an organization similar to that of St. Barnabas in Troy. Later, at a "Diocesan Convention of Church Brotherhoods," likewise assembled in Albany, the Rev. J. I. Tucker was elected President of the Convention.
At the consecration of the Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., to the office of a Bishop, the services were held in Trinity Church, New York, on the 22nd of November in the same year. In the published report we read that "the procession entered from the South Sacristy, in the following order: Candidates for Holy Orders and students of the General Theological Seminary; unofficiating clergy in citizens' dress and in gowns and surplices, deacons and clergy officiating, and Bishops in their robes." What is more to the point, we note this: "In the middle of the choir the Provisional Bishop-elect was seated facing the altar, with the Rev. G. T. Bedell on his right and the Rev. J. I. Tucker on his left."
About this time, at a Thanksgiving office, celebrated in the Holy Cross, just before the announcement of his text, Mr. Tucker told his congregation that he availed himself of the first opportunity of informing them that he had declined the invitation to accept the rectorship of St. Peter's parish in Albany; that while he fully appreciated the honor conferred upon him by a call to one of the most important parishes in the State, there to succeed a friend who by reason of his eminent talents and Christian graces had been thought worthy of the high office of Bishop; yet he felt that there were holy ties and obligations which bound him to his present position--that there in the fear of God, and the hope of His blessing and the help of kind and sympathizing friends, he should continue his ministerial labors until forced to relinquish them.
Soon after the consecration of the new Diocesan, in the month of December, the Northern Convocation assembled in St. Peter's Church, Albany; the Provisional Bishop was present within the limits of his old parish, presiding at the services. At the opening Celebration on the morning of the 12th, the rendering of the music was of so pronounced a character as to call out admiration. Mr. Tucker had much to do with it, as it will appear from the words of a correspondent printed in the Church Journal:
The music of this service was of a character, and performed in a manner, most worthy of remark. It is not often, or in many places within the bounds of our communion, in America or in England, that a more proper style of music, or much better executed, is heard, than that of the Choir of the Church of the Holy Cross of Troy. At the urgent solicitation of the Bishop, the Rev. Mr. Tucker and his competent Organist, Mr. Hopkins, gave the services of the Choir of the Holy Cross, to assist in St. Peter's on Tuesday morning: and their presence in full force, was one of the most interesting features of the occasion. The music was performed with great spirit and fine effect--indeed, some parts of the service were perfectly thrilling. Mr. Hopkins presided at the organ, the Rev. Messrs. Tucker and Shackelford in the Choir. The music sung was the Ve.nite, and gth Selection of Psalms--chanted responsively in unison--the first to a Gregorian tone, the Selection to Farrant's chant; Te Deum and Jubilate, Nares in D; Old Hundredth in G, sung in unison. Anthem, "Lord, what love have I unto Thy law," Kent. Anthem after sermon: "The Lord gave the Word: great was the company of the preachers," "How beautiful are the feet," "Their sound is gone out, etc.," Handel. The Trisagion, Dr. Hodges. And the old Gloria in Excelsis. It will be seen that it was a judicious blending of the congregational and the cathedral styles. Those who heard will never forget, in this world, the sweet songs they heard in the sanctuary, on Tuesday morning.
On Wednesday the Provisional Bishop held a special ordination in St. Peter's Church, when an ex-Baptist minister and an ex-Presbyterian were advanced to the Priesthood. At this service there was a choir made up of clergy, vested in surplices, who entered the Church and ascended to the organ loft. The Rev. Mr. Shackelford played the organ. His coworker of the day before was at the other end of the Church; the Rev. Mr. Tucker appearing in the pulpit, where he preached, as the paper phrases it, "an admirable as well as appropriate discourse."
The instances here cited will show the warm interest felt by the Rector of the Holy Cross in general Church work, outside of the limits of his own parish or city.