Project Canterbury

Anglican Low Mass
by Edward C. Trenholme
of the Society of St. John the Evangelist.

London: The Faith Press
Milwaukee: Morehouse, 1931.


THIS method for a plain celebration of the Holy Eucharist takes account of six Anglican Liturgies. These are the service of the Church of England; its forerunner in the 1549 Prayer Book, "The Supper of the Lord and Holy Communion, commonly called the Masse"; the Alternative Order of 1928, in the revised Book which failed to get authorised but enjoys a measure of permissive use in England; the South African Alternative Form of 1927; the Scottish Liturgy and the American, both in Prayer Books revised in 1929.

The 1549 Mass, whose use has been revived in some churches in England and dioceses over-seas, follows the general order of the Latin Liturgy, with a mention of the action of the Holy Spirit introduced in the invocation before the Consecration. In the subsequent Anglican Liturgies, the changes from this order are considerable. GLORIA IN EXCELSIS is transferred from the beginning to the end of the service. The Prayer for the Church, which formed the first section of the Canon after the Sanctus, is in most cases placed instead at the Offertory, which is the ancient place for the Eucharistic intercessions. But the Scottish Liturgy follows an Eastern precedent in placing it at the end of the Canon. The invocation of the Holy Spirit follows instead of preceding the Words of Institution, in the Scottish, American, South African, and 1928 English Canons. The preparation for Communion, comprising the Invitation, Confession, etc., retains its position before the reception of the Sacrament in the Scottish rite only, though the Prayer of Humble Access is replaced there in the South African service and the American revision. The 1928 English order has the Prayer of Access before SURSUM CORDA instead of after the Sanctus. The recent Scottish revision omits the first Lord's Prayer of the service. In the latest American revision, the Canon is completed by attaching to it the Lord's Prayer, hitherto left in the place after the Communion where it was put in the break-up of the 1549 Canon in 1552.

In 1549 the salutation "The Lord be with you" was retained before the Collect, SURSUM CORDA, and Post-communion Thanksgiving. The Scottish, South African, and 1928 English rites have it before the Collect and SURSUM CORDA; and the American, before the Collect. There is a custom of using it also before the Gospel, offertory, and Last Gospel, as traditional places for it. (It is not appropriate to say "Let us pray" before the offertory sentence, where apparently some former prayer has dropped out in the Roman rite.) Other devotional customs include the reading of the proper introit, gradual, and communion sentence of the Mass, and the Gospel of St. John at the end. As regards the Last Gospel, the modern Roman rule is more elaborate on occasions of occurrence of holy-days together, for in that case the Gospel of the lesser day is read at the end of the Mass.

It will be noticed, in the directions, that the Sarum Missal is drawn upon for some of the private prayers and devotional pieces with which the Anglican service may be supplemented, while more suitable forms for others have been found in the Roman Missal. The latter supplies most of the rubrical detail. Older Missals, such as that of Sarum, describe High Mass only, and although this is a proper recognition of the normal way to celebrate the Eucharist, it affords no special help for the conduct of the simpler service. Yet the simpler method is worthy of study, not only for its own sake but also because the priest who knows his Low Mass knows the things most essential for his part as celebrant on any occasion.

As to the principle of choosing suitable things from different rites, the recent revisers of the Prayer Book have been quite willing to take from the Roman Missal such non-Sarum items as the introductory psalm, and the response after the Gospel. The method of forming or improving a liturgical rite by selection has a long history. The Venerable Bede tells us that St. Augustine asked the Pope why one kind of Mass was used in the holy Roman church and another in the Gallican church, and what was he to do about it? St. Gregory in reply bade him use what seemed best in either rite, or in that of any other church, make them up into a body, and sedulously teach them to the new church of the English, for things are not to be loved for the sake of places, but places for the sake of good things.

In the present book, the part on celebrating Low Mass is followed by an Appendix on the liturgical rite itself, as distinct from its ceremonies, or, in other words, what prayers to say rather than how to say them. Such an ordering of the rite of course does not apply specially to Low Mass, but is applicable to any kind of celebration.


THE Eucharistic bread must be of wheat. Unleavened altar breads are baked in thin round wafers, usually stamped with some sacred device. The priest's Host should be about three inches across, the small ones for communion of the people about an inch or a little more. They should be kept in close tins, and not be kept too long before use. If the large Hosts kept in a tin have a tendency to curl up, a weight on top of the pile will keep them flat.

Wine of the grape is requisite. Either a red or white wine of pure quality may be used, but never the manufactured "unfermented wine," in which the nature of wine has been destroyed. Fresh grape juice, however unlikely to be used, would be held valid. Altar wine should be kept in a well corked bottle.


IT is proper for an altar to be of stone, and consecrated with the church as part of its fabric. But wood, the material of the cross of Christ, has a fitness of its own.

Even a small altar should be long and broad enough on top to spread the corporal in the middle and extend the chalice veil on one side of it. This means a length of at least five feet, and an additional six inches is better. The breadth should give two feet clear in the middle, in front of the cross or a tabernacle or shelf. This breadth is not too great for a tabernacle to be reached conveniently. For seemly and convenient height, three feet is rather low, better three or four inches more. The footpace should project in front for at least two feet, for the priest to move about securely on it.

A cere-cloth, waxed on the under side, is a proper first covering for the altar top, especially if it is of stone. Above it should be three linen cloths for Mass, the first and second being stout ones, and the second may have the coloured superfrontal attached to its front edge. The third, or uppermost, is the fair linen cloth of the rubric. It should hang low over the ends of the altar. In front it may come evenly to the altar edge, like the cloths beneath it, or hang over a little. A dust-cover is also required for the top of the altar when not in use. The front of the altar is veiled with a frontal of the colour of the day.

The altar-cross, bearing a figure of the Crucified, stands at the back, on the tabernacle if there is one.

Two wax candles are lighted for Low Mass (in mediaeval usage, one candle might suffice). For a Requiem, unbleached yellow candles are customary. Tops and wicks of candles should be kept trimmed, and runnings of wax down the candles removed.

When the Blessed Sacrament is reserved, a light is burned continuously before it, and the veil is kept drawn over the tabernacle door. The veil may be a rich white or gold one, or of the colour of the day, in the latter case violet being always used instead of black.

The Missal should include any additional Masses, and introits and other parts that are to be used. It is most convenient to have the Consecration Prayer on the right-hand page, and proper for it to have a picture of the Crucifixion opposite. Ribbon markers are needed, and marginal tabs on the edges of important pages are helpful. The Missal rests on a portable sloping desk on the altar. For the beginning of the service it is set near the south end and parallel with the front (not turned at all), and for Low Mass it is placed closed, with the opening to the left.

If a ciborium is to be used, it may be placed ready near the middle of the altar, and with its cover on, whether the breads for consecration are already in it or not. If the tabernacle is to be opened, its key may be laid ready near it on the altar, unless the priest will bring it in with him. The Sanctus bell for the server to ring is placed on the altar step, on the south side.

The credence table, on the south side of the sanctuary, is covered with a white cloth and bears the cruets of wine and water, a covered box of altar breads if required for communion, and the lavabo bowl and towel (or napkin). The cruets should have lids or stoppers, and the wine cruet especially should be kept closed. If alms are to be collected the alms-bag may be put on the credence table. And other special requisites may be placed there.


THE chalice and ciborium, if not of gold, should at least be gilded inside the bowl, and the hollow of the paten likewise. The front of the chalice should be marked by some visible sign on the base. The ciborium has a removable lid.

The veil for the chalice, and the burse, are of silk of the colour of the Mass. A veil twenty inches square is suitable for a medium-sized chalice, say six and a half inches high by four across the bowl. Frequently, though not necessarily, one side of the veil is marked as its front by a design. An ordinary size for the burse is ten inches square. One side is hinged, the adjoining ones loosely filled in, the mouth open.

The purificator is of soft linen, ordinarily thirteen inches square, and may be marked for sacred use by a small worked cross in one corner. It is folded lengthwise in three. The pall is of stiffened linen, six inches square as a medium size, plain beneath but on top admitting of ornament. The corporal, twenty inches square, is of plain linen, with a small cross worked near the front edge.

When the chalice is set out in the sacristy, its front is turned towards the priest, and the folded purificator is laid across its bowl, depending on either side. The paten is set on, with marginal design (should it have one) at its back. The priest's Host, fresh enough, clean and undamaged, and freed from crumbs, is laid in the centre of the paten, its design facing the priest. The pall is laid squarely over. The chalice veil is laid evenly over, its front towards the priest entirely covering the front of the chalice. The burse, containing the corporal properly folded as directed below, is laid on top of the veiled chalice, right side up, the mouth behind. The corporal is folded, first the front third back over the middle, then the back third forward over it, the right third over the middle, finally the left third over it, the opening being thus to the right. It is then slid left side first into the burse, so that both have their opening the same way.


THE sacred vestments, the chasuble, stole, and maniple, are to be of the colour proper to the Mass to be celebrated, whether it be of the day or a votive Mass. If the chasuble is fitted inside the front with strings or ribbons to tie, they should be at a height to tie round under the arms (not too low), and each should be five feet long from their junction. Stole and maniple should be marked by a cross at the middle, and the sides of the maniple should be joined at a point which will leave a fit opening to pass the arm through.

The sacred vestments are laid out in the order above, and over them the linen girdle, alb, and amice, the order of putting them on being of course the reverse, beginning with th,e .amice. A girdle fifteen or sixteen feet long can be put on double for its first round, single if only eleven or twelve feet. The alb should be long and ample. The amice is about thirty-five inches long between the strings, and has a small cross worked near this edge, in the middle; or in some cases an ornamental band or collar, the apparel, is attached to the edge. The strings at the two corners should be four feet three inches long. The amice need not be as broad as long; nineteen or twenty inches will suffice.


THE celebrating priest stands erect, and in passing from one part of the altar to another, or retiring to the step, he will turn in the direction required, not move about sideways or backwards. He keeps his eyes lowered.

Whenever the priest at the centre of the altar has occasion to turn to the people, he turns round to them by his right. And then if he is to turn back, he does so the way he came, by his left; except after the bidding of the Prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church, for then he turns back by the north, completing the circle. In the presence of the Blessed Sacrament after the consecration, the priest avoids turning his back upon it, by drawing back a little towards the north in turning, and always turning back by his left.

Most of the liturgical prayers are said with hands extended, that is, held out open and facing one another, not wider nor higher than the shoulders, the fingers straight and together; except that from the consecration till the ablutions the thumb and forefinger of each hand are held joined. In praying with extended hands, they are joined to make a bow, and for the conclusion of prayers. If one hand is lowered for any action, such as signing a cross or turning the book, the other hand also is lowered and is rested on the altar or on the breast.

Except at prayers, the hands are ordinarily held joined; to give the salutation "The Lord be with you" towards the people, they are opened a little and joined again.

To kiss the altar, the priest lays his hands on its edge, bends down and touches it with closed lips, at the middle. If the corporal is spread, the kiss is made on it; and the hands are laid on it, to make a kiss, in the canon after the consecration. The ceremonial kissing of other objects is also done by a touch of the closed lips.

The priest crosses himself with the middle finger of the open right hand, down from forehead to breast and then across from left to right, meanwhile holding the left hand on the breast. Over the people, he makes the cross downward and then from his left to right. He makes horizontal crosses over the oblation or Sacrament with the hand held edgeways, meanwhile resting the left hand on the altar if not holding the base of the chalice.

In resting the hands on the altar, they are laid outside the corporal, except when the fingers are being held joined after the consecration of the Host.

A bow is made at the name of Jesus, at Glory be to the Father, and other proper occasions. When at the epistle corner, the priest turns towards the cross at the middle to bow, but not at the gospel corner. After the consecration, bows are made looking upon the Host.

A genuflection is an act of adoration of Christ in the Sacrament; or of homage on such occasions as the declaration of the Incarnation in the Creed and the Last Gospel. The right knee is lowered to the floor, but without any further bending down of the body. To genuflect at the altar, a step back is made, and the hands are rested on the edge. A genuflection is not prolonged, except the one in the Creed.


THE priest who is to celebrate should be in a state of grace, and fasting from midnight, and should make his devotional preparation. Midnight Mass is exceptional; ordinarily Mass is not celebrated nor Communion given till early morning, nor later than an hour after mid-day, by modern Roman rule.

In the sacristy, the vestments and chalice are prepared, and water and towel for the priest to wash his hands. A piscina or a special vessel is needed for the rinsing of the purificator after Mass.


THE priest washes his hands, saying privately the prayer, DA, DOMINE, VIRTUTEM:--Give virtue to my hands, O Lord, and wash out every stain, that without pollution of mind or body I may be able to serve thee.

Taking the amice by the string corners and kissing it on the cross, he puts it over his head like a hood, saying the prayer IMPONE, DOMINE:--Set upon my head, O Lord, the helmet of salvation, that I may overcome the assaults of the devil. He crosses the corners of the amice over his throat, brings the strings round under his arms and ties them in front, not drawing them tight.

He puts on the alb over his head, and his arms through the sleeves, saying the prayer DEALBA ME:--Make me white, O Lord, and cleanse my heart, that being made white in the blood of the Lamb, I may attain to joy everlasting. If the sleeves are too long, he turns them up at the wrists.

He puts the girdle round his waist, first doubling it if it is a long one, and keeping its ends off the floor, and ties it on the left, saying the prayer PRAECINGE ME:--Gird me about, O Lord, with the girdle of chastity, and quench the flames of lust, that the virtue of continence and purity may evermore abide in me. If the alb requires, it is drawn up under the girdle, to be short enough in front for convenience and not to trail behind.

Having kissed the maniple on its cross, he puts it securely on the left forearm, saying the prayer MEREAR, DOMINE:--Give me grace, O Lord, so to bear the maniple of tears and sorrow that I may with joy receive the reward of my labours.

He kisses the stole on its central cross and puts it over his neck, praying REDDE MIHI, DOMINE:--Restore to me, O Lord, the stole of immortality, which I lost through the transgression of my first parents; that though I be unworthy to approach thy sacred mysteries, I may yet be accounted meet for eternal joy. He crosses the right part of the stole over the left, on his breast, with care that the ends hang equally, and ties another round of the girdle over it.

Putting on the chasuble over his head, he prays, DOMINE QUI DIXISTI:--O Lord, who hast said, My yoke is easy and my burden light, grant me so to bear it that I may obtain thy grace. Amen. He adjusts the chasuble, ties its strings round him if it has them, and puts back the amice from his head in a hollow fold over the stole behind, and in front adjusts its folds over his collar.


TURNING the veiled chalice round with the front from him, the priest takes it by the stem with his left hand, lays his right hand on top on the burse, holds the chalice at a natural height before his breast, bows to the sacristy crucifix and to the server, and follows the server to the altar. If the server gives him holy water, he removes his right hand from the chalice to take it and sign himself. From respect to the sacred vessels, the Latin rule directs the priest not to use the chalice to carry other things on top of it. Below the altar step the server goes to the left and they bow towards the altar, or genuflect if the Blessed Sacrament is reserved on it. The server kneels down on the left, while the priest ascends to the altar and sets down the chalice, turning its front to face forward and standing it to the left to leave room in the middle for the corporal. Lifting the burse off and turning its mouth to the right, he draws out the corporal on the altar and lays or stands the empty burse out of the way, on the back part of the altar, usually to the left. He spreads the corporal carefully on the middle of the altar, opening it to the left, right, backward, and forward, the front even with the altar (never hanging over). It is not to be shaken out or dangled in opening it, but kept flat. He then stands the veiled chalice on the middle of the corporal, facing towards him and far enough back to leave room to kiss the altar in front of it. He goes to the Missal and opens it, finds and marks his places (unless he has done this beforehand), and leaves the book open at the beginning of the Mass he will say. He returns to the middle, bows to the cross, turns by the right, descends to the step, by the server, turns to the altar, and bows slightly, or genuflects if the Blessed Sacrament is reserved (the priest makes no further genuflections for the Reserved Sacrament till the end of the service).


STANDING below the step, with the server kneeling on his left, the priest, using a moderate voice, says the Invocation, In the Name of the Father, etc., crossing himself, and the server or people answer Amen. He says half the antiphon, I will go unto the altar of God; the server or people the other half, even unto the God of my joy and gladness. Psalm 43, JUDICA ME, is said alternately by verses; the priest bows at the Gloria; the antiphon is repeated as before. [The Sarum Mass has no psalm here: the 1928 English book has it.] (In Passiontide Masses of the season, and at Requiems, the psalm and Gloria are omitted and the antiphon said once only.)

The priest says Our help is in the Name of the Lord, at which the sign of the cross is made: answer, Who hath made heaven and earth. Bowing low, the priest says the Con-fiteor, striking his breast with closed hand thrice at the repetitions of "my own fault," etc. [The form given is Sarum in one respect, naming only St. Mary instead of a number of names as in the Roman form.] I confess to God Almighty, blessed Mary ever-virgin, and all the saints, and to you, my brethren, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, and deed, of my own fault, my own fault, my own grievous fault; wherefore I beg blessed Mary ever-virgin and all the saints, and you my brethren, to pray to the Lord our God for me. The server or people say the Misereatur, Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee thy sins, and bring thee to everlasting life. The priest says Amen, and stands erect again. The server or people then say the Confiteor, with the variations "to thee, father," and "thee, father," and the priest replies with the Misereatur in the plural, answered with Amen. (The priest does not alter his Confiteor or Misereatur, but maintains the plural and "brethren," even with a server alone.) The priest and server or people cross themselves as the priest says the Indulgentiam, The Almighty and merciful Lord grant us pardon, absolution, and remission of all our sins. Answer, Amen.

The priest says the following verses with the server or people. Verse, Wilt thou not turn again and quicken us, O God? Answer, That thy people may rejoice in thee. Verse, Shew us thy mercy, O Lord. Answer, And grant us thy salvation. Verse, O Lord, hear our prayer. Answer, And let our cry come unto thee. Verse, The Lord be with you. Answer, And with thy spirit. Opening and joining his hands, the priest says, Let us pray.

Then the priest, with joined hands, says aloud the Lord's Prayer and Collect for Purity, as appointed (but in the Scottish revision the Lord's Prayer is omitted here). [The Sarum Missal (not the Roman) has these two prayers at this point.]


HAVING said the opening prayers as above, the priest goes up to the middle of the altar, kisses it, and goes to the Missal. Facing east with joined hands, he reads the Introit proper to the day or Mass, consisting of an antiphon, psalm verse, Gloria, and repetition of the antiphon. He crosses himself on beginning the Introit, and at its Gloria he bows towards the altar cross. (The Introits of Passiontide Masses and that of a Requiem have no Gloria. At a Requiem, the priest does not cross himself at the Introit, but instead makes a sign of the cross over the book.)

For the Kyrie he goes to the centre, and facing the altar, with hands joined, says it alternately with server and people. But if the Commandments are to be said, he turns to the people. The 1549 Kyrie is ninefold, and the later threefold varieties can be said ninefold--for instance, "Lord, have mercy. 'Lord, have mercy.' Lord, have mercy. 'Christ, have mercy.' Christ, have mercy.' Christ, have mercy.' Lord, have mercy. 'Lord, have mercy.' Lord, have mercy."

In the 1549 Mass, Kyrie is followed by GLORIA IN EXCELSIS on those occasions when the latter is to be said.

After the Kyrie (or Gloria) the priest kisses the altar, turns to the people, and. opening and joining his hands, says, The Lord be with you: answer, And with thy spirit, He goes to the Missal, and, facing east, says, Let us pray, extends his hands and reads the Collect proper to the day or Mass. When bows are to be made, they are directed towards the cross, with joined hands. He joins his hands for the conclusion of the Collect, and gives it its full ending, and Amen is said. If additional Collects are to be said as memorials, "Let us pray" is said a second time and they follow in order, without their endings or Amen till the last one, which ends full.

The ordinary full ending for Collects addressed to God the Father is "through Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end." If our Lord has been mentioned in the Collect, "through the same thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord" is said in the ending. If the Holy Spirit has been mentioned in the Collect, "in the unity of the same Holy Ghost (or Holy Spirit)" is said in the ending. Collects addressed to our Lord ordinarily end, "who livest and reignest with the Father, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end," and this ending is omitted in a memorial followed by another. As before, if the Holy Ghost is mentioned in the Collect, "in the unity of the same Holy Ghost" is said in the ending.


THE priest lays his hands on the sides of the book, to read the Epistle or Lesson. (The term Lesson is authorised in the Scottish and 1928 English uses, and should be employed for any passage not from an Epistle of the New Testament.) He announces The Epistle (or Lesson) is written in the .... chapter of . . . ., beginning at the .... verse. If the book has not chapters, he mentions only the verse.

The titles of books should be announced with sufficient fulness, thus:--the book of Genesis, the book of the prophet Isaiah, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Romans, the book of the Revelation of St. John.

In the same position he reads the passage, turning towards the cross to bow if there is occasion, and announces at the end, Here endeth the Epistle (or Lesson).

Certain Ember-day Masses of the Latin rite have a number of lections, with Graduals and Collects between them. Such Masses can be reduced to ordinary form by omitting all except one Collect, Lesson or Epistle, and Gradual, before the Gospel.

If a full Passion, with its ending divided off as a Gospel, is read at Low Mass in Holy Week, all until the last part is read like the Epistle, in the same place and position, but with the people standing for it. It is announced as, The Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ according to St....., without chapter or verse or any responses before or after. At the words "he gave up the ghost," or equivalent phrase, the priest and all kneel down and say an Our Father silently, and then rise again. Nothing is said at the end.


AT Low Mass the Gradual and other choral pieces between the Epistle and Gospel are read by the priest in the same place and position as the Epistle, and with bows towards the cross if there is occasion.

The Gradual is an anthem with a verse attached, and is simply read as it stands. (The Sarum elaboration of repeating the first part after the verse on some occasions is unnecessary.) For the ordinary form of Alleluia after the Gradual, the priest says Alleluia twice, reads the appointed verse, and at its end says Alleluia once again.

From Septuagesima to Easter, the Alleluia is omitted after the Gradual. On Sundays and feasts and some ferias, a piece called a Tract is read instead, after the Gradual; but on other weekdays the Gradual alone is said.

A Gradual alone is said on ordinary Vigils and certain of the Ember Days.
On Easter Saturday and Low Sunday, and thenceforward through Eastertide to Trinity Sunday, including Masses of feasts, instead of the Gradual and ordinary Alleluia, a fourfold Alleluia with two verses is said, viz., Alleluia twice, a verse, Alleluia once, another verse, and another Alleluia. But on the Rogation Days and Whitsun Eve, a triple Alleluia with one verse is said, and there are variations on the Whitsun Ember Days.

A metrical Sequence after the Alleluia on Sundays and feasts was a common feature of the Sarum rite, but the Roman Missal retains only a few Sequences. There is no sufficient reason ever to read one at Low Mass, though at solemn services some of the great hymns of this kind may well be sung.


THE priest goes to the centre and, bowing down with hands joined, says in a low voice the prayer before the Gospel, DOMINUS SIT, The Lord be in my heart and on my lips, that I may proclaim the holy Gospel of God: then standing upright and crossing himself, he adds, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. Meanwhile the server carries the Missal on its desk across to the north corner of the altar, where he sets it at an angle towards the north. If without a server, the priest first moves the book himself, then returns to the centre and says his prayer.

He goes to the book, and facing nearly north, with hands joined, says, The Lord be with you. After the response, he announces, The holy Gospel is written in the .... chapter of St. . . ., beginning at the.... verse, and with his thumb signs a small cross on the page, at the beginning of the Gospel, and then a similar small cross on his forehead, one on his lips, and one on his breast. The server, standing by him, and the people sign themselves thrice in like manner, and answer Glory be to thee, O Lord. The server then crosses to the Epistle side, and stands turned towards the priest while he reads the Gospel.

In saying "The Lord be with you" before announcing the Gospel, the priest does not open his hands nor turn towards the people, nor does he turn towards the cross at the GLORIA TIBI after the announcement. If he has occasion to bow during the Gospel, he does so towards the book before him, not towards the cross.

At the end of the Gospel, the priest lifts the book slightly and kisses the page at the beginning, where he had signed it. Server and people respond Praise be to thee, O Christ (or its Scottish or South African variant). [Roman, 1928 English, new American.]

At Requiem Masses the priest does not kiss the Gospel after reading it, but the usual responses both before and after should be said.


On Christmas Day, in the Gospel of St. John, priest and people kneel down on one knee during the phrase "and the Word was made flesh"; and in the Epiphany Gospel a genuflection is made after the words "fell down and worshipped him."

In Holy Week, when a full Passion is read, its last part is read as the Ritual Gospel, at the north corner, but with no announcement or responses, though the priest says the private DOMINUS SIT before it. On beginning the Gospel, he signs neither the book nor himself, but he kisses the book at the end.


AFTER the Gospel, the priest moves the Missal up beside the corporal, and goes to the centre, and the server faces east where he stands on the other side.

If the Creed is to be said, the priest, facing east at the middle of the altar, extends and raises his hands while beginning I believe in one God, then joins his hands, with a bow, and proceeds, bowing again at our Lord's Name. After "came down from heaven" he parts his hands and rests them on the altar edge outside the corporal, and kneels down on the right knee to say "and was incarnate" and the rest, rising again after "was made man." He bows at "worshipped and glorified," and crosses himself at the closing words.

(In the South African, Scottish, and 1928 English revisions, the Nicene Creed is amended by the change of a word, "The Lord, The giver of life," and the important restoration of a missing word, "Holy," as one of the notes of the Church.)

The Creed should always be said on Sunday, whether Mass be of the Sunday or of a higher feast or octave. Also on red-letter feasts, and any feast of our Lord, St. Mary, apostles, evangelists, angels, patronal feast of a church, dedication feast, Maundy Thursday and Corpus Christi, and daily in the octaves of Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. Omission on weekdays is authorised in the 1549 service and recent revised ones.


AFTER the Creed, or after the Gospel when no Creed is said, the priest kisses the altar, turns and says, The Lord be with you, opening and joining his hands; turns back during the reply, and reads the offertory sentence appropriate for the day, season, or Mass. (But in the Scottish rite, the form "Let us present our offerings," etc., is said first.)

Such sentences as "Whatsoever ye would" and "Not everyone that saith" are suitable for ordinary Sundays and weekdays, whether alms are collected or not. "Let your light so shine" may be reserved for feasts, "While we have time" for Advent and Requiems, "Lay not up for yourselves" (from the Ash Wednesday Gospel) for Lent. Appropriate also for feasts are the new sentences (1928), "Offer unto God thanksgiving" and "I will offer in his dwelling," and the American "Thine, O Lord, is the greatness." The South African rite has proper sentences for seasons and days. In the Latin Missals, every Mass has its proper offertory.

If alms are collected, the priest presents them by laying them momentarily on the altar, outside the corporal, and they can then be laid aside on the credence or elsewhere. There is no prayer to say over them, nor should they be signed with a cross.

He then unveils the chalice, lifting off the veil by its back corners and lowering it in three folds, backward, forward, and back, on the right of the corporal and back a space from the front of the altar. He takes off the pall, and lays it on the corner of the folded veil by the corporal. He carries the paten, with both hands, to the south corner of the altar, receives the required number of breads and lays them in the middle of the paten, beneath the priest's Host. Having returned the server's bow, he carries the paten back and sets it down on the front part of the corporal.

Or if, for a large Communion, a ciborium is to be used, the priest first lifts the paten with Host off the chalice and sets it on the corporal in front, then uncovers the ciborium with the breads in it, or puts them in, and sets it on the back part of the corporal, towards the right, with the cover at hand.

Or if not preparing for any communicants, or if he is going to use a ciborium of the Reserved Sacrament from the tabernacle, he now merely removes the paten from the chalice on to the corporal, as above.

Holding the chalice on the corporal with the left hand, he takes the purificator off it, wiping out the bowl as he does so, and lays the purificator on the edge of the folded veil, beyond the pall. He carries the chalice in his left hand to the south corner, and carefully pours in a requisite quantity of wine. He makes a cross of blessing over the uncovered water cruet, saying in a low voice the prayer DEUS QUI HUMANAE SUBSTANTIAE:--O God, who hast wonderfully created our human nature, and still more wonderfully regenerated it; mercifully grant that by the mystery of this water and wine we may be made partakers of his Divine nature who vouchsafed to be partaker of our humanity, Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world without end. Amen.

(In the celebration of Requiem Masses, the same prayer is said without blessing the water by a cross.)

He pours a very little of the water into the wine in the chalice, gives back the cruet and returns the server's bow, puts the chalice near the corporal, goes to the centre, takes the chalice and if necessary wipes off with the purificator any chance drops on the inside of the bowl, sets the chalice on the middle of the corporal, and takes up the paten with both hands and places it on the chalice.

He offers the Oblation, taking the chalice by the stem with both hands and holding it up, with the paten on it, a handsbreadth above the corporal, while saying in a low voice the prayer SUSCIPE, SANCTA TRINITAS:--Receive, O Holy Trinity, this oblation which I an unworthy sinner offer to thy Divine Majesty, in honour of blessed Mary and all thy Saints, for my own sins and offences, for the salvation of the living, and the eternal rest of the faithful departed. [In the Sarum rite, Host and chalice were thus offered together; in the Roman rite, each is offered separately with its own prayer, and Suscipe, sancta Trinitas is not said till after the lavabo.] He makes a horizontal sign of the cross with the chalice, over the corporal, while he continues, In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, may this new Sacrifice be acceptable to Almighty God. He sets down the chalice in the middle of the corporal, and the paten in front of it, and covers the chalice with the pall. If there is a ciborium with breads to be consecrated, on the corporal, it will have been left open to be included in the above act of Oblation, and will now be covered.

If a second chalice is prepared, for a large Communion, wine is put into both, water is added to both, and the second is put on the corporal near the first. When the first, with the paten, is being offered as above, the second is included in the intention, and afterwards it is covered with a second pall.

For the lavabo, the priest goes to the south corner and has water poured over the thumbs and forefingers of both hands together, while saying in a low voice the prayer MUNDA ME:--Cleanse me, O Lord, from all defilement of mind and body, that being made pure I may so perform the holy work of the Lord. [Sarum Missal: the Roman has the lavabo verses from Psalm 26.] He dries his fingers on the lavabo towel, held by the server, and returns his bow. In absence of a server, he pours the water on his own hands separately. After the lavabo, the priest returns to the middle of the altar.

In the 1549 and Scottish rites, the Preface and Canon follow immediately, but in the others the Prayer for the Church. The priest kisses the altar, and turns to bid the Prayer. He may at this point ask prayers or thanksgivings for special objects, or publish notices. Then opening and joining his hands, he says, Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church (the addition "militant here in earth" is omitted in all the lately revised forms). He turns back to the altar by completing the circle to his right, and reads the Prayer with extended hands. He says "alms and oblations." if alms have been collected, otherwise "oblations" only. At the latter word he makes a cross over chalice and paten together (he ought not to cross the alms, even if they have been left on the altar). In the rites in which "N., our bishop," is to be named, it is only the bishop of the diocese who is to be mentioned, and by his Christian name only. (It is convenient to have the name in the margin of the page; or, as in Roman usage, hung up conspicuously in the sacristy.) It is fitting for the priest to pause a little after each several mention of those in "sorrow need . . . , sickness . . . , or any other adversity . . . ," and at the mention of the faithful departed.


THE Invitation is said towards the people, and the priest then turns back to the altar. (For weekdays the 1928 Book allows a shortened' Invitation, beginning at "Draw near with faith," and a short Confession. But the new Confession is a very poor substitute for the old form.) The Confession is led by the server, or by the priest standing at the altar, and should be said distinctly and unhurriedly. The priest again turns to say the Absolution, signing a cross over the people at "pardon and deliver you," and after the Amen going on to the Comfortable Words.

(In the 1928 Order, the Comfortable Words are immediately followed by "Let us pray" and the Prayer of Humble Access, before passing on to the Preface and Canon.)

In the case of a priest celebrating without any to communicate with him, the Invitation is of course not said, and it is fitting to omit also the Confession and Absolution and Comfortable Words.


PARTING and joining his hands, the priest gives the salutation, The Lord be with you, and the response is made. He says the SURSUM CORDA:--Lift up your hearts, extending and raising his hands as is done for prayer, and holds them so until he has said Let us give thanks, etc. He turns back to the altar, and extends his hands again to continue the Preface, using the proper Preface if one is to be said on the occasion. He joins his hands, and bows down, to say the Sanctus with the people, then stands erect and adds the Benedictus, crossing himself. [Authorised in the Scottish and 1928 English uses.] At the Sanctus the bell is thrice rung.

In the 1549 and Scottish rites, in which the Preface follows the Offertory, if the priest does not turn to the people he rests his hands on the altar while saying "The Lord be with you," and then raises and extends them for the SURSUM CORDA.

To say the Prayer of Humble Access, the priest rests his hands on the altar edge to kneel down, then joins them before him, till he uses them in rising again. (In all the revised rites, this prayer has been removed from between the Sanctus and Consecration Prayer, so that the Preface forms an uninterrupted beginning to the Canon.)


OUR Lord's Words of Institution are traditionally treated by the Church of England as the form of Consecration, and this is the prayer in which they are embodied. (In the 1549 Mass, the Prayer for the Church intervenes at this point, and is followed immediately by the Prayer of Consecration.) Standing before the altar, the priest uncovers the ciborium, if using one, and makes all else ready, and, after a pause for recollection, says the prayer audibly and distinctly but quietly. At the petition "Hear us, O merciful Father," before the consecration, he joins his hands and looks upward, then bows down to say "we most humbly beseech thee." At "bread" he signs a cross over the paten (meanwhile resting the left hand on the altar) and at "wine" over the chalice. Proceeding with the prayer, he bows with joined hands at the Holy Name, and at "Body" and "Blood" repeats the two former crosses.

The 1549 Canon has here the Invocation. "with thy holy Spirit and word vouchsafe to bless and sanctify," etc., with two crosses marked. In using it, a cross should be signed over chalice and Host together at "bless," and again at "sanctify." There need not be crossings again at "bread and wine," but it is fitting to sign over the paten at "Body" and the chalice at "Blood."

(In the Scottish, American, and 1928 English rites, there is no petition at this point.)

At the consecration, when the priest says "took bread," he takes up the paten with both hands and puts it down again, looks upward, then down at the Host, and at "given thanks" makes a cross over it. Taking the Host at the bottom with thumbs and forefingers of both hands, he breaks a small rent in the lower margin while saying "brake it." If there are small breads for consecration on the paten or in a ciborium, he momentarily lays the thumb and forefinger of his right hand upon them, still holding the large Host with the left hand. For a large consecration in two ciboriums, he would touch the breads in each. Then holding the Host upright over the paten with thumb and forefinger of both hands, he bends over it, spreading his elbows and resting them on the altar, and slowly and carefully pronounces the Words of Consecration, "this is my Body which is given for you." Still holding the Host as nearly as possible in the same position, he genuflects, and on rising continues, "do this in remembrance of me," and elevates the sacred Host, with both hands, high above his head, so that it may be plainly seen. He straightway lowers it, and lays it again on the paten. [The Anglican use of always laying the Host on the paten, not directly on the corporal, has obvious advantages, especially after the consecration.] (Henceforward, except for touching the Blessed Sacrament, the thumb and forefinger of each hand are held together, until they are purified at the ablutions.) Having replaced the Host, the priest genuflects again, resting his hands on the corporal.

The server kneels close up for the consecration, and rings the bell three times, viz., after the Words of Consecration, at the elevation, and at the second genuflection. At the elevation also he slightly lifts up the bottom of the priest's chasuble, with his left hand.

The priest uncovers the chalice, taking off the pall with the joined fingers and middle finger of the right hand and laying it on the near corner of the folded chalice veil. At "took the Cup" he takes the chalice by the stem with both hands, the right uppermost, lifts it a little and sets it down again. Still holding it with the left hand, he makes a cross over it with the right at "given thanks"; and then taking hold again with both hands, while continuing the words, he holds it up a little above the corporal and, leaning forward with his elbows resting on the altar, he pronounces "this is my Blood," etc. After the words "remission of sins" he sets down the chalice, genuflects (with hands on the corporal), and on rising elevates the chalice as high as is safe, with both hands, keeping it quite upright, then lowers it on to the middle of the corporal again, covers it with the pall, and genuflects.

At the consecration of the chalice the server rings thrice, and raises the chasuble at the elevation, as before for the Host.

If two chalices are used for a large consecration, both are uncovered at the same time, and at "took the Cup" the first and then the second is taken momentarily. But the first alone is signed with the cross, held by the priest in consecrating, and elevated. Both are then covered; the subsequent ceremonies in the Canon and at the Commixture are done with the first chalice only.


IN using the English Prayer of Oblation, with the Lord's Prayer, to complete the order of the Canon, the priest can supply a link, and an Anamnesis otherwise lacking, by first saying in a low voice, Wherefore having in remembrance his blessed Passion, mighty Resurrection, and glorious Ascension. Having said this immediately after the last genuflection at the consecration of the chalice, he goes on with the Prayer of Oblation, in a similar tone to the Consecration Prayer.

At the words "accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving" he makes three successive crosses over chalice and paten together. At "partakers of this holy Communion" he kisses the altar on the corporal, to the right of the paten, signs a cross over chalice and paten together, and crosses himself at "fulfilled with thy grace." He joins his hands to say "through Jesus Christ our Lord," with the usual bow, then uncovers the chalice, genuflects, rises and takes the Host with the right hand and holds the stem of the chalice with the left, holds the Host upright just over the chalice and signs three horizontal crosses with it over the bowl (not extending beyond it)," at "by whom" and "with whom" and "unity." [In the Latin Canon the crossings here are more numerous and elaborate, matched to somewhat different wording.] When he comes to the phrase "all honour and glory," he elevates the chalice about a handsbreadth above the altar, and with it the Host, held upright over it with the hand rested on the chalice brim (this action is sometimes called "the lesser elevation"). He sets down the chalice, replaces the Host on the paten, covers the chalice, and finishes saying the doxology, raising his voice to say world without end more loudly. After its Amen, he says with joined hands the Bidding of the Lord's Prayer:--Let us pray. As our Saviour Christ hath commanded and taught us, we are bold to say (as in the 1549 rite and the 1928 book). He says the Lord's Prayer with the people, with extended hands until they are joined for the doxology.


THE Mass of 1549 has an Anamnesis of the Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension, associated with a commemoration in which a cross should be signed over chalice and paten together at the words "these thy holy gifts." The same phrase in the Scottish, American, and 1928 English rites calls for the same ritual action. But the South African more ample phrase, "this holy Bread of eternal life and this Cup of everlasting salvation," involves two crossings, over the paten and chalice respectively.

After the Anamnesis, the other liturgies agree in adding to the Canon of 1549 a variously worded Invocation of the Holy Ghost. In its Scottish form, it is proper for the priest to cross himself at "upon us"; the Host at "bread" and the chalice at "wine"; the chalice and paten together, twice, at "blessed" and "hallowed"; and Host and chalice respectively again at "Body" and "Blood."

To say the American Invocation, the priest should join his hands and look upward, then bow down to say "humbly beseech thee"; resting the left hand on the corporal, sign with the right the chalice and paten together twice at "bless and sanctify "; and sign first the Host and then the chalice at "bread" and "wine" and again at "Body" and "Blood."

In the 1928 English form, the priest should begin with the gestures noted above for the American form, and should sign a cross on himself at "us," and over the Host and chalice respectively at "bread" and "wine," and again at "Body" and "Blood."

With the South African Invocation is combined the petition for the grace of Communion which in the other rites occurs later in the Canon. The priest should look up, bow down to suit the words "humbly beseech," cross himself at "us" and the chalice and paten together at "gifts," kiss the altar at "this holy Communion," cross the Host and chalice separately at "Body" and "Blood" and cross himself at "heavenly benediction."

The rest of the Canon, in these liturgies, corresponds with the present English Prayer of Oblation; and in them all, the same triple crossing of the chalice and Host together is proper at "this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving," and the same acts at the closing doxology, as have been described in the previous section. But in the middle of the prayer there is a variation in the petition for the grace of Communion. In the fuller wording of the 1549 form and the Scottish and American, the altar should be kissed at "this holy Communion," and the Host and chalice signed with the cross separately at "Body" and "Blood" in the next phrase. But the 1928 English form (like the existing Prayer of Oblation) does not contain the latter phrase, and so the kiss and the crossing are both done at the words "this holy Communion" and the cross is a single one, over chalice and Host together. Finally, in either case the priest crosses himself at the words "heavenly benediction" in the petition. In the South African Canon the whole petition is placed earlier, in conjunction with the Invocation, and the actions are therefore noted above.

The Lord's Prayer concludes the Canon, but in the Scottish Liturgy the Prayer for the Church intervenes before it. Owing to this position of the Prayer for the Church, when the priest turns for its Bidding he will draw back a little towards the north, so as not to turn his back upon the Holy Sacrament on the altar, and instead of continuing his round, will turn back by his left, towards the south.

The Bidding of the Lord's Prayer varies a little in form, and the 1549 Mass adheres to the Latin way of leaving the prayer to the priest to say alone, until its last petition.


THE Lord's Prayer ended, the priest uncovers the chalice, genuflects, takes up the Host, and holds it upright just over the chalice, with both hands. He makes the fraction by breaking the Host carefully in two. Down the middle is the Roman custom; up the middle from the rent already made in the lower margin is perhaps better for us. He lays the right half on the paten, and breaks from the bottom of the left half (still held over the chalice) a piece small but of sufficient size to hold conveniently. Holding it over the chalice with his right hand steadied on the brim, he puts the rest of the left half on the paten, joining its edge to the other portion which is there. He takes hold of the chalice with his left hand, and says the PAX DOMINI:--The peace of the Lord be alway with you; answer, And with thy spirit, meanwhile making three flat crosses with the particle of the Host over the bowl, not beyond its circumference, at the words "peace . . . Lord . . . alway." He drops the particle carefully into the chalice, on the side nearest him, and with joined hands says in a low voice the prayer HAEC SACROSANCTA COMMIXTIO:--May this most holy union of the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be unto me, and all who partake thereof, unto health of soul and body, through the same Christ our Lord. Amen. He then covers the chalice.

The wording of the Pax varies in some of the rites, but its proper form is that of 1549 above. In that rite it is followed by a special piece, "Christ our paschal Lamb," etc. The Scottish Liturgy has a different special sentence after the Pax.

In the South African form, the Lord's Prayer is to be followed by a silent interval, and then the Prayer of Humble Access, said kneeling, after which a direction is given to break the Bread. The priest would therefore rise from the prayer, uncover the chalice, and proceed to the fraction and the rest as above, saying the Pax and other prayer.

The American rite also, as now revised, has the Prayer of Humble Access between the Lord's Prayer and the priest's Communion. But in the absence of any direction to break the Bread at this time, it is proper to make the fraction and commixture, and say the Agnus Dei (see below), before saying the Prayer of Humble Access.


THE priest, bowing a little with joined hands and looking upon the Host, says, O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. At "have mercy" he rests his left hand on the corporal, and strikes his breast once with the right hand and holds it there. He says the same words a second time, keeping the left hand on the altar and only moving the right to strike his breast again. He says the form a third time, but instead of "have mercy upon us" saying grant us thy peace, with the same striking of the breast.

At a Requiem he says instead, with hands joined without striking the breast, O Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, grant them rest, twice, and the third time with the fuller ending, grant them rest everlasting.

In the 1549 rite, Agnus Dei appears later, as an anthem for the clerks to sing "in the communion time." The Pax and "Christ our paschal Lamb" are followed by the Communion Preparation (in the present usage of the rite, there is a custom of deferring this till after the priest's Communion).

In the Scottish Liturgy, the Preparation comes first and Agnus Dei after it. Both in this and the preceding rite, the priest in turning to and from the people at the Invitation, and again at the Absolution, will avoid turning his back to the Blessed Sacrament on the altar. In turning to the people, he will move back a little to the north, and return by the south.


AFTER saying the Agnus Dei, it is fitting for the priest to pause for a short time, while he makes his accustomed private prayers for himself and others, in relation with the Holy Sacrifice, including any special intention with which he is celebrating.

He then genuflects, and rising says in a low voice the act PANEM CAELESTEM:--I will receive the Bread of heaven, and will call upon the Name of the Lord. Inclining towards the Host, he says the following act three times, the opening words being said aloud each time, DOMINE, NON SUM DIGNUS:--Lord, I am not worthy--he strikes his breast, each time, and finishes in a low voice--that thou shouldest come under my roof; but speak the word only, and thy servant shall be healed. The server may ring the bell, once at each of the three repetitions, serving as a reminder to intending communicants to come up in good time. (Roman use is to hold the Host, with its halfs meeting, and the empty paten immediately beneath it, with different fingers of the left hand, while saying the DOMINE, NON SUM DIGNUS. With us the paten is not usually empty, and there is no sufficient reason to take up it or the Host till the next action.)

To communicate himself, the priest puts the right half of the Host over the left half and holds the parts by the bottom over the paten, which he holds up beneath by the rim with the left hand. He says the form The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, etc., making an upright sign of the cross with the Host in front of himself, above the paten held beneath. Bending down with elbows on the altar, he reverently communicates himself, still holding the paten beneath, and receiving the two parts of the Host together. He rises, puts down the paten, and stands in meditation with joined hands for a space, until ready to receive from the chalice.

He uncovers the chalice, genuflects, and says in a low voice, QUID RETRIBUAM:--What shall I render unto the Lord for all the benefits that he hath done unto me? I will receive the cup of salvation, and call upon the Name of the Lord. Lifting the chalice by the stem with both hands, he carefully makes a sign of the cross with it before himself, saying the words The Blood, etc., and communicates himself in such a way as to receive the floating particle at the same time (it is essential to receive the particle before communicating anyone else with the chalice). He dries the rim with his lip, sets down the chalice, retaining the left hand on it, and if necessary further dries the rim with the right thumb or forefinger, separating it from the other finger for the purpose. (The offence of staining the pall is thus avoided.) He rejoins the fingers according to rule, and covers the chalice.

But if the priest is celebrating without other communicants, after saying the QUID RETRIBUAM he holds the paten over the chalice, and carefully clears it of all crumbs by brushing it with his forefinger to the edge over the chalice; then lays down the paten, rubs his fingers lightly together over the chalice, to clear them, and holds them joined again; and in communicating receives as completely as possible all that is in the chalice, and at once holds it out to the server for the first ablution.

In the American order, before the priest's Communion he kneels down to say the Prayer of Humble Access, rises, and should then say the PANEM CAELESTEM and DOMINE, NON SUM DIGNUS and proceed as above.


HOLY Communion is commonly given with the Sacrament just consecrated, either on the paten or in a ciborium; but a ciborium of the Reserved Sacrament may be taken out of the tabernacle and used. When using the paten, the priest genuflects, takes it up in the left hand, takes up from it one of the small Hosts with his right hand and holds it upright just above the paten, and turns to the people. He lifts it up higher, saying, ECCE AGNUS DEI, Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, and lowers it again (not making any sign of the cross with it). [In Roman use, the priest also says the Domine, non sum dignus, repeated thrice.] The communicants should have come up before this, in order to avoid delay. The priest goes to the south end of the row, communicates the first person with the Host he already holds, and passes along the row communicating each. In saying The Body, etc., he makes a small cross with the Host vertically above the paten, and lays the Sacrament in the extended palm of the communicant's right hand, whence it is to be at once received into the mouth. If a ciborium is used, it is held by the stem, and the procedure is the same. If the Reserved Sacrament is to be used, the priest, after his own Communion, opens the tabernacle with the key, which has been placed on the altar, genuflects, lifts out the ciborium on to the corporal and closes the tabernacle door without locking it or drawing the curtain over, opens the ciborium, genuflects, takes it with one of the Hosts held over it, and proceeds as above.

In the 1549 rite, the Words of Administration are only the first part of the present form, and Communion is given in the mouth instead of the hand. At large Communions, the short form greatly expedites the administration. To receive in the mouth, it should be opened and the tongue put out to the lower lip, so that the Host may be placed on it. (In Roman use a linen houselling cloth is held up below while receiving, or else the modern device of a "communion paten.")

If the same priest is to administer the chalice, he puts the paten or ciborium back on the altar, uncovers the chalice, genuflects, turns the chalice round with the front from him and takes it up with the left hand holding the stem and the right the base, and communicates each, saying, The Blood, etc. (again the 1549 form is short). He places the chalice to the lips, tilting it just enough, or, what is generally better, having the communicant tilt it by the base for himself.

If the chalice is administered by another priest, or a deacon, he puts on a stole and comes up for it after the celebrant's Communion, and follows him communicating the people. For a very large Communion, the Sacrament may be consecrated in two or more ciboriums and chalices, and ministered by assistant priests or deacons starting simultaneously from opposite ends of the rows of communicants. The celebrant will be responsible for the purification of all the vessels when brought back to the altar.

When a single priest is communicating more than one row of people, first with the paten or ciborium and then with the chalice, each time that he brings the chalice back to the altar, except the last, he turns its front to him, removes any exterior trace of the Sacrament with his lip, dries the edge with lip and finger, covers it with the pall, then takes the paten or ciborium again for the next row.

When all have been communicated, if any consecrated wafers remain over, the priest consumes them, unless they are to be reserved. If he has used a ciborium from the tabernacle, and the remainder of its contents is to be reserved again, he covers it and puts it back, genuflects, closes and locks the tabernacle door and draws the curtain over it. With his forefinger he brushes out the paten, and ciborium if used (and not reserved), into the chalice. The paten will ordinarily need no further purifying. He consumes what remains in the chalice; but if too much is left, he may reserve it on the corporal till after the Blessing, and then have the assistance of some of the communicants for its consumption, according to the Rubric.


WHEN the priest has consumed any remainder of the Holy Sacrament, he holds out the chalice with his right hand, for the server to pour in enough wine to rinse it. He drinks this first ablution, turning the chalice about so that the wine may pass over the inside.

For the second ablution, it is convenient to tuck the purificator between the middle and fourth fingers of the left hand, and the chalice is then taken between the hands, by the bowl, holding the joined thumbs and forefingers over it, and the priest goes to the south corner and has a little wine and more water poured over his fingers into the chalice, while he says the prayer CORPUS TUUM:--May thy Body, O Lord, which I have eaten, and thy Blood which I have drunk, so cleave to my soul that no stain of sin may remain in me, who have been refreshed with this most pure and holy Sacrament; who livest and reignest world without end. Amen. [Some R.C. writers say No, he should not leave the middle.] Having purified his fingers, he returns the bow of the server, who retires with the cruets. The priest sets down the chalice on the altar, dries his fingers on the purificator, and lays it down, and need no longer keep the fingers joined. He rinses the chalice with the ablution, drinks it, wipes his lips lightly with the purificator, dries the chalice thoroughly, folds the purificator and lays it across the bowl, and puts the chalice on the altar near the corporal.

If there is also a ciborium to purify, he may receive water in it after the purifying and drying of his fingers, rinse it, pour the water into the chalice, and consume it with the other ablution. Then he wipes his lips, dries and covers the ciborium and sets it aside, and dries the chalice and places it with the purificator on it as above.

If a second chalice has been used, it also should be purified with wine and then with water, and dried, and it can then be set aside.

If there is no server, the priest must pour the ablutions for himself, and can purify and dry the fingers first of one hand, then of the other.

If a priest says two or three Masses on the same day (such as the three of Christmas), he takes the ablutions at the last one only. At the previous Celebrations, they may be poured into an ablution cup, and reserved for subsequent consumption. Or if the same chalice is to be used again by the same priest, it may be emptied as completely as possible but without any ablution, the fingers purified in an ablution cup, and the chalice used again for the next Mass without wiping it out as usual at the Offertory. But the risk of forgetting, and wiping it, renders this way less safe than the other.

The ablutions completed, the priest returns to the centre; sets the chalice, with purificator across it, on the corporal, and puts on it the paten and pall. If it be needful to move the chalice veil to make room to transfer the Missal to the south, the server carries the veil to the north side and lays it on the altar there within the priest's reach. He carries the Missal, on its desk, across to the south end, and sets it on the altar parallel with the front, as at the beginning of Mass. In the absence of a server, the priest himself moves the veil if necessary, and the Missal.

The priest covers the chalice with the veil (both with front towards him), lifts the veiled chalice off the corporal, standing it usually to the left, folds the corporal correctly and puts it into the burse, puts the burse (with opening turned from him) on the chalice, and replaces the chalice in the middle of the altar.


THE ministration of the Sacrament is followed by the reading of a. special antiphon or sentence, the salutation The Lord be with you, then Let us pray, and a collect, in the 1549 rite, as in the Latin Mass. But whereas the Latin Communion and Post-communion, as the antiphon and collect are called, are proper to the day or Mass, the English sentences, like those for the offertory, are a general set to choose from, and the post-communion is the unvaried Thanksgiving prayer, Almighty and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee. The ritual method for this part of the service is as follows:--

Having veiled the chalice and set it as described, the priest goes to the Missal at the south corner, and reads the communion sentence, with joined hands. He goes again to the centre, kisses the altar (in front of the chalice), turns and gives the salutation, opening and joining the hands; goes back to the Missal, says "Let us pray," facing east, and with hands extended reads the post-communion Thanksgiving.

If the Lord's Prayer of the English service is used at this point instead of at the end of the Canon, it may take the place of a varying communion sentence, and be said in the same way, but the people joining in. If the Lord's Prayer has been said with the Canon, it is fitting to use a sentence instead here.

In the Scottish Liturgy, the Thanksgiving is prefaced by a form of Bidding (omissible on weekdays), "Having now received the precious Body," etc. The 1928 English service has the form, "Having now by faith received," etc. As the American rite has only "Let us pray" before the Thanksgiving, a sentence and the salutation would fit in before it.

It is very fitting, after the Thanksgiving, to add a collect suitable to the day or Mass. The ancient form of post-communion collect combined a reference to the Sacrament received and to the liturgical day. Our Thanksgiving provides the former of these features, and the latter can be provided by an added collect. Thus in Advent, the Collect of the sixth Sunday after Epiphany might be used as a suitable post-communion; in Lent, the Occasional Collect, "O God, whose nature and property is ever to have mercy and to forgive"; in Eastertide, such a prayer as the additional Easter Collect in the 1928 book; for the Holy Spirit, the Collect of the nineteenth Sunday after Trinity; for saints' days the All Saints' Collect, or for apostles, that of St. Simon and St. Jude; for the Dead, the Collect of the twenty-first Sunday after Trinity; for general use, the supplementary Collects at the end of the English service. The Scottish Book has a series of proper post-communion collects.

Latin use may be followed further, by adding other post-communions corresponding to any memorials said at the beginning of the service. They are said like the memorials, with a "Let us pray" before them.


AFTER the post-communion the priest closes the Missal (unless he intends to use it further), with its opening to the left, and goes to the middle to say the Gloria, if it is to be said, and to give the blessing.

He begins the Gloria like the Creed, extending and raising his hands while saying Glory be to God on high, then joining them to bow and go on. He bows again at "we worship thee," and "Jesu Christ," and "receive our prayer," and crosses himself before concluding. (The Scottish Liturgy has a different version of the Gloria.)

The Gloria is said on Sundays and all feasts and every day in octaves, except the violet Sundays in Advent and from Septuagesima to Easter when no higher feast occurs. It is said also on Maundy Thursday, and at all the Saturday Masses of our Lady. Its omission on weekdays has the same authorities as for the Creed, in the Anglican Liturgies.

After the Gloria, or when it is not said (Requiems excepted), the priest at the middle of the altar rests his joined hands on its edge, bows down and says the private prayer, PLACEAT TIBI:--Grant, O most holy Trinity, that this sacrifice, which I an unworthy sinner have offered unto thy Divine Majesty, may be acceptable unto thee, and by thy mercy may avail for myself and all for whom it hath been offered, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

To give the Blessing, he parts his hands and rests them on the altar, kisses the altar, and says the first part, The peace of God, etc.; joins his hands, turns round, and says and the blessing, etc., signing the cross over the people, who answer Amen. He then turns to the north and goes to read the Last Gospel.

But at a Requiem, on going to the centre after the post-communion, he kisses the altar, turns and says The Lord be with you, opening and closing the hands, turns back and, facing east with joined hands, says the REQUIESCANT IN PACE:--May they rest in peace. Answer, Amen. Inclining, he says the PLACEAT TIBI prayer, kisses the altar, then (without blessing the people) goes to the north end for the Last Gospel.

Standing at the north corner of the altar and facing nearly north, he says, with joined hands, The Lord be with you. After the answer he says The beginning of the holy Gospel according to St. John, signing with his thumb a cross upon the altar (or on the Gospel if he has the Missal), and on his brow, lips, and breast at the response Glory be to thee, O Lord. He reads the Gospel, St. John i. 1--14 (the Christmas Gospel) with joined hands, and kneels down on one knee to say the clause "and the Word was made flesh." The response at the end is, Thanks be to God.

(On Christmas Day, when the Gospel of the Mass is the beginning of St. John and therefore the Epiphany Gospel is read instead at the end, the usual genuflection is made in the latter, after "fell down and worshipped him.")

After reading the Last Gospel, the priest returns to the middle, turns the chalice round so as to face from him, and takes it up by the stem with the left hand, steadying it on top with the right. Bearing it thus before his breast, he bows slightly, turns and descends the steps, turns to the altar again and bows more profoundly (or genuflects if the Blessed Sacrament is reserved) with the server, and follows him out.

If on occasion prayers are to be said after Mass, the priest may say them standing at the centre of the altar before taking up the chalice for departure, or he may kneel on the step to say them. This procedure is suitable for special prayers, for instance in time of war, or other grave public need.

On returning to the sacristy, a bow is made to the cross there, and on putting down the chalice a prayer may be said with the server. The priest draws the amice over his head, and takes off and lays down the vestments, kissing the stole, maniple, and amice. He rinses the purificator if he is not going to use it again (the water used is to be poured away on the earth in a clean place). He then makes his thanksgiving.


THE Sacrament Reserved is kept in a ciborium covered with a veil, often a four-sided silk veil with central opening to fit over the top-piece of the ciborium lid. It stands on a small corporal in the tabernacle, which has an inner veil, a door with lock, and outer veil (see the early section on the altar), and a light before it. The tabernacle must be a fixture; and when the Blessed Sacrament is reserved in it, it must be kept locked and the key in proper custody.

The Reserved Sacrament should be renewed regularly about once a week. When it is to be changed, the key is laid on the altar near the tabernacle, either before Mass or brought in by the priest. He may communicate the people with the reserved Hosts, when he wishes to renew them; in which case, after making his own Communion he draws aside the veil and unlocks and opens the tabernacle door, genuflects, lifts the ciborium out on to the corporal and opens it, and gives Communion with it. Afterwards he consumes any remainder, brushing out the ciborium into the chalice with his forefinger, puts in the newly consecrated Hosts, and locks up the ciborium again in the tabernacle. But if not giving the reserved Hosts in Communion, he first administers to any communicants in the ordinary way, then opens the tabernacle, consumes the Reserved Sacrament himself, and renews it.

Intincted Hosts can be used for Sick Communions, but where such are reserved they of course cannot be given in ordinary Communion at Mass. The particle for the Commixture can conveniently be used to intinct Hosts for reservation, dipping it in the chalice and making a spot with it in the centre of each Host, before saying the PAX DOMINI and putting the particle in. The intincted Hosts can be left to dry during the Communion, and then be enclosed in a pyx.

The celebrant may not interrupt his Mass by going away from the altar to carry Communion to the sick. He may go immediately after the service, in his alb and stole if not outdoors, with a humeral veil over his shoulders and the pyx enveloped in it. Outdoors he may wear surplice and stole, or ordinary dress, with the pyx in a special bag. After communicating the sick man, the priest purifies his fingers and the pyx with a little water, which he gives the sick person to drink or reserves in an ablution cup for later disposal.

A covered ablution cup containing water should be kept, with a small purificator, beside the tabernacle of reservation or near at hand, and used by the priest to purify his fingers after handling the Sacrament on any occasion. A corporal is used on which to place the ciborium or pyx when taken out of the tabernacle on to the altar.

On occasion of Exposition in a monstrance for Eucharistic adoration and prayer, Roman rules require at least twelve candles burning on the altar all the time, and some kneeling worshipper to be always present. Requiems may not be celebrated at the altar of exposition, except on All Souls' Day. The use of the altar for other Masses is avoided as far as possible; and if there is one, the priest throughout avoids turning his back to the Blessed Sacrament, and genuflects every time he comes to the centre of the altar or leaves or passes it. The Sanctus bell is not rung at any Masses which are celebrated in the church during Exposition.

A lesser Exposition is made by setting the veiled ciborium, with the Blessed Sacrament in it, in sight on the altar or in the opened tabernacle. This entails the same genuflections and avoidance of turning the back. But with the Blessed Sacrament enclosed within the tabernacle in the ordinary way, Mass is celebrated without any special observance towards it, except the genuflections at the beginning and end of the service, on approaching and leaving the altar.


THE custom of lighting four candles for a bishop's Mass is proper on Greater Feasts.

The chalice and maniple are placed on the credence table, and the rest of the vestments on the altar; but for a Requiem the maniple goes on the altar with the rest. Mitre and pastoral staff are not used, unless it is an Ordination Mass. If there is Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament on the altar, the vestments are not laid out on it but in the sacristy, and the bishop puts them on there; but otherwise he vests at the altar. He takes off his pectoral cross before vesting, and puts it on again over the alb, before taking the stole.

Serving is done by two chaplains, but the bishop's attendant pours the water for the lavabo with a special ewer and basin. The chaplain on the left holds the maniple, and after the Confiteor offers it to the bishop to kiss and then puts it on his arm. One chaplain holds a hand-candle by the Missal when the bishop is reading, and the other turns pages for him; but when they kneel down for the Consecration the hand-candle is put on the altar. The chalice is brought from the credence at the offertory, and put back there after the ablutions. The bishop takes off his ring to wash his hands, and puts it on again afterwards. For the Elevation, two large portable candles are held, or two standing ones are lighted before the altar. After the service the bishop unvests at the foot of the steps and the chaplains lay each vestment on the altar.



SUNDAYS should ordinarily have three Collects, that is to say the Collect of the day, followed by two common or regular memorials according to the season. When a higher feast is kept on a Sunday, the Sunday Collect is said second, as a memorial.

The Creed is always said on Sundays, even at Mass of a feast which on a weekday would not take the Creed. The only exception would be a Requiem, which never has the Creed; but a Requiem is only admitted on a Sunday on special occasions.

A special preface for Sundays is provided in the 1928 English rite and the South African, and should be said except when the Sunday or season has a proper preface. According to the Roman rite, the Trinity Sunday preface is thus used for Sundays.

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS is said on Sundays, except the violet ones in Advent and from Septuagesima to Easter.

Advent Sunday, Passion Sunday, and Palm Sunday are principal Sundays, on which no feast may be kept.

The second, third, and fourth Sundays in Advent, and those from Septuagesima to Passiontide, are greater Sundays, on which only a local feast of Patron or Title (such as the feast of a saint in a church named after him), or the Dedication anniversary of a church, or the Purification when it occurs on one of the Sundays before Lent, may be kept.

The ordinary Sundays after Epiphany, Easter, and Trinity give precedence to red-letter feasts, or others which are treated similarly, that is, as greater feasts.


A WEEKDAY which is not a feast or of an octave is a feria, and ordinarily has the proper of the Mass of the preceding Sunday, with three Collects and without Creed, special Sunday preface, and Gloria.

Christmas Eve, Ash Wednesday, the days in Holy Week, and Whitsun Eve are principal ferias, on which no feast may be kept.

Weekdays in Advent till Christmas Eve and in Lent till the end of Passion Week, Rogation Monday and Wednesday, the September Ember Days, and vigils in general, are greater ferias, which are commemorated by their Collect on greater feasts; or else two Masses are celebrated, one of the feast and the other of the feria, if the latter has a proper Mass, as is the case in Missals except for the ordinary Advent weekdays. All these greater ferias take precedence over lesser saints' days, only the Collect of the saint being said as a memorial.

The Ember Days have some liturgical provision of Epistles and Gospels in the various revised Prayer Books, and the Scottish rite has a special preface for their Mass. The second or shorter Ember Collect of the Prayer Book may fitly be added to the other Collects on Ember Days, as a memorial for Ordinands. Violet is the colour for Ember Masses, except those of Whitsuntide.

The proper Mass of a vigil is celebrated in violet, if not otherwise ordered. An ordinary vigil falling on Sunday is anticipated on the Saturday before, both liturgically and in fasting. A vigil falling on an Ember Day or in Lent is only commemorated by its Collect, at Mass of the other feria, though an extra Mass of the vigil may be said.


FEASTS of our Lord, or of mysteries of the Faith, feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, apostles, evangelists, angels, specially important saints1 days, the local feast of Patron or Title of a church or religious order, and the anniversary of Dedication of a church, are treated as greater feasts, and if one of them is impeded on its day it is translated to another.

Greater feasts have only one Collect, unless some contingency requires a special memorial to be added to it. Both the Creed and Gloria are said on greater feasts, and the principal ones have proper prefaces.

The Christmas preface, omitting the words "as at this time," or, as in the English revision, substituting the phrase "for our salvation," should be used for all feasts, octaves, and other Masses of the Blessed Virgin, when not otherwise ordered. The English and South African revisions appoint such an adaptation of the Christmas preface for the Purification and Annunciation; the Scottish, for the Annunciation, with a different one for the Purification. The American rite assigns another preface to these two feasts.

In the Scottish rite, the two feasts of the Holy Cross may fitly be given the preface provided for Passiontide.

The revised Prayer Books all give the Transfiguration a preface. For the feast of the Holy Name the adapted Christmas preface is proper, after the example of the Missals.

All Saints' Day has a preface in the revised rites, and the American rubric specifies an octave for it.

The use of the All Saints' preface is extended to feasts of apostles and evangelists, and St. John Baptist's Nativity, in the rubrics of the English and South African revisions, and to certain national saints in the Scottish rite, which provides another preface for apostles and evangelists.

The Dedication feast of a church has a preface in all but the American revision. N.B.--It may here be noted that if the date of a Dedication is unrecorded, or is permanently inconvenient, there is pre-Reformation precedent for celebrating it on the first Sunday in October.

Octaves of the principal feasts are observed, and, during such, the proper of the feast is repeated on each day unless otherwise appointed. The Creed should be said daily in the octaves of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost; but it need not be said on weekdays in the octaves of Epiphany, Ascension, Trinity, Corpus Christi, All Saints, or a local Patronal or Dedication feast. GLORIA IN EXCELSIS is said every day in octaves. On Sunday in an ordinary octave, the Sunday Mass is said, with memorial Collect of the octave in second place.

Lesser saints' days have the Mass of the saint, with common memorials as on ferias and without the Creed, but the Gloria is said. But Mass of a lesser saint's day may be celebrated only when it occurs on an otherwise ordinary weekday. Occurring on Sunday, or on a greater feast or in its octave, or on a greater feria, the lesser feast is only commemorated by the Collect of the saint, said second; or if the day does not admit such a memorial, the saint is omitted for the occasion.

The Mass of a feast or octave requires its proper colour, whether white or red, unless cloth of gold is used, as it may be for any feast. White is proper for Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension, the Holy Trinity, Corpus Christi, feasts of our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, angels, and saints except martyrs and in most cases apostles and evangelists. St. John Baptist has white for his Nativity, red for the Beheading. Red is proper for apostles and evangelists, with exceptions such as St. John in Christmastide, Conversion of St. Paul, and certain lesser days like St. Peter's Chains, which have white. St. John Port-Latin has red in the Roman rite, white often in our custom. Red is the colour for the feasts of the Cross, and for martyrs' days including the Holy Innocents (to which feast, on a weekday, Rome curiously gives a violet penitential Mass). Whitsun Eve and the ensuing seven days of Pentecost take red.


THESE are Masses differing, for some special purpose, from the service of the day. The colour proper to the Mass is used for the vestments and chalice, but ordinarily the altar frontal should remain of the colour of the day and office. After the Collect of the Mass (Requiems excepted) the Collect of the day is added as a memorial of the feria, of which the office is said. The Creed is not said at Votives, and GLORIA IN EXCELSIS is said only at the regular Saturday Mass of our Lady. (The Roman rules permit Creed and Gloria to be sung at a Votive Solemn Mass if in white or red.)

The Saturday Mass of our Lady is of the nature of a Votive, unless a corresponding Saturday office of the Blessed Virgin is used instead of the office of the day. The Saturday Lady-mass is excluded from Lent, but is celebrated on other vacant Saturdays, in forms differing for Advent, between Christmas and Candlemas, in Eastertide, and through the year from Candlemas to Lent and after Trinity. At all times the colour of this Mass is white, the Collect of the feria is said as a memorial, and the preface of St. Mary and the Gloria are said, but not the Creed.

A Votive Mass of the Holy Ghost is celebrated, in red vestments, to invoke the Divine guidance on special occasions. The Whitsuntide proper is used, with Epistle and Gospel of Whit Tuesday. The words "as at this time" are omitted from the Collect and preface. Except in Eastertide, the special Alleluias are omitted from the introit and the rest of the proper; and other necessary accommodations to the seasons are made.

A Votive Mass of the Holy Trinity may be celebrated as an act of special Thanksgiving, taking its proper from the service of Trinity Sunday, whose introit, gradual, and other parts are suitable expressions of thankful praise to God. The colour is the white of the feast. A Mass in Honour of the Blessed Sacrament may be celebrated with proper from Corpus Christi Day; or of the Holy Name, taken from that feast; or of some other Mystery, from its feast; or some saint or angel. Always, the colour of the feast or saint, whether white or red, will be worn. And inappropriate language, such as references to the day as a "feast," must be suitably altered, and Alleluias added or omitted or other variations made if required by the season.

Votive Low Masses are not admitted on Sundays, greater feasts, in octaves, in Lent (Requiems excepted), on Ember Days, Rogation Days, or vigils. A solemn Votive Mass may be sung, as an extra service on a special occasion, except on the principal feasts, Sundays and ferias, which exclude all other Masses.

Special Votive Masses of supplication in times of public distress are celebrated in violet vestments. Missals and Prayer Books contain services for times of war and other needs.

Ordinary Votive Masses should not be used instead of the ferial service without sufficient cause, especially at the chief or only daily Celebration. But the customary Saturday Mass of our Lady should be regularly used when admissible.


MASS for the Dead is a familiar Votive Service, in our earthly condition of daily mortality. Special points in its ceremonial have been described in their places. Candles of unbleached yellow beeswax are burned, vestments are black, Creed and Gloria are not said, and no Collects but those for the Dead are admitted.

A Requiem is celebrated as a supplication for the souls of the Faithful Departed in general, or for particular persons deceased. On All Souls' Day a single general Collect is said, but other general Requiems, monthly or otherwise through the year, have three Collects. At the time of death or burial, and on anniversaries or obits, a single Collect is said, for the person deceased.

When a name is to be introduced into a Collect for the Dead, the Christian name alone is used, not the surname. In the other parts of the Mass for the Dead, the plural form is always retained for such petitions as "Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord," or in the Agnus dei, "grant them rest," or at the end, "May they rest in peace," not substituting the singular even when the service is specially for one person. Neither does Mass for the Dead vary at all for the season, Alleluia for instance not being added in Eastertide.

The English offertory sentence, "While we have time," is suitable for Requiems. The South African rite has an offertory and preface for commemorations of the Departed. The other Prayer Books have sundry Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. The Masses for the Dead in the Sarum Missal have a satisfying devotional variety. The Roman ones have fewer variations, but include two features of later introduction, the DIES IRAE hymn after the gradual, and a special preface. The long hymn is really an Advent one, and there is no sufficient reason to read it at Low Masses, even if it is sung at solemn Requiems. The Roman preface for the Dead is beautiful.

The Sarum round of cathedral services included daily Requiems on weekdays out of Eastertide. The Roman order assigns a Requiem to the first free weekday of each month, except in Advent, Lent and Eastertide; with an option of having it weekly instead of monthly. It is further directed to say a Collect for the Dead at Mass once a week when there is not a Requiem, except in Lent and Eastertide.

In practice, it may be taken as sufficient to omit general Requiems in Eastertide, celebrating them monthly at other times when a weekday is vacant for one. If it is to be as often as once a week, it is better to make it an extra, not interfering with the Mass of the day.

A funeral Mass in presence of the body may be celebrated as an extra service on almost any day, except the greatest feasts. The year's-mind, or obit, of a person is put off if it falls on Sunday or a festival, but Eastertide does not exclude these anniversaries .


THE additional Collects called memorials may be special, common, or optional, special ones being required by the occurrence of holy-days together, when Mass is said of the higher and memorial is made of the lower day. Thus a greater feast may have after its Collect one or more memorials, such as of a Sunday or privileged feria on which it occurs, an octave hi which it falls, or a lesser feast on the same day.

At a Sunday Mass, the Collect may be followed by a special memorial of a lesser feast, or of an octave.

In an octave there may be a memorial of a lesser feast or privileged feria. If two octaves overlap, at Mass of the greater a memorial is made of the lesser.

On a greater feria, there may be a memorial of a lesser saint's day, or of another privileged feria; for instance, a vigil falling in Lent or on an Ember Day has a memorial Collect.

In most cases of special memorials, they are the same at Mass as at Mattins. But in such instances as a vigil in Lent or on an Ember Day, memorial of the vigil is made at Mass but none in the Office. And a lesser saint's day falling on Palm Sunday or Whit-sun Eve is commemorated in the Office but not in the Eucharist.

Instead of a memorial, a separate Mass may be celebrated of a Sunday, a feria in Lent, a vigil, or an Advent or September Ember Day, on which a higher feast falls. The separate Mass takes vestments of the Sunday or ferial colour, and the feast is not commemorated at it, nor it at the Mass of the feast. In the same way, when a vigil is in Lent or on an Ember Day, each may have a Mass, without memorial of the other.

The Saturday Mass of our Lady does not have a memorial made of it (as a lesser saint's day has) when superseded by a higher day.

Although other Collects may not be said at a Requiem, memorials for the Dead may be said among the Collects at other Masses.

Common memorials are regular supplementary Collects, generally two, said daily according to the season except on greater feasts. When special memorials are required by occurrences (such as are instanced above), they are said before common ones.

Optional memorials may be added by the priest, after the other kinds, should he wish to say any additional Collects for intercession or devotion; provided always that not more than seven Collects in all be said. The Collects should be an odd number if possible--one, three, five, or seven. On the greatest holy-days the Collect of the day is always said alone, and on other greater feasts memorials are avoided if possible.


THE season of Advent has violet for its liturgical colour, and the Advent Collect is said daily, as the Collect of the day for the first week and thenceforward the second Collect. The Annunciation Collect may be said as second Collect on Advent Sunday and through the first week, and third Collect for the rest of the season, as a daily memorial of our Lady or the Incarnation (corresponding to the Sarum Advent memorial of St. Mary). It is not said when Mass itself is of the Blessed Virgin, as on her Conception. In the first week, the All Saints' Collect, or some other at choice, may be said for third Collect.

The ordinary Sunday preface is continued in Advent; but Scotland has a special Advent preface for Sundays and weekdays. GLORIA IN EXCELSIS is said only on feasts and at the Saturday Mass of our Lady, by the Roman rule (Sarum excluded it entirely).

Mass may be said of the vigil of St. Andrew, if in Advent, or the vigil of St. Thomas if not on an Ember Day, a memorial of the Advent feria being added.

No feast may be kept on Advent Sunday, none but a local Patronal or Dedication feast on the other Sundays; the Advent feria is commemorated on greater feasts; and lesser saints' days have memorial only.

On Christmas Eve no feast may be kept, and the Advent memorial of St. Mary or the Incarnation is omitted. The Mass is a violet one. If the Eve is Sunday, service is of the fourth Sunday in Advent, with memorial of the Eve.

On Christmas Day no memorials are said. The Latin rule permits only the first of the three Masses of the Nativity to be said at midnight, though in the morning all three, or two of them may be said, even consecutively without leaving the altar (but omitting nothing, from the preparation to the Last Gospel). The Prayer Book service corresponds to the old third Mass. Revised Prayer Books make extra provision for more than one Celebration.

In the Octave of the Nativity, the Christmas Collect is said second on the feasts which are kept. But lesser feasts, St. Thomas the Martyr and St. Silvester, may be only commemorated by Collect in the octave. The Epistle and Gospel of Christmas Day in the Prayer Book are not the most suitable for repetition in the octave: those from the second Mass of the Nativity, or the lections of the Sunday after Christmas, or others in the revised Prayer Books, may be used. The Creed is said daily in the octave. The Christmas preface (not the preface of Apostles) is said on St. John's Day, as on the other days in the octave.

On the Circumcision, no memorials are said. The Christmas preface is continued till Epiphany, according to the Scottish, South African, and revised English orders of service. The revised Prayer Books provide a proper service for the period between the Circumcision and Epiphany, under the title of the Second Sunday after Christmas, and this is preferable to repeating the Circumcision Mass. The white colour should be continued, but the Mass should be said ferially, without Creed and Gloria, except on Sunday. In the Latin uses, the octaves of the Christmastide feasts and the proper Mass of Epiphany Eve occupy the days. (In the Roman order, the Octaves of St. Stephen, St. John and Holy Innocents have service only on the octave day in each case, and no memorials on the days between each feast and its octave day.)

After the Circumcision, according to Sarum use, a Christmastide memorial of St. Mary is said daily till Candlemas Eve, except on the eve and feast-day of Epiphany and when Mass is of our Lady. It would be fitting to use in this way the Christmas Collect, with omission of the phrase "as at this time." As a third Collect, that of All Saints may be added.

On the feast-day of Epiphany, no memorial is said. All the revised Prayer Books give a preface for the Epiphany Octave. Lesser saints' days in the octave are only commemorated by Collect; and if a greater feast is kept, the octave is commemorated. The Creed need not be said on weekdays in the octave, but is said on the first Sunday after Epiphany, and the Epiphany Collect is said as memorial (before that of St. Mary) at the Sunday Mass. Should there be a higher feast on the Sunday, memorial would be made both of the Sunday and the Epiphany, by adding both Collects after that of the feast. These rules for the Epiphany Octave are of general application to ordinary octaves.

After the Octave of Epiphany, the season is ordinary till Septuagesima, and the green of the Roman rite is the colour in most general use. Till Candlemas, three Collects are said as after the Circumcision. Sundays and greater feasts have Creed and Gloria, octaves and lesser feasts and the Saturday Lady-mass have the Gloria. The ordinary Sunday preface is said.

The vigil of the Purification takes precedence over lesser saints' days, and would be commemorated on a higher feast. It lacks a traditional Mass, but that for the vigil of the Assumption can be used with slight adjustments. The colour should be violet, and the Christmas memorial of St. Mary now ceases.

On the Purification of our Lady, candles are blessed and a procession made with them before the principal Mass, and they are lighted again at appointed times in the Mass. This feast should be given precedence over any Sunday it may fall on, and the Sunday is commemorated by Collect.

Between the Purification and Lent, greater feasts have only one Collect, unless a memorial is to be made of some holy-day or Sunday. Three Collects are usual on Sundays, ferias, and lesser feasts which may only be kept on weekdays. The All Saints' Collect may be used as a common memorial, followed by some other one at choice, such as the Collect of the sixteenth Sunday after Trinity, which may be said as an intercessory memorial for the Church.

Septuagesima and the other two Sundays before Lent have priority over all feasts except the Purification or a feast of Patron, Title, or Dedication. Violet is the colour of the season, Alleluia is not said at all, and GLORIA IN EXCELSIS should be omitted on the Sundays kept as such. The Sunday preface is ordinary. The common memorials, as already described, change at Candlemas, whether before or after Septuagesima.

If the vigil of St. Matthias falls before Lent it has a violet Mass with usual privileges as a greater feria. In Lent, it will only be commemorated by Collect at Mass of the Lenten feria, unless it is given an additional Mass of its own.

On Ash Wednesday no feast may be kept. The principal Mass is preceded by blessing and imposition of ashes, made from blessed palms of the previous year. The colour of the day and of Lent is violet, Alleluia is not said at all till Easter, and the Gloria is said only on greater feasts (Sarum use excludes it entirely).

The first four Sundays in Lent exclude the celebration of any but a Patronal or Dedication feast. The weekdays till Holy Week allow only a memorial Collect to lesser saints' days, and on greater feasts the Lenten feria is commemorated. Octaves and the Saturday Mass of our Lady are excluded from Lent. In the Latin rite, each feria has a proper Mass (not always suitable for English use), and some Anglican Prayer Books appoint daily Epistles and Gospels.

On ferial weekdays, the Ash Wednesday Collect is said second, as a memorial of Penitents, and All Saints' or some other third. On Sundays, the All Saints' Collect may be said second and some other third. On greater feasts, the All Saints' Collect may be said after the memorial of the feria.

The ordinary Sunday preface is continued in Lent; but Scotland has a Lenten daily preface.

The vigil of the Annunciation has no Mass (unless the service for the vigil of the Assumption were to be adapted to it). The adapted Mass may be celebrated as an extra to the Lenten Mass of the day, or the Collect alone be used as a memorial of the vigil. If the feast has to be translated into Eastertide, the observance of its vigil lapses.

At the beginning of Passiontide, crosses and holy images used for prayer are veiled in purple. Scotland has a Passiontide preface. Passion Sunday and Palm Sunday exclude all feasts, and Palm Sunday has a single Collect, excluding all memorials. On Palm Sunday, the blessing and procession of palms take place before the principal Mass. According to the Scottish and revised English rites, if the full passion according to St. Matthew is read at the chief Mass, the Gospel at other Celebrations may be that of the Entry into Jerusalem (as on Advent Sunday).

The days in Holy Week exclude all feasts, greater ones being translated till after Low Sunday. On the Monday to Wednesday inclusive, lesser saints' days may have memorial Collect. Any occurring after that, till Easter Tuesday inclusive, are omitted.

For Maundy Thursday, the veil of the altar cross is changed to white. In memory of the Last Supper, only one Mass should be celebrated, at which all communicate together. It is celebrated in festal white, and with a single Collect, whether that of Palm Sunday or a proper one. The American Prayer Book has a special Collect for the day, and sanctions the use of the Gospel of the Foot-washing as an alternative to that of the Crucifixion according to St. Luke. There is a proper preface for Maundy Thursday in the Scottish, South African, and revised English rites. If the Mass of the Presanctified is to be celebrated on the morrow, two large Hosts are consecrated, and one of them is reserved (in an Easter sepulchre or upon an altar of repose) for the next day's service. After Mass or Evensong, the altars are stripped, and unbleached candles and black veils put on.

The two solemn days before Easter are ancient a-liturgic days, with no celebration of the Eucharist. Good Friday is observed with the Veneration of the Cross and Mass of the Presanctified, or an Ante-communion service, in black, with the three Collects of the Prayer Book. Easter Eve has Ante-communion in black, with single Collect, and the new fire and paschal candle are blessed.

Easter Day and Monday and Tuesday admit no memorials. The Creed is said daily through the week, and some revised Prayer Books provide an Epistle and Gospel for each day. The Roman rules permit of memorials of saints after Easter Tuesday; but on the octave day, Low Sunday, saints are not commemorated, the second Collect being the Easter Collect repeated as a memorial of the Resurrection.

White remains the Eastertide colour till Whitsun Eve. Until Ascension Day the Easter Collect is said daily (except on the feast of the Invention of the Cross) as a memorial of the Resurrection, and may be followed by that of All Saints. The Easter preface is to be continued daily till Ascension, according to the Scottish, South African, and revised English uses. In the Sarum Missal, ferial Mass is ordered to be without GLORIA IN EXCELSIS in Eastertide as at other times. (The Roman rubric, on the contrary, appoints it for daily use in the season.)

The feast of the Annunciation, if kept in Eastertide, has its own preface, not the Easter one, and so do the Saturday Masses of our Lady, and other votives with preface, such as the Mass of the Holy Ghost. The customary preface for apostles and evangelists should be used on their feasts.

The three Rogation Days are occasions of prayer with fasting, specially for the fruits of the earth. They have a violet Mass of supplication, which forms the proper conclusion of the Rogation litany and procession, though the Mass is celebrated without a procession if necessary. The altar frontal remains white, which is the colour of the day.

The revised Prayer Books make some liturgical provision for the Rogation Days, and one of their Collects for the Fruits of the Earth should be said. Rogation Monday and Wednesday take precedence over lesser saints' days, and are commemorated if a greater feast is kept. Rogation Tuesday is not a privileged feria like the other two days, but should have the Rogation Mass repeated on it. The proper Mass of Wednesday is of the vigil of the Ascension, and the Rogation Mass with procession forms an extra service.

Ascension Day takes precedence over any occurrent feast, and no memorial is said on it, unless it falls in an octave of Patron or Dedication, which would be commemorated. The Creed is said on the feast and Sunday, not necessarily on the weekdays of the octave. There are no regular memorials through the octave, but lesser saints' days are commemorated, and on any higher feast a memorial of the octave is said. On the Sunday after Ascension, the Ascension Collect is said second. After the Sunday, Mass is resumed as before it, for the rest of the octave.

The two days before Whitsunday still have the Ascension preface, according to the Scottish, South African, and 1928 English rites. Friday has the proper of the Sunday after Ascension, in white but ferially, without Creed and Gloria, and with three Collects. This feria is not commemorated if a feast is kept on it. Whitsun Eve has a red Mass, with one Collect, admitting no memorials, and without Creed and Gloria. Any occurrent greater feast is translated, or lesser one omitted.

On Whitsunday, Whit Monday and Tuesday, no memorials are said. The colour for the week is red, and is not changed for the Ember Days. All occurrent greater feasts are translated till after Trinity Sunday. Memorials of lesser saints' days are permitted by Roman rules on the days after Whit Tuesday. Some revised Prayer Books give Epistles and Gospels for each day of Whit-sun week. The Creed is said daily. The Whitsun Ember Days are festal, with Gloria, for the octave, but the customary Ember Collect may be added for Ordinands. Saturday is the concluding day of Paschal-time.

Trinity Sunday is the feast of the Most Holy Trinity, and no memorial is admitted. If a greater feast occurs, it is translated. As the service of Trinity Sunday is to be continued on the following weekdays, they should be regarded as days of an octave (as in Sarum use), and have white festal Mass (though the Creed need not be said). On feasts, except Corpus Christi Day, the octave should be commemorated by the Trinity Sunday Collect.

On the feast-day of Corpus Christi, no memorial is said (unless a memorial of a Patronal or Dedication octave is required), and any occurrent greater feast is transferred to next day. The Creed is said on the day, but not on the weekdays of the octave. The English revision has a suitable new offertory sentence, Melchizedek, king of Salem, and a service for Commemoration of the Blessed Sacrament, authorising the use of the Maundy Thursday preface. If this preface be not used, the adapted preface of the Nativity may fittingly be said. On the two days between the feast-day and Sunday, the lesser octave of the Holy Trinity should be commemorated by its Collect. On the first Sunday after Trinity, the Sunday Mass is celebrated in white, with memorial and preface of Corpus Christ! and memorial also of the Holy Trinity. (Or if the Corpus Christi Mass is said, Sunday and the Holy Trinity are commemorated.) For the rest of the octave of Corpus Christi, the service of the feast-day is resumed and there are no ordinary memorials. Lesser saints' days in the octave are commemorated.

The rest of the season after Trinity is ordinary, with green for colour, and three Collects except on greater feasts. The Trinity Sunday Collect is said second on the Sundays, as a memorial of the Holy Trinity (following the Sarum Missal). The All Saints' Collect may be said third on Sundays, and on weekdays second with another after it, that of the sixteenth Sunday after Trinity (for the Church) or other at choice. Greater feasts on weekdays have no common memorial; but when a greater feast is kept on Sunday, memorials are of Sunday and the Holy Trinity.

The September Ember Days have violet Masses, and are privileged as greater ferias. They share with Ember Days of the other seasons such provision as is made for them in the Prayer Books. The vigils of holy-days which occur in the season have violet Masses and are privileged. When the vigil of St. Matthew coincides with an Ember Day, the vigil is only commemorated by Collect, unless a separate Mass is said for it.

Special points for some of the feasts after Trinity have been mentioned under the heading of Feasts. The octave of All Saints is ordinary, without Creed on weekdays. When the feast-day falls on Saturday, the commemoration of All Souls is not kept on Sunday but postponed till Monday. Mass of All Souls is a general Requiem, with one Collect.

In a long season, the Mass of the sixth Sunday after Epiphany is taken in for one extra Sunday and week, or of the fifth and sixth for two, preceding the Sunday before Advent.

Project Canterbury