It would be interesting to note the many and diversified details of the grand tour, of phenomenal extent, but our attention must be limited to a small fraction of the whole. Fortunate it is that we have any record.
The earlier of the two journals is included in a little book whose pages are closely covered with manuscript. In these the traveller sets down his daily doings in so far as they relate to portions of the months from April to August of the year 1839, passed in the Orient and along the Danube. The entries in the journal are especially valuable, as they take the place of letters, ordinarily relied upon as the basis of biography. Herein the voyager tells his own story.
Already does it become apparent that the young student has an opinion of his own; he goes back of human actions and considers the explaining motive. On the 29th of April, at Cairo, he writes:
Accompanied by a Janissary we visited the Citadel. It is situated on a projecting point of Mount Mokattam, in the eastern part of the town. After passing the mosque of Sultan Hassan, you commence an easy ascent to the grand gateway, passing near the spot on which was perpetrated the massacre of the unfortunate Mamelukes. In considering the deed, so bloody and cruel in appearance, we should remember the cause that prompted the act, and the circumstances that compelled the manner in which the act was accomplished. Mahomet Ali, by forethought and perseverance had placed himself in the situation to which his ambition had long spurred him on; his enemies were all vanquished, save the single band of "white slaves." He had none to fear but them, but they were sufficient to deprive him of his hard-earned possession. In open warfare, they were invincible; their destruction was necessary for the protection of his throne and life. Secret means, treachery could alone effect the object. The mind untutored by religion's pure law is not liable to judge correctly of moral questions. Means to an end were not weighed by the rules of Christianity. The end was necessary--the means so far good as they effected the end.
We went through the Palace. The Divan was a large room about 140 feet long. The furniture of the whole palace reminded us all of the decorations of -a country ball-room. The ceiling was decorated with paintings furnished by Greeks, generally representing the Pacha's fleet. They are now putting up in all the rooms, handsome chandeliers. The passages are lined with Egyptian alabaster, which has a rich appearance. In the large room, there is nothing but a divan all around the room, except a place on the side near the door, which is a kind of throne, or platform with a low railing, on which the Pacha reclines when receiving company. From the windows of the Divan, you obtain a fine view of Cairo and the environs.
In the Citadel the Pacha is building a splendid Mosque of Egyptian alabaster; the stone is rather too coarse. The Mint is as rude in its working as the metal is bad; in the gold coin there is about 75 per cent, of alloy; the "pressing out" of the metal is done by oxen. The men leave their work, and join the usual cry for "bakshish."
There are three or four pillars left of Joseph's Hall. The Pacha is at present building another edifice on its site Joseph's Well, or the Well of Saladin is more singular for its size and depth than its good water; at the top it is 45 feet in circumference; the depth is 2"jO feet; you descend 120 feet by a kind of road, when you arrive at the first wheel, which is turned by oxen.
The Mosque of Sultan Hassan was visited next in order. We were obliged to take off our shoes, as in our churches we would remove the hat. We proceeded through a narrow passage, dirty and gloomy, ornamented with a. few wooden lanterns and ostrich eggs. In a short time we arrived at a door leading to a court. Here we removed our shoes, and found ourselves in a wide court, in the middle of which was a large fountain. Opposite the door by which we entered, was a covered passage; along that side of the court, there was a pulpit, from which on Friday, the priest leads the prayers and adorations. Near the side of the pulpit is a door leading to what appears more like a Church than any other part of the building. In the centre is the tomb of the Sultan, which is surrounded by a railing. The ornaments of this chamber are exceedingly rude, approximating however to the Gothic style. On the floor, several spots were pointed out to us, as the blood of the Mamelukes. One of our friends who could not remove his boots without taking off his French pantaloons, soon after we left him made his appearance with rags about his feet. With all the toleration and kindness of Mahomet Ali, there is still some difficulty in visiting the mosques, without the protection of, a Janissary, as nothing can remove the violence of a fanatic.
Mad-house. Going through a small passage off the Bazaars, we entered an open court around which were cells. There was a maniac in each cell. They were all miserably clad each with a chain about his neck. One .poor fellow, a mere skeleton, appeared to droop under the weight of the iron collar, which hung round his delicate neck. A Nubian struck us all with the dignity of his air; it appears that he had, unprovoked, killed two men, one after the other. Even here we heard the universal cry of Arabs "Bakshish." The. Pacha formerly had a band of Arab musicians to play for the amusement of the poor lunatics. Instead of bettering the condition of the inmates of the Asylum, by the introduction of cleanliness, kindness, freedom, etc.--the main features in the management of similar institutions in Europe--he satisfied himself by merely taking up something which struck him as being exceedingly singular. The rude, Arab music! The persuasive notes of Orpheus themselves, would find a Herculean task to tranquillize the wretches that here wear away a miserable existence. By particular favor, and by our providing some rolls of bread to bestow upon the women, we were admitted to the "female department," which was much worse than the one we had just visited. One poor creature really had nothing on her, except the iron chain. We were more startled by what we saw here, from the circumstance of our having visited previously the Pacha's lions and double-horned rhinoceros, which had princely habitations in comparison with the filthy asylum of these poor, unfortunate beings.
Slave. Market. The same disgusting sight as at Alexandria! Here however we saw some Abyssinian ladies, quite pretty as well as costly--$1000--or $500--perhaps. These young women appeared quite happy, and anxious to fascinate a "Frank."
April 30th. Went to Tourah, and the quarries in the neighborhood, from which the stone was procured for the Pyramids. They are now worked by the Pacha, who has constructed a railroad in the neighborhood to carry the stone to the water. This railroad is perhaps one of the best in the world, but executed at an enormous expense; the Pacha instead of importing iron from England for £8 a ton is content to manufacture it for £40. A singular policy--independent, no doubt, but certainly an expensive system!
At Tourah is a military school for Cadets. The young men were engaged in drawing designs in engineering, and going through demonstrations of Euclid and calculations of Algebra. They study ten hours a day; the teachers are Turks, the principal a Frenchman. Everything, their dormitories, kitchen, eating room, accoutrements, are extremely neat and cleanly. Through the carelessness and ignorance of our Janissary, we could not find the Petrified Forest.
There are entries made in the beginning of May, first about the experience of a "horrible wind," by means of which some thirty or forty vessels were lost, houses blown down, and lives destroyed; again, about the performance given by a famous Algerine conjurer, professing occult power, who had deceived many, but who proved himself a mere charlatan. The next entry records the traveller's observation anent the pioneer of the recent incubating machine:
May 3rd. In company with Capt. McC. and his mate, we visited today the chicken ovens at Ghizeh. To get into them, we crept through a small hole, and found ourselves in an extremely warm and "fleay" place, a chamber about 20 feet long and five wide. On one side were ovens or small chambers, in which eggs were deposited; some were bursting the shell, others not so far advanced. On the other side of the passage were chickens just hatched, others three or four weeks old. They manufacture 4000 a month, and are employed all the year with the exception of four months. The chickens are all small, as is the case with the eggs in Egypt, which may account for the curious system of making hens.
The Cavalry School, at the same place, is well worth visiting. It being Friday--their Sunday or Holyday-the cadets were nearly all absent. The school is under the charge of a Frenchman, and is complete in every respect. They have a class in wind instruments. The horses are in good order, everything clean. The uniform is a green coat, ornamented with gold lace, and European pantaloons, made extremely full, of red cloth, with boots; it is really quite pretty. At old Cairo, we visited the ancient Church of the Copts, in which they show a spot, where--they say--the. Holy Family reposed in their "Flight."
4th. Dined with Dr. Abbott; a real Arab or rather Turkish dinner--fingers instead of forks, etc. Introduced to the room of the Egyptian Library, a capital collection of books on Egypt. Rosonelli's drawings and paintings of the Tombs, etc.
5th. Furnished by Dr. Abbott with tickets for the Amateur Theatre here. The room is exceedingly well arranged; sufficiently small to secure a full house. There was much beauty among the Levantine women. The play was an Italian farce, extremely well acted. There were a man and a pretty modest-looking girl, who were public actors.
6th. Tomb of Mahomet AH, or rather of his family. Much to our surprise, we found it all carpeted and arranged with divans. There were several tombs. Instead of the turban, we noticed the "tarboush "cut in stone, and placed on the exterior of the tomb, or on the headstone. The tombs themselves were gaudily painted; but notwithstanding this, I was taken with all of it. Here was no breaking of the social ties; no committing the body of a beloved friend to the sole company of gnawing worms. Here was a retreat, in which to mourn over a beloved parent, a faithful friend. It removes the gloomy thought of death: it keeps in remembrance the deceased. On our way home, we passed round the other side of the Citadel, and visited the tombs of the Caliphs and Mamelukes.
7th. Rode out to Shoubra Gardens--a perfect Paradise! Met the Pacha's post, going along on a donkey. The gardens are beautiful, laid out in French taste. The Palace which the Pacha is now building or repairing, is exceedingly beautiful and well adapted for a summer residence. It is built in a square, forming- a simple colonnade, with rooms at each corner. The palace is to be lighted with gas. It is tastefully gilded, and ornamented with paintings executed by Greek artists. The columns are of Oriental alabaster, the pavement of white marble. Near this palace, we saw ostriches and some gazelles. In the neighborhood of the gardens, the elephants are kept, which were presented to the Pacha by the East India Company. The Pacha doesn't like the present much; too expensive to keep the animals! He has endeavored to make them of use by carrying a steam-engine over to Suez; but it was "no go "! the animals could not move it. 8th. Went through the principal factories at Boulak--manufactories of arms, cotton, hardware, etc. The steam-engine has been found not to answer, and was consequently given up, for manual labor, three or four days ago. There is great difficulty in keeping the engine in order, in consequence of the sand which is almost always in the air, and the great liability to rust to which iron is subjected; something quite singular in this dry climate! Then again, there is much expense. To work an engine of twenty horse power, costs per day i6, whereas the labor of 300 men costs but £4, the highest wages being four piasters a day or twenty cents. The moving power is generally or universally, oxen. Throughout the different establishments, a cleanliness and niceness were observable.
Two days were spent in preparations for leaving. On the eleventh they departed, bound for Alexandria. The journal continues:
On the river the Pacha's steamer, being aground, endeavored to seduce some of our men, promising to tow us to Atfih if we could give them assistance; but we were too much of Yankees to be seduced by an Arab's promise, and left them to get off as well as possible with their own labor. We arrived at Alexandria, at midnight of the 14th.
15th. Early in the morning, left our boat and went to the Hotel d'Europe. All full! Obliged to go to Hill's Hotel, kept by Reynolds, situated pleasantly out of town. They say that it is an unhealthy place; commodious and clean. Today young Glidden dined with us--a clever fellow.
16th. A large party of us went on board the Pacha's corvette and one of the ship of the line. They were in beautiful order, the accommodations for the officers good but small. The decks are so arranged as to be very convenient for action. Visited the palace to see the Pacha, but it was too late; however, we had a sight of him sitting on a divan near the window, apparently earnestly engaged in conversation. The plague has broken out.
17th. Left in the French steamer, with 45 passengers. Found on board an American, a Mr. Calhoun, a missionary.
18th. The weather continues delightful; no sea.
19th. Weather still pleasant. A great contrast to what we experienced on our voyage from Civita Vecchia to Scyra. Mr. Calhoun we find an agreeable companion; in fact, our company is as agreeable as we could wish.
20th. Arrived at Scyra at 4 o'clock. Quarantined for 14 days, our passage included, in consequence of the plague at Alexandria. Before we left, a person said he had seen the funeral of a man who had died from the plague. Two men proceeded in advance, with swords drawn, and another with a wand, crying out in a loud voice to keep away.
21st. Still at Scyra. The Lazaretto here is so bad that we shall all go to Athens, with the exception of Clot Bey and others who sail for Malta. In the evening, left for the Piraeus; arrived there early in the morning of the 22nd. At nine o'clock we understand that we had 17 days to perform quarantine. At twelve o'clock, left for our new quarters, situated behind the Custom House. Here we found everything much better than we had anticipated; the rooms are small for two or three persons, but at the same time convenient, furnished with beds, bedstead and sheets. We have a pier about 40 feet long, which affords us a pleasant place for exercise. Everything is extremely neat about the establishment. In front of the middle of the house is the "Parlertorium," a small, covered place, divided by three partitions. Communication with your friends is carried on through two sets of bars of iron. Along the front of the establishment, a few flowers are cultivated. We divided the rooms amongst eight of us, and are comfortably settled for 13 or 14 days. Each room has a guardian, under whose special charge are its inmates. You don't stir without being faithfully attended by him, as a prisoner by his gaoler.
22nd. Mr. Hill was here this morning, waiting for his wife, whom he expects daily from Constantinople. Mr. Benjamin and Mr. King likewise called to see us this morning.
23rd. Mrs. Hill has arrived, in a small vessel chartered at Scyra. A most ludicrous sight--the reception of her ladyship by her husband, who could not come within six feet of her, without subjecting himself to quarantine. 24th, Our prison is becoming quite gay. Mrs. Hill's friends are here constantly. Lady C., Mr. Leeds, Captain Forbes and hosts of children are here frequently. We have brought a restaurateur into quarantine and two servants, and consequently make out very well. 25th. We find our time well employed in reading, writing, eating and sleeping.
28th. On this day we had a slight shock of earthquake. I believe it is an everyday occurrence in the Morea. It afforded some excitement-, and therefore was better than nothing.
3lst. This afternoon we left our quarters at quarantine and our English friends. I hope I may never see the former again; the latter, it would afford me much pleasure to meet. As for Mr. Calhoun, our Missionary at Smyrna, we like him better each day. He is certainly an estimable man--I might almost say faultless, for so I believe he is. Mr. Hill came alongside to bid us good-bye. We had a delightful sail; passed by the tomb of. Agamemnon. Aegina, once the rival of Athens, the place where they say money was first coined, was seen in the distance. June 1st. Arrived at Scyra at four o'clock this morning; our fourth visit to this curious place. A grand fete-day in honor of the King's saint. A royal salute was fired from the Greek gunboat, and from the five steamers (four French and one Austrian) lying in the harbor. The. steamers all hoisted their national colors, and gave the harbor a gay appearance. We went on shore at eight o'clock. The Greeks were making preparations for a glorious time. Processions etc. were getting under way. Met Mr. Perdicaris our Consul at Athens, who has just returned from an excursion through the Morea. He speaks of returning to America; says that Greece will do for one or two days, and then tires. He longs for the luxuriant foliage of America. At two o'clock we left for Smyrna; saw in the distance Andros, Tenos, Delos. Paros, Naxos, Mycene. Delos is celebrated by the nativity of Apollo and Diana; Naxos interesting as being the spot where the heartless Theseus left Ariadne, his benefactor and lady-love. At twelve o'clock we passed along the coast of Scio; too dark to see objects.
June 2nd. In the morning found ourselves entering the Gulf of Smyrna. Delivered despatches to some vessels of the line (French) lying at anchor, about 20 miles from Smyrna. The English and French fleet are expected daily; they are to act conjointly in" preventing an engagement between the fleets of the Sultan and Pacha. It is a beautiful sail up the Gulf, which is hemmed in by mountains on either side. It reminded us much of lake scenery, but the mountains are not like those of Scotland. About six miles off we saw the city, distinguished by a smoke rising up from its centre, and the dark foliage of the cypress. As we approached Smyrna, we distinguished two or three American flags; an English corvette and two or three Austrian vessels were lying off the city. The agent of the steamers came alongside and said we could communicate, there being no plague. We accordingly determined to land, and to remain a few days at Smyrna, and perhaps make an excursion to some of the seven Churches.
It will be noted that the traveller, although yet a youth, is well acquainted with his Bible; he knows "the mystery of the seven golden candlesticks." Although a young man of society, the very "pink of courtesy," still he cares enough for sacred subjects to seek out certain of "the seven Churches which are in Asia," to which St. John delivered the Revelation of Jesus Christ. The record proceeds:
At ten o'clock, we took leave of our friends on board the steamer, put ourselves and luggage in a small boat, and rowed to the American consulate; Mr. Ofiin was absent from the city. We procured porters, who carried on their backs almost as much as a camel, and proceeded to Mad. Rosa's hotel. These porters are celebrated for the weight they can carry; sometimes they may bear 400 or 500 pounds. They have a padded apparatus fitting to the back, on which they place the heavy burden. As we walked up to the hotel, we were surprised to see the doors and -windows of each house filled with beautiful faces. They appeared to have turned out to receive us; on inquiry, however, we found that it was no particular honor to us, but a universal custom of exposure on each returning Sunday. They were all beautiful, or at least appeared so to us, who had not seen a woman for some months. They have a speaking eye, all eloquent, and love seems their only language. They were all prettily dressed. Braided in their dark tresses is the scarlet tarboush, richly ornamented with gold, forming one of the most beautiful head-dresses I have ever seen.
Mr. Calhoun saw us to our quarters; he met us again at four o'clock and took us to Church. They have a nice Chapel attached to the Dutch consulate. The pew of the consul was mistaken for a pulpit; over it are the arms of the Netherlands. There are four or five services performed each Sunday in this same chapel, and accordingly you find every variety of book of prayer in every variety of tongue. In our pew we had a hymn-book in English, a Book of Psalms in Greek, a Bible in French, the service of our Church adapted to the Church of the Levant, in Italian. The service on the present occasion was the Presbyterian. The Rev. Mr. Temple of America preached a very good sermon. The audience was not large, in consequence of most of the Europeans or Franks, at this season of the year, being in the country. Mr. Calhoun was kind enough to introduce us to the congregation. Dined at six o'clock; good dinner; amused ourselves the rest of the evening by seeing the people pass our door on their return from Caravan bridge--a grand promenade on Sunday.
3rd. Mr. Agger, a Missionary here, called on us this morning, and with Mr. Calhoun accompanied us through the bazaars. They are much better, as far as the building is concerned, than those of Cairo, though there is perhaps not an equal variety of Oriental goods. We wandered through the bazaars, passing through the heart of the city, and wound our way up along the streets, until we had almost reached the height of the hill on which the old city was built, when there came on a violent rain, which forced us to take shelter under the low hanging eaves of a house in the Turkish quarter. The rain continued so hard, that we were compelled to give up our ascent to the old castle; so we returned, and being somewhat hungry, went into a cafe, and regaled ourselves with a dish of Kabobs which we found exceedingly nice.
You constantly pass graveyards in the very heart of the city, beautiful and gloomy at the same time--with their cypress and poppy--like the hectic flush on the consumptive patient. In one of the large graveyards a place is walled up and kept as it were sacred, in consequence of a tradition cherished by the Greeks and feared by the Turks. There is the base of a fine pillar, which the Greeks say belonged to a Church dedicated to St. Peter. For a time, the Turks defiled the sacred spot, by burying there their unsacred carcasses. Night after night, St. Peter removed the bodies; the tombs were found empty, the bodies were found in the public road, and the Turks were compelled to respect the sacred spot.
Spent the evening at Mr. Puggs'. Mr. Calhoun has rooms with him. We met here Mr. Agger, and in company with him, Mr. Calhoun and Mr. and Mrs. Riggs, spent a pleasant evening. Their house is well built and pleasantly situated, so as to have a fine sea-breeze almost continually. Mr. Riggs has the reputation of being a very superior man, a capital Creek scholar, etc. We had intended to go to Ephesus tomorrow, but horses cannot be obtained. Perhaps it is all for the best; our friends were extremely opposed to our going, as there is great fear of the fever at this season of the year.
4th. Mr. Temple called on us this morning; he is something of a croaker, but, I believe, a good man. He has been fifteen years in the Mediterranean. Invited us to his house to spend the evening. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Agger we see constantly.
In the evening took a walk with Mr. Calhoun, and passed along the barracks. Saw the soldiers exercising; a better looking set of men than the soldiers of the Pacha. Passed the Governor's house, and ascended the hill by the Jewish burial ground. The tombs consist of flat stones. There were some Turkish women taking the air, sitting on the tombs; I believe it is a fashionable resort. From the top of the hill, we obtained a beautiful view of the town and harbor; the suit was just setting. The houses appear to be built one upon the other. You see the remains of an old Roman road, the site of the Stadium, the buttresses of the theatre and a part of its side, also a small part of the old wall. A solitary cypress with a tomb at its base, marks the spot associated with the martyrdom of Polycarp, who was killed on the Stadium. It was too late, so we hurried down through the Armenian quarter; being thirsty, stopped at a cafe and sitting down under a broad shady plane-tree, drank a capital cup of coffee.
5th. Remained in the house in the morning. At three o'clock, accompanied by Mr. Calhoun, we took a ride on donkeys to Buja, a place where most of the English pass their summer. We had a delightful ride. Our road passed along by the celebrated Meles, near whose source tradition affixes the spot that gave Homer birth. It is a small stream except during the heavy rains, when it becomes quite a torrent. Passing round the castle we ascended the hill. We soon obtained a beautiful view of the valley of the Meles, "which by a livelier green betrayed the secret of its silent course." There was a rich luxuriance, a beauty of foliage, a gentleness or serenity which was extremely pleasing. At a distance we saw the Gulf. After passing the mountain, we reached a beautiful plain, and continued in it for a mile, until we reached Buja. It is very pleasantly situated; the houses are particularly comfortable and neat in appearance. We went immediately to Mr. Halleck's, printer to the Mission. He has here a delightful summer residence, and an agreeable wife. Mr. Agger and Mr. Calhoun when here, live with him. Mr. II. received us very kindly, and introduced us to two American girls, one about 17, the other 35, I should think.
They have a pretty little chapel, which they have made from a room in the upper part of the house. We passed an hour here very agreeably. The donkey boy had gone off to feed his donkey, and we could not find him; consequently we were obliged to walk almost halfway home. \Ye me' many merchants, on their way to their country-seats. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Agger dined with us, and gave us much information connected with the Mission here. Their influence is increasing so much at Constantinople, (hat many of the Armenians are frightened and commencing persecution. The Patriarch of the Greek. or of the Armenian Church, the Rabbi, and others of equal ecclesiastical right, have the whole and exclusive government of people of their nation--can banish, or punish them as they see fit. There is a Jewish prison in Constantinople, which has never been opened but to Jews. Having this power, persecution is an easy thing, and consequently they banish the disaffected of their Church. They have lately exiled two or three very estimable men. merely because they read and expounded the Bible; in word or action, they never slandered their Church. There is now here a young man, a converted Jew, from Constantinople. He was a protégé of one of the richest Armenian bankers. Some banking and other enemies to his patron, secured the exile of the protégé. He was sent to the interior of the country, with some of his friends. His journey to his place of exile was attended by every act of cruelty. The second day out, his sufferings were so great that he was obliged to bribe his attendants; this procured but a short release from misery. The next day he was obliged to bribe higher still. This system was carried on, on his arrival at his place of exile, lie has been imprisoned one or two years, for the sake of Truth. This gentleman is staying' with Mr. Agger, and assists in translations. . . .
7th. At six o'clock this morning took a walk to the Castle. Saw the head of Smyrna the Amazon: it is placed in the wall beside the entrance. The view from the Castle is very fine, taking in the bay, the city and the plain. Intensely warm; thermometer, 90. Went to a Catholic Church on our return home, attracted by a fine, pealing organ. 8th. In the morning, Mr. Calhoun took us to their book shop and gave us permission to select whatever books might please us. Their publications are all well got up. They publish a periodical in Greek, very similar to the Penny Magazine, of which they circulate from 1000 to 1500 copies. Last evening we took tea with Mr. Agger; met all the Missionaries; had quite an agreeable time. At three o'clock, we went on board the Austrian steamer, which we found overflowing with third-class passengers of all nations, who monopolized the whole decks. They were really of every nation, for we had on board Indians, Nubians, Arabs, Turks, Greeks, Portuguese, Italians, Poles and Americans. Our captain we like; he appears a good sailor, and gentlemanly in his manners. The breeze was a little fresh; threatened by a thunder and lightning storm. Arrived at Mitylene at two o'clock.
9th. Weather rather disagreeable. At twelve o'clock passed the plains of Troy; saw in the distance the mounds which they individualize as the tombs of Achilles and Patroclus! Soon afterward entered the canal; a fort is seen on cither side; at short intervals you pass six chateaus, two being always opposite each other. After dinner, passed Sestos and Abydos. Saw the place where Byron swam across. A young Englishman attempted the same feat lately, and entirely failed, losing his life. We find our captain a noble hearted fellow, and consequently our time passes pleasantly.
10th. At Gallipolis last night we saw part of the Turkish fleet--they are lying there to get in their stores--the Sultan being anxious to reduce his rebellious subject, Mahomet Ali, to obedience. Early this morning came in sight of a part of the Turkish fleet under sail, with two steamers. At 12 o'clock, passed around the point of Seraglio, and waited in the. Golden Horn some time for the health officers. Constantinople with its domes and minarets equalled our expectations. The Porte had quite a lively appearance with its shipping and its graceful caiques which resemble somewhat a canoe in appearance but are more beautifully carved. We found, to our great delight, that there would be no quarantine, but that we must submit to a smoking. We thought we could escape this disagreeable ceremony by taking a caique, and rowing for the shore; this was "no go," for we had hardly left the vessel, before the health officer came after us, and in a great passion ordered us to the smoking apparatus. This was nothing but a miserable shanty, in the middle of which was a pan of coals, saltpetre, etc.; we were compelled to go round and round the fire, until our eyes were pretty well filled with dust. They did not consider it necessary to touch our clothes, so that we escaped without much vexation. Mad. Roboly's brother, who is attached to the. health department, said that there were rooms to be had at her house, and accordingly we posted off there. We landed at Galata, a part of the town just below Pera, a most dirty filthy place. We crawled up the hill as well as we could, and soon arrived in Frank St., in which you see men promenading in every costume. We turned off from this street, and descending a steep hill, arrived at a small house which they pointed out as Mad. Roboly's. It was too late to get our letters.
11th. Obtained letters from our banker, Mr. Churchill. They were extremely satisfactory, and I don't know when I've been so happy. Mr. Churchill called for us at two o'clock, to take us to the opening of a Turkish theatre. A square was formed by wooden fences; on one side were boxes for men, on another for women screened from view by lattice work, on another side were rising benches for ol ito'k'koi. On the farther side was the orchestra, sitting on a small platform; their instruments, short pipes and noisy tambourines. The play was "The Opium Eater." In the beginning', dancing' boys made their appearance dressed up as girls. Nothing can equal the low vulgarity of the piece throughout, as translated to us by Mr. Churchill. The audience seemed much amused with the low jokes.
Mr. C. made a large fortune by shooting a boy instead of a partridge; he was seized, beaten and imprisoned by the Turkish officers, for the offence, and afterwards recovered £5000 for the injury done. Called on Dr. Robertson who was formerly at Scyra, now stationed here as Missionary to the Greeks. He is exceedingly agreeable, as well as his wife and daughter. Called on Mr. Goodell to whom we had a letter from Mr. Calhoun.
12th. Made our first visit to Constantinople. We were much pleased with the immense extent of the bazaars, and the beauty of the articles which they contain. We became very much fascinated with the ladies' shoes, and made considerable purchases. We very much admired a pair which they offered us for 1000 piasters or $50. We lounged through a considerable part of the bazaars, and being somewhat fatigued refreshed ourselves with a dish of Kabobs, the elements of which are minced mutton broiled on a spit, sour milk and bread. After we had recruited ourselves, we went to the Hippodrome or At-Meidan. Here is an obelisk 60 feet high--erected during the reign of Theodosius--the remains of a serpentine column which was brought from the temple of Delphi, where it had supported the holy tripod. There are also remains of a brick obelisk or pyramid, which had been covered with bronze by Constantine Porphyrogennetus. We entered the "cistern of 1001 columns," which is in the neighborhood. It is a large reservoir, or was so intended by its builder Constantine. Instead of loot columns it has 224. This reservoir is now used as a weaving shop. By engagement, we met Mr. Brown an American, who was unfortunate in business in America, and now is endeavoring to support himself honorably here. By appointment we met at the tower, from which they watch for fires. The tower is high, but you are well repaid with a splendid view of the Bosphorus, the Porte, the Sea of Marmora, Galata, Pera, etc., and regaled with a capital cup of coffee and a chibouque. From the tower, we went to the bazaars, accompanied by Mr. Brown, who assisted us in our purchases. We were much amused in seeing the attempts of the Turks towards civilization. Their poor attempts reminded me of the passage in Shakespeare, where we read:
As patches set upon a little breach Discredit more in hiding of the fault. Than did the fault before it was so patched.
Square-toed shoes, embroidered suspenders, badly made coats!--The Turks are in as bad a state as the Indians on the borders. Cairo is the city for oriental manners and customs. The shopkeeper generally takes half his original price.
Tea-fight at Dr. Robertson's. Took a walk with Mr. Goodell, the little Goodells and Robertsons, before tea, on the large burial ground. A singular fashion this in Turkey, to use a burial ground as a fashionable promenade! Gloom is banished from the abode of the dead; the deceased friend is not shunned; his tomb is made the resting place for his attached friend. Death instead of separating from a departed relative as a loathsome creature attracts by its silent repose.
13th. Took a boat and crossed over to Scutari: here we took horses and galloped up Mount Boulgourlou. 'The view could not be equalled. You see Constantinople in the distance, with its domes and minarets; rolling below you, the Bosphorus, its shores marked with numerous villages. At three o'clock, we went to see the "howling dervishes "in the town of Scutari. We were admitted into a small room, with a gallery running round two sides, one all screened, for women, like similar precautions in a Catholic Church for nuns. The walls were ornamented with tambourines, flags, and instruments of torture by means of which they formerly persecuted themselves; the Sultan at present prohibits their use. A railing runs round the room, leaving a way and place for the spectators; within the railing, mats of colored wool and skins of various kinds, were strewed on the ground. In a short time, they made their appearance, wearing their usual dress--a tall, white conical hat and a loose gown. They all engaged in prayer, and afterwards in turn kissed the hand of the head dervish. The chorister then struck up a dismal howl, and the rest joined in, in chorus. Their music was accompanied by motions of the body, the rapidity of motion increasing with the rapidity of the music, till some poor fellows almost fell from exhaustion. There was something horrible in their motions and attitudes; the mind fairly sickened to witness it. The howling was carried on in fine style. It sounded much like enthusiastic chanting in the Greek Church; the leader kept time with his hands. It was not therefore an individual howling, but a grand chorus. Before they parted, a child was brought in. This is always done when strangers are present, in order to prove their power of performing miracles; they wish the people to understand that the infant is sick and is cured. They are something of a set of jugglers. I could not but think-, that these poor fellows were working extremely hard for their living, and all perhaps for naught.
14th. Rowed up the Bosphorus about six miles to see the Sultan go to mosque. Soldiers were on duty at the mosque, with a splendid band of music. At twelve o'clock, his Serene Highness approached with his six boats or caiques of state. These were very long and beautifully painted and gilded, two of them being provided with splendid canopies, with velvet and damask, also mahogany sofas. Twenty oars! The Sultan arrived in the third boat, attended by two Pachas, who escorted him up the stairs to the mosque, the stairs being covered with carpet. He looks like a man of decision, but not of much energy; as he was quite unwell, complaining of a bleeding from the. kings, I could not judge. He was dressed somewhat like a European, his breast being ornamented with a splendid decoration. He returned in a carriage and six; the carriage was a miserable old hack. As he entered and left the church, there were crowds of people with petitions, which the Sultan ordered his officer to collect. He pointed out several poor creatures, and sent for their petitions. There were many distinguished people present, Prince George of Cambridge and others. After this lion was killed, we rowed up to the "Sweet Waters," which is only two miles above. We were obliged to be pulled through a very severe current before reaching the "Sweet Waters." It is a beautiful place and was crowded with Armenian ladies, v.-ho made their appearance on the ground in "Arabans "--a long vehicle richly carved, with cushions on the floor instead of seats, on which six or seven women place themselves. This vehicle is drawn by oxen, which are dressed off in grand style with looking-glasses on their heads; from the pole, two sticks rise in the air and project over the oxen, and to these sticks are attached small tufts of different colors. Many women were collected together, listening to some musicians and story tellers. We were anxious to know what was going on and approached them, but were soon stopped by several Turks, who from fear of their wives got into a great excitement. I'm sure, we meant them no harm.
15th. Mr. Rhodes, Jr., called on us yesterday and invited us to the launch of a steamer and cutter, which took place today. We had the pleasure of being launched on board the steamer, which is a beautiful model. After the launch, sixty persons dined at Mr. Rhodes'. Before the launch, instead of breaking a bottle of champagne over the deck and thus naming her, they sacrificed five or six sheep, and sprinkled blood over the bow. The Astrologer and Mufti were present, to mark the happy hour, and to pray for the vessel's safety. The Sultan was too sick to be present. At dinner, Mrs. R. wore a ring--which is a present to Mr. R. from the Emperor of Russia, for a model which he built for him--valued at $5000--being an enormous emerald surrounded with diamonds. After dinner we went on board the steamer; it is a beautiful model and beautifully fitted up. In the steamer's pantry was an abundance of champagne glasses, the Sultan finding that this wine is not forbidden in the Koran.
16th. Went to the English Chapel.
17th. We were delighted to hear this morning, that Prince George of Cambridge intended to visit the mosques today, with a firman. When a firman is granted, all can go who wish. We accordingly availed ourselves of the privilege of the rabble, and joined the crowd. We picked up recruits as we went along; a motley group we were, our friend Prince George at the head, with his red cravat, green vest, blue coat and light pantaloons. We were all obliged to wear slippers, or to pull off our boots on entering the mosques; this is for the sake of cleanliness. They say that some years ago any one could enter St. Sophia, but an unfortunate Russian gave great offence by spitting on the carpet, and thenceforth a firman was necessary to procure entrance. Many contented themselves by pulling their slippers partly over their boots, but many poor fellows in this way were left slipperless. St. Sophia pleases by its immense dome, its open grandeur and historical association. AcVunet pleases by its great extent, its gay-ness of appearance, and beauty of its ornaments; Solymania from its extreme chasteness and symmetry. St. Sophia has a gallery, as also Achmet, running in the first around the church.
Our friend Fleming arrived today, and is unfortunately put in quarantine for the same cases of plague which were reported at Smyrna when we left.
19th. Called at the Lazaretto; saw Fleming and poor Mr. Hatfield. They are as comfortable and happy as any one could be similarly situated.
20th--23rd. Our time is filled up in rowing up the Bosphorus, visiting the pretty villages that line its hanks, and in wandering through the bazaars. Looking out of our window the other day while at dinner, being aroused by human cries, we saw a poor fellow who had been employed in dragging stone for the French palace, placed with his feet before the fire of a small furnace. On enquiry, we found that the unfortunate fellow had pushed off a drunken soldier who had rubbed against him, and had been bastinadoed for the offence; his feet were much lacerated, and he was consequently placed before a fire to make the parts unite. 23d. Went to English chapel; afraid to visit Brusa, fearing a quarantine on our arrival.
28th. This week, visited New Palace, in company with Mr. Rhodes and all the Americans in town; had the pleasure of passing through a harem. Some of the rooms are large, and fitted up with much taste. Thence went to the Gun Factory; from this to Mr. Rhodes' and took a family dinner. Afterwards took a sail in his cutter. After tea we took a walk across the hills, and saw the place where the Mussulmans pray for rain. On one occasion the Mohammedans prayed in vain, and the prayers of the Christians alone availed to prevail with the Deity. The Turks got over the affair by saying that God was so tired of the Christian prayers, that He gave them rain immediately to put an end to their supplications. On the 2/th there was a rumor that the Sultan was extremely ill; on the 28th that he was dead, and that a regency had been appointed.
July 1st. Left Constantinople in Ferdinand Primo, Captain Everson. Head wind; bad sea.
2nd. Arrived at Varna at two o'clock. Went ashore with the Captain. Visited the Pacha.--Well fortified by nature and art.
The unusual extent of the tour, and the enterprise of the travellers, are indicated by the route here set down. Even nowadays, when European trips are common, not many Americans will sail up the Grecian Archipelago, making an excursion into the classic regions of Asia Minor, then through the Dardanelles, familiar to schoolboys as the Hellespont, so reaching Constantinople; thence again by steamer on the Black Sea, so as to enter the river Danube by its mouths, well up on the Russian border. The journal continues:
3rd. Arrived off mouth of the Danube, 3 o'clock. Ten feet of water upon the bar. Vessels cannot take in all their freight before clearing the bar. The banks of the river are. edged with rushes; occasionally you see a house on props, surrounded by water on all sides: these are the stations of the Russian guards. Passed two or three gun-boats of the Russians.
4th of July. This day we celebrated in grand style last year, in London. I am afraid it must glide by neglected on this occasion, as our friends, our Captain and all around us, are those who could with little pleasure enter into our feelings. Arrived at Galatz at ten o'clock; cannot land without being subjected to quarantine. We lose one of our companions here, an Israelite, who has afforded us much pleasure in discussion. He is well informed and liberal. He was anxious to make an appointment with us to have a public discussion at London.
Here, again, let a fact be noted. The writer of the journal is yet a youth. Fresh from college, he is interested in the site of classic story. Yet more, he is mindful of the lessons learned at Flushing, as also at his mother's knee. Religion is always an attractive subject for him. lie desires to visit the seven churches, and he likes to enter into long debate, upon the side of Christianity. It will be remembered that he is not yet in holy orders or even a student of theology; so far as may be known, he has no definite plan of life; he is a young man, very young, just entering upon a brilliant career of fashion. Nevertheless, he is strongly interested in the old-fashioned Bible. The journalist continues his entry for the fourth of July:
We passed the day very agreeably. The dinner was merrified by a few bottles of wine, so that the day did not pass by entirely unobserved. At five o'clock we left for ----- two hours' sail from Galatz. Here we stayed all the evening, and were almost devoured by mosquitoes. They have almost realized our expectations; rumor said that they were as large as donkeys--I think that they approximate more to the snipe species. All were obliged to leave the cabin and to go on deck.
5th. It is extremely provoking, this detention! Here we remain at this dirty, overflooded town until four o'clock, when we leave in the Galatea, which takes us to Orsova. We all were sorry to take leave of our good friend Captain Jack Everson; we bade him good-bye several times, and as we left gave him three cheers. This steamer, as well as the Ferdinand, was obliged to go up the river to make a turn; as we passed each other in the turn cannons were fired from either vessel. Proceeded on our way until dark; then lay by for the night. We are all provided with mosquito nets--still, I was sadly bit. We have no berths, but German spring-sofas.
6th. At twelve, o'clock at Hirdsova; the river very broad. The banks begin to show some signs of life; they are prettily covered with foliage. 7th. In the morning at Silistria; lost three or four hours, taking in coals.
8th. At seven o'clock arrived at Rustchuk; went ashore and bought some pipe-bowls peculiar to the place--quite a pretty Turkish town! The news is here confirmed of the death of the Sultan. Who can tell the effects that this infliction of Providence will bring upon Turkey? Perhaps its day is over. The Janissaries may arise and take vengeance on the Franks; there are no troops in Constantinople, all are in Syria. Russia may come down and seize the city. We saw the Sultan go to mosque for the last time; he then appeared extremely ill. His decision of character, overcame all his opponents. A regency, at least a Turkish regency, is unfit to cope with the enemies of reform.
9th. Last evening anchored at 8 o'clock; this morning we arrived at Nikopoli--we were unfortunately all asleep. The river varies little; devoid of beauty and interest. We are amused by the immense droves of cattle that are seen on the banks; see an abundance of wild fowl, pelicans, etc. Stopped at Sistor--dinner time.
10th. Arrived at Widdin at ten o'clock. Paid a visit to the Pacha, one of the wealthiest in the kingdom; his salary is estimated at $3,000,000. Nearly all the passengers were presented to his Pachaship. We had in our company, our two French fellow passengers, the Armenian and his wife and a young German woman. The palace was nothing extraordinary in appearance. In the court-yard a number of beggarly soldiers were hanging about, sufficiently miserable in appearance to touch the feelings of a sensitive man. The palace formed a square; on one side the reception room of the Pacha, on another his harem, and on another the stable. After passing through a crowd of attendants, we were ushered into the reception room. The room was large; it showed signs of better days as the eye wandered around the walls. It had been once gaily gilded according to the Turkish fashion. A divan ran partly round the room; on the unoccupied sides were French satin bottomed chairs. The Pacha was seated in the farther corner. Nothing was visible but the trunk of his body; his feet were wrapped up so well under his body, that they were to the eye as good as none. The gentleman wears spectacles, and is possessed of a fine, grey beard.
We made our salams, and then were seated. The servants retired. A short conversation was kept up by the Armenian gentleman. A eunuch appeared, and the ladies were requested to follow him, and they repaired to the harem--something of a compliment to the young German chambermaid! The Pacha then gave a gentle tap of the hands, and servants came in from a door on either side of the room, bringing some jelly in beautiful French china, some iced water in a similar vessel, and a silver spoon for each of the company. Each spoon was filled with the sweetmeats. The spoon was taken, its contents devoured in two mouthfuls, and then a sip of cold water was taken. This done, the Pacha again clapped his hands, and a crowd of servants rushed in, each bearing a chibouque with a small brass pan to put the bottom of the pipe on. These chibouques, about 16 in number, were as splendid as any I ever saw, the amber exceedingly clear and costly. My mouthpiece had a ring of diamonds around it; I suppose the chibouque was worth $1000. There were others equally beautiful. The Pacha smoked a hookah of silver. Then coffee was served; the chibouques were removed, and the attendants made their appearance again, bringing-pipes whose jewels made the room actually brilliant. These pipes have been valued at £400 to 700. There were as many of these, as persons to use them. We smoked our pipes and then retired, highly delighted with our visit. We met the ladies without, who had just left the harem, where they had seen three lovely women, one 50, another 20 and the other 35.
We saw a little Nubian who had come with us from Galatz, destined for the harem of the Pacha, presented to him. He first kissed his feet, and afterwards went through other servile offices and retired.
We left Widdin at five o'clock; the batteries were firing a salute in honor of the new Sultan, 11th. Proceeded on our way only for a few hours, having been detained for some time at Widdin. 12th. Thursday. Landed at five o'clock. We here leave the Galataea, and proceed to Orsova by means of a small boat drawn by oxen, the current being too strong and the channel too narrow for a steamer of 60 horse power. The river hourly increases in beauty; from where we are now lying, a beautiful pass is seen. The river seems to be suddenly changed into a lake, whose surface is graced with two or three pretty islands. The mountains that hem it in, in the distance, rise up one behind the other, forming seats in a mighty amphitheatre.
13th. Left the Galataea. The Captain and the Engineer (Leay, a Scotchman) have made themselves as agreeable as they could. The fare however was execrable. We started off at five o'clock in a long boat, a cabin running the whole length, very roughly constructed of unplaned boards. We brought seats from the steamer. It was possible to sit on the roof of the cabin, and in this way enjoy the scenery. Going through the Iron-gate, (a rapid falls) we were permitted to walk under the charge of a Servian soldier. The distance to Orsova is about fifteen miles, which we accomplished in nine hours, by the aid of oxen, sometimes 10, sometimes 22. We passed New Orsova, a beautiful town not far from Orsova, where was seen flying the Turkish flag; it is an island, I believe, and well fortified by nature and art. The river for these fifteen miles has been exceedingly grand; from its sides rise mountains richly coated with foliage, and occasionally decked with a golden crop of wheat.
Orsova is a smaller place than I expected to find. Oxcarts were in readiness to receive our luggage; neither the cattle nor their drivers were in quarantine--to keep the animals from becoming infected by contact, their tails were tied to a rope attached to the horns. Not much liking a half hour's walk, we jumped in the carts--the Armenian lady and all--and marched off with a guard in advance, and in our rear. The Lazaretto is about half a mile from Orsova, prettily situated in a small valley, hemmed in by high hills richly foliaged. The Lazaretto is a small village in itself. There are many houses, capable of accommodating from six to seven persons, with a large court surrounded by four high walls; to promenade around these houses, a road passes; a gate doubly barred and locked opens on this road, and through or at this door your friends disinfected converse with you.
On arriving, the director being absent the doctor presented himself, demanded our passports and desired us to follow him and receive our rooms. The doctor is a small man with a black beard, a hyenaish grin, and a fencing master's air in nourishing his stick. He seemed inclined to pen us up, either like so many criminals or so many wild animals. Finally, all were lodged except Captain Bennett of the British Navy, my friend Bob Fleming and myself. They took us to a house where three of our friends were lodged. The doctor said that the house must contain seven persons. Three persons already occupied two rooms decently furnished; the other was to be our quarters. lie opened the door; it was a miserable, dark, gloomy den, with nothing to conceal its earthy or brick floor but u platform which was intended for our bedstead. We told the doctor that it was a barracks, scarcely fit for a horse; that he ought to be aware that he was not dealing with malefactors or beggars but with gentlemen, one an officer in the English Navy; that we were here against our will for their convenience. He was insolent, as far as he was able with his meagre collection of French words and his menacing gestures with his cane. We told him that we would not occupy the room, but find another for ourselves. Presently one of my friends came in with the Armenian family; they desired to occupy the room to be near our party. They consequently took the den, but being only three, they wanted one more to fill up the number; for the doctor said that the room could hold four persons, and one of us must be one of the required four. We let him understand that his beastliness would not be countenanced by us, and turning our backs, looked until we found the best room left and occupied it. This was poor enough--the same sleeping accommodations; the room was larger, more light, and having a large yard. Our luggage we carried in ourselves and took forcible possession. A black rascal and a beggarly old Greek moved in their bedding, and took possession by order of the doctor. This was a little too much for a Captain in the British Navy, and for Americans, especially a Southerner. We sent for Monsieur Doctor. "Que voulez vous?" We told him our complaint; his acquaintance with French was just sufficient, with the assistance of his own conscience, to understand the reason of it. He said that the room could hold seven persons. We let him know that we had and would keep the room, and that the black man and Greek should not be our room mates.
The doctor had taken charge of our passports. C----- in going about our room picked up his passport; he was exceedingly provoked and demanded the presence of the doctor. Tie appeared, and in a warm discussion told C-----that he lied. This was exceedingly gentlemanly! Before dinner a man came to all the rooms and wished to know what we had in our possession; this is required, they say, so that property can be sent to friends in case of death. The real reason appears to me to be, to entice people to tell what they have, expecting--for the reason they assign--that travellers for their own protection will openly disclose all that they have, contraband or otherwise. Notice is then perhaps sent on to Vienna, and the unwary traveller taken in. They asked if we were married, of what religion, etc., which impertinent questions we answered as we chose. Our dinner was infamous; however, we were in capital spirits after dinner, and were enjoying ourselves in spite of our misfortunes, when the jailer came, and ordered us all to our respective rooms. We were just getting in tune, and were completely struck down to hear the order. Immediately we struck up "We won't go home till morning," and so we intended, for the Armenian and his lady could be well provided for, and the gentlemen could also pass a very comfortable night in our commodious habitation. It was no go however. They were marched off.
14th. We all dined together; the Armenian and all the party spent the day with us, not intending it; but the gates were locked at twelve o'clock, and kept so until two. The dinner was somewhat better--indeed, much better-but was in some respects not clean. The Captain, who is one of the best-natured men in the world, unfortunately caught sight of u wandering hair. This exceedingly vexed him, and he told Nicholas one of the guardians that the dish was exceedingly dirty, and that he must never bring such a dinner on table again. He was insolent. The Captain told him to retire and conducted him to the door. A few minutes afterward, the doctor appeared. "Que voulez vous?" was his interrogatory as usual. We told him our complaint. lie pretended to understand, and departed in a violent passion.
After dinner as on the preceding day, we clustered around the tree in the middle of the yard, and amused ourselves with a few songs. In the midst of our hilarity, we saw a number of ladies and gentlemen, counts and countesses, in front of our gate, looking at us like so many wild animals or malefactors. We were not at all abashed by their impudence, and accordingly advanced toward them and interrogated them--who and from whence they came and for what? They said they were from the Baths in the neighborhood, and had come to sec all the sights. We asked them to enter; they said it was far easier to enter than to go out, and besides, that they thought we could not have everything we wished. No doubt they had seen the doctor.
The bell rang to retire to our rooms. A short time afterwards the doctor appeared with two or three soldiers, and demanded Francesco, a man who had left the steamer which had brought us from Galatz. We had employed this man as our servant, inasmuch as he spoke German and Italian, and we were subjected to every kind of imposition from the beggarly Austrians, they giving us no tariff but one in German.
The record sets forth the further tribulation in quarantine, where the surly medical official tries to injure the party, as he endeavors to arrest their attendant on the ground of his non-possession of a passport. On the next day, the
15th. The doctor made his appearance with his suite of soldiers and demanded Francesco, but on showing another paper which he had purposely withheld, he escaped imprisonment. When we got up, we found the gates of our court-yard shut, and orders issued that there should be no communication between us--that we should not even dine together, nor visit with a guardian. This was a little too bad! He had already deprived us of many privileges, which we had a right to demand, and now he was disposed to treat us rather as thieves than gentlemen. We had as yet done nothing; we had merely defended our servant, whose assistance as an interpreter was indispensable. The idea of not seeing our friends, made us quite melancholy; but this was soon cast off when it was proposed that we should obey the orders of the doctor "to air our clothes," by filling them with straw, and amusing our friends by sticking them up high, so that every one could see them. This was soon done. Fleming had an old blue coat, I an old pair of black pantaloons, and Mr. Vieuxville a new hat. Unfortunately, this coincided exactly with the dress of the doctor. We elevated the stuffed clothes, which soon produced a considerable excitement, affording amusement to all around us. We and our friends were quite contented with the effect produced.
Presently to our astonishment, when we were reading in our rooms, the jailer came and locked us in. This was a little too severe! The doctor soon followed, attended by a corporal and three soldiers, and stationed them he-fore the stuffed clothes. Finding we could not get out of the door, we thought we would enter the next house through a flue, ascending the chimney by means of a rope ladder, which we had made the night before to scale the wall which separated us from our friends.
We had returned, and all were tranquil, when the gate opened, and the doctor entered accompanied by a suite Of officials. They came to the window, and put some questions to us. We respond: "Who are you who interrogate us?" "Sir, do you know whom you are speaking t the major of the quarantine?" We approached the window, apologized; said that it was necessary to know who addressed, as it could not be expected that we would answer any impudent rascal, like the doctor, whenever he thought fit to question us. The Captain said that it gave him great pleasure to address a brother officer. We then made our obeisance, in the most polite way. They asked us if we meant to insult the Austrian government. We told them that the idea never entered our mind; that if the doctor insisted it was an effigy of him, it was a personal affair. We then told the major our grievances, the total want of politeness on the part of the doctor. The doctor cried out all the time "I shall have satisfaction." We told the major that we should say no more; that we had informed them of our reason for elevating our clothes; that if the doctor still persisted it was an image of his person, the Captain offered him any satisfaction he sought, and kindly offered him his choice of any one of us three, when out of quarantine. Fortunately for himself and perhaps for us, lie refused such satisfaction, insisting-that we must be conducted to prison, or he would leave the quarantine. All this time he was most violent, in menacing gestures and words in a language which I could not understand. We asked the major if that was gentlemanly; he shrugged his shoulders, as much as to say "don't mind him." The secretary of the quarantine who was the interpreter of the party, said that he hoped we would remain tranquil, and that if we wished anything-, to write to him. Francesco not having any passport, was obliged to go to prison. We apologized to the major, for having indirectly troubled him.
The major desired us to remove the offending object. A soldier was left--for what purpose, we knew not; we asked the doctor; he could not tell us. One of us attempted to remove it, when the soldier presented his gun and cocked it.
They had taken away our servant, and consequently, unless we suffered ourselves to be cheated, we could not obtain any dinner. Very fortunately, we had brought a ham into quarantine, and Bennett had a small heating apparatus. We cut the ham in slices, and put them on a plate, and the latter article over the heater. We enjoyed our dinner much.
16th. The servant asked us if we wished dinner, we told him we would have nothing until we had a Tariff, and made our dinner on our ham. The restaurateur would not give us any forks or knives, so that we were obliged to cut our ham with a razor, and cat it with forks made of wood and our penknives. This afternoon the agent of the steamer called; he was very civil, heard our grievances, and said that he would call on the major himself.
17th. Ham dinner again. Our friends met us in the afternoon. Delighted to see them. The Armenian lady has acted with much spirit; she said that she did not care about her liberty, when we were slaves or prisoners; and that if she was compelled to visit the German chambermaid and not us, she would prefer to remain in her room. When we were all together, the agent of steamers came to see us; he had drawn up a protest against the doctor to be handed to the major. He said that he called on the major; that the major and many other persons, some of considerable influence in Europe, had made complaints against the doctor already, and that a courier had been despatched the previous evening to bring here a Commissioner, to examine into the complaints. It is a fortunate thing for us that the major and the agent have personal complaints against the doctor. We were granted permission to go around the wall, but the agent advised us not to avail ourselves of it.
i8th. While we were washing, the doctor came to the door of our house, and requested to see us; we told him to wait until we were dressed. He came into where we were washing, most politely asked us how we were, and whether we had received a Tariff in Italian (we had); that if there was anything we wished that was not on the Tariff, to mention it the day before, and we should have it. We dined together today; passed it pleasantly; took a walk in the evening before the gates were shut. We have at last obtained our washerwoman, a nice looking, German damsel.
When the gates were closed for the evening, Joseppi, our Italian interpreter came to us and said that he would come again in the evening, and tell us something important. We watched out for him and at dark saw him at the door. He gave us the intelligence that tomorrow morning at five o'clock two of us would be in irons in prison. We could not do otherwise than believe it, inasmuch as we had seen what free use they made of their chains; for poor Joseppi was put in chains this morning, and kept there for three hours, because he had introduced into our rooms a washerwoman, without consulting the doctor who wished to employ another. We arranged all our things; vowed to defend and stick by each other to the last. As we had the expectation of a pallet of straw, the court dress of Austria with its bracelets, etc., we thought we would enjoy our bed for the last time for some period--stretch out our limbs and play the gentleman, for tomorrow we were to be state prisoners; and for what? What have we done to bring ourselves to an equality with malefactors? Had we disobeyed the laws of quarantine? Here we were to be confined and chained, without the power of saying a word in our defence! I had a disturbed rest; my imagination brought before me strange and disagreeable scenes. I awoke just at five; the doctor had not yet appeared. Perhaps the servant was wrong, or had deceived us.
Later in the morning the doctor came, bringing word from the Commander-in-Chief, that the party should be held as prisoners until the arrival of the Commissioner. By advice of the major, the afflicted ones themselves wrote to the Commander-in-Chief asking that the commission be sent at once. They wrote also to the English Consul and to Mr. Muhlenberg, the American Minister at Vienna.
Four soldiers were marched into the premises occupied by our travellers. Afterward the English Consul called and rendered some welcome service. He joined his offer of parole to that of the major, on the strength of which the ones held in detention might leave the place. Again:
20th. Wrote according to the request of Col. Hodges, British Consul, our grievances in detail. The Director of Lazaret who has just returned from an excursion against some robbers in the neighborhood, called on us early this morning; he is an exceedingly polite and gentlemanly man, advanced in years. He expressed his regret that he had been absent; apologized for the doctor, saying that his conduct had been disgraceful, but that he was a man "sans education." On leaving us he told the guardians that if any of them were guilty of the least incivility towards us, they should be immediately discharged. After breakfast we had a visit from the Secretary of Lazaret, who kindly sympathizes with us, and says that he thinks the doctor will be discharged.
The others have been allowed to walk about the quarantine, and dine together. We are prisoners.
This afternoon we were aroused by some noise, and on enquiry, heard that the doctor had ordered Sam [Mr. Whitlock,] Thring and Cram to their rooms, saying that they must remain there, prisoners, until the Commission arrives, which he says will probably be on Wednesday next. This is bad news! I am dreadfully enervated and worried. I can't see how the word or parole of a Major and British Consul can be cancelled by the ipse dixit of a physician.
21st. News received from Director that the Commission will arrive tonight, and we be out of this hole tomorrow.
It was a serious and unfortunate experience for our travellers, else so much space would not have been devoted to it in the journal. That it was keenly felt by the participants is further shown in the entry made on the same day as the last:
Read the English service in company with Bennett and Fleming. The Psalm of the Day (the 108th) was extremely appropriate to our situation.
There are other reasons for the insertion here of the records of the time, despite their lengthened dimension. The occurrence needs telling as a vivid part of the life that was lived, an experience unusual in any biography. Again, the story will show the possibilities of existence in quarantine at the date referred to and under the rule of an officious health officer puffed up by his petty authority.
The frequent mention of quarantine throughout the journal will call attention to the universal dread of the plague, which a few years before had wrought havoc in the older lands, and about the near approach of which there were reports at the time.
At last, deliverance is at hand.
22nd. This evening, the long expected Commission arrived. They were twelve or fifteen in number; they received us with much civility, and desired us to make our complaints in writing.
The doctor called on us this morning at eight o'clock; made us show our bodies to see that we were not affected with the plague; then shook hands, saying in French that our probation was finished. We supposed, from this, that we were free, and would soon be at liberty and join again our friends; but on inquiry, we found that his cordial shake of hands was only a piece of cold formality.
23rd. The Commission commenced their sitting at seven o'clock. At ten o'clock, Capt. Bennett, Fleming and myself, were waited upon by the aide-de-camp of the Colonel and our friend the Steamer Agent, and desired to appear before the Commission. The Secretary read the complaints of the doctor against us, which we proved to be entirely unfounded in every instance. Bennett then, on the request of the Colonel, read our complaints against the doctor, which were interpreted by the agent. All present were astounded at the base behavior of the doctor. We were kept in attendance three hours, the time being occupied in translating our complaints, which the Colonel desired us to retain to be sent to his government. On retiring, they said that we were free, but must wait the examination of the other gentlemen, in order to make the whole affair as clear as possible against the doctor. After dinner, the rest were called in, in order. Rhinelander and Rawnsley had been detained, when the doctor had told the English Consul that they had been guilty of nothing. At seven o'clock, we were all summoned. They received us standing. The Colonel then addressed us; said that we were acquitted, apologized for our detention; that he should inform our government of our innocence, and of the course his government should take in the punishment of the doctor for our uncalled-for treatment. He closed his address by saying that we were free to leave when we might choose, and advising the Captain when he should again receive ill treatment from the doctor of a Lazaretto, not to hang him up until he was clear of the quarantine. The agent stayed with the Commission until twelve o'clock, making charges against the doctor. We left the quarantine at eight o'clock for Orsova.
24th. Detained until five o'clock, P.M. in obtaining our passport. We had been kept too late in quarantine to meet the steamer, or to send a special messenger to detain her for us. Went off to Mehadiah, a beautiful watering place, situated between mountains with a torrent running between them. We entered the town at nine o'clock. A gay scene was presented to us; all the fashionables were promenading, and a fine band of music playing in the streets. The only sleeping apartment to be had was the ball-room. We were great lions, being recognized as the rioters at the quarantine.
25th. Took a beautiful walk through this lovely place; took a bath, called on Col. Hodges and lounged through the day.
26th. This morning at three o'clock, left for Pest, by post. Sam, Fleming and Capt. Bennett preferred to remain, rather than make the disagreeable land travel; we wished to save time. Our vehicle was nothing more than a country wagon, without seats even; we were obliged to use our luggage and hay, for this purpose.
27th--29th. We found the road extremely dusty; I was fortunate enough to have a veil. Our wagons broke down constantly, and sometimes detained us for hours. We travelled all night, and after much inconvenience and fatigue, reached Pest at eleven o'clock. I have never passed through a country that can compare with Hungary, in richness of soil and cultivation; you see fields of grain ten miles square. The men are lazy, the women the principal agriculturists. The women are extremely amiable and pretty. We met with much roguery from the postmasters, such as showing false tariffs; withholding change, a very common habit, as far as I've seen in Hungary. We had on one occasion as our postboy, a lad who spoke Latin as fluently as his own tongue, and as correctly--according to our Englishman who took the first honors at Cambridge--as the best scholars in England.
30th. Roamed through Pest, a beautifully built town, with broad streets well paved, and prettily finished houses. It is celebrated for its fine baths. I was struck with the beauty of the signs before all the shops, I purchased some brushes from a man who had a coronet on his ring. At dinner we saw some of our quarantine associates; after dinner, called on our Armenian friends. Went to the opera--Belisarius.
3ist. Intended to have left this evening by the peasant post, and so arrive at Vienna before the steamer and gain a day at Pest; but by some rascality, after we had left and got about a mile on our way, we were informed that our carriage was unfit to proceed, and that we must consequently return to Pest. The valet de place who made our arrangements was to be blamed. In an hour's time he would procure another vehicle; we waited until toil o'clock, when he arrived and said that he had a carriage, but must walk a mile or two out of town to meet the conveyance. We had lost much time, and were unwilling to make concessions; therefore we desired him to return the money we had advanced, which he did.
August 1st. This morning, found Thring exceedingly, in fact dangerously ill of bilious colic. At five o'clock, he was pronounced out of danger, and we thought of leaving him--taking the Eilwagen--but again we were frustrated by the rascality and deception of the Hungarians,
2nd. Thring is much better, but extremely weak. Great news from the East: Mahomet Ali has vanquished, in a masterly manner, the forces of the Sultan; it is even rumored that the Turkish fleet has surrendered to the Egyptian, that the English and French fleet are in the Dardanelles, and that Russia meditates an attack upon Constantinople or that as an ally she will defend the Dardanelles against the English and French and Egyptians.
My attention was drawn today to a strange object, at the corner of the principal street; it resembled the trunk of a tree covered with iron. On examination and inquiry, we found that a locksmith had made a lock and placed it in this public situation, offering a large reward to any that could open it, and demanding that all that failed should affix a nail to the trunk of the tree. It is now actually sheeted with iron nails.--It is a delightful custom of the country to have music all the time you are at dinner, and at supper also. The Casino is a delightful place--newspapers from every part of Europe--splendid ballrooms.
3rd. Left in the steamer for Vienna; boat very small (Thc.Nador), 40 horse power. The river, in point of scenery, much finer than the part of the Danube we have already seen; the view is occasionally relieved by an old ruined castle. Many passengers, consisting principally of Hungarian nobility--rather a tough set in spite of their gentle blood! Passed the night horribly--no regular sleeping accommodations.
4th. Much amused and disgusted by Hungarian manners. They use no soap to wash their hands, but fill their mouth with water, and then spit it out on their hands; they wash or clean their teeth with the forefinger. When they sit down to table, they take off their coats, and proceed to the tedious and arduous duty of wading through a German meal, which consists of a series of sweets, sour salads and grease.--At two o'clock, arrived at Presburg, where the Diet now sits. We intended to leave immediately for Vienna, but to our disappointment no carriage was to be taken without the vilest imposition; so we determined to remain with the steamer which leaves in the morning. Very disagreeable! Obliged to leave the boat, and go to the hotel. Poor Francesco, extremely ill with the bilious colic, removed to the hospital.
Presburg is a beautiful place. Some excitement in the Diet. The King demands soldiers, and the Diet demands the release of some of their nobility. I don't feel well; severe headache, no appetite.
5th. At five o'clock, with few passengers, left for Vienna; wind strong; the boat found it extremely difficult to make way against the current, sometimes it was stationary. We arrived, three hours after time, at Vienna, or at the place where carriages are in readiness to take you to Vienna. The Custom-house officers, whom I had so much dreaded, treated us remarkably well. No difficulty, in the least! Vienna seemed, in the distance, situated on a plain, with mountains rising in the rear. Our ride for an hour was through the Prater, a large park, a fashionable place for driving and a lively scene of gayety on Sundays and holydays; it abounds with deer. We stopt at "The Lamb" in the Faubourg--all full; thence went to the Kaiserinn von Oestreich, where we found good accommodations.
6th. Went to our Bankers, the Police Office--to obtain our Carte du Sejour, and to the Custom-house to obtain some books. Our minister, Mr. Muhlenberg, is out of town--in Italy with his family. He had received my letter and had spoken to Prince Metternich, who said that we would be liberated before a letter could reach us. The Viennese dine between one and two, so that two or more hours are lost each day. Took a walk on the Glacis, in the Volksgarten, and went to the Church of St. Augustine, where there is a beautiful monument to Maria Christina, wife of Albert. It is by Canova; the design reminds you of his own tomb at Venice; youth and age are beautifully contrasted. It is considered one of his finest efforts. In the Volksgarten is a statue of Theseus by Canova; it is a bold, spirited thing, placed in a miniature temple of Theseus. Spent the evening at the Opera. A Ballet "The Revolt of the Harem" well got up; the last act admirable. The women of the Harem appear as soldiers fortified in a recess of the mountains. They were as well drilled as so many Austrian soldiers; were provided with real guns and fired a volley. It was admirably done. The house is splendid, tastefully decorated and large.
7th. Went to the Arsenal, one of the finest in the world, beautifully arranged. It was crowded. A guide accompanied us, giving a minute description of the various objects of curiosity, in German--which made it extremely irksome. There are arms for 300,000 men. Among the curious things is the coat of Gustavus Adolphus--with a hole in it--which was perforated by the bullet which caused his death.
Paid a second visit to the Church of St. Augustine and the Volksgartcn. Our friend Thring arrived today; we had left him at Pest recovering from his illness. Today, after dinner, I had a severe chill, and am somewhat alarmed; my headache still remains. Rhinelander, for the last few days, has kept his room, complaining of a severe headache also.
8th. Visited the Imperial Gallery at the Belvedere; a large collection of paintings of the Italian School. Much trash, and but few fine paintings.
Here follows a list of canvases. After a reference to Ruisdael, Rubens, Gerhard, Dow, Teniers, Albrecht Durer and other artists, our traveller records his impression:
Although these paintings are of such a remote date, they please by brilliancy and freshness; but are indeed too vitreous in appearance. Some modern paintings quite beautiful. A vile collection of statues, four or five in number; one, a reclining figure, is quite pretty.
Another chill today, and as Rhinelander called in a physician yesterday, I thought it advisable to call in one myself--Dr. Vivenot, who sent me to bed this evening.
9th. This morning quite sick; raging headache; much pleased with the kindness of the physician. The servants extremely kind; the chambermaid, in the absence of a nurse, sat up with me all night, and applied ice to my head every five minutes.
10th. Passed a bad night; the fever very severe, also the chill. I feel no better, and lose confidence in my physician. Rhinelander remains as he was.
11th. Rhinelander at nine o'clock was much better; at two o'clock he was much altered [or the worse; he became extremely enervated and ill. The physician was sent for. lie was much astonished when he saw his patient, and hurrying into my room, with his face flushed, asked "Is he a Catholic? "At first, I did not perceive his meaning, but afterwards I soon perceived that my poor friend was just hovering between life and death. At four o'clock, he was still much more enervated; another physician was called in. The disease had changed to cholera, and poor Phil's life was despaired of. We inquired for a Protestant clergyman: in this gay city, not one was to be found, who spoke English. One of our English friends, Thring, kindly volunteered to read the "Service for the Visitation of the Sick," in which my poor friend entered with much interest. I was anxious to leave my bed, and visit my sick friend, but it was forbidden. He sent me messages to his friends, which I was obliged to commit to Cram, in consequence of my inability to write. He lingered until nine o'clock, in great agony and anxious for death. He said "he was happy "and that "he loved his sister." At nine o'clock, he calmly died away. What an affliction of Providence! I scarcely can realize it--that one who yesterday, who this very morning was so strong and spirited, was cut down and removed from all things living!--one just in the prime of life, just entering upon his estate; one just arriving home, after an absence of nearly two years; taken sick in a strange land, and carried off without the privilege of saying adieu to beloved relations and friends. How gloomy are now the once pleasant associations! The retrospect is now all saddened. I cannot think of one pleasant hour, but that I recall to mind the friend who has been taken from us. But he died happy: this should be to all sufficient consolation, and it should be always remembered that "God moves in a mysterious way." 'Tis certainly a great blow. With what pleasure we had all looked forward to Vienna! The amusements we had set apart to add to our pleasure--what are they now to us? It is so unexpected! In Egypt we looked for sickness and danger, but at Vienna we expected to find nothing but amusement. We have been so intimately associated since we left America, that I fee/ as if I had lost a near relative __it makes such ravage in our little party!
12th. Passed a horrible night. Yesterday I obtained a nurse. She can't speak a word of any language intelligible to me; and is not clean, as she wipes the spoons on the sheets, in the absence of anything more suitable. The body of my friend is exposed today in the Cathedral--a custom of the country to prevent burying alive.--I don't feel as well today. The doctor proposed a consultation; Baron Turkheim was accordingly called in. My thoughts were all gloomy, and I could think of nothing but the pleasure of dying at home, among your friends.
13th. My friend was buried at three o'clock. Several English gentlemen staying at the house, attended the funeral. A Protestant German clergyman had been engaged to officiate, when it was afterwards ascertained that there was an English clergyman in town, who kindly promised to officiate. At the grave, however, the German minister said that the government would not allow the English service to be read, without special permission. An Englishman called on me this morning, and said that anything he could do for me, or his friends in town (for he had several)--that he or they would do it with pleasure; that I must consider him my servant. Others offered to assist us in any way, financial or otherwise. Since I've travelled, I have received nothing but kindness from the English. Our two travelling companions, Thring and Rawnsley, left today for England. It is a melancholy day, but I feel better.
14th. Permitted to take a short ride to Prince Schwarzenberg's garden, accompanied by Cram who is exceedingly kind and attentive.
15th. Our friends Fleming and Sam arrived from Pest; delighted to see them. They were much shocked by the dreadful news. I took another drive today.
16th. I begin to feel quite strong. Another drive to Prince S.'s garden. I walk out a little.
17th. Accompanied Mr. Hatfield and my friends to Hitzing and Schonbrunn, about three miles from Vienna. We left at two o'clock, in the carriage of Mr. Hatfield. Strauss was to play at the Casino at Hitzing. The palace and gardens pretty--quite Frenchified in appearance. The place is called from a pretty fountain (schon Brunnen); said to be the best water in the world. Saw the Emperor in the garden; looks like a benevolent, good man, but of little mind or decision of character.
18th. Walked out in the morning with Vivenot. I feel almost well, only a little weak.--Heard the opera of Somnambula sung by Mad. Lutgar, the favorite singer at Vienna. She has much sweetness of tone, not much compass and moderate force. She sings very pleasantly. I should not call her a great singer by any means, not so great as Mad. A. whom we heard at Florence.
19th. Visited the Archduke Charles' palace; prettily furnished. At twelve o'clock we heard as we supposed a fine band of music, but on investigation we discovered that it was nothing but a clock. It played an overture, and can play at least fifty other pieces of music. It is an astonishing piece of mechanism by Maelzel. The collection of drawings belonging to the Archduke is very extensive: 180,000 engravings--some exceedingly interesting--sketches and drawings by old masters; Raphael's sketch of the Transfiguration; many figures of The Last Judgment, by Michael Angelo himself; 122 sketches by Raphael; 20 by Andrea del Sarto and others.
Paid a second visit to the Belvedere palace. Spent the evening by invitation, at the house of Mr. Swartz, our Consul. We met a family of Fishers from Baltimore, Mr. and Mrs. Clay, Charge d'Affaires in the absence of Mr. Muhlenberg, an American Missionary and wife, an English Captain, etc. Left early. Swartz, a good meaning man perhaps, but extremely coarse and disagreeable in manners. On my recovery, he told me he was extremely glad to see me up, in fact that there was no one in Vienna more so; that he was glad for my sake and for his own, because if I died I should give him so much trouble.
Since I have been here, I have heard Lanner the rival of Strauss; he is perhaps not so brilliant, but certainly plays with more taste, more beautiful finish and science.
On the 20th a visit is paid to the Ambras Museum.
After referring to various antiquities and curiosities, the journalist adds the remark:
Among the jewels which are more brilliant than curious, is a "splendid "--at least so its maker Benvenuto Cellini thought--salt-cellar; after reading his own description, I was somewhat disappointed with it.
21st. Anxious to make an excursion to Baden and Laxenburg, but the weather is too unfavorable. The cabinets, of antiquities and gems, closed for the present.--I must not forget to mention the noble Cathedral of St. Stephen's. It is Gothic, and as far as concerns the interior is perfect. Its tower however is its chief beauty; nothing can exceed its graceful majesty. It rises gradually tapering to the skies. Its height is 465 feet. Unfortunately it is now three feet out of the perpendicular, and they are compelled to remove it for reconstruction; they commenced the operation of removal yesterday. It is something of an undertaking, and many persons were assembled to witness it.
22nd. Rains very hard. Paid a visit to our Armenian friends who are recovering from their illness, with the exception of poor Thomas who has left for Constantinople in consequence of ill health.
24th. Today at one o'clock, we leave in the "Eilwagen" for Linz. Our friends Messrs. Morrot and Vieuxville go with us. I am sorry that circumstances have interfered so much with my seeing Vienna properly. It certainly is the most delightful place for travellers. Rather, no city can equal or surpass it in amusement: a good opera, theatres, the best instrumental music, balls, fetes--in fact the people seem to do nothing but amuse themselves. Upon us, rather a melancholy impression is left.
Vienna is one of the cleanest cities I've seen; the pavement the best. Each stone a few inches in diameter costs 20 sous. The houses are large, and occupied by several families. . . . The streets all radiate from the Cathedral. No very conspicuous public buildings; the Church of San Carlo is unique in its exterior. The shops are prettily arranged; no sidewalks--constant danger of having the toes taken off, unless care is observed in turning corners.
We left the city at one o'clock. Our road lay toward Schonbrunn, so that I've seen the palace three times. The Eil- or Speed Wagon is not such a rapid manner of travelling as its name would indicate. Horses are changed at each post, every two German miles (10 English). Some of the vehicles are intended for four, others for eight persons. There is no reason for slow travelling, but the repugnance of Germans to hurry themselves; they look upon dignified inaction as the height of luxury. The first town we passed through was Hiitteldorf, a place much resorted to by the Viennese in summer; you see here some beautiful villas, and the country is cultivated and picturesque by nature. We met crowds of men and women walking along the road, on their way to some pilgrimage Church; they are generally preceded by a priest carrying a cross. Near Purkersdorf. you pass along the Wien, a torrent which gives the name to the Austrian capital. At nine o'clock, at St. Polten, we had a German supper, consisting of meats and beer in abundance.
Travelled all night--a thing to me by no means agreeable. The Germans travel by night, to allow themselves more time to eat and drink during the day.
25th. At six o'clock, breakfasted at Strengberg. It being Sunday, we have an opportunity of seeing the picturesque costumes which you find in every section of this part of the country. Two German miles farther on, we found Enns, a town of 2000 inhabitants; its old walls were built out of the money which was paid for Richard Coeur de Lion's ransom. All along the road from this town to Linz, you see representations of St. Florian, who is much esteemed by the Austrians and Bavarians--he being principally engaged as chief engineer on all occasions of fire.
Three or four miles from Linz is Ebersberg, at the extremity of a long wooden bridge. The town was the scene of a severe engagement between the French and the Austrians in 1809. The passage was disputed with much spirit. In this town the battle was kept up, and 12000 men fell. A mile or two further on you pass a tower, a part of the series of towers, forming the new fortifications just finished at Linz.
We reached Linz about twelve o'clock, and took up our quarters at the house opposite the Post, the Golden Cannon. After dinner, we took a valet dc place and a fiacre. A young Swiss gentleman, on understanding our intention of making a petit tour through the village and immediate environs, came to us and in a polite way requested permission to join our party, saying as an apology for making the request, that he believed there was no one of the party who could speak German, which was the only language with which our guide or valet was conversant. We gladly accepted his offer, and endeavored to pack our party as well as possible in a small vehicle, and hastened to visit the curiosities of the place. The city is surrounded by a series of forts, 32 in number, about a mile or two apart; they occupy a circuit of nine miles. Having obtained permission from the Governor, we examined one of the forts. Each tower is ,30 feet high, and 80 in diameter; they are however so sunk in the ground that only the roof projects. Around each tower is a ditch, and a glacis toward the town. On viewing the inside arrangements, you are immediately reminded of a man-of-war.
Each tower consists of three stories: the lowest for provisions, and supplied with a pump; the middle for the quarters of the troops; the highest is a platform which is mounted with ten guns, ingeniously arranged so as to be made to bear on any single spot. There are many advantages in this system of fortification, but its success is to be tested. There is much economy in this series of forts over a long continuous fortification, there being 32 points of attack. Each two contiguous forts have a secret communication under the earth.
From the fort we went up to the Jagermeyer Garden, to obtain a view of the environs. Near the Garden is a beautiful Church almost finished; it is small but perfect in its way; it abounds in painted glass, whose varied tints play fantastically throughout the sacred place. Next to the Church is a Convent; this building has all the appearance of a tower; it was originally a fortification. Here we found some young priests, one of whom kindly took us to a platform on the top, which gave us a splendid view of the scenery. On the South, the view is bounded by snowy chains of the Styrian and Salzburg Alps; the Danube below you and as far as the eye can reach is seen meandering through the valley which lies before you in all its beauty, richly ornamented with picturesque chateaus and graceful looking cottages.
The girls of Linz are distinguished in guide books for their beauty. Perhaps it is ironical flattery; perhaps one unfortunate,, or rather fortunate fellow, may have met with a charming damsel, and have become enamoured. They all wear on their heads, a kind of helmet of gold gauze, which gives them the appearance of so many Minervas, rather than Venuses. They seem too martial and masculine, to please my taste; and their costume is rather curious than pretty. How different the tasteful way of arranging the hair which you find in Hungary and about Vienna!--that is all simplicity and beauty.
Our Swiss friend we found all gentlemanly in his manners; but two bottles of beer made him rather gay, and in the Volksgarten he was far too lively. In all German towns you find public gardens which on Sundays are enlivened by a fine band of music, the fashionable part of the community and happy peasantry.--In honor of a royal personage who was staying at the same hotel, we were gratified in the evening by a fine band of military music, composed of about 50 performers. It was decidedly the best military music we have yet heard. These things are well managed in Germany. The musicians have their stands for music, and are provided with lights, so that they can play the most difficult pieces.
26th. At six o'clock left for Salzburg by Ischil. We engaged a separate wagon on the railroad, and were conducted by means of horses to Gmundcn. On our way we visited the Falls of the Traun. I was somewhat disappointed after what I had heard of these celebrated falls. There was an abundance of water, but I think this is all that can be said. The height is about 42 feet. Along the falls runs a curious aqueduct, by means of which the salt barges ascend and descend the river. At two o'clock we arrived at Gmunden, a town beautifully situated on Lake Traunsce. Here we found a steamer in readiness to take us across the lake. It was quite a miniature concern, but amply sufficient for the purpose intended. The lake is small, but exceedingly beautiful. Its pure green waters are frowned upon by the majestic Dachstein and the gloomy Trauenstein. On one side and in the distance, the view is terminated by retiring hills, lively and picturesque with houses and villages. An Englishman is the proprietor and captain of the steamer. Carriages are in readiness to take passengers to Ischil. They, on the present occasion, were soon filled; we were advised to wait until the arrival of the steamer at four o'clock. In the meanwhile, we visited a salt establishment. The process is by evaporation, the brinish water being brought from Ischil by means of aqueducts--it being much cheaper to manufacture the salt here than at Ischil in consequence of the abundance of fuel at this place. In the next steamer, the Duchess of Parma arrived, in consequence of which the palace was illuminated, and music was playing as we entered Ischil. There was difficulty in finding a hotel, the Post being full; got at last taken in at a small but comfortable house.
27th. Got out early. The public bath is in a fine house. Over the door is seen in large letters "In sale et in sole omnia consistunt." Took a walk around the town; crossed the river to obtain a better view. It is hemmed in on every side by high mountains. We endeavored for a long time to find Schwalmann's Garden, to obtain another view of the town, and to see the beautiful Franzel, the daughter of the host, who has received so many encomiums from guide-book writers. We were about giving up the search, when we met a young man who spoke a few words of French, who kindly accompanied us to the garden--which I must allow is beautifully situated. A hunt was made after Franzel, whom we found in the kitchen among pots and dishes. Each had conjured up some beautiful image, when, what was our disappointment to find nothing but an antique beauty, or rather an antique who they say was a beauty!
At ten o'clock we started off in two posting establishments, to Salzburg. The road was extremely interesting, passing by three or four lakes. One post from Salzburg, we were overtaken by a severe storm of rain. Arrived at Salzburg about ten. Hotel Schwarzmoor, which we preferred in consequence of recommendations we had received of it, in point of view.
28th. Horrible rainy day! No one would go out but Mons. Morrot, who visited the salt-mines at Hallein, which are exceedingly interesting. Vieuxville, Fleming and myself were afraid of exposing ourselves to the weather and to the dampness of a salt-mine.
29th. Indications of a clear day, and we determined to visit the castle. We accordingly procured an order from the Governor, and ascended at nine o'clock. It is situated on a high rock commanding the city, and during the middle ages was occupied as the residence and retreat of the Archbishops, against their rebellions subjects, the peasants. These Archbishops were, during the middle ages, princes of the land. From the galleries of the castle, you have the finest view the eye could wish. The clouds were slowly and lazily wreathing their way up the mountain sides, and through a small opening, the sun was glancing his beams over a distant part of the valley. To the cloud effect was added the grandeur of the view. The mind and eye could play at random with the size and distance of the mountains; they appeared to reach the very skies. No limit could be placed to their height. Ridge rises on ridge, and mountain on mountain, in silent dignity, while below, the eye could pleasantly gaze on the rich valley, which, with its graceful, bending river, its green meadows and golden crops, its chateaus and villas, lay in beauty beneath us. I thought that it was the most pleasing view I had yet seen. The castle is a curious old place, containing some singular antique shields of the Archbishops, weapons of the peasants, and the stuffed skin of a famous horse which the leader of the rebels rode. The torture chamber still is to be seen. We returned by way of the Monchsberg, a part of the ridge on which the castle stands, beautifully laid out in pleasant walks, and affording fine views of the valley. We stopped at the stables for the cavalry; the horses for the officers were splendid animals--a good menage. Near it is the tunnel which passes under the Monchsberg, finished by an Archbishop, who gave his name to it--"Sigismund Thor."
In the afternoon, took a ride to a garden belonging to the Emperor. It certainly abounded in curious playthings in the shape of water-works, etc., but has little else to please; some of the curious things however are beautiful. Fountains are so arranged as to appear as glass vases over natural flowers. You are requested to sit down at a table of stone, on stools of stone with a hole in the middle: as soon as you are seated you find fountains springing up on every side so as to surround you with jets of water, while you feel a little nervous when you see water spouting up from the holes in the unoccupied seats. There are large fish-ponds in which you see every kind of fish, which are exceedingly fond of being fed by visitors. There are some curious specimens of mechanism: in a grotto, you find yourself surrounded by birds, which keep up a most unmelodious chant; you see a large village--all the villagers actively employed at their different trades, some amusing themselves by looking at a dancing bear, or waltzing to the music of a band. There are other smaller pieces of mechanism, well adapted to childish tastes.--Mr. Morrot left us today. Vieuxville preferred to remain with us, and enjoy an excursion to the Konigsee. Fleming, I am sorry to say, is again quite unwell.
30th. I forgot to mention the beautiful fountain which we saw yesterday, as we passed near the Cathedral, on our way to the castle. There is much grace and skill shown in the management of the figures which support the upper receptacle of the water; perhaps however the figures are too large, and show too much exertion in sustaining a basin too small for their united powers.--Today we made an excursion to the Konigsee and Berchtesgaden. The ride is extremely agreeable, passing through a beautiful valley and along the side of the Untersberg, which is interesting as being appropriated to the Emperor Barbarossa and his vassals, as a prison until the day of judgment. Our guide here gave way to an excited imagination, and told some curious stories: that this mountain was inhabited by beautiful women, who occasionally allured the poor peasants to their mountain recesses, and repaid their eager embraces with a long period of sleep, which finished, they returned them to the world which had undergone the changes of a century. Entering the narrow defile of the "overhanging rock," we soon approached Berchtesgaden, which we left on our right and proceeded to the Royal Lake. Here boats were in attendance, to convey us partly across the lake, it being forbid to go to the farther extremity, as preparations were making for a royal chase. We were rowed by women, something quite new in its way, and which would have been more agreeable had they been pretty and more effeminate in appearance. There is a melancholy grandeur which surrounds this lake. High mountains, some covered with snow, hem it in, rising perpendicularly from its margin so as to prevent the possibility of building. There is nothing to relieve its solemn majesty, but the tinkling bells of the Alpine herds, struggling in search of scanty herbage. Having traversed half the lake, we arrived at the King's Hunting-ground, where we made our dinner on delicious trout. In the hall are seen some paintings of fish, which at different times have astonished the natives by their immense size, some weighing 20, 30 or even 50 pounds. The manner of hunting here is to send out a large number of peasants, who ascend the mountain and collect together 40 or 50 chamois; these are hemmed in and driven into the lake. The King and his attendants are then ready, and while the peasants drive the chamois into the lake, and the poor creatures are struggling in the water, they fire upon them.--We returned and stopped at Berchtesgaden on our way home. The place is celebrated for its manufacture of toys, in wood, ivory, bone, etc. We paid a visit to the principal store, and were much amused with the ingenuity and skill shown in the manufacture of these little things. A female showed us about, and gallantry compelled us to purchase some toy or other. We arrived at the hotel at seven o'clock. Unable to procure seats in the Eilwagen for Munich.
31st. Procured a long coucher (vetturino establishment) to take us to Munich--to start at ten o'clock and arrive at six tomorrow. Before leaving Salzburg we visited a few things that still remained to be seen, such as the House of Mozart, of Paracelsus, the inventor of Elixir vita and the philosopher's stone. In the Church of St. Giles is a monument to the memory of Michael Haydn, brother of the composer of the "Creation."
At ten o'clock we left punctually. We were not agreeably impressed with the appearance of our coachman; he appeared sulky and disobliging, as he afterwards proved to be. Our route was not the most agreeable, not being the one through Reichenhall, but the shortest by way of Stein. We slept at F-----, a post further on than Stein, a place distinguished by a castle, which was formerly tenanted by the robber knight Hans von Stein; the dungeons of his unfortunate captives are still to be seen.
Sept. 1st. One post from Munich, while we were refreshing the horses with brown bread, of which they are extremely fond, we encountered a peasant ball. They were all whirling about in grand style. Beer seemed to circulate freely, and even the police officers were yielding to its seductive influences.
The country presented a gay appearance, with its rich costumes. As we approached Munich, we noticed a head-dress quite peculiar. It is made of gilt gauze, and fastened far back on the head; it tapers off into two points like the. tail of a fish. Since then, in Munich, we have seen many of them; some of these are beautiful and costly. The King is extremely anxious to keep up this part of the national costume. Some cost from 30 to 50 florins.--The approach to Munich is by no means agreeable, being by a flat plain. It rained hard as we entered the city.
Munich. "Cerf d'Or." At first refused at this hotel, the house being full; however, they managed to put us four in a room, with a promise of two rooms tomorrow. Saw again our friend Morrot, who had seen nearly all the lions.
2nd. Rain. Mr. Morrot accompanied us to the Pinako-thek.--The streets seem very wide, the houses well and newly built. As we went along, we passed by the bronze obelisk, in the Carolinen-Platz, erected by the present King to the memory of 30,000 Bavarians, who fell in the Russian campaign. It is 100 feet high, and made of the cannon taken from the enemy by the Bavarians.
The Pinakothek was commenced in 1826; it was designed by Von Klenze. It is a beautiful building in itself, and combines all the conveniences indispensable for a picture gallery. The collection contains 1500 paintings, taken from the galleries of Dusseldorf, Mannheim, Deux Fonts and others. The paintings are arranged in halls according to the schools, with cabinets at the sides, for smaller paintings, communicating with the larger rooms. A splendid corridor is now being finished, by Cornelius, Zimmermann, etc. It is divided in 25 loggie; in each loggia, the paintings or frescoes illustrate some particular state of the arts. There is much taste shown in the designs, and much power and skill in the execution; still they want that lightness, that airiness, which pleases so much in the Vatican. There is here too much work, too much paint, gilding, etc., not enough delicacy in the arabesques.
The gems of the collection are certainly the Murillos, which are exquisite. In one, two ragged boys are seen eating melons, in another a little girl purchasing fruit, in the third an old woman examining a boy's head; these are all true to life, and exquisitely finished, with all the softness and effect of Murillo. Here are some fine efforts of Rubens. His "Fall of the Damned" is certainly a curious production, when the position of the figures, tumbling one on the other in grand confusion, is considered: in foreshortening, many of the prominent figures are complete studies. Then his "Judgment," a large painting in the centre of the Grand Hall, is considered one of his finest productions, as also his "Susannah." ... I have now seen some of the finest efforts of Rubens, and I must say, with but little pleasure. He is too gross. There is something too fleshy in all his compositions, a want of delicacy, of harmony; too much coloring--something which disgusts me. His "Boar and Lion Hunt" please me, but I can't, with pleasure, consider either his "Grand Judgment" or the "Fallen Angels." Of the Vandycks the most admired are his "Susannah," "St. Sebastian "and several portraits of burgomasters. "Susannah" by Domenichino did not strike me agreeably; the design is bad, the bath too public--she looks like a frightened white mouse.
Altogether the gallery pleased me much, and reflects much honor upon the royal founder who appears an ardent admirer of the fine arts. The building itself is a splendid palace.
Dined at two o'clock at the table d'hote. The keeper of the establishment was formerly cook to Prince Eugene, and accordingly understands his profession, although ignorant of other things as important in this his new situation. A great want of management is shown through the whole establishment, a multitude of servants running about, bells ringing, lodgers calling and no one appearing to answer. Still we had a good dinner, a profusion of game, in fact every luxury, and all nicely served. We were accordingly quite recruited at the end of the dinner, about four o'clock, and set out in the rain to go and visit the Leuchtenberg gallery, formed by Eugene Beau-harnois, Viceroy of Italy.
Few collections of paintings have given me equal pleasure; it resembled much the famous collection in the Chiara Palace, Rome, in one particular--in not being numerous, but containing great gems. Nothing is more annoying than wading through a large gallery, only here and there finding a picture to please; it is like wandering over the mountains in quest of views, when you might with greater ease be conducted to a spot unfolding all the beauties the country afforded. This it was that pleased me so much in this gallery. There are only two rooms, but they are filled with gems. In the first room you find modern paintings, such as those by Girard, David, and others of the French school. Belisarius (by Girard) conducting, for a moment, his youthful guide, who by some accident is prevented from leading her aged sire, is a masterly production, and displays much power, as well as beauty in the finish.
In the 2nd room, at the farther extremity, is the famous Magdalen by Canova. She is in deep anguish, sighing over a cross, which she holds in her hands. She is all lovely in her grief. You sympathize with the cold marble. Nothing in the moral world is more beautiful, more gratifying to the mind of a rational being, than the sight of a person, melting in tears, over some fatal act. It shows that the icy heart is dissolved by the genial rays of light, of wisdom; it shows the better feelings springing into action. The frozen water dissolves, and when melted it still is as pure and clear, as before it assumed its icy nature. In the midst of the tears, you see the bow of heaven, promising good to come. Yes, I could linger for days about this embodied sentiment of the artist. Behind it is the gem of the collection, the "Madonna "of Murillo. In the other gallery, we have seen his representations of familiar life, here the artist has essayed the higher fields of his profession, and with what success! The Virgin is all loveliness. Her face beams with purity. She looks as we imagine the Mother looked; her Infant, who lies in her arms, although an infant, bears on His face the impress of divinity. Few pictures have pleased me better. The one by Murillo in the Pitti palace, Florence, was recalled to my mind. A Madonna by Correggio reminded me of the Correggio in the Tribune. . . . In the middle of the room are the "Three Graces" by Canova--all beauty. grace and modesty. It is astonishing to see the flowing easiness of the limbs, which would seem impossible to be attained in stone.
3rd. Bibliothek--in extent, the second in the world; 540,000 volumes. The curiosities are: the orations of Demosthenes on cotton paper from Chios; the New Testament in capital letters, of the VIII century; a splendid Bible and Missal, richly decorated with miniatures by a Byzantine artist, the exterior covered with curiously worked ivory and precious stones; Albert Durer's Prayer-book, ornamented by him and Cranach with sketches; 3000 books, printed early, at a period anterior to the year 1500; 50 block books; Luther's Bible decorated with his and Melancthon's portraits; sonic manuscripts of Martin Luther; a letter of Charles I. to his sister.
From the Library, went to St. Michael's, the Jesuit Church, where is Thorwaldsen's monument of Eugene Beauharnois, erected by his wife. There is a whole-length statue of the Duke, attended by History, and the two Genii of life and death. It docs not please me much. It is, I think, unworthy of its much admired artist--something tame. History is a beautiful figure; the main statue is perhaps faultless; still there is but a poor effect produced.
Glyptothek, or Sculpture Gallery, near the Pinakothek. Here, as on every occasion, the King has shown great liberality, taste and much good sense. Perhaps there is no building in the world, erected solely as a storehouse for statuary so splendid and so well adapted to the object, as this. It is of the Ionic order; designed by Von Klenze. An apartment is set apart for each stage of the art. In the first you find Egyptian; second, Etruscan; third, Aeginetan; fourth, Hall of Apollo; fifth, Hall of Bacchus; sixth, Hall of the Sons of Niobe, etc.
In the first there is little to interest. An obelisk decorates the middle of the room; it is a miserable imitation, although many persons, even some who have been in Egypt, mistake it for a veritable antique; its four faces are ornamented with the same figures, some of the figures too are not polished. The Aeginetan collection is extremely interesting. The sculptures were discovered in the island Aegina by Baron Haller, Messrs. Cockerell and Forster; they are supposed to have belonged to the temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, or to a temple dedicated to Minerva. They are supposed to represent some action of the yEacidEe: they have been rejuvenated by Thorwald-sen. There are two groups; one representing Hercules and Telamon (son of Aeacus) fighting against the Trojans--the conflict between Greeks and Trojans.
Here the journal ends abruptly; according to appearance, it was never completed. In the year 1839 Mr. Tucker was yet a youth, nineteen years of age. The juvenility of the writer comes to the front now and then, as when he sets down the age of the girls introduced to his party. But the future Doctor Tucker appears in many manifestations; the germs of characteristics, prominent and palpable in later days, are easily discernible. Certain features abide, running through the whole of his life. At Smyrna, wandering about the streets, the traveller drops into a church, "attracted by a fine pealing organ." He likes painting and sculpture; he has much to say about them. He is not afraid to adventure the performance of a critic's office; at Salzburg he makes judicious remarks about the size of the statues in a fountain: "perhaps the figures are too large, and show too much exertion in sustaining a basin too small for their united powers." He is not afraid to dissent from Rubens or Thorwaldsen. Religion has place in his daily living; her obligations are remembered as when we find him, almost a boy, a layman, reading Service within the unhappy precincts of quarantine. So the journal affords a preliminary glimpse and promise of the larger, adult existence.