Project Canterbury

Ritual Notes on the Order of Divine Service.

By the Editors of "The Order of Divine Service," &c., &c.

Oxford: Mowbray & Co., 1894.


Ritual Notes.

OF THE ALTARS AND OTHER SACRED ORNAMENTS.

Of the Altars.

The High Altar may be 3ft. 6in. high, or at most 3ft. 7˝in., and 7˝ft. long, or longer, if in a large Church, and at least 3ft. 9in. wide, including the space occupied by the steps for the Cross and Candlesticks. The Altars in Side Chapels may be smaller, but should not be less than 6ft. long and 3ft. wide. On the Side-Altars there should be one step, of the length of the Altar, 6in. wide and as many deep, on which to place the Cross and Candlesticks, and the High Altar should have two or three similar steps, but proportionately larger, according to the relative size of the Altar. It is strictly forbidden to use the underneath part of the Altar as a cupboard, or place in which things may be put. In addition to the linen Cloths, on the top of the Altar, the front should be covered, at least during the Holy Eucharist and the Divine Offices, with a hanging of silk or other rich material, suitably ornamented. This should be of the colour of the day, and is called the Antependium. This is the true liturgical decoration of the Altar, but it is a common practice to replace it by a permanent decoration of painting or sculpture on wood, stone, marble, &c.

Of the Altar Cross.

There should be a Cross upon each Altar, which must be sufficiently large to be readily seen, not only by the Priest who celebrates, but by the people who assist at the Holy Sacrifice. A simple Cross will suffice but it will be more suitable, and more in conformity with ancient practice, if it have upon it a Figure of our LORD. It should be placed between the Candlesticks upon the highest gradine or step of the Altar. It ought to be of the same material as the Candlesticks, and so high that the foot of the Cross is on a level with the top of the Candlesticks, the base and stem of which should be of a similar pattern to those of the Cross.

If there be a large carving or painting representing our LORD upon the Cross, immediately over the Altar, a Cross upon the Altar is not required.

Of the Candlesticks.

Each Altar should be furnished with, at least, two Candlesticks, one on either side of the Cross. It is usual to provide the High Altar with six Candlesticks — three on each side of the Cross; they should not be of equal height but should rise gradually towards the Cross. This is the strict letter of the rule but in practice the Candlesticks are more frequently of the same height. It is not permissible to replace the Candlesticks by one or more Candelabra with several branches, or by brackets fastened to the wall. The material of the Candlesticks is not prescribed but it is fitting that those on the High Altar at least, should be, if possible, of a precious metal and in any case they should be of the same material and design as the Cross. The Candlesticks should be furnished with Candles of white wax, except on Good Friday and at Requiems, when the Candles should be of yellow or unbleached wax.

At all Solemn Services on Sundays and Festivals, six Candles should be lighted, but four will suffice on lesser Doubles, Semi-doubles, days within Octaves, and Greater Ferias or for a sung Requiem. On Simples and ordinary Ferias only two should be lighted. When a Low Celebration of the Holy Eucharist is said at the High Altar it is usual, and more convenient, to have two smaller Candlesticks on the lowest step, these should be removed at the conclusion of the Service; not more than [page 2] two Candles should be lighted at a Low Celebration unless the Celebrant be a Bishop, when four candles should be lighted. At a High Celebration when the Celebrant is the Bishop of the Diocese (but not otherwise) a seventh Candlestick, with a Candle a little higher than the others, should be placed behind the Cross,

At Solemn Services, both Acolytes should light the Candles, one on the one side and one on the other, commencing with those nearest the Cross; in extinguishing they commence with those farthest from the Cross. If but one Acolyte light them, he first lights those on the Epistle side and then those on the Gospel side beginning in each case with the one nearest the Cross, but in extinguishing them he proceeds in the contrary order, commencing with the one furthest removed from the Cross on the Gospel side. At a Low Celebration, the Server first lights the Candle on the Epistle side and then that on the Gospel side, extinguishing them in the reverse order. If the Candles be extinguished before the Priest has left the Altar, the Server will first extinguish that on the Gospel side, but he must be careful not to do so until he has answered, Thanks be to God, at the end of the Last Gospel.

Of the Sacred Vessels.

The Chalice should be of gold or silver or, at the least, the cup must be of silver and gilt within. The stem should have a boss or knob about the middle, which should be ornamented in such a manner as not to be inconvenient when taken in the hand. Upon the foot should be a Cross or some sacred Sign to mark the side of the Chalice which should be used in communicating the people. The whole of the Cup, both within and without, should be plain, without engraving or other ornamentation.

The Paten, should be of gold or silver, if of silver it must be gilt upon the surface of the upper side. The whole of the inner part must be perfectly plain, and it is very undesirable to have any engraving or other ornamentation on the outer rim.

The Ciborium is similar to the Chalice, but with a cover. Like the Chalice the cup, at least, must be of silver and gilt within. When there are a large number of Breads to be consecrated, the Ciborium will be found more desirable and convenient than the Paten in communicating the people.

The Chalice and Paten, if possible, should be consecrated by a Bishop, but the Ciborium may be blessed by a Priest. Neither may be handled by anyone not in Holy Orders, except with special permission.

Of the Altar Linen.

The Altar Linen consists of the Cloths of the Altar, the Corporal, the Pall, the Purificator and the Napkin or Towel for the Lavabo.

All these must be made of linen of flax or hemp and not of cotton.

Each Altar should be covered with three clean Cloths.[1] The two under Cloths should not exceed the length of the Altar; they may be replaced by one folded in two. The uppermost and better Cloth should be slightly wider than the Table of the Altar, and should be of sufficient length to hang down at each end to the ground. It may have five Crosses worked upon it, one in the centre and one at each corner, and the ends may be embroidered in white or decorated with lace or linen fringe. The Altar Cloths, the Corporal and Pall are required to be blessed before being used.

The Corporal, the Pall and the Purificator after use may not be touched by Lay persons, except with special permission, nor washed in domestic vessels, until they have been first washed by a Clerk in Holy Orders, when they may be touched by Laics until again used.

The Corporal is the linen on which the Sacred Host is to be placed. It is usually about twenty inches square, but it may be larger or smaller according to the size of the Altar on which it is to be used. It should be made of linen, very white [page 3] and very smooth, and it may have a border of lace or embroidery, but there may not be any ornamentation or embroidery on the parts which are liable to be in contact with the Sacred Species. It is proper to embroider a little Cross in white in the fore­part, near to the border, in one of the squares made by the folds; this Cross designates the side of the Corporal which is to be turned towards the Priest. The Corporal when washed should be stiffened with starch. There are two or three ways of folding the Corporal, but the most usual and most convenient method is to fold it into nine equal squares; it is first folded into three parts, the front (the side with the Cross) being first folded and the back brought over the front, then from the sides again in three, each of the ends being turned over the centre, so that when folded it is still perfectly square. It should be thus folded after being washed, and when in use great care should be taken to fold it in the same manner and to avoid making additional folds and creases. When removed from the Burse it should be withdrawn with the right hand and placed on the Altar and then carefully unfolded (not shaken out) and placed in such a manner that in front it will reach to the edge of the Altar, without any portion hanging over, and that the back part, if possible, shall not be beneath the Altar Card. Corporals which have been used should be left in their Burses, not taken out and put away in drawers.

The Pall is of linen, stretched over a piece of stiff card about seven inches square, and it is used to cover the Chalice and Paten. It should have a white Cross worked in the centre of the upper side.

In Italy, no card is used, but the Pall is of stout linen doubled, and is made as stiff as possible with starch.

The rubrics of the Book of Common Prayer seem to require a “fair linen cloth” for the purpose of covering the Blessed Sacrament during the interval between the Communion of the people and the Ablutions. This, if not considered identical with the Pall, should be of fine white linen, edged with lace or embroidery.

The Purificator is used for wiping the Chalice. It is a small napkin, made of linen, neither coarse nor fine, about thirteen or fourteen inches square, or it may be about sixteen inches long by twelve inches wide, and this form is the more convenient if the Chalice be large or unusually deep. It should have a very small Cross worked in the centre and the two ends may have a border of lace or embroidery.

The Napkins or towels for the fingers should be of linen and may have a fringe of the same material. The size is not prescribed, but Gavantus and others say they should be thirty-six inches long and twenty-seven wide. If they be small, it is desirable that more than one should be prepared on the Credence if several Priests have to celebrate at the same Altar on the same day.

Of the Sacred Vestments.

I. Of the Vestments Generally.

The Vestments which are termed the “Sacred Vestments,” are those which are necessary for the due celebration of the Holy Eucharist and of the other more Solemn Services. The Vestments required for the Holy Eucharist are: for the Celebrant, the Amice, Alb, Girdle, Maniple, Stole and Chasuble; for the Deacon, the Amice, Alb, Girdle, Maniple, Stole and Dalmatic; and for the Sub-Deacon, the Amice, Alb, Girdle, Maniple and Tunicle.

In addition to these Vestments, the Cope, and also the Chalice Veil, Burse and the Antependium of the Altar are included in the term “sacred ornaments” (paramenta sacra), and the Ministers, when vested, are spoken of as the “Sacred Ministers.”

The Amice and Alb must be of linen, and not of cotton. The Girdle should be of linen, of white flax, or thin hemp, with tassels at the ends, of the same material. It may be of the colour of the day but preferably, and more strictly, should be white.

The Stoles, Maniples, Chasubles, Dalmatics, Tunicles and Copes and also the [page 4] Burses and Chalice Veils, should be of silk or velvet and of the colour of the day. Cloth of gold or silver may be employed for the purpose, and Vestments of these materials may be used for all colours, except violet and black.

II. Of their colour.

The colours used by the Church for the Sacred Vestments are white, red, green, violet and black.

WHITE is used from the first Evensong of Christmas until the Octave Day of the Epiphany, except on the Feasts of Martyrs which occur within this period; at the Holy Eucharist on Maundy Thursday and Holy Saturday; from the first Evensong of Easter until Evensong on the Vigil of Pentecost exclusive, except on the Feasts of Martyrs, of the Holy Cross, and of S. John Port Latin, and at the Litany and Holy Eucharist on the Rogation Days; on the Feasts of the HOLY TRINITY, Corpus CHRISIT, Holy Name and Transfiguration; on all Feasts of the Blessed Virgin, except at the Blessing of Candle s and Procession on the Purification; on the Feasts of the Angels, of the Nativity of S. John Baptist, of S. Peter’s Chains, of S. John Evangelist at Christmas, of the Conversion of S. Paul, and of All Saints; on the Feasts of Confessors and of all other Saints not Martyrs; on the day of the Dedication or Consecration of a Church or Altar, and at the Consecration or Enthronement of a Bishop. The same colour is also used throughout the Octaves of these Feasts when the Services are of the Octave, and even on the Sunday (although the Service be then of the Sunday) except it be Septuagesima, Sexagesima or Quinquagesima when the colour will conform to the Service and violet will be used. White is used at Confirmations, Marriages, Ordinations, the latter part of the Baptismal Office, at Communion of the Sick with the Reserved Sacrament, at the Funerals of Infants and at all Services of Special Thanksgiving.

RED is used at the Holy Eucharist and at Evensong on the Vigil of Pentecost; on Whitsun Day and until the first Evensong of Trinity Sunday exclusive; on Feasts of the Holy Cross and of the Beheading of S. John Baptist; on the Feasts of the Apostles and Evangelists, except S. John at Christmas, S. Peter’s Chains, and the Conversion of S. Paul; on the Feast of S. John Port Latin; on that of the Holy Innocents, if it occur on Sunday or be the Patronal Festival; on the Octave Day of the Holy Innocents, under all circumstances, and on all Feasts of Martyrs. Red is also used throughout the Octaves of the Feasts above named, subject to the same rules as the colour white. (See above).

GREEN is used from the Octave of the Epiphany until Septuagesima and from the Monday after Trinity Sunday until Advent, at all Services of the Season, except on Sundays within Octaves when the colour of the Octave is used, and on Vigil and Ember Days.

VIOLET is used from the first Evensong of Advent Sunday until the first Evensong of Christmas exclusive; from the first Evensong of Septuagesima until Holy Saturday, except on Good Friday and at the Holy Eucharist on Maundy Thursday and Holy Saturday; on the Ember Days and on all Vigils which are days of fasting, except the Vigil of Pentecost and the Ember Days within the Whitsun Octave; at the Litany and Holy Eucharist on the Rogation Days; at the Blessing of Candles and Procession on the Feast of the Purification; on the Feast of the Holy Innocents when it is neither a Sunday nor the Patronal Festival, at the first part of the Baptismal Office, at Penance, at Visitation or Unction of the Sick, and at all Special Services of a Penitential or Supplicatory character.

BLACK is used on Good Friday and at all Services for the Departed.

It is permitted to use Vestments of a rose colour at the Solemn Eucharist on the Third Sunday in Advent and on the Fourth Sunday in Lent.

It is not permissible so to intermingle the colours that one set of Vestments may serve for either white, red or green, nor is it allowable to use the ornaments of a different colour to that of the day, under the pretext that they are more handsome or more valuable than the set provided of the prescribed colour.

[page 5]

III. Of their use.

The AMICE, ALB and GIRDLE are always worn together by each of the Sacred Ministers, and their use is practically confined to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, the exceptions to this rule are rare, the principal being the occasions when the Bishop officiates or assists pontifically at the Choir Offices.

The MANIPLE is always worn by the Sacred Ministers at the Holy Eucharist, but it is not used by them at any other function, so that when the Celebration is preceded by a Procession or as on Palm Sunday by the blessing of Palms, they do not assume the Maniple, until these preliminary ceremonies are concluded and the Celebrant has exchanged his Cope for the Chasuble. The only exception to this rule appears to be part of the ceremonial on Good Friday.

The STOLE is worn by the Priest when celebrating the Holy Eucharist, and in all administrations of the Sacraments; he will also wear a Stole with a Surplice when conveying the Blessed Sacrament to the sick. A Priest or Deacon assisting the Celebrant by administering the Chalice, should be vested in Surplice and Stole and should also wear the same when making his own Communion. Clergy in Choir will also wear Stoles of the colour of the day at the time of making their Communions.

Stoles will be worn by those Priests who join with the Bishop in the imposition of hands at the Ordination of Priests.

It is permissible for the Preacher to wear a Stole, if it be the custom of the particular Parish or Diocese.

It is also permissible for the Priest who presides at the Office of the Dead or at a Funeral to wear either a Stole or Cope or both.

A Deacon will wear the Stole over his left shoulder, and tied under the right arm, and a Priest when acting as the Deacon at the Holy Eucharist, will also wear his Stole in this manner.

A Priest will usually wear his Stole over both shoulders and pendant on both sides, but when vested in the Alb he crosses the Stole over his breast and passes the ends under the Girdle.

A Bishop when wearing the Stole, having the Pectoral Cross on his breast, will at all times wear it over both shoulders and pendant on both sides.

When putting on or taking off the Stole, it is usual to kiss the Cross in the centre, but these kisses must be omitted if it be necessary to put on or take off the Stole in the Presence of the Blessed Sacrament.

The TUNICLE, DALMATIC, and CHASUBLE are worn by the Sub-deacon, Deacon and Celebrant respectively, and their use is practically restricted to the Holy Eucharist. It is permitted, however, to use the Tunicle and Dalmatic at Processions and other Solemn Functions, but at such times the Chasuble is replaced by the Cope.

The COPE is a Vestment of dignity and is not restricted to any one order of the Clergy. It is worn by the Officiant and also by his Assistants at Solemn Mattins and Evensong and by the Priest-Assistant at a Pontifical Celebration of the Holy Eucharist. The Cope is also worn by the Priest who presides at the Solemn Processions, or at Benedictions which are made at the Altar, such as those of Candles on the Purification or of Palms on Palm Sunday. It is also used at the Office of the Dead and at Funerals, The Bishop will wear a Cope when assisting pontifically at the Holy Eucharist, when administering Con­firmation and upon many other occasions.

The BURSE is the case in which is placed the Corporal; it must be lined with white silk or linen.

The CHALICE VEIL is required to cover the Chalice and Paten, when prepared for placing on the Altar or Credence Table.

[Page 6].

Of the Altar Cards and Missal

For the greater convenience of the Priest, there should be provided three large cards containing certain portions of the Eucharistic Service, which may be read at sight. The Celebrant is expected to commit to memory certain prayers, but, as memory often fails, it is better to have these prayers always in sight, and so prevent uncertainty of any kind. The cards should stand upon the Altar, upright against the steps, and there should be a set for each Altar.

The card at the Gospel side should contain the Last Gospel, S. John i. 1-14; that in the centre, the largest, the Credo, Gloria in Excelsis, all the prayers said at the Offertory, those before the Consecration, the Act of Consecration, the prayers before Communion and the final prayer. This card should contain a representa­tion of the Crucifixion. The card at the Epistle side will contain the prayer, recited in putting the water into the Chalice and the Psalm Lavabo. The cards should be of equal height.

The Altar Book, or Missal, should be printed in red and black, folio or quarto in size, and should contain the whole of the Service for each day in the year. The portions printed in red are termed rubrics and contain certain directions for the Celebrant. Attached to the Missal should be five large ribbons, or book marks, corresponding in colour to the five colours of the Sacred Vestments, so that the Service of the Day may be marked with the ribbon that suits it in colour. Sometimes the ribbons are doubled, thus providing two marks of each colour.

The part of the Missal containing the Canon should have slips or tags of leather, parchment or silk, attached to each page, for the greater convenience of the Priest. Strictly, the Missal should be supported on the Altar by a Cushion, but custom justifies the use of a desk or stand of wood, brass or other suitable material.

The Altar Cards and Missal should not be allowed to remain on the Altar after the conclusion of the Service.

OF THE SPECIAL OBSERVANCES OF THE CHURCH’S SEASONS AND OF CERTAIN GREATER DAYS OF THE YEAR.

Of Advent.

The first Sunday in Advent is always the Sunday nearest to the Feast of S. Andrew, thus Advent may commence on November 27th if that day be a Sunday, or not until December 3rd if November 30th be a Thursday.

The first Sunday in Advent is a Sunday of the first class and it is impossible to observe any other Feast on that day.

The other Sundays are Sundays of the second class and only give way to a Double Feast of the first class, e.g., that of the Patron or Dedication of the Church. All the week-days in Advent are Greater Ferias, and if a Festival be celebrated on one of them, the Feria must be commemorated.

No Feast can be celebrated with an Octave, after O Sapientia, December 16th; at that day all Octaves cease, and if, e.g., the Feast of the Dedication should fall on December 9th, the Octave will be observed as usual until the 15th, but it will cease before Evensong and no notice will be taken of the Octave Day.

During Advent, the Altars and other parts of the Church should be adorned in a simple manner and at all Services of the Season the colour will be violet. Flowers should be used but sparingly and only on Festivals and on the 3rd Sunday, Gaudete, when the Deacon and Sub-deacon will wear Dalmatic and Tunicle. At other times, they should wear folded Chasubles or assist in albis, as in Lent. On the 3rd Sunday and on Festivals the Organ may be used as usual, but at other times it should be silent or used but little. The remarks made on this matter and on the Gloria in Excelsis, in the chapter on Lent, apply equally to the Season of Advent.

[page 7]

The Office Hymns during Advent should be: at Evensong, Creator alme siderum, (Hymnal Noted, 28; H. A. M., 45; People’s Hymnal, 7), and at Mattins, Verbum supernum prodiens, (Hymnal Noted, 29; H. A. M., 46; People’s Hymnal, 8), or En clara vox, (Hymnal Noted, 118; H. A. M., 47; People’s Hymnal, 14).

Of Christmas-tide.

The first Evensong of Christmas should be said at the usual hour and not deferred till midnight. If it be desired to preface the Solemn Midnight Eucharist with any Office it should be Mattins, and to do this would be in accordance with ancient usage.

The great Festival of the Nativity is a Double Feast of the first class with an Octave, and should be celebrated with every sign of festal joy. It is an ancient practice of the Church to have three Solemn Celebrations of the Holy Eucharist on this day—the first at mid-night, the second at day-break, and the third at mid-day—and it is permissible for each Priest to celebrate three times on this Festival; where this is done the Ablutions at the first and second Celebrations must either be poured into a vessel of glass or silver, prepared for the purpose, and consumed by the Priest after his third Celebration, or else be received at the earlier Service by one of the Communicants. In the Gospel, at the words “And the WORD was made Flesh” it is customary for everyone to kneel. The Last Gospel on Christmas Day should be that of the Epiphany, S. Matt. ii. 1—12, and it is customary to kneel at the words “And fell down and worshipped Him.”

On Christmas Day and on vacant days in Octave, the Office Hymn at Even­song and also at Mattins is, Jesu, Redemptor omnium, (Hymnal Noted, 33; H. A. M., 57; as the proper Hymn is not in People’s Hymnal, No. 25 may be sub­stituted). At Mattins, A solis ortűs cavdine, (Hymnal Noted, 34; H.A.M., 483; People’s Hymnal, 26), may be used instead.

The Octave of Christmas admits of the observance of other Feasts, but a commemoration of the Octave must never be omitted.

The three days following Christmas Day are Doubles of the second class with Octaves; on December 25th, Evensong will be of the Nativity, with Commemora­tion of S. Stephen; on the 26th, of S. Stephen, with Com. of S. John and Christmas; on the 27th, of S. John, with Com. of the Holy Innocents, Christmas and S. Stephen; and on the 28th, of the Holy Innocents, with Com. of Christmas, S. Stephen and S. John. On the [2]29th and 30th the Services will be of Christmas with Com. of the other Octaves; but at Evensong on the 30th, the Office will be of S. Sylvester with Com. of the Octaves; while on the 31st, it will be of the Circum­cision, without any Commemorations.

The Office Hymns on these Festivals are as follows:—

 

MATTINS.

EVENSONG.

 

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

26th

81

442

206

81

442

206

27th

76

430

197

188

430

199

28th

41

68

232

41

68

232

30th

As on

Xmas

Day.

83

452

214

31st

84

452

213

As on

Xmas

Day.

On the Feast of the Circumcision no Commemoration of the Octaves is made, except at the second Evensong and then of S. Stephen only.

On January 2nd, M. and H.E. will be of S. Stephen, with Com. of S. John and Holy Innocents, but Evensong will be of S. John with Com. of S. Stephen and Holy Innocents: on the 3rd, all Services of S. John, with Com. of Holy Innocents; and on the 4th, all Services of the Holy Innocents without any Commemoration.

If S. Stephen, S. John or the Holy Innocents be the Feast of the Patron or [page 8] Title of the Church the following rules must be observed; i. If S. Stephen be the Patron, no change will be made in the order given above, except that on the Octave Day, Evensong will be of S. Stephen with Com. of S. John and Holy Innocents. ii. If S. John, Evensong on the 26th will be of S. John with Com. of S. Stephen and Christmas (colour, white); M. and H.E. on 27th, of S. John with Com. of Christmas only, and E. of S. John with Com. of Holy Innocents and Christmas, iii. If the Holy Innocents, Evensong on the 27th will be of the Holy Innocents with Com. of S. John and Christmas; on the 28th, at Mattins, the Te Deum will be said, and at all Services a Com. of Christmas only will be made; the colour will be red, although the Feast fall upon a week-day.

Of the Epiphany.

The Feast of the Epiphany is a Double of the first class with an Octave. This Octave does not admit of the observance of any other Feast except those of the Patron or Title or of the Dedication of the Church, and even then the Octave must be commemorated; if however one of these Feasts occur on the Octave Day it must be transferred to the first available day and the Services will be of the Octave. At the second Evensong of the Octave Day the Service will be of the Octave with Com. only of any Double Feast that may occur on the following day unless it be a Double of the first or second class, in which case the Evensong will be of the Feast with Com. of the Octave.

If the Epiphany fall on a Sunday, the Services on the Octave Day will be as upon the Feast, and, according to ancient precedent, those of the first Sunday after Epiphany should be said on the Saturday within the Octave.

In the Gospel of the Epiphany, S. Matt. ii. 1—12, it is customary for all to kneel at the words “And fell down and worshipped Him.”

The Office Hymn at Evensong on the Eve and daily during the Octave is Hostis Herodes impie (Hymnal Noted, 42; H. A. M., 75; People’s Hymnal, 43), and at Mattins throughout the Octave, O sola magnarum urbium (Hymnal Noted, 134; H. A. M., 76; People’s Hymnal, 47).

Christmas-tide ends with the Octave of the Epiphany, and all special decorations for the Season should be removed after the Octave Day.

From the Octave of the Epiphany until Septuagesima.

There may be six Sundays between the Epiphany and Septuagesima or there may be but one: when there are less than six Sundays, the Lessons, Collects, Epistles and Gospels provided for the other Sundays will be omitted for that year.

The Office Hymns during this Season, unless a Feast occur, are as follows:—

 

MATTINS.

EVENSONG.

 

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

On all Sundays after the Octave of the Epiphany

5

34

411

11

38

416

On Mondays

17

2

422

18

39

423

On Tuesdays

19

1

424

20

40

425

On Wednesdays

21

1

426

22

41

427

On Thursdays

23

1

428

24

42

429

On Fridays

25

1

430

26

43

431

On Saturdays

27

1

432

1

14

410

Of the Feast of the Purification.

If the Second of February be Septuagesima, Sexagesima or Quinquagesima Sunday, or the Feast of the Patron or Dedication of the Church, the Feast of the Purification must be transferred to the Monday, unless that be the Feast of the Patron or Dedication; in the latter case, the Purification must be kept on the 4th, and any Feast belonging to that day will be transferred or commemorated, according to the ordinary rules. The object of this regulation is to prevent the celebration of a Feast so closely identified with the Mystery of the Incarnation, being deferred [page 9] for too long a period. The Blessing of the Candles and the Procession which have been so long connected with this Feast, and, from which it is commonly known as Candlemas Day, are, however, never transferred, but should always take place on February 2nd, before the principal Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, no matter what Solemnity be observed. The candles to be blessed should be of white wax; they should be placed on a small table near the Epistle side of the Altar (unless the blessing take place in the Sacristy) and should be covered with a white veil. The Altar should be prepared and the Candles lighted as usual, but all vases with flowers should be removed until after the Procession. The Altar will be vested with a violet Antependium, placed over one of the colour of the day. In the Sacristy, should be prepared Girdles, Albs and Amices for the Sacred Ministers, with a violet Stole and Cope for the Celebrant and a Stole of the same colour for the Deacon. In Churches where they are used, folded Chasubles should also be prepared for the Deacon and Sub-deacon. The white Chasuble, Stole and Maniple for the Celebrant; the Dalmatic, Stole and Maniple for the Deacon, and the Tunicle and Maniple for the Sub-deacon will be placed in readiness on the Sedilia. The Credence will be prepared as usual but the Chalice should be covered with a violet veil, over one of white. If the Feast of the Patron is to be observed, the Vestments, &c., at the Holy Eucharist, will be of the appropriate colour, and if it be Septuagesima or one of the following Sundays, the white veils and Vestments will not be required, but it will be necessary to place on the Sedilia, only the violet Chasuble and Maniple for the Celebrant, and Maniples of the same colour for the Deacon and Sub-deacon. The Processional Cross, Thurible, &c., should be in a convenient place. The blessing concluded, the candles will be distributed to the Clergy and Choir in due order, and then, if it be customary, to the people who will come up to the Chancel step to receive them, first the men and then the women. If necessary, the Celebrant may be assisted in the distribution by another Priest vested in Surplice and violet Stole. The Sub-deacon will attend at the right of the Celebrant, to hold back the border of his Cope, and the Deacon will be on the left to present the Candles. The distribu­tion completed, the Celebrant and his Ministers retire to the Epistle side of the Altar near the Credence. Here the Celebrant will wash his hands, the Sub-deacon ministering the ewer and basin, and the Deacon the towel. When the time has arrived for the Procession to be formed, the Candles are lighted and the Thurifer obtains incense in the usual manner. The Sub-deacon takes the Processional Cross, and, preceded by the Thurifer, stations himself between the two Acolytes in the centre of the Choir facing the Altar. The Deacon having handed the Cele­brant his candle and received his own, turns towards the people and sings “Let us go forth in peace.” After the response “In the Name of Christ. Amen,” the Procession sets forth and proceeds round the Church in the customary manner. The Choir and Clergy walk two and two as usual, each bearing his lighted Candle in the outside hand; the Celebrant carries his Candle in the right hand and the Deacon will walk at his left, holding back the Celebrant’s Cope with his right hand and carrying his Candle in the left. At the Procession, the ancient Antiphons or a suitable Hymn should be sung. During the Procession, unless it be Septuagesima, or one of the other Sundays, the Sacristan will remove the violet Antependium from the Altar, the violet Chalice Veil from the Credence, and the small table on which the Candles have been placed and then proceed to arrange upon the Altar the vases of flowers, which should have been prepared beforehand in a convenient place. The Procession having returned, the Candles are extinguished and the Celebrant and his Ministers go to the Sedilia and there vest in the Vestments appropriate to the Celebration which is to follow. The Celebrant and the Sacred Ministers then proceed to the Altar and the Holy Eucharist is commenced in the usual manner. If it be the Feast of the Purification, but not otherwise, the Celebrant and all in Choir hold their Candles lighted during the singing of the Gospel, and those in Choir do the same from the Consecration until after the Communion.

[page 10]

From Septuagesima to Lent

Septuagesima Sunday is always the ninth Sunday before Easter Day. It and the two following Sundays are Sundays of the second class and do not give way to any Feast, unless it be one of the first class, e.g., that of the Patron or Dedication of the Church.

With the commencement of this Season, the Services should assume a more solemn and less festal form; the Te Deum will be omitted at Mattins and Alleluia will cease to be sung. At the Holy Eucharist on Sundays and Festivals, a Tract takes the place of the Alleluia, and on other days only the Gradual is said.

At all Services of the Season the colour of the Vestments will be violet, but the Deacon and Sub-deacon will wear Dalmatic and Tunicle and there may still be flowers on the Altar and the Organ may be used as usual. The Office Hymns at Mattins and Evensong are the same as those used after the Octave of the Epiphany 3 according to the day of the week, vide p. 8.

Of Lent

The first day of Lent is Ash Wednesday, but the first week of Lent is that which follows the 1st Sunday, and, liturgically, the Season commences only at the Evensong of the Saturday before that day; in consequence of this there are no special Office Hymns for Ash Wednesday and the three following days, those common to the days of the week being used until Saturday evening, when the Office Hymn at Evensong, and daily until the Eve of Passion Sunday, will be Audi, benigne Conditor (Hymnal Noted, 48; H. A. M., 87; People’s Hymnal, 62). At Mattins during the same period the Office Hymn should be Ex more docti mystica (Hymnal Noted, 47; H. A. M., 85; People’s Hymnal, 61), or O Sol salutis intimis, (Hymnal Noted, 142).

During Lent, the Altars and other parts of the Church should be adorned in a simple manner. Flowers on the Altars should be used but sparingly and only when the Service is that of a Festival and on the 4th, Laetare or Mid-Lent, Sunday, when the Sacred Ministers will wear the Dalmatic and Tunicle. On the other Sundays in Lent the Deacon and Sub-deacon use folded Chasubles or serve in albis, i.e., the Deacon in Amice, Alb, Girdle, Maniple and Stole, and the Sub-deacon in Amice, Alb, Girdle, and Maniple.

The 1st Sunday in Lent, Passion Sunday, and Palm Sunday are Sundays of the first class, and it is impossible to observe any other Feast on these days. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th Sundays are Sundays of the second class, and only give way to a Double Feast of the first class, e.g., that of the Patron or Dedication of the Church. All the week-days in Lent are Greater Ferias and, if a Festival be celebrated on one of them, the Feria must be commemorated.

On Ash Wednesday and the days of Holy Week no Feast can be kept. All Octaves end on Ash Wednesday, as on December 16th (vide p. 6), and no Feast can be observed with an Octave until after Low Sunday.

Strictly speaking, the Organ should not be played during Lent, except on the 4th Sunday and on Solemn Feast Days, and if used it should be employed as little, and as quietly, as possible. According to ancient custom the Organ was used, at the Solemn Celebration of the Holy Eucharist on Maundy Thursday, till the end of the Gloria in Excelsis and also, on Holy Saturday at the Gloria in Excelsis and for the remainder of the Service, but, as the Gloria is placed in the English Office in a very different position to the one it formerly occupied, it seems impossible to observe any corresponding rule on the subject. For the same reason, if the Gloria in Excelsis be used during Lent (in all old Rituals it is ordered to be omitted at this Season), it seems impossible to recommend the practice of reciting it in a loud (and, as is too frequently the case, discordant) monotone. In the position it now occupies it has ceased to be merely an introductory hymn of praise, and has become a [page 11] Solemn Act of Thanksgiving, and, as it is also said in the actual Presence of the Blessed Sacrament, it would seem more fitting that, at Choral Celebrations, it should be sung, although to music of a more plain and simple character than customary at other times. The Paternoster, after the Communion of the people should be chanted as usual; the not uncommon practice of merely monotoning it during Lent seems to be destitute of any authority.

Of Passion-tide.

Before the first Evensong of Passion Sunday, all the Crosses, images of our LORD, and of the Saints, and any pictures in the Church and Sacristy should be covered; they will remain veiled till Holy Saturday, even should the Feast of the Patron, or of the Dedication, of the Church occur. The veils used for this purpose should be violet; they ought not to be transparent, and should not have a Cross or any emblem of the Passion worked upon them. Of course, this rule does not apply to the images, &c., which are merely ornamental or structural parts of the building, nor does it extend to the series of pictures representing the Way of the Cross. The Candlesticks on the Altar should not be veiled.

The Office Hymn on the Eve of Passion Sunday, and daily until the Wednes­day in Holy Week inclusive, is Vexilla Regis prodeunt (Hymnal Noted, 51; H. A. M., 96; People’s Hymnal, 82). And at Mattins, during the same period, it should be Pange lingua gloriosi Praelium, or Lustra sex qui jam peracta (Hymnal Noted, 52 or 53; H. A. M., 97; People’s Hymnal, 83). On Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday, there are no Office Hymns.

At the Holy Eucharist on Passion Sunday, and daily until Holy Saturday, unless the Service be that of a Festival, the Psalm Judica me in the Preparation, is omitted, and the Gloria Patri is not said at the Introit, or at the end of the Psalm Lavabo.

On Palm Sunday, before the principal Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, branches of palm and of other trees should be blessed by the Celebrant. The palms to be blessed should be placed on a small table near the Epistle side of the Altar (unless the blessing take place in the Sacristy), and should be covered with a white linen cloth. Branches of palm may be placed on the Altar between the Candlesticks. When the blessing is concluded the palms will be distributed to the Clergy and Choir, in due order, and then, if it be customary, to the people who will come up to the Chancel step to receive them, first the men and then the women. If necessary, the Celebrant may be assisted in the distribution by another Priest, vested in Surplice and violet Stole. The Sub-deacon will attend at the right of the Celebrant to raise the border of the Cope, and the Deacon will be at the left to present him the Palms. The Processional Cross should be covered with a violet veil and, during the distribution, the Sacristan will securely fasten one of the blessed Palms to the top with a violet ribbon. The distribution ended, the procession will be formed, and proceed round the Church in the customary manner, but the Processional Cross will be carried by the Sub-deacon. The Clergy and Choir follow the Cross, walking two and two as usual, each bearing his Palm in the outside hand; the Deacon will walk at the left of the Celebrant, raising with the right hand the border of the Cope, and holding his Palm in the left hand. The Celebrant carries his Palm in the right hand. At the Procession, the Hymn Gloria, laus et honor (Altar Hymnal, 23; Hymnal Noted, 54; H. A. M., 98; People’s Hymnal, 84) should be sung. At the Blessing and Procession, the Celebrant will wear Amice, Alb, Girdle, Stole and Cope. The Deacon and Sub-deacon will be vested as usual, but remove their Maniples before the Procession, resuming them again at its conclusion, after they have assisted to take off the Celebrant’s Cope, and to vest him with the Maniple and Chasuble which should be placed in readiness on the Sedilia before the Service begins.

After the Procession, the Holy Eucharist proceeds as usual, except for the omissions commenced on Passion Sunday, and that, at the Gospel, the Acolytes [page 12] carry Palms in their hands in place of their Candlesticks. The Clergy and Choir hold their Palms in their hands during the Gospel, and carry them out with them at the end of the Service. If the Gospel be considered to take the place of the ancient Passion, the Dominus vobiscum and Gloria Tibi usually sung before the Gospel may be omitted throughout Holy Week, and during the same period, when the words “He gave up the Ghost” occur in the Gospel, it is customary for every one to kneel and for a slight pause to be made. On Palm Sunday a genuflection is also made in the Epistle, at the words “At the Name of JESUS, &c.”

If Palms be not blessed, the Celebrant may read S. Matthew xxi. 1—9, for the Last Gospel at the end of the Celebration, in place of S. John i.

On Maundy Thursday, the High Altar, but not any other, should be vested in white and adorned with the most costly ornaments the Church possesses, and the Holy Eucharist will be celebrated with all possible solemnity. The Altar Cross should be covered with a white veil, and the candles should be of white wax. The Vestments of the Sacred Ministers will be white, and the Deacon and Sub-deacon will wear Dalmatic and Tunicle. The High Altar is decorated festally in honour of the Solemn Celebration of the Blessed Sacrament; if, therefore, before this Celebration there be any other Services the white Antependium should be covered with a violet one which can be easily removed. Immediately after the Solemn Celebration the Altar should be denuded of all its ornaments, except the Cross and Candlesticks, and at all other Services on this day, Stoles, &c., should be violet. Evensong should be quite plain. It is an ancient custom to omit the Gloria Patri at all Services on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday, and at Mattins on Holy Saturday; it is a significant practice but cannot claim the authority of existing rubrics.

On Good Friday, the Altar Cross will be veiled with black, and the Candle­sticks should be furnished with candles of yellow or unbleached wax; they will remain unlighted, except Evensong be said solemnly. Incense will not be used at any Service on Good Friday, and if the Church possess Sanctuary Lamps they should be extinguished on Maundy Thursday, and not re-lighted until Easter Eve. The principal liturgical Service, it would seem, must be the Communion Service to the end of the Prayer for the Church, with the Reproaches and Veneration of the Cross. (Vide Altar Hymnal, p. 60; Hymnal Noted, p. 160; People’s Hymnal, 88). The Officiant should be vested in Amice, Alb, Girdle, black Stole (crossed), Maniple and Cope. The Deacon and Sub-deacon will assist him in albis. The Acolytes will not carry Candles, but proceed to the Choir as usual, and attend at the singing of the Gospel with hands joined. The Sacred Ministers will proceed to the Altar in silence and at once kneel at the lowest step, and say the Miserere (secretly), in place of the usual preparatory prayers. There should be no Introit, and if it be usual to say Deo gratias after the Epistle, it should be omitted, as well as the Laus Tibi at the end of the Gospel. The most fitting time for the Reproaches would seem to be after the Sermon (if there be one), and then the service can be concluded with the Offertory, Church Militant Prayer, Collects, and Blessing. Prior to the Reproaches, the Altar Cross and all other Crosses in the Church should be unveiled, and not be again covered, but the images and pictures will remain veiled until Easter Eve. The Reproaches should be sung by two Cantors, kneeling at the entrance of the Sanctuary, and the responses by the Choir (Cantoris and Decani alternately). In the meantime the Sacred Ministers may kneel at the Epistle side of the Altar in front of the Sedilia.

On Holy Saturday or Easter Eve, the colour at the Holy Eucharist and at Evensong will be white, but at all other Services, violet should be used. Anciently the Celebration of the Blessed Sacrament on Easter Eve was solemnly and festally rendered and was immediately followed by Vespers, being delayed until late in the afternoon, owing to the large number of preliminary ceremonies then observed. Under present circumstances it would seem better to defer any festal observances until Evensong. Opinions vary, but the weight of authority and precedent would seem to be in favour of using the Collect of Easter Even [page 13] at Evensong, as well as at the preceding Services, reserving that for Easter Day until the morning of the Feast itself.

Of Easter-tide

The great Festival of Easter, the Queen of Feasts, will, of course, be celebrated with all the joy and splendour possible. The Altars will be adorned in a festive manner; the antependia or frontals, as well as the Vestments of the Clergy, should be white or of cloth of gold.

Easter Day is a privileged Sunday of the first class and it is also a Double Feast of the first class with an Octave. The Octave is also privileged, and it is impossible to celebrate any other Feast during this Octave; the Monday and Tuesday are Doubles of the first class but should be celebrated with a less degree of solemnity than Easter Day. Low Sunday, the Octave Day, is a Sunday of the first class and is to be observed in the same manner as a Double Feast.

At Mattins and Evensong on Easter Day, and daily until the following Saturday, there is no Office Hymn, but in its place should be sung, “This is the Day which the LORD hath made, we will rejoice and be glad in it.” (Psalm cxviii. 24). At the first Evensong of Low Sunday, and daily until the Eve of the Ascension, the Office Hymn should be Ad coenam Agni providi (Hymnal Noted, 64; H. A. M., 128; People’s Hymnal, 117); and at Mattins on Low Sunday, and daily till Ascension Day, it should be Aurora lucis rutilat (Hymnal Noted, 58; H. A. M., 126 (i); People’s Hymnal, 131), or Rex sempiterne coelitum (Hymnal Noted, 156; H. A. M., 129; People’s Hymnal, 124).

The proper Processional for Easter Day is Salve! Festa Dies (Altar Hymnal, 25 or 181; H. A. M., 497; Hymnal Noted, 62).

If there be a Paschal Candle it should be placed on a large candelabrum stand­ing on the floor of the Sanctuary at the Gospel side of the Altar. It should be lighted at the Solemn Celebration of the Holy Eucharist and at Evensong on Easter Day and the two following days; also on the Saturday in Easter Week and on all Sundays till Ascension Day. It is also lighted on Ascension Day, but is extinguished at the end of the Gospel and removed at the conclusion of the Service.

Of the Rogation Days and the Feast of the Ascension

The Monday of the Rogations is a Greater Feria and so is the Wednesday, as it is the Vigil of the Ascension. These two days take precedence of any Simple Feast and if superseded by a Feast of higher rank, are always commemorated, unless it be a Double Feast of the first class. Mattins and Evensong on these days should be as on the other week-days in Easter-tide, but on Monday the Benedicite should take the place of the Te Deum at Mattins and on each of the three days the Litany should be said or sung. Its proper place would seem to be immediately before the Holy Eucharist and the colour used at these two services will be violet. In Churches where it is the custom to have more than one Celebra­tion of the Holy Eucharist on these days, if a Double or Semi-double Feast should occur, it is desirable, and quite proper, that the first Celebration should be with the Office and colour of the Feast, and the second, of the Rogations in violet.

The Feast of the Ascension of our LORD is a Double Feast of the first class with an Octave. This Octave, however, does not exclude the observance of Double or Semi-double Feasts but a Commemoration of the Octave must always be made unless the Feast observed be that of the Patron or Title of the Church. It is to be noted that at the first Evensong of the Octave Day the whole Office is to be of the Ascension, with commemoration of a preceding Double Feast, except it be one of the first or second class, in which case the Office will be of the Feast, commemoration being made of the Ascension; at the second Even­song of the Octave Day, commemoration only will be made of a following Double Feast, unless it be one of the first or second class: in that case the Office will be of the Feast with commemoration of the Octave Day. The day after the Octave Day is a Semi-double. At the first Evensong of the Ascension and daily until Whitsun Eve, the Office Hymn is Jesu Redemptor omnium [page 14] (Hymnal Noted, 67; H. A. M., 150; People’s Hymnal, 143), and at Mattins on Ascension Day and daily until Whitsun Eve, it should be Aeterne Rex altissime (Hymnal Noted, 66; H. A. M., 144; People’s Hymnal, 140), or as at Evensong.

Of the Feast of Pentecost and Trinity Sunday.

The Vigil of Pentecost is a Semi-double and is one of those days on which it is forbidden to celebrate any Feast. Whitsun Day and its Octave are of precisely the same rank and have the same privileges as the Octave of Easter, and should therefore be observed in a similar manner. The Octave Day is superseded by Trinity Sunday, which is a Sunday of the first class and a Double Feast of the second class. On the Whitsun Ember Days the colour of the Octave, Red, will be retained, and at a High Celebration of the Holy Eucharist the Deacon and Sub-deacon will wear the Dalmatic and Tunicle.

The Office Hymns are, at Evensong from Whitsun Eve till the following Friday inclusive, Veni Creator Spiritus (Hymnal Noted, 71; H. A. M., 347 or 157; People’s Hymnal, 153); and at Mattins from Whitsun Day to the following Saturday inclusive, Jam Christus astra ascenderat (Hymnal Noted, 69; H. A. M., 152; People’s Hymnal, 151), or Beata nobis gaudia (Hymnal Noted, 70; H. A. M., 153; People’s Hymnal, 155). On Trinity Sunday, both at first and second Evensong, the Office Hymn should be O Lux beata Trinitas (Hymnal Noted, 1; H. A. M., 14; People’s Hymnal, 410); and at Mattins, Tu Trinitatis Unitas (Hymnal Noted, 343): H. A. M., 158 or People’s Hymnal, 162, may be used instead.

Of the Feast of Corpus Christi.

The Feast of Corpus CHRISTI is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday, it is a Double Feast of the first class with an Octave. Within this Octave only Double Feasts may be kept, Semi-doubles and Simples being merely commemorated. The days in the Octave must be always commemorated, no matter what Feast may occur, and the Octave Day will only give place to a Double Feast of the first class. The rules given (p. 13) as to the first and second Evensong of the Octave Day of the Feast of the Ascension apply also to the Octave Day of the Feast of Corpus CHRISTI       .

The Office Hymns to be used daily throughout the Octave are, at Evensong, Pange lingua gloriosi (Hymnal Noted, 211 and 212; H. A. M., 309 (i. and ii.); People’s Hymnal, 166), and at Mattins, Sacris solemniis (Hymnal Noted, 217), or Verbum supernum prodiens (Hymnal Noted, 55; H. A. M., 311 (i. and ii.); People’s Hymnal, 167).

From Trinity Sunday to Advent.

There may be twenty-seven, or there may be but twenty-two Sundays between the Feast of the HOLY TRINITY and Advent Sunday. When there are less than twenty-five, the Collects, Epistles and Gospels in excess will be omitted but the Collect, Epistle and Gospel appointed for the 25th Sunday must always be used on the Sunday next before Advent, If there be twenty-seven Sundays after Trinity, on the 25th Sunday will be used the Collect, Epistle and Gospel of the 5th Sunday after Epiphany and on the 26th those of the 6th Sunday after Epiphany. The Sundays during this Season are Semi-doubles and take precedence of other Semi-doubles; the week-days are ordinary Ferias. The Office Hymns are as follows:—

 

MATTINS.

EVENSONG.

 

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

On all Sundays when the Office is of the Sunday, i.e. when the 1st Collect is that of the Sunday, except on the Sunday within the Octave of Corpus CHRISTI

5

34

411

11

38

416

On Mondays

17

2

422

18

39

423

On Tuesdays

19

1

424

20

40

425

On Wednesdays

21

1

426

22

41

427

On Thursdays

23

1

428

24

42

429

On Fridays

25

1

430

26

43

431

On Saturdays

27

1

432

1

14

410

[page 15]

Of the Commemoration of All Souls.

The Commemoration of All Souls is observed on the 2nd of November, except it be a Sunday, and commences with Vespers of the Dead, which should be said on the afternoon or evening of November 1st, immediately after the 2nd Evensong of the Feast of All Saints.

If November 2nd be a Sunday, the Commemoration must be on the 3rd, and then the Vespers will be said immediately after Evensong on Sunday, and not on the Saturday. No Feast should be transferred to the day of the Commemoration, but if November 2nd be a Sunday, and November 3rd the Feast of the Dedica­tion, or Patron of the Church, then the Commemoration of All Souls must be observed on the 4th, Vespers being said after Evensong on the 3rd.

In the Church should be prepared the Catafalque with Candles in the usual manner.

The Altar will be vested as usual for the Evensong of All Saints’, or of the Sunday, but, if possible, the black Antependium should be placed under the other one; this will be found more convenient than bringing it from the Sacristy before the commencement of the Vespers of the Dead.

A black Cope for the Officiant should be in readiness at the Credence, and if there be Cantors in Copes, black Copes should be provided for them in a convenient place.

At the conclusion of the Evensong of the Day, the white or festal Antependium and other hangings, together with any vases of flowers, should be removed, and the candles at the Catafalque should be lighted; the Officiant and the Cantors will then remove the Copes they have been wearing and assume the black Copes prepared for them.

But if the Officiant at the Vespers of the Dead is not to be the same as at the Evensong of the Day, the Priest who has officiated at the latter will retire to the Sacristy, with the Acolytes, immediately after the conclusion of the Service, and the Officiant at the Vesper Office will enter and proceed to the Altar in the ordinary way, and, without kneeling to say the usual prayer at the Altar step, go to his place, when the Vespers will commence at once, and be sung solemnly.

There should be but one Collect, which should be said with the full ending.

The Commemoration of All Souls has no Second Vespers.

OF THE
FEASTS OF THE PATRON OR TITLE, & OF THE DEDICATION OF A CHURCH

I. Of the Patron or Title

1. The Feast of the Patron is that of the Saint after which the Church is named, e.g., S. Peter, S. John, or S. Mary Magdalen; but it is called “of the Title” if the Church be dedicated in the name of a Mystery, such as the HOLY TRINITY, the Blessed Sacrament, or the Holy Cross, or of an event, as the Ascension of our LORD, the Annunciation B.V.M., &c.

2. The Feast of the Patron or Title is a Double Feast of the first class, and is celebrated with an Octave, except from the 16th December to the Epiphany, from Ash Wednesday until Low Sunday, and from the Vigil of Pentecost to Trinity Sunday, all inclusive, when no notice is taken of the Octave.[3]

3. The days within the Octave are Semi-doubles, and the Octave Day a Double; on the Sunday within the Octave the colour of the Feast will be retained, but the Offices will be of the Sunday with commemoration of the Octave; if the Feast itself be on a Sunday, then on the Octave Day everything will be as on the Feast, with commemoration of the Sunday.

[page 16]

4. The Feast of the Patron or Title cannot be kept, and must be transferred to the first vacant day, if it occur on Advent Sunday; the Vigil or Feast of the Nativity, the Circumcision, the Epiphany, or its Octave Day; Ash Wednesday; the 1st Sunday in Lent; Passion Sunday; Palm Sunday, or during Holy Week and Easter Week; Ascension Day; from the Vigil of Pentecost to Trinity Sunday inclusive; on the Feasts of Corpus CHRISTI, Nativity S. John Baptist, S. Peter, or All Saints, unless, of course, one of these days itself be the Feast of the Patron or Title.

5. The colour of the Vestments, &c., will be that appertaining to the Feast, according to the usual rules.

6. In the case of a Church dedicated to the HOLY TRINITY, the Feast of the Title will be observed on Trinity Sunday, but the Feast of Corpus CHRISTI, if it be observed, will be celebrated on the following Thursday as usual, no commemora­tion of the Octave being made at any of the Services. On the Friday, Saturday and Sunday, the Service will be of the Octave with commemoration of Corpus CHRISTI.

II. Of the Dedication of a Church.

1. The Feast of the Dedication of a Church is the Anniversary of the day on which the Church was consecrated, and should be observed, every year on the actual day of the Consecration.

2. It is not permissible to celebrate a Feast of Dedication of a Church which has not been consecrated, or, even, of one of which the Consecration is doubtful. A Mission or temporary Church, licensed by the Bishop for Divine Service, cannot keep a Dedication Festival.

3. Rules 2, 3 and 4, relating to the Feast of the Patron are also applicable to that of the Dedication.

4. The colour of the Vestments, &c., in all cases, should be white.

5. Should the Feast of the Dedication occur on the same day as the Feast of the Patron, or Title, the Feast of Dedication will be observed in preference, and the colour will be white, unless, the Feast of the Patron or Title be one of the Feasts of our LORD, or of the B.V.M., or the Feasts of the Nativity of S. John Baptist, S. Peter, or All Saints, in which case it will be preferred to the Feast of Dedication.

The Collect for SS. Simon and Jude may be used, or the following:—

O GOD, Who renewest unto us year by year the day of the consecration of this holy Temple, and dost permit us continually to present ourselves in safety at Thy holy Mysteries; graciously hear the prayers of Thy people, and grant, that whosoever shall enter this Temple to ask good things from Thee, may rejoice in the gaining of all their petitions. Through.

Epistle, Rev. xxi. 2—5. Gospel, S Luke, xix. 1—10.

OF VOTIVE CELEBRATIONS OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST.

A Votive Celebration of the Holy Eucharist is one which neither accords with the Office of the Day nor is prescribed by the Church for that day, but one which the Priest celebrates out of his own devotion or at the special request, or on behalf, of others. Such a Celebration should not take place without good and sufficient reason and cannot be celebrated on all days.

Requiems for the Departed are classed as Votive Celebrations of the Holy Eucharist, they are of two classes and are generally distinguished as ordinary and privileged. Under the title of privileged are included, (I) A Celebration in the presence of the body of a departed person; (II) One directly connected with the obsequies of a departed person, although, from special causes, the body may not be actually present; (III) Those on the 3rd, 7th, and 30th days after death or burial, and (IV) those on Anniversaries. All other Requiem Celebrations, either for a particular soul, or for all the Faithful Departed (except on All Souls’ Day, which has a special privilege) are termed ordinary.

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As a Parish Priest is bound to celebrate, or to provide a Celebration of the Blessed Sacrament, on behalf of his parishioners on all Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, it is incompatible with this duty, as well as out of harmony with the observance of the Solemnity, for the Celebration, on such days, to be for the Departed, but while an ordinary Requiem Celebration is prohibited, it is permissible, on these days (with some exceptions), to celebrate one of the privileged class, provided it be an additional Celebration, and does not supersede that proper to the day. When, on such days, from deficiency of Clergy, or other cause, it is impractible to have more than a single Celebration, the Requiem Celebration, even if it be part of the Funeral Rites, must be postponed to the first vacant day on which such a Celebration would be permissible, and the same rule applies in the case of a Funeral or Anniversary occuring on those days when a Requiem Celebration is absolutely prohibited, e.g., on one of the three last days of Holy Week, or on Easter Day.

1. A single Celebration* for a departed person, in the presence of the body, is permissible on any day, except the three last days of Holy Week, Easter Day, Whitsun Day, Christmas Day, Epiphany, Ascension Day, (also on the Feasts of Corpus CHRISTI, and Assumption B.V.M.), and on the Feasts of the Nativity of S. John Baptist, S. Peter, and All Saints, and on those of the Dedication, and principal Patron or Title of the Church.

* Strictly, this should be Solemnly Celebrated, but it may be a Low Celebration, if from deficiency of Clergy or Choir a Solemn Celebration cannot be provided.

2. One Solemn Celebration for a departed person on the day of death or before the Burial, in the absence of the body, which, however, must be in a special place near the Church, may be celebrated on any day, except those named in Section 1, and the 1st Sundays in Advent and Lent, Passion Sunday, Palm Sunday, Low Sunday, Trinity Sunday, Ash Wednesday, the whole of Holy Week, the Vigils of Christmas and Pentecost, and the days within the Octaves of the Epiphany, Easter and Pentecost.

NOTE.—If any other Feasts be observed as Doubles of the first class they must be included in the list of days excepted under this section.

3. One Solemn Celebration for a departed person, if the body has been buried the day before without a Celebration of the Blessed Sacrament, or on the day of burial, if the body be neither present nor in the proximity of the Church, or after having notice of death, if the departed died under such circumstances that the body cannot be present, or on the 3rd, 7th, and 30th days after, or on the Anniversary of the death or burial may be cele­brated on any day, except those named in Sections 1 and 2, and the Feast of the Circum­cision, those of the Purification and Annunciation B.V.M., the Apostles, Evangelists, S. Stephen, Holy Innocents, and S. Michael and All Angels.

NOTE.—If any other Feasts be observed as Doubles of the second class they must be included in the list of days excepted under this section.

4. Other, or all ordinary Celebrations of the Blessed Sacrament for the Departed, whether Solemn or Low, are prohibited

On any Feast Day which is a Double.
On any Sunday.
From the Vigil of the Nativity to the Octave of the Epiphany, both inclusive.
On Ash Wednesday, and during Holy Week and Easter Week.
On the Vigil of Pentecost and during Whitsun Week.
On the Feast of Corpus CHRISTI and during the Octave.

Other Votives are the Celebration of the Blessed Sacrament at a Marriage; those which are celebrated for special and grave cause, e.g., In time of War or for Peace; for the Sick or in time of Famine or Pestilence &c., and also those for obtaining special gifts or graces, e.g., the guidance of the holy ghost for a Synod or Diocesan Conference.

A Special Celebration of the Holy Eucharist in commemoration of some Mystery or of a Saint, on a day other than the proper Festival, is also termed a Votive Celebration.

More latitude is allowed by the Church in celebrating the Holy Eucharist at a Marriage than at Requiems and such a Celebration is only forbidden in tempore feriarum, when the solemnization of marriage is forbidden, i.e., from Ash Wednesday to Low Sunday, and from Advent Sunday to the Epiphany inclusive, or when either party to the marriage has been previously married. Such Celebrations also are [page 18] not allowable on Sundays, on Double Feasts of the first and second class, on the Vigil of Pentecost or within the Octaves of the Epiphany, Pentecost and Corpus CHRISTI, but, at these times, it is permissible to make a Commemoration of the Marriage at the Eucharist of the Day.

Other Votive Celebrations of the Holy Eucharist should not be celebrated on Sundays or Double Feasts; or from the Vigil of the Nativity to the Octave of the Epiphany; on Ash Wednesday or during Holy Week, and Easter Week; from the Vigil of Pentecost to Trinity Sunday; on Corpus CHRISTI Day or during the Octave.

In Requiems, the following are the variations from the accustomed order which should be made. The Psalm Judica in the Preparation and the Gloria Patri in the Introit are not said. The Celebrant, instead of signing himself at the Introit, makes the sign of the Cross, with his right hand, over the book without touching it, the left hand meantime being placed on the Altar. But one Collect is said at Requiems on or before the day of Burial, on the 3rd, 7th, and 30th days after Burial, on Anniversaries and on All Souls’ Day; on other days, three, five or seven Collects should be said.

Before the Gospel, the Priest says the prayer, Cleanse my heart and my lips, but omits the benediction and at the end of the Gospel does not kiss the book or say, Through the words of the Gospel, &c.

The usual prayer is said at the mixing of the Wine and Water, but the Water is not blessed and the Gloria Patri at the end of the Psalm Lavabo is omitted.

At the Agnus Dei, in place of Have mercy upon us is said the first and second time Grant them rest, and the third time for Grant us Thy peace is said Grant them rest everlasting. Throughout the Agnus, the Priest keeps his hands joined before him and does not strike his breast, as at other times. The first of the usual prayers before Communion, the Prayer for Unity, is omitted.

According to ancient use, the Creed, Gloria in Excelsis and Benediction were omitted in Requiems, and in place of the last, the Celebrant (at a High Celebration, the Deacon) said, turning to the Altar, May they rest in peace. R/. Amen. It is to be noted that this V/., the Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Agnus Dei and Communion are said in the plural number on all occasions.

At a High Celebration, the Deacon will omit all the usual kisses and Incense should not be used at the Introit or Gospel. At the Offertory and at the Conse­cration, Incense will be used but at the former, the Oblations, the Altar and the Celebrant only will be censed. At the Gospel, the Acolytes assist without their Candles but at the Consecration they remain with their torches until the Communion of the Celebrant.

In other Votive Celebrations, the order of the Service is as usual except that the Creed and Gloria in Excelsis are usually omitted, but both may be sung if the Celebration be a Solemn one and the colour be white or red. Three Collects ordinarily should be said: First, that of the special occasion; second, that of the Day; third, that which should have been said in the second place in the Eucharist of the Day.

WHITE Vestments should be used at Votive Celebrations of the HOLY TRINITY, of the Blessed Sacrament, of S. Mary, of the Holy Angels, of Saints not Martyrs, and at a Marriage; RED at those of the HOLT GHOST, of the Holy Cross and of the Apostles, Evangelists and Martyrs; VIOLET at those of the Passion and at those for any necessity; BLACK at all Requiems.

OF THE RELATIVE DIGNITY OF FEASTS, ETC.

I. Of the Occurrence.

When two Feasts fall upon the same day they are said to be in occurrence and it becomes necessary to know to which the preference should be given. The following is the order of precedence to be observed in such cases:—

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1. A Sunday of the first-class; Ash Wednesday; all the days of Holy Week; the Vigil and Feast of the Nativity; the Circumcision; the Epiphany and its Octave Day; all the days in Easter Week; the Feast of the Ascension; the Vigil of Pentecost and all the days in the Octave; the Feast of Corpus CHRISTI and the Feast of All Saints.

2. A Double Feast of the first class.

3. A Sunday of the second class; the days in the Octave of the Epiphany; the Octave Day of Corpus CHRISTI.

4. A Double Feast of the second class.

5. An Octave Day.

6. A Greater Double.

7. An ordinary Double.

8. An ordinary Sunday.

9. The days in the Octave of Corpus CHRISTI.

10. A Semi-double.

11. The days in Octaves not mentioned above.

12. The Greater Ferias, viz., the week-days of Advent and Lent, the Ember Days, and Rogation Monday.

13. A Vigil not named above.

14. A Simple Feast.

15. An Ordinary Feria.

Sometimes, however, it will happen that two Feasts of the same class will occur together. In such cases the precedence will be determined by the character of the Feast, according to the following order:—i. Feasts of our LORD; ii. Of the Blessed Virgin; iii. Of the Holy Angels; iv. Of S. John Baptist; v. Of the Apostles and Evangelists; vi. Of other Saints which are all of equal dignity, but preference will be given (i.) to the Feast of a Saint especially connected with the particular Church, such as a second or less important Patron, (ii.) to a Feast especially connected with the Diocese, and (iii.) to a Feast celebrated by the Church Universal. The Feast of the principal Patron will always be preferred to that of any other Saint, but gives way to that of the Dedication. (There are, how­ever, some exceptions to the latter rule, for which see page 16, ii. 5.)

The Feast which gives way to another Feast with which it is in occurrence, is treated in one of three ways, either (i.) it is omitted entirely for that year, or (ii.) commemorated in the Services of the day, or (iii.) translated to the first vacant day. (i.) The Offices of the following days are omitted entirely:—Of an ordinary Feria; the Offices of a Vigil, if in occurrence with a Double Feast of the first class or with a Greater Feria; the Offices of a Day in an Octave (other than Christmas, Epiphany and Corpus CHRISTI), when in occurrence with a Double Feast of the first or second class; those of an ordinary Double, Semi-double or Simple Feast in occurrence with a Double Feast of the first class or with one of the three last days of Holy Week, (ii.) The Offices of a Sunday, an Octave Day and of a Greater Feria are always commemorated when in occurrence with those of a greater day, although it be even a Double Feast of the first class. Commemoration will also be made of a Simple Feast unless it be in occurrence with a Double Feast of the first class, and of a Day in an Octave, except it be in occurrence with a Double Feast of the first or second class, but a Simple Feast occurring on the same day as a Double Feast of the second class will be commemorated at Mattins and Holy Eucharist only and not at the first Even­song. Ordinary Doubles and Semi-doubles will be commemorated if in occurrence with a greater day, unless it be a Double Feast of the first class, (iii.) Double Feasts of the first or second class, Greater Doubles and Feasts of the Holy Doctors of the Church, which cannot be observed on their proper days, [page 20] because of occurrence, will be transferred to the first vacant day. When a Feast having an Octave is transferred, the Octave Day is never transferred, but is kept on the same day, as if the Feast had not been transferred. If a Feast must be transferred to a day beyond its proper Octave Day, it will be for that year observed without an Octave.

If the Feast of the Purification or Annunciation fall upon a Sunday of the second class it shall be transferred to the Monday, even if it be already occupied by a Feast of the same rank. If the Monday be a Double Feast of the first class viz., that of the Patron or Dedication, the Feast of the Purification or Annunciation will be observed on the Tuesday. If the Feast of the Annunciation fall upon Palm Sunday or in Holy Week or Easter Week it must be transferred to the Monday after Low Sunday, unless that be a Double Feast of the first class, in which case the Annunciation will be kept on the Tuesday.

If the Feast of the Nativity of S. John Baptist fall on the same Day as Corpus CHRISTI it will be transferred to the day following and the Feast of that day (even if it be a Double Feast of the first class) will be transferred or its observance omitted for that year. If any Feast usually observed with an Octave occur in Lent, the Octave will not be kept that year; but if the Feast happen a little before Lent, the Octave will be kept but will cease entirely when Lent begins. The same rule applies to Octaves, which are not prescribed by rubric, if Whitsun Day or December 16th occur before they are ended.

II. Of the Concurrence.

Festivals are said to concur when two Feasts are kept on succeeding days, so that the first Evensong of one Feast falls on the same day as the second Evensong of the other.

If the second Evensong of a Double Feast of the first class concur with the first Evensong of a Double Feast of the second class, the Service will be of the preceding with a Commemoration of the following, or the reverse, if the concurrence be that of the second Evensong of a Double Feast of the second class with the first Evensong of one of the first class.

If the two Feasts be of equal rank i.e., both Doubles of the first or second class or Greater Doubles, the Evensong will be of the more worthy, with a Commemoration of the less worthy, the decision being made on the same principle as in cases of occurrence, thus if the two Feasts in concurrence are a Feast of the Blessed Virgin, and that of an Apostle, the first will have the preference. If the second Evensong of an ordinary Double be in concurrence with the first Evensong of a Greater Double, the Service will be of the latter with a Commemoration of the preceding.

If two ordinary Doubles are in concurrence, the Service will be of the following with a Commemoration of the preceding. The second Evensong of a Double Feast will take precedence of the first Evensong of a Semi-double and the second Evensong of a Semi-double, of the first Evensong of a Simple Feast.

The first Evensong of any Sunday takes precedence of the second Evensong of a Semi-double Feast, or of the Evensong of a Day within an Octave, but gives way to the second Evensong of all other Festivals; in such cases, however, a Commemoration of the Sunday must always be made.

The second Evensong of a Sunday of the first or second class, gives way to the first Evensong of any Double Feast, but is always commemorated. Low Sunday, however, is an exception to this rule and its second Evensong will only give way to the first Evensong of a Double Feast of the first or second class.

The second Evensong of an ordinary Sunday will give place to the first Evensong of a Double Feast of the first or second class and no Commemoration of the Sunday will be made, but when in concurrence with a Greater or Lesser Double the Sunday will always be commemorated. If an ordinary Sunday be in concurrence with a Semi-double or Simple Feast, the Service will be of the Sunday with a Commemoration of the following Festival.

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If the second Evensong of the Octave Day of Corpus CHRISTI concur with the first Evensong of the Octave Day of S. John Baptist, the Evensong will be of Corpus CHRISTI, with commemoration of S. John Baptist.

At the second Evensong of Doubles of the first class, no commemoration will be made of a Day within an Octave; nor at the second Evensong of Doubles of the second class, unless the Offices of the following day are to be of the Octave. The days in the Octaves of Christmas, Epiphany and Corpus CHRISTI are excep­tions to this rule as a Commemoration of these Octaves must always be made, whatever Festival occur within them.

If many Commemorations have to be made the following is the order which should be observed: Of a Double, of a Sunday, of a Semi-double, of a Day within an Octave, of a Greater Feria or Vigil, of a Simple.

OF PROCESSIONS.

There are two kinds of Processions: 1st, Those on the Feast of the Purifica­tion, Palm Sunday and the Rogations and those on other days according to the custom of each Church; these are termed ordinary. 2nd, The special or extra­ordinary Processions which are ordered or authorised by the Bishop to obtain some particular favour or as a Special Act of Thanksgiving.

As the distinctive observances connected with the Processions on the Purifica­tion and Palm Sunday, are described in the chapters on those days it is unnecessary to refer to them here, and this chapter will only treat of the general rules respecting Processions on all occasions.

There is no doubt that ancient practice would warrant a Procession before the principal Celebration of the Holy Eucharist on all Sundays of the year, and on nearly all Festivals, but in most Parochial Churches it would seem desirable to restrict the Processions to the above named days and to the principal Feasts.

A Procession, as a distinct and separate Service, can take place at any time, but if directly connected with another Service its proper position is before the principal Eucharist or immediately after Evensong.

The Procession should start upon all occasions from the midst of the Choir, the Cross-bearer and Acolytes with the officiating Clergy standing in front of the Altar. The course of the Procession will be down the south aisle, up the centre, and back into the Chancel; but if there be an aisle round the Chancel, behind the Stalls and the High Altar, the Procession will go out at the north gate of the Chancel, turn to the right, pass behind the Altar, and so come into the south aisle. Rogation and Penitential Processions on the contrary will pass out of the Chancel into the north aisle by the centre or south gate of the Chancel and turn to the left throughout their course.

The order of the Procession, on nearly all occasions, is the same and should be as follows:—

Thurifer, with Incense burning.
(1.) Candle-bearer. Cross-bearer. Candle-bearer.
The Choir,
first the boys, then the men, walking two and two, not in pairs shoulder to shoulder, but wide apart, so as to form two separate lines with an open space between.
Clergy (not officiating)
in the order of their dignity, first the Deacons, then the Priests, walking in the same manner as the Choir.
(2.) Sub-deacon. The Celebrant. Deacon.
(3.) The Bishop and his Chaplains (if present).

(1.) If at any point in the Procession it is impossible for the Candle-bearers and Cross-bearer to walk abreast, the Candle-bearers will precede the Cross until a wider path be reached.

(2.) This will be the order at a High Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, the Sacred Ministers attending at the side of the Celebrant to hold back the borders of his Cope. On the occasions when the Sub-deacon is carrying the Cross, the Deacon will walk on the left of the Celebrant.

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At a Missa Cantata, two Acolytes take the place of the Sacred Ministers as also at a Procession at Evensong, and at other times, unless the Officiant be attended by Cantors in Copes. If the Celebrant be not vested in Cope, the Sub-deacon and Deacon will walk before him, one behind the other, but at a Missa Cantata the Acolytes will walk together as usual.

(3.) If the Bishop be accompanied by four Chaplains, two will walk before him, but not immediately in front, and the other two at his side holding back the borders of his Cope; if there be more than four, the remainder will walk after the Bishop, but in the same manner as the Choir with an open space between them. The Bishop should be vested in Cope and Mitre and, if in his own Diocese, should carry his Pastoral Staff in his left hand; if from age or infirmity he be unable to carry the Staff himself it may be borne before him by one of his Chaplains.

If there be school children, Lay Confraternities, or Religious Orders in the Procession they should walk before the Thurifer in the order named, the most recently established Confraternity or Society (if there be more than one) pre­ceding the others. Each Confraternity or Order may have its own Cross or distinctive Banner. Laity who desire to take part in the Procession will follow the Officiant (or Bishop) walking two and two, first the girls and women and then the boys and men. Everyone in the Procession should be careful to preserve the same space between himself and the person in front of him. This space should not be less than three feet. Short steps should be taken, and it is most desirable to avoid swinging the arms; if not carrying a book, the hands should be joined or folded in front. If there be Cantors in Copes their place in the Procession will be immediately before the-officiating Clergy. The Ceremonarius has no fixed place in the Procession since he ought to be where his presence is necessary or useful.

The Cross-bearer, Thurifer and Acolytes are allowed no head covering what­ever and the Ceremonarius, even if he be in Holy Orders, may not under any circumstances, wear more than the zucchetto. The Choir and Clergy may cover their heads outside the Church, but within the Church all must be uncovered, except the Officiant, Deacon and Sub-deacon (unless he be the Cross-bearer). The Cantors in Copes may wear their birettas if in Holy Orders, but not otherwise. All the other Clergy should carry their birettas, with both hands, below the breast.

On the conclusion of a Procession before the Holy Eucharist the Sacred Ministers (at a Missa Cantata, the Acolytes) will proceed with the Celebrant to the Sedilia, they will there take off the Celebrant’s Cope and vest him in the Maniple and Chasuble and then put on their own Maniples. On no account should the Celebrant, unless he be a Bishop, receive the Chasuble, &c., at, or from, the Altar.

If the Procession be at the Holy Eucharist, the Celebrant, or at Evensong the Officiant, will preside at the Procession and not another Priest.

It is most desirable that all Processions should be commenced by the Officiant (at a High Celebration, the Deacon) turning to the people and saying, “Let us go forth in peace,” to which the Choir will respond “In the Name of Christ. Amen.” And that they should be concluded with a V/., R/. and Collect suitable to the occasion, said by the Officiant at the foot of the steps to the Altar. After a Procession at Evensong on one of the greater Festivals, or if the Procession be an Act of Special Thanksgiving, the Te Deum may be fittingly sung on the return of the Procession to the Altar, the whole concluding with suitable Collects and the Blessing. (Note.—There is no authority for censing the Altar at a Solemn Te Deum but, if it follow a Procession, the Thurifer may perhaps continue to swing his censer).

Should it be necessary, in the course of the Procession, to pass before the High Altar each pair of the Choir, Clergy, &c. should turn together on their own ground, and bow at the same moment, the one standing behind the other, and not coming up to the side, lest the regular ranks of the Procession be disarranged. No notice should be taken of any Side Altar in passing.

The Processional Cross should be made to take off the Staff as, at the burial of an infant, it is carried without it. It should have upon it a Figure of our LORD which should be turned away from the Procession, not towards it; the Figure on the [page 23] Cross of an Archbishop, on the contrary, should be turned towards the Prelate. As the Processional Cross is required only on rare occasions it should be provided with a cover in which it may be put away when not in use. If allowed to remain in the Church it will soon be damaged by dust, gas or damp. Processional Banners should not be of triangular form nor resemble those used for military purposes. The devices and mottoes upon them should be such as can be readily understood. Each Banner should have its own cover in which it may be put away when not in use.

OF THE OCCASIONAL OFFICES.

Holy Baptism.

The Font is to be filled with pure Water immediately before the Baptism.

The Priest will wear a Surplice and violet Stole and be attended by, at least, one Assistant vested in Surplice. As the Baptism of Adults should be performed as solemnly as possible, it is fitting that the Priest should also wear a violet Cope; in that case he should be attended by, at least, three Assistants in Surplices. A white Stole, and at an Adult Baptism, a white Cope, will also be required and should be placed in readiness near the Font. Two Stoles should be used, not one that is violet on one side and white on the other.

The Bishop may, if he pleases, administer Holy Baptism as a simple Priest, putting on a Stole over his Rochet, but it is more fitting that it should be administered solemnly and that he should be vested in Amice, Alb, Girdle, violet Stole and Cope and Mitre. He should also carry his Pastoral Staff in his hand when going to or from the Font. The plain or simple Mitre should be used with the violet Vestments and the cloth of gold Mitre with the white Vestments.

The ordinary custom is to exchange the violet Stole and Cope for the white ones after the renunciations and immediately before the Creed, this is in accord­ance with ancient use, but when (as our present Rubrics require) the Baptismal Water is to be blessed during the Service, the violet Vestments should be retained till after the Benediction of the Water.

A shell or other vessel should be provided for pouring the water upon the head of the baptised and also a small linen cloth with which to dry the head after Baptism.

At the words Sanctify this water, in the Prayer of Benediction, the Priest should divide the water in the Font with his right hand, in the form of a Cross.

The water should be poured on the child (or it should be immersed in the water) three several times, once at each of the Names of the Blessed TRINITY. The water which is poured on the head should never be permitted to fall back into the Font. The Sign of the Cross should be made with the thumb of the right hand: the thumb should be dry.

In private Baptisms, the Priest should be vested in Surplice and white Stole.

Water should not be blessed anywhere except in Church. If water cannot be blessed at the Font and carried to the house, ordinary water should be used.

A special vessel of brass, or other material, for the water, should be provided, also a small linen cloth on which to place it.

Unless time will not permit, the Priest should use, at least, the LORD’s Prayer and the Prayer, Almighty and Immortal God.

After a Baptism, the water remaining in the Font should be immediately let off and at a private Baptism, it may be thrown on the earth or into the fire.

Confirmation.

The Bishop should be vested in Rochet, Amice, white Stole and Cope, and Mitre and will carry his Pastoral Staff in his hand.

The Altar will be vested with a white Antependium and the six candles should be lighted.

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The Bishop’s Throne should be prepared in the Sanctuary, as usual, and with the faldstool to be placed in front of the Altar, should be provided with white hangings and cushions. If the Bishop confirm at the Chancel step, a seat should be provided for him there and the place where the candidates are to kneel should be so arranged that the Bishop may not be required to stoop when placing his hand upon their heads. The Bishop before asking the question, Do ye here, proceeds to the seat before the Altar and will sit thereon with his face to the people, having his Mitre upon his head and his Pastoral Staff in his left hand. After the answer, I do, he rises and stands facing the persons to be confirmed, who will all kneel, with their hands joined before their breasts. The Bishop signs himself, with his right hand, with the Sign of the Cross and says, Our help, &c. and then, at the conclusion of the Versicles, with his hands extended towards the candidates, says Let us pray, and the following prayer, which ended, he again sits. The candidates should be presented to the Bishop in order; first the males and then the females. The Bishop should lay his right hand on the head of each candidate and should say the full form over each.

When all have been confirmed, the Bishop, laying aside his Mitre, rises up and standing facing the Altar, with his hands joined before his breast, says the concluding prayers, turning once more to the persons who have been confirmed, when he gives the Blessing.

The all kneeling of the rubric applies, of course, only to the persons confirmed, and the Congregation generally.

Holy Matrimony

The first part of the Office should be said in the Nave and the most suitable place seems to be the open space in front of the Chancel Screen.

The Priest should be vested in Surplice and white Stole and be attended by, at least, one Assistant in Surplice; if the Service is to be followed immediately by the Holy Eucharist, the Priest may be vested in readiness for the Celebration except for the Maniple which should be placed on the Altar, at the Gospel side. When the bride is to be “given away,” as it is termed, her father or one of her friends should take her by the right hand and present her to the Priest who will then cause the man with his right hand to take the woman by her right hand. If the bride be a widow she should have on a glove; if not her hand should be uncovered.

The ring is first to be laid upon the book and with it, the rubric says, “the accustomed duty to the Priest and Clerk.” The Priest, according to ancient use should bless the ring in these words:—

V/.      Our help is in the Name of the LORD.
R/.      Who hath made Heaven and earth
V/.      LORD, hear my prayer,
R/.      And let my cry come unto Thee.
V/.      The LORD be with you.
R/.      And with thy spirit.

Let us pray.

Bless + O LORD, this ring which we bless + in Thy Name, that she who shall wear it keeping true faith unto her husband, may abide in Thy peace and will, and ever live in Thy love, Through CHRIST our LORD. Amen.

He then delivers it again to the man to put upon the fourth finger of the woman’s left hand. The ring was anciently placed, first on the thumb at the Name of the First Person of the TRINITY, on the next finger at the Name of the Second, on the third at the Name of the Third, and on the fourth at the word Amen. The words of the rubric “leaving the ring upon the fourth finger” seem to imply that this custom is still intended.

After the Blessing, all will proceed processionally into the Choir, saying or singing one of the appointed Psalms (the 128th should be said, except the woman be “past child-bearing”). The Priest and his Assistants will proceed to the Altar, the bride and bridegroom kneeling at the Altar step with their friends [page 25] behind them. The Priest will stand in front of the Altar, facing the newly married couple and will retain this position for the remainder of the Service.

The final Exhortation should be omitted if there be a Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, as there will then be a Sermon in the usual place. The word “convenient” in the concluding rubric means “fitting” and it is evidently intended that, if it be possible, the Holy Eucharist should follow immediately and that the new-married persons should communicate. If this be done, it is most desirable that the Marriage should take place at an early hour of the day.

Before commencing the Celebration, the Celebrant if already vested, will assume the Maniple. For the special rules on the occasion, vide p. 17.

Holy Matrimony should not be celebrated in tempore feriarum, i.e., from the first Sunday in Advent to the Epiphany and from Ash Wednesday to Low Sunday, all inclusive.

Churching of Women.

The “convenient place” of the rubric, according to ancient practice, would be just within the Church door, where a prie-dieu to kneel at should be provided for the woman; but in the book of 1549, the rubric directed the Office to be said “nigh unto the quire door” so that outside the Chancel Gates would seem to be a convenient and suitable place.

Bishop Burnet says that the words “decently apparelled” are to be interpreted to mean with a white covering or veil, and, according to ancient usage, the woman should hold a lighted taper in her hand.

The Priest should be vested in Surplice and white Stole and be accompanied by a Server in Surplice who will say the alternate verses of the Psalm and make the proper responses.

The Priest should stand throughout the Service.

The first Psalm should be said if the woman be going to communicate after her Churching and in those cases where the child has died.

This Office should not be used for an unmarried woman until she has done penance or acknowledged her fault before the Congregation. This was so enjoined by Archbishop Grindal in 1571, and by the Bishops in 1661.

The proper time for this Office is immediately before one of the public Services, most appropriately, just before a Celebration of the Holy Communion, as is clearly evidenced by the final rubric.

Visitation of the Sick.

The nature of the preparations will depend very greatly upon the Divine Offices to be performed. For the Visitation Office itself, the Priest should wear a Surplice and violet Stole.

For Communion of the Sick, if it be necessary to have a Celebration in the sick chamber, the same Vestments as are used in the Church will be required.

If the sick person is to be communicated with the Reserved Sacrament, only a Surplice and white Stole will be needed; white is always the colour, even if it be Good Friday. At a Celebration of the Holy Eucharist in a Hospital or under circumstances where the sick person is able to assist, or when the Viaticum is to be administered to a person in good health, as, e.g., a criminal about to be executed, the Vestments should be of the colour of the day, or that which is suited to the special character of the Celebration; therefore, when the Order for the Communion of the Sick is used, the colour will be violet.

If the sick man be a Priest he should be vested before Communion in a Surplice and white Stole, or, at least, with the Stole, if it be inconvenient, on account of the condition of the patient, to put on the Surplice.

For Unction of the Sick, the Priest will require a Surplice and violet Stole.

The chamber of the sick person ought to be as clean as possible and suitably ornamented. In it should be prepared a table, covered with a clean white cloth, and having upon it a Crucifix and, at least, two wax candles. If Holy Unction alone is to be administered, one wax candle will suffice.

[page 26]

The Burial of the Dead.[4]

The Altar should be vested in a black Antependium and should be unadorned, except for its usual furniture, the Cross and Candlesticks; the latter should be furnished with Candles of yellow or unbleached wax. If the Service be solemnly sung, six Candles should be lighted, but otherwise two will suffice.

The Officiant will wear a Surplice and black Stole, or black Cope, or both Stole and Cope, and be attended by the Cross-bearer, two Acolytes with Candles, and at least, one other Acolyte to bring in the Thurible when required. It will be found more convenient to provide the Acolytes with Processional Lanterns in place of their usual Candlesticks, at least, for the outdoor portion of the Office.

The Bier upon which the Coffin is to be placed should stand at the eastern end of the Nave of the Church, just outside the Chancel gates; but if the departed be a Bishop or a Priest, the body should be carried into the Chancel, and the Bier will then be placed in the centre of the Choir. The body should be placed with the feet towards the Altar, except in the case of a Bishop or Priest, when the head should be towards the Altar. Six large Candlesticks, furnished with Candles of unbleached wax, should be placed round the Bier— three on either side—and should be kept burning the whole of the time the body is in the Church.

The Officiant with the Choir and Clergy, preceded by the Cross-bearer and Acolytes as usual, will proceed processionally to the Lych gate or to the West entrance of the Church to meet the body, and will then precede it into the Church, singing the opening sentences of the Burial Office. The mourners will walk last, following after the body.

The Choir and Clergy will proceed into the Chancel to their accustomed places, and the body being placed upon the Bier, one of the appointed Psalms will be sung.

The Lesson should be read without giving out, and without any formal conclusion, such as Here endeth, &c.

If the Holy Eucharist is to be celebrated, it should follow immediately after the Lesson. (Vide the chapter on Votive Celebrations, p. 16).

After the Holy Eucharist or else immediately after the Lesson, the Officiant with the Choir and Clergy will precede the body as before and proceed to the grave. During this Procession, the Psalm Miserere or Psalms 114, 115 and 25 may be sung. Arrived at the grave, the Choir and Clergy will range themselves on either side in such a manner as to leave ample space for the mourners and for the attendants who are to lower the body. The Cross-bearer and Acolytes will stand at the end of the grave where the head of the departed will be placed, and the Officiant at the opposite extremity facing the Cross. If the grave be not already blessed, the Officiant will at once proceed to bless it, the body in the meantime being deposited at the side. He then receives the Thurible, and censes first the body and then the grave, each with three swings of the censer, the first to the centre, the second to the left and the third to the right.

The sentences Man that is born, &c., are then said or sung, during which the body is made ready and lowered into the grave. The earth should be cast upon the body in the form of a Cross.

At the conclusion of the Office, the Choir and Clergy should return to the Church, or to the entrance of the Cemetery, singing the Psalm De Profundis.

At the burial of children under seven years of age, the Vestments of the Altar and of the Priest should be white, the Candles will be of white wax, and the Processional Cross should be carried without its staff. During the Procession to the grave, Psalms 148, 149 and 150 and on returning, the Benedicite, omnia opera should be sung.

[page 27]

OF THE COLLECTS.

At Mattins and Evensong there are ordinarily three Collects, viz., i. Of the Day, ii. For Peace, iii. For Grace or For Aid against all Perils. During Advent and Lent a special Collect is appointed to be said daily, this will follow the Collect for the Day and be said immediately before the Collect for Peace. A like rule will be followed when commemoration of a Feast has to be made on a Sunday within an Octave, the Collect of the Feast being said after the Collect of the Day.

At the Holy Eucharist, on all Double Feasts there is usually but one Collect, the only exceptions being occasions when some commemoration has to be made; when such is the case no Supplemental Collect should be added.

On Semi-doubles, there should be three Collects, and a like number on all ordinary Sundays, except on those within Octaves when but two should be said.

On Simples and Ferias there should be three as on Semi-doubles; five or even seven Collects may be said at the discretion of the Priest.

On Passion Sunday, two Collects only should be used and on Palm Sunday but one. On week-days from Passion Sunday till Maundy Thursday and on the four last days of Easter and Whitsun Weeks, two Collects should be said. On the Vigils of Christmas (except it be Sunday), Easter and Pentecost, one Collect only.

At Requiems, one Collect is said on All Souls’ Day, on or before the day of Burial, on the 3rd, 7th and 30th days after Burial and on Anniversaries; but at other times, three, five or seven Collects should be said.

If one Collect be said, it shall have its full ending: if addressed to GOD the FATHER it should conclude “Through Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our Lord, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee, in the Unity of the Holy Ghost, ever One God, world without end. Amen.” If mention be made of GOD the SON in the beginning of the prayer, it should conclude “Through the Same Thy Son, &c. (as before), but, if GOD the SON be mentioned at the end of the prayer it should conclude “Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the Unity, &c.” If the Collect be addressed to GOD the SON the conclusion will be, “Who livest and reignest with the Father, in the Unity, &c.” If the HOLY GHOST has been mentioned, then in the conclusion shall be said “Through, &c., in the Unity of the Same Holy Ghost, &c.” If many Collects are said, the first shall have its full ending as given above; all the rest should be said without ending, and without Amen, except the last, which should be ended in full with its own appropriate conclusion.

NOTE. — It would be exceedingly difficult to draw up an accurate and satisfactory Table of the Supplemental Collects that should be used at the Holy Eucharist on Semi-doubles, &c., but the following suggestions may be useful to those who desire to conform to the ancient usage.

SUPPLEMENTAL COLLECTS ON SUNDAYS, SEMI-DOUBLES, SIMPLES AND FERIAS.

On Advent Sunday

ii. Of the B.V.M. Coll. of Annunciation. On Advent Sunday.
iii. For the Church. Coll. of 16th or 22nd Sun. after Trinity or 2nd of Good Friday.

From Advent Sunday to Christmas Eve

ii. Advent Sunday.
iii. Annunciation.

From the Epiphany till the Purification

As on Advent Sunday.

From the Purification until Lent

ii. 5th Sunday after Trinity or Assist Us.
iii. At choice.

During Lent

ii. Ash Wednesday.
iii. 5th Sunday after Trinity or Assist Us.

From Passion Sun. to Maundy Thursday

ii. Ash Wednesday.

From Low Sunday to Whitsun Eve

ii. Easter Day.
iii. 16th or 22nd Sunday after Trinity or 2nd of Good Friday.

From Trinity Sunday to Advent

ii. 5th Sunday after Trinity or Assist Us.
iii. At choice.

On the four last days of Easter and  Whitsun Weeks

ii. 16th or 22nd Sunday after Trinity or 2nd of Good Friday.

In other Octaves, and on Vigils, except those of Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and Pentecost

ii. Annunciation.
iii. 16th or 22nd Sunday after Trinity.

But in the Octaves of B.V.M. and on Vigil and in Oct. All SS.

ii. Whitsun Day.
iii. 16th or 22nd Sunday after Trinity.

If, when several Collects are said, a Commemoration has to be made of some Saint, the Collect of the Saint is s in the second place and that, which would have been second, is placed third, the third being omitted.

[page 28]

OF THE OFFICE HYMNS.

The Office Hymn is that which is usually sung after the Third Collect at Mattins or Evensong. Its ancient place was immediately before the Benedictus or Magnificat, and there seems no reason why it should not be restored to this more dignified and appropriate position.

The Office Hymn should be sung antiphonally and to its own proper melody. Like the Psalms, the Office Hymn should on no account be “given out”; there is no authority for this practice which causes an unseemly break in the Service and is most undignified; it is perfectly easy to arrange some other method of notifying to the Congregation the day of the month or the number of the Hymn to be sung.

With but two or three exceptions, noted in loco, the Hymn should invariably correspond with the first Collect used in the Office. The Hymn at the second Evensong of a Feast is always the same as at the first Evensong.

The Office Hymns for the Common and Proper of the Seasons are marked in the Notes on the Seasons, pp. 6—15.

The Office Hymns in the Common of Saints, are:—

 

EVENSONG.

MATTINS.

 

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

On all Feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary

88

449

189

88
or
204

449

189
or
190

——— of Apostles and Evangelists

188

430

199

76

430

197

——— of Apostles and Evangelists from Easter till Trinity Sunday

77

126 (ii)

201

78

126(iii)

202

——— of Martyrs

81

442

206

81

442

206

——— of Confessors

83

451

214

83

451

214

——— of Confessors and Bishops

83

452

214

84

452

213

——— of a Virgin or Virgin and Martyr

85

455

220

344

455

219

——— of Holy Women

198

457

223

198

457

223

——— of the Dedication of a Church

103
or
101

396 (ii)

308

102

396 (ii)

309

The Hymns in the Common of Saints are used on all Festivals, according to their class, with the exception of the following:—

 

EVENSONG.

MATTINS.

 

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

H.N.

H.A.M.

P.H.

Invention and Exaltation of the Holy Cross

51

96

82

52 or 53

97
(i or ii)

83
(i or ii)

nativity of S. John Baptist

174

415

255

175

415

256

S. Mary Magdalene

178

459

264

179

459

265

Transfiguration of our LORD

93 or 182

270

275

270

Holy Name of JESUS

43

178 (i)

272

261 or 262

178
(iioriii)

534

S. Michael and All Angels

94

422

284

184

422

283

All Saints’ Day

185

293

185

293 or 292

The figures in italic denote that the particular Hymnal does not contain the proper Office Hymn and that another has had to be selected; where this has been done the Hymns suggested are invariably from some ancient Use.

[page 29]

OF SOLEMN EVENSONG.

At Evensong on ordinary occasions, Ferias and the lesser Festivals, the Officiant will occupy his usual Stall in Choir and will be vested in Surplice; he should not wear a Stole.

But on Sundays and on the more solemn Feast Days, Evensong, if possible, should be sung solemnly, and the Officiant will be vested in Surplice and Cope of the colour of the day, and be assisted by two, four, or six Assistants also vested in Surplice and Cope. The Copes worn by the Assistants should be of the same colour as that of the Officiant but of plainer and less costly material. The Feasts on which there should be six Assistants are Christmas Day, Epiphany, Easter Day, Ascension Day, Whitsun Day, Corpus CHRISTI, those of S. Peter, All Saints, of the Patron or Title and of the Dedication of the Church. There should be four Assistants on the two days after Christmas Day, Easter Day, and Whitsun Day; on the Circumcision of our LORD; the Purification and Annunciation B.V.M.; Trinity Sunday and the Nativity of S. John Baptist. On Sundays and other Feast Days there should be but two Assistants. In places where it is not possible to provide so many Assistants in Copes, the number should be regulated proportionately, thus, if it be possible to have but four Assistants on the days indicated for six, there should be only two on the days for which four are required, and on other occasions the Officiant should alone be in Cope. When there are six Assistants, four will act as Cantors, and alternately, two and two, pre-intone the Antiphons and the Psalms; the other two will attend the Officiant. If there be four Assistants, two will act as Cantors and two will attend the Officiant, and if there be but two, they will attend the Officiant, the place of the Cantors being filled by two Clerks in Surplices; the latter arrangement will also be the case when there are no Assistants in Copes.

There should also be a Master of the Ceremonies, two Acolytes and the Thurifer.

A seat should be provided for the Officiant on the Epistle side of the Sanctuary (in front of the Sedilia) and also a pre-dieu, on which should be placed the book for the Officiant, prepared in readiness with proper markers. Seats for the two Assistants in Copes (if there be any) should be placed on either side of the Officiant and one for the Master of the Ceremonies, to the right of the Officiant’s but a little behind it. The seats for the Cantors should be placed in front of the Choir stalls, two or one on either side, and facing the Altar.

The six Candles on the Altar will be lighted before the Service by the Acolytes, who will then light their own Candles.

When all the preparations are complete and the Officiant is vested, the Assist­ants in Copes, if in Holy Orders, will put on their birettas simultaneously with the Officiant, and the Master of the Ceremonies will give the signal to enter the Church. The entrance should be made in the following order: i. The Acolytes carrying their Candles, ii. The Master of the Ceremonies, iii. The Clergy in Surplices, iv. The Assistants in Copes, two and two; the Officiant entering between the last two. The Officiant and the Assistants walk with hands joined, except the last two Assistants, who raise on either side the border of the Officiant’s Cope, with one hand and place the other upon their breasts. On entering the Choir, all take off their birettas, and arrived at the Altar, the Officiant and the Assistants in Copes, having made the proper reverence, kneel in a straight line on the lowest step to say the usual preliminary prayer, O Lord, open Thou my mouth, &c. This concluded they make the usual reverence to the Altar, and proceed to their places. The Acolytes put down their Candlesticks, each on his side, upon the lowest of the Altar steps or upon the pavement, extinguish them and retire to their appointed places. After the intonation of the first Psalm, if it be customary to sit at the Psalms, those who are in Holy Orders (except the Master of the Ceremonies), having sat down (and not until then) may put on their birettas; they should take care to uncover before again standing, and also to remove their birettas and to make an inclination towards the Altar, at the Gloria Patri, the Name of JESUS, &c. After the first Psalm, the Antiphon is sung by the Choir, the two Cantors pre-intone the Antiphon to the next Psalm, and then proceed to the centre to intone the Psalm. Those who are in [page 30] the Choir stalls on the side on which the Antiphon is intoned, should rise from their seats with the Cantors and not resume them until after the intonation of the Psalm. Towards the conclusion of the first Lesson, the Acolytes should light their Candles and proceed with them to the Officiant. They place themselves before him, with their faces turned towards each other, and remain there until he has intoned the Office Hymn which, properly, should be sung in this place. They then return to the Altar, replace their Candlesticks, and without extinguishing them, retire to their places. The Cantors also proceed to the Officiant and stand before him until after the intonation of the Hymn when they return to their places, where they stand uncovered. But if the Hymn be not sung at this time, the Acolytes will merely light their Candles, as above directed, and retire again to their places.

The Cantors will proceed to the Officiant to pre-intone the Antiphon and then return to the centre of the Choir to intone the Magnificat. This being done, they again go to the Officiant (if they be in Copes) to conduct him to the Altar. Two, with the Officiant between them, ascend to the predella and the others remain on the pavement. The first Assistant procures incense in the Thurible, in the same manner as the Deacon at the Holy Eucharist, and presents it to the Officiant; the second raises the Officiant’s Cope on the right side, so that he may the more easily put in the incense. The Officiant then proceeds to incense the Altar in the usual manner, the Assistants raising the borders of the Cope on either side.

When the incensing is completed, they descend to the pavement, and the Officiant is conducted to his place where he is incensed by the first Assistant (the other Assistants retire to their places) with three double swings, the Assistant then proceeds, accompanied by the Thurifer, to incense the Choir, commencing on the side on which is placed the highest Dignitary. He first incenses those who occupy the higher stalls on either side, then each Assistant in Cope with two double swings, then those who occupy the lower stalls and finally, having returned to his place, is himself incensed by the Thurifer. The Thurifer incenses the Master of the Ceremonies with one double swing, and then the Acolytes and the people, in the usual manner. If there be no Assistants in Copes, the Master of the Ceremonies will take the place of the first Assistant during the incensing and do all that is above directed, down to the incensing of the Officiant, after which he hands the Thurible to the Thurifer who proceeds to incense the Clergy in Choir, &c.

If the top of the Altar be covered, it will be necessary for the Acolytes to turn back the cover during the Antiphon before the Magnificat. To do this they should proceed to the ends of the Altar and fold the cover in the centre.

If another Altar has to be censed during the Magnificat, as may happen on some special Festival, the Acolytes will take up their Candlesticks, after turning back the cover of the Altar, and go to the entrance of the Sanctuary, the Thurifer standing between them. When the incensing of the High Altar is completed, a Procession will be formed in the following order: i. The Thurifer, ii. The Acolytes, iii. The Cantors, iv. The Officiant with his Assistants (wearing their birettas) and the Master of the Ceremonies, v. The Clergy who have been assisting in Choir, two and two. Arrived at the Altar, to be censed, the Officiant and the two Assistants ascend to the predella and cense the Altar in the usual manner. The Acolytes and Cantors stand in a line near the lowest step before the Altar, and the others remain behind them. The incensing finished, all return in the same manner as they came, and retire to their places; the Acolytes replace their Candlesticks on the Altar step and the rest proceeds as usual. Incense should not be put into the Thurible a second time.

At the last clause of the Our Father, the Acolytes rise and taking their Candle­sticks proceed to the Officiant and stand in front of him as before, remaining there while he sings the Versicles and Collects, after which they replace the Candlesticks on the step, unless the Officiant and his Assistants, at once, retire to the Sacristy. In this, or in any, case they precede them in the same manner as at the entrance before the Service.

[page 31]

THE ORDER OF THE CEREMONIES AT A LOW CELEBRATION OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST.

I. Of the Preparation in the Sacristy.

The Priest who is about to celebrate the Holy Eucharist, having devoted some time to private prayer, should proceed, clad in his Cassock, to the Sacristy or to the place where the Vestments appropriate to the day and other things necessary have been prepared. Then having found the proper Service for the day in the Missal and having arranged the markers so as to avoid any confusion or delay during the Holy Sacrifice, he washes his hands saying Give virtue, O Lord, unto my hands, that every stain may be removed: so that I may be enabled to serve Thee without defilement of mind or body. Taking the Chalice, he places upon it (i) a clean Purificator, hanging equally on either side, (ii) the Paten, (iii) the Pall, (iv) the Veil, in such a manner that it covers the foot of the Chalice in front, and (v) the Burse, provided with a clean Corporal. The opening of the Burse should be towards the Priest. He is not to place upon the Burse his handkerchief, or Biretta, or spectacles, or anything else.

Then, if his head be covered, he removes his Biretta, lays it down and makes the Sign of the Cross. With both hands, he takes the Amice by the corners near the strings, kisses the Cross in the centre, places it on his head and at once lowers it to his neck, adjusts it so as to cover his collar all round, and then crossing the strings upon his breast, passes them under his arms and across his back and ties the ends together in front. While thus arranging the Amice, he says: Put, O Lord, the helmet of salvation upon my head, that I may overcome the assaults of the devil.

He next puts on the Alb, placing it over his head and passing first his right and then his left arm, into the sleeves. He fastens the Alb at the neck and says: Cleanse me, O Lord, and purify my heart: that being made white in the Blood of the Lamb, I may have the fruition of everlasting joys. Taking the Girdle, or receiving it from the Server, he places it round his waist, saying: Gird me about, O Lord, with the girdle of purity and extinguish in my loins the desire of lust: so that the virtue of continence and chastity may abide within me. Care must be taken to arrange the Alb in such a manner that it shall hang equally all round, that it shall fully cover the Cassock and yet be slightly off the ground.

The Priest then takes the Maniple, kisses the Cross and places it on his left arm, between the wrist and the elbow, saying: May I be worthy, O Lord, so to bear the Maniple of tears and sorrow, that with joy I may receive the reward of my labour.

He then takes the Stole in both hands, kisses the Cross in the middle, saying: Restore to me, O Lord, the stole of immortality which I lost by the transgression of my first parent; and although I am unworthy to draw near to Thy Sacred Mystery, yet may I be counted meet for everlasting joy. He places it on his neck and arranges it before him so that it may fall equally on both sides; he crosses it upon his breast, placing the left hand portion below that on the right hand, and fastens both to his waist with the extremities of the Girdle.

Lastly, he takes the Chasuble and, without kissing it, places it over his head, adjusts it evenly on his shoulders and fastens it by tying the strings in front, reciting the prayer: O Lord, Who hast said; My yoke is easy, My burden is light; make me so to be able to bear it, that I may obtain Thy favour. Amen.

It is convenient to attach a handkerchief to the Girdle or to the strings of the Chasuble; it should be perfectly clean and not visible beneath the Chasuble.

[page 32]

II. Of the Approach to the Altar.

The Priest being vested, puts on his Biretta and takes the Chalice by the knob with his left hand (first turning the hinder part of the Veil over the Burse), placing his right hand upon the Burse with a gentle pressure on the centre, in order to prevent anything falling off. He next makes the usual reverence to the Cross of the Sacristy, and preceded by the Server carrying the Missal, proceeds to the Altar with a grave and modest deportment, his body erect, his eyes cast down, holding the Chalice at about the height of his breast, not, however resting upon it nor far removed from it. If the Priest is not to carry the Chalice, it having been already placed on the Altar, he does not put on his Biretta until after he has saluted the Cross, and he walks with hands joined.

If on his way to the Altar, he passes the High Altar, he makes, with head covered, a profound inclination to the Cross, or a genuflection, if the Blessed Sacrament be reserved in the Tabernacle. He makes no inclination to the Crosses on other Altars, but should he pass an Altar at which the Holy Eucharist is being celebrated:—(i) At the moment of the Consecration, he will kneel down on both knees, then uncover and adore, by an inclination of the head; he remains till the Consecration is ended, replaces his Biretta, rises and proceeds on his way. If he is not carrying the Chalice, he will remove his Biretta before kneeling, and not replace it until after he has risen from his knees; when the Chalice is in his hands the Biretta must not be placed on the Burse, but must be given to the Server or held by the Priest himself, with the thumb and forefinger of his right hand, the inner side of the Biretta being turned to his breast and the lower portion of his hand resting on the Burse; (ii) between the Consecration and the Ablutions he will kneel on one knee for a moment, raise his Biretta and replacing it, at once rise.

Arrived at the Altar where he is to celebrate, the Priest stops at the lowest step removes his Biretta and gives it to the Server, makes a profound reverence[5] and then mounts the steps to the middle of the Altar. He places the Chalice towards the Gospel side, with the front of the Veil turned towards himself, takes the Burse with both hands and placing it upright in the middle of the Altar, with his right hand withdraws the Corporal, which he leaves on the Altar while with the same hand he places the Burse against the gradine or step on the Gospel side, keeping his left hand, in the meantime, on the Altar. He next, with both hands, spreads the Corporal in the centre of the Altar, placing it in such a manner that in front it will reach to the edge of the Altar, without any portion hanging over; taking the Chalice covered with the Veil, in his left hand, and putting his right hand upon it, he places it on the Corporal at such a distance from the front that there may be no danger of his head touching the Chalice when he kisses the Altar. The Veil should be so arranged that the foot of the Chalice is concealed, at least in front, and care should be taken so to place the Burse that grease may not drop upon it from a candle; the opening should be toward the centre, if the proper position of the Cross or other ornament permit.

When the Priest has arranged the Chalice, he proceeds with hands joined, to the Missal, which he opens at the Introit.

He returns to the centre, bows to the Cross, and without any delay turns to his right and comes down the steps, a little on the Gospel side. Having descended the lowest step, he turns to his left and facing the Altar, with hands joined, makes a profound inclination.[6]

Making the Sign of the Cross, he says, In the Name, &c. Then joining his hands, he adds the Antiphon I will go and the Psalm Judica, which are said alternately with the Server. At the Gloria Patri he bows his head and then repeats the Antiphon I will go. (In Requiems, and in Services of the Season from Passion Sunday inclusive to Holy Saturday exclusive, the Psalm is omitted.) He adds, Our help is in the Name of the Lord, making on himself the Sign of the Cross, [page 33] which he ought to finish with the word Lord. The Server responds, Who hath made Heaven and earth. The Priest then says, the Confession, bowing low, with hands joined before his breast, and remaining in this posture until the Server has said May Almighty God have mercy upon thee, &c. to which he responds, Amen. At the words you brethren he does not turn towards the Server, and at the words my fault, &c., he strikes his breast three times, with the fingers of his right hand, which should be joined together and slightly bent. When the Server has said the Confession, the Priest repeats May Almighty God have mercy upon you, &c., without inclining or turning his head towards him. The Server having said Amen, the Priest makes the Sign of the Cross and says, May the Almighty and Merciful Lord, &c. Then bowing moderately, he says, Wilt Thou not turn again, &c., and remains in the same position until Let us pray inclusively, when he extends his hands, immediately rejoining them. Then holding himself upright, and saying in a low voice, We beseech Thee, O Lord, to take away from us our iniquities, &c., the Priest ascends the steps slowly, so that he may not finish the prayer until he reaches the middle of the Altar; then bowing moderately, he places his hands joined upon the Altar (the tips of the little fingers should just touch the front of the Altar, and only the other fingers should rest upon the surface of it) and says We beseech Thee, O Lord, by the merits of all Thy Saints, that Thou wouldest vouchsafe to forgive me all my sins. Amen. During this prayer he will kiss the Altar in the middle, placing his hands while doing so flat upon the Altar, just beyond the sides of the Corporal.

III. From the Introit to the Offertory.

Without making any inclination, the Celebrant then goes to the Missal and begins the Introit, first making upon himself the Sign of the Cross. He says the Introit with hands joined, inclining his head in the direction of the Cross at the Gloria Patri. The Introit concluded, he says the LORD's Prayer and the Collect for Purity.[7] "Then shall the Priest, turning to the people, rehearse distinctly all the Ten Commandments." The Commandments ended he turns to the Altar, extends and immediately rejoins his hands, and bowing his head to the Cross says, Let us pray. He then reads one of the two Collects for the Queen.[8] Then with hands joined before his breast, he passes to the middle of the Altar and says, the Lord, have mercy, &c., alternately with the Server. The Priest kisses the Altar, in the same manner as before, turns to the people by his right and with hands extended, says The Lord be with you, to which the Server responds And with thy spirit. He must not pause for any sensible time facing the people; above all, he must not bow his head or body to them

He then turns again to the Altar and proceeds to the Book and says Let us pray as before, and with hands extended,[9] reads the Collect for the Day. If there be more than one Collect, Let us pray is said before the second one also, but not before any of the others; (for the number of the Collects and their endings, vide page 27). At the Name of JESUS, the Celebrant will bow towards the Cross. When the Collect ends Who livest and reignest, &c., the hands are not to be joined until the words in the unity and the Priest will not bow his head or turn to the Cross.

The Collects ended, the Priest still facing east, lays his hands upon the Book, or upon the Altar in such a manner that they touch the Book, and reads the Epistle and Gradual, or whatever else follows. If he should have occasion to turn the leaves he will do it with both hands, or with one, while the other rests upon the Altar or on the side of the Missal.

After this the Priest goes to the middle of the Altar; he there first raises [page 34] his eyes for a moment and lowers them again, then with hands joined before his breast, he bows profoundly and says Cleanse my heart and my lips, O Almighty God, as Thou didst cleanse the lips of the Prophet Isaiah, with a live coal: of Thy Gracious Mercy vouchsafe so to cleanse me, that I may worthily proclaim Thy Holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. Give me, O Lord, Thy Blessing: The Lord be in my heart and upon my lips, that I may worthily and fitly proclaim His Gospel. Amen. (The last prayer is omitted in Requiems.) Then, raising himself, the Priest passes to the Gospel side to which the Missal should have been removed by the Server, if it be not placed in proper position he turns it so that the opening be somewhat towards the centre of the Altar. Facing the Book, he says, The Lord be with you, with hands joined. The Server having made the usual response, the Priest says, The Holy Gospel is written in the——chapter of the Holy Gospel according to Saint———beginning at the——verse. While he says this, he places his left hand on the Book and makes the Sign of the Cross with his right thumb on the Book, upon the commencement of the Gospel he is about to read, and then upon his own forehead, mouth and breast; the left hand meanwhile being placed on the lower part of his breast. It is to be noted that the palm of the right hand while employed in making these Crosses, at this and at other times, is to be turned to the Book, or person, on whom the Signs are made. He rejoins his hands, and when the Server has said Glory be to Thee, O Lord, he reads the Gospel, at the end of which (except in Requiems) he raises the Missal with both hands, in order to kiss the place of the opening words, saying in a low voice Through the words of the Gospel, may our sins be blotted out. It is to be noted that during the Gospel, if it be necessary for the Priest to make an inclination or a genuflection he will do so towards the Book and not towards the Cross. He returns the Book to the desk, which he moves with both hands up to the Corporal, and places it so that he may conveniently read from the Book.

He then passes to the middle of the Altar, and without making any inclination, he begins the Creed, extending and elevating his hands while saying I believe and joining them again before his breast at in One; at God he bows slightly, again at Jesus Christ and at the words together is worshipped. When he begins to say And was Incarnate he places his hands upon the Altar on either side of the Corporal, then slowly makes a genuflection with his right knee, which should touch the ground, and so remains until he has said the words And was made Man. He then rises and proceeds with hands joined. While saying And the life of the world to come he makes upon himself the Sign of the Cross, again joining his hands at the word Amen.

If any Notices have to be announced the Priest will here make them, turning by the right hand and facing the people.

IV. From the Offertory to the Canon.

Placing his hands upon the Altar, on either side of the Corporal, he kisses the Altar in the middle and turns to the people with hands joined and eyes cast down to say, The Lord be with you, extending his hands in the usual way. With hands joined he turns again to the Altar, while the Server responds And with thy spirit and then extending his hands and immediately rejoining them, he bows to the Cross, and says Let us pray after which he reads the sentence appointed for the Offertory, with hands joined. Having said the Offertory,[10] he takes the Veil from the Chalice with both hands, by the border of the side which is at the back of the Chalice, folds it in three so that only the exterior shall appear, and places it just beyond the Corporal on the Epistle side. Then laying his left hand upon the Altar, by the side of the Corporal, he, with his right hand, takes the Chalice by the knob and places it beyond the edge of the Corporal on the Epistle side. He removes the Pall from the Paten with his right hand and places it to the right [page 35] of the Corporal, resting upon the Veil. Then taking the Paten and holding it in front of his breast, with the thumb and forefinger of each hand, the other fingers being joined and placed beneath the Paten, he turns toward the Epistle side and takes from the Server sufficient breads for the Communicants, he arranges them on the Paten so that the Priest's Host may be on the top of the others. If the Communicants be numerous, a Ciborium should be provided and in this the small breads will be placed and only the large Host for the Priest himself on the Paten. The Ciborium, if there be one, will be placed on the Corporal behind the place where the Chalice will stand. Then holding the Paten as before with the thumb and forefinger of each hand, in front of his breast and above the centre of the Corporal, the Priest raises his eyes and immediately lowers them, saying meanwhile:—

Receive, O Holy Father, Almighty and Eternal God, this spotless Host, which I, Thine unworthy servant, offer unto Thee, my God, the Living and the True, for my numberless sins, offences and negligences, for all here present, and for all faithful Christians, both living and departed: that it may avail to me and to them for salvation unto everlasting life. Amen.

If there be Particles in a Ciborium, the Priest will be careful to remove the cover with his right hand before offering the Paten, and to replace the cover when he has completed the Oblation and set down the Paten. Having finished this Prayer, the Priest makes a Sign of the Cross with the Paten over the Corporal, which he must be careful not to touch. Then lowering the Paten to the Corporal, he gently inclines it forward and allows the Host to fall on the middle of the front portion of the Corporal; the other Particles, if there be any on the Paten, will be placed on the Corporal, on the front portion, a little to the Gospel side. The Priest must be very careful not to touch these with the Maniple or sleeve of the Alb, or with the edge or under part of the Paten. Next, with his left hand on the Altar, the Priest with his right will place the Paten partially under the Corporal at the Epistle side, sufficiently far from the edge of the Altar that he may be able to place his hand on the Altar without touching the Paten. [If the Particles are not wafers but ordinary bread very liable to crumble, it is safer to allow them to remain on the Paten and to place it on the front portion of the Corporal].

The Priest then passes to the Epistle side, holding the Chalice by the knob with his left hand, and wiping it with the Purificator held in the other hand. Then resting the Chalice, a little inclined, upon the Altar and holding one end of the Purificator with his thumb under the Cup, so that if any drops fall from the Cruets they may not fall upon the Cloth of the Altar or on the foot of the Chalice, he receives from the Server the Wine Cruet with his right hand and pours from it into the Chalice a sufficient quantity of wine, taking care in doing so not to bespatter the sides of the Chalice. Returning the Wine Cruet, he makes the Sign of the Cross, with his right hand extended over the Water Cruet, saying:—

+ O God, Who didst wonderfully create, and yet more wonderfully renew the dignity of the nature of man: grant that, by the mystery of this Water and Wine, we may be made partakers of His Divinity, Who vouchsafed to become partaker of our humanity, Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Our Lord; Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the Unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end. Amen.

(In Requiems, the water is not blessed but the prayer is said as usual.) When saying the words grant that, by the mystery of this Water and Wine, he takes the Cruet and pours a few drops of water into the Chalice—in no case may the quantity of water exceed one-third the quantity of wine—he must be careful to bow towards the Cross when saying Jesus Christ and having returned the Cruet to the Server he will remove with the Purificator wrapped round the forefinger of his right hand, any drops which may remain on the sides of the Chalice. This done the Priest returns to the middle of the Altar carrying in his left hand the Chalice which he sets down near to the Corporal, he makes an inclination to the Cross and lays the Purificator, folded in two, upon that part of the Paten [page 36] which is not under the Corporal. He then takes the Chalice by the knob with his right hand and brings it over the Corporal beyond the Host; he places his left upon the foot and raising it gently until the Cup is on a level with his eyes, he says, with eyes fixed upwards, We offer unto Thee, O Lord, the Cup of Salvation, humbly beseeching Thy Mercy: that in the sight of Thy Divine Majesty, it may ascend as a sweet-smelling savour for our salvation, and for that of the whole world. Amen.

After this, slightly lowering the Chalice, he makes with it the Sign of the Cross over the Corporal, that is to say over the hinder part and not over the Host. He then places the Chalice in the middle of the Corporal, a little behind the Host, with his right hand he covers it with the Pall, while the left retains hold of the foot of the Chalice.

Then joining his hands which he places on the edge of the Altar and inclining moderately, he says, In the spirit of humility, and with a contrite heart, let us be accepted of Thee, O Lord; and so let our Sacrifice be offered in Thy Sight this day, that it may be well-pleasing unto Thee, O Lord God. Raising himself and lifting his eyes, he extends his hands and raises them but immediately rejoins them before his breast and lowering his eyes, says, Come, O Sanctifier, Almighty, Eternal God, and bl+ess this Sacrifice prepared for Thy Holy Name. At the word bless, he makes the Sign of the Cross over the Host and Chalice together, with his right hand, the left being placed on the Altar outside the Corporal.

Then with hands joined, he proceeds to the Epistle side, to the edge of the predella, and standing there, washes his thumbs and forefingers with the water which the Server pours upon them, saying meanwhile the Psalm Lavabo, which he continues while drying his fingers:—

I will wash my hands in innocency, O Lord: and so will I go to Thine Altar.
That I may shew the voice of thanksgiving: and tell of all Thy wondrous works.
Lord, I have loved the habitation of Thy house: and the place where Thine honour dwelleth.
O shut not up my soul with the sinners: nor my life with the bloodthirsty;
In whose hands is wickedness: and their right hand is full of gifts.
But as for me
, I will walk innocently: O deliver me, and be merciful unto me.
My foot standeth right: I will praise the Lord in the congregations.
Glory be
, &c. As it was, &c.

Having returned the towel to the Server, the Priest turns to the Altar and finishes the Psalm, making an inclination to the Cross at the Gloria Patri, he then returns to the middle of the Altar, saying As it was, &c. (In Requiems, and in Services of the Season from Passion Sunday inclusive to Holy Saturday exclusive, the Gloria Patri is omitted.) Having arrived there, he first raises his eyes and lowering them immediately, places his hands joined upon the edge of the Altar and bowing slightly, says, Receive, O Holy Trinity, this Oblation, which we offer unto Thee, in memory of the Passion, Resurrection and Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ: and in honour of Blessed Mary Ever-Virgin, of Blessed John the Baptist, of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, of these and all Saints: that it may avail to their honour, and to our salvation: and let them, whose memory we celebrate on earth, vouchsafe to intercede for us in Heaven. Through the Same Christ our Lord. Amen. Having finished the prayer, he places his hands upon the Altar which he kisses in the middle. Then with hands joined he turns by his right towards the people and extending his hands, says, Brethren, pray. Joining his hands, he completes the circle by turning again to the Altar, by his right, towards the Gospel side, saying in the meantime that this my Sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty. The Server responds The Lord receive the Sacrifice at thy hands, to the praise and glory of His Name, to our benefit and that of all His Holy Church. The Priest then softly adds Amen.

Standing in the middle of the Altar with hands extended, he reads the Secrets in the same order and in the same number as the Collects but without prefixing Let us pray. If there be many Secrets he himself says Amen at the end of the first; if there be but one, or at the end of the last Secret, he says world without end in an audible voice, so that the Server may respond Amen.

[page 37]

Then extending and immediately rejoining his hands, he says Let us pray for the whole state, &c., without turning to the people. The Prayer is said in the usual manner with hands extended and without any pauses.

Turning by the right, the Priest will say the Ye that do truly, &c., facing the people and with joined hands; at its conclusion, he turns again to the Altar, by his left, for the Confession, during which he remains standing.

After the Confession, he turns as before to the people and says the Absolution with hands joined but having said Have mercy upon you, he places his left hand upon his breast and with his right hand extended, makes the Sign of the Cross towards the people at the words pardon and deliver you. In making the Sign of the Cross all the fingers should be joined, the little finger being turned towards the people. Keeping his hand quite straight the Priest raises it and draws a straight line from his eyes to his breast, again raising it to the level of his shoulders he draws another line, crossing the first line, transversely from left to right and then joins his hands as before.

The Comfortable Words are said with hands joined and then the Priest extending his hands as usual, says, The Lord be with you, to which the Server responds, And with thy spirit; then he raises and extends his hands to the width of his breast, the palms being turned towards each other and says, Lift up your hearts. R/. We lift them up, &c. Rejoining his hands before his breast, the Priest says Let us give thanks unto our Lord God, raising his eyes at the concluding words, but immediately lowering them and inclining his head while the Server responds, It is meet and right so to do. After this he turns to the Altar by his left, stretches out his hands as before, and goes on to read the Preface; after the word saying, he joins his hands before his breast and bowing moderately, continues the Sanctus. Raising his body, he makes the Sign of the Cross upon himself, saying Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the Highest. He then kneels down and says the Prayer of Humble Access.

V. From the Canon until after the Consecration.[11]

Standing erect in the middle of the Altar, the Celebrant extends and slightly raises his hands, raising his eyes at the same time, and then immediately lowering them; he rejoins his hands and places them upon the edge of the Altar and inclining profoundly, commences the Te igitur which is said secretly. Having said the words we most humbly pray and beseech, he kisses the Altar in the middle, then joining his hands before his breast, he continues the prayer and at the words these + Gifts, these + Offerings, these Holy + and unspotted Sacrifices, he makes three Signs of the Cross with his right hand over the Chalice and Host conjointly, his left hand being placed upon the Altar, outside the Corporal. He then extends his hands before his breast and raising them to the height of his shoulders, proceeds with the prayer until he arrives at the Commemoration of the Living, when he raises his hands slightly, to the height of his chin, and joins them for a short time, while, with head slightly inclined, he makes a mental or verbal commemoration of the persons for whom he wishes to pray. Having done this, he extends his hands as before and continues until he arrives at the conclusion Through the Same, &c., when he joins his hands as usual.

On commencing This Oblation, &c., he extends his two hands over the Host and Chalice together, so that, the thumbs being joined in the usual manner, the palms of the hands are turned towards the Host and Chalice, and they are retained in this position until the words Through Christ our Lord, when they are closed without being first disjoined. During the next prayer, at the words bless+ed, approv+ed, ratifi+ed, three Signs of the Cross are made over the Chalice and Host together and at the word Bo+dy, a single Sign of the Cross is made over the Host alone, and at the word Blo+od, a like Sign over the Chalice [page 38] alone; these Signs are made with the right hand, the left being placed on the Altar outside the Corporal.

Having made the Sign of the Cross for the fifth time he raises and joins his hands, extending them again when commencing the prayer, Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, but if there be Hosts to be consecrated in a Ciborium, he will first uncover it and place it in advance of the Chalice, to the right of the Host on the Corporal. Before saying Who in the same night, the hands will be joined before the breast and then the Celebrant, having, if necessary, lightly rubbed the thumb and forefinger of each hand on the sides of the Corporal, will take hold of the large Host with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand and also with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand and lift it slightly above the Corporal at the words took Bread; he raises his eyes for a moment, and then with his right hand makes a little Sign of the Cross over the Host which, in the meantime, is held between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand.

As he says He brake it, he will make a very slight rent in the Host from the bottom upwards and then, without making any pause, he continues and gave it to His Disciples saying, Take, eat, meanwhile laying his right hand for a moment on the Ciborium or upon the other Particles that are on the Corporal. At the word eat the Priest holding the large Host with the thumb and forefinger of both hands, will lean forward care­fully and resting his elbows upon the Altar (outside the Corporal, if possible) and inclining his head slightly, will recite in a low voice with particular distinctness, attention and reverence the words THIS IS MY BODY WHICH IS GIVEN FOR YOU, both over the Host which he holds and over all the others which are to be consecrated.

When the Priest has pronounced the words of Consecration, he stands erect; withdrawing his elbows from the Altar but leaving on it his hands as far as the wrists and still retaining the Host in the same manner as before, he continues Do this in remembrance of Me, and at once genuflects and adores. Then rising and keeping his eyes fixed on the Host, he reverently elevates It as far as he conveniently can, that It may be seen by the people. He lowers It slowly and, with his right hand, places It upon the Corporal in the same position as before. Then with his hands upon the Altar, the thumb and forefinger of each hand being joined and resting on the Corporal, he again kneels and without inclining his head, adores the Blessed Sacrament. On rising, if there be a Ciborium he puts on the cover with his right hand and replaces it behind the Chalice but without disjoining the thumb and forefinger, which should be kept united until the Ablution of the fingers, except when it is necessary to touch or to hold the Host.

The Priest next uncovers the Chalice, holding the foot with his left hand he removes the Pall with the first and middle fingers of his right hand and places it on the Veil. Next, he lightly rubs the thumb and forefinger of each hand over the Chalice to remove any fragments that may have adhered to them, saying at the same time Likewise after supper. At the words took the Cup, he takes the Chalice in both hands by the knob, in such a manner that the thumb, the forefinger and the little finger of each hand may be in front and the two other fingers at the back, he raises it three or four inches above the Corporal and then replaces it at once, but without leaving hold of it.

Saying had given thanks, he bows his head and retaining hold of the Chalice with his left hand as before, makes the Sign of the Cross over it with his right and then goes on to say He gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of This, during which he takes the Chalice with his right hand, the thumb and forefinger joined being placed above the knob and the other three fingers below, and supporting the foot with his left hand, the thumb and forefinger being above and the other three fingers below.

Then inclining a little and resting his elbows on the edge of the Altar, he raises the Chalice slightly above the Corporal and holding it perfectly [page 39] upright, says attentively and reverently, in a low voice and without any pause, THIS IS MY BLOOD ...... REMISSION OF SINS. The words of Consecration concluded, he replaces the Chalice upon the Corporal saying Do this &c., and genuflecting, adores the Sacred Blood. Rising, and taking the Chalice as before, the right hand upon the knob and the left hand on the foot, he elevates it slowly in a perfectly straight line, high enough above his head that the Cup may be seen by the people. He brings it down slowly and replaces it on the Corporal; retaining his left hand upon the foot, he covers the Chalice with the Pall, with his right hand, and then once more genuflects and adores the Blessed Sacrament.

The Priest must be careful during the elevation to keep his eyes intently fixed upon the Chalice, both when raising and when lowering it again, and on this and all like occasions he must guard against the Maniple coming into contact with the Sacred Host.

VI. From the Consecration to the Communion of the People.

Standing upright, the Priest with hands extended before his breast, proceeds secretly Wherefore, O Lord, &c. At the words Thine own gifts, he joins his hands, then laying his left hand on the Corporal, he makes with his right hand three Signs of the Cross over the Host and Chalice conjointly, while saying a Pure + Sacrifice, a Holy + Sacrifice, a Spotless + Sacrifice; he then makes one over the Host alone at the Holy + Bread of Eternal Life and one over the Chalice alone at the words and the Cup + of Everlasting Salvation. Then extending his hands he continues the prayer; at the words We most humbly beseech Thee, he bows profoundly and joins his hands, placing them joined upon the Altar, in the manner before explained, until the words partakers at this Altar, when he places his hands as far as the wrists upon the Altar and extends the palms upon the Corporal but near the sides and kisses the Altar in the midst. Raising himself, he rejoins his hands and makes a Sign of the Cross over the Host at the word Bo+dy, another over the Chalice at the word Blo+od and a third upon himself at the words heavenly Bene+diction and then rejoins his hands before his breast.

When commencing the Commemoration of the Departed, he extends his hands, then joins them slowly and raises them to his face, pausing for a few moments while, with eyes fixed on the Blessed Sacrament, he silently prays for those he especially desires to remember, as in the Commemoration of the Living. At the words To these, O Lord, he extends his hands as before, rejoining them and bowing his head at Through the Same Christ, our Lord. Amen.

Then the Priest standing erect, lays his left hand on the Corporal and with the three last fingers of his right hand strikes his breast, while saying To us also Thy sinful servants so as to be heard by the Server; then extending his hands he continues the prayer. At Through Christ, our Lord he again joins his hands but after the words dost ever create all these good things, he places his left hand on the Corporal and with his right makes three Signs of the Cross over the Host and Chalice together, at the words sancti+fy, quick+en, bl+ess; saying, and bestow them upon us, he uncovers the Chalice, puts the Pall on the Corporal as usual and then genuflects and adores the Blessed Sacrament. Rising, he takes the Host between the thumb and fore­finger of the right hand and holding the knob of the Chalice with his left hand, he makes within the Chalice, from rim to rim without touching the edges, three Signs of the Cross with the Host, saying, By + Him and with + Him and in + Him. At the words O God the Father + Almighty, in the Unity of the Holy + Ghost, he makes two other Signs of the Cross between the Chalice and himself and then placing the Host directly over the Chalice and resting the thumb and forefinger on the rim, he raises the Chalice with his left hand about three inches above the Corporal, saying at the same time all honour and glory. After this, he at once replaces the Chalice and Host in their previous positions, slightly rubs together his thumbs and forefingers over the Chalice, joins them as before, covers the Chalice with the Pall and then makes a genuflection. Rising and extending his [page 40] hands on either side upon the Corporal, he says world without end. The Server having responded, Amen, the Priest joins his hands and bows his head saying Let us pray, he then raises his head and continues Instructed by, &c. Throughout the LORD's Prayer he extends his hands and keeps his eyes fixed upon the Blessed Sacrament.

The Server says But deliver us from evil and the Priest softly responds Amen, and then with his right hand takes the Paten from under the Corporal and, holding it between the first and second fingers of the left hand, wipes it with the Purificator which he then lays on the Altar to the right of the Corporal. Taking the Paten between the first and second fingers of the right hand, he holds it upright on the Altar, outside the Corporal, the front being turned towards the Host and his hand being above the Paten and says the prayer Deliver us, his left hand meanwhile being placed upon the Corporal. At the words Graciously grant peace, &c., he makes on himself the Sign of the Cross with the Paten, and then kisses the Paten near the edge where it is held with the fingers: he then places it under the Host, not by the side but by the lower part, employing the forefinger of his left hand to conduct It to the centre of the Paten, which he places on the front fold of the Corporal with its edge resting upon the foot of the Chalice. After this he uncovers the Chalice, genuflects and then rising, pushes the Host with the forefinger of his left hand towards the right, takes It with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, holds It over the Chalice, where he also holds It with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand and there reverently breaks It in half, beginning at the top, while saying Through the Same Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our Lord. He then lays the half held in the right hand upon the Paten and holding the other half over the Chalice breaks off a small Particle from the bottom, saying, Who liveth and reigneth with Thee; he holds the small Particle with the right hand over the Chalice while placing the larger portion of the Host in the left hand near the other, previously laid on the Paten, and says, in the Unity of the Holy Ghost, ever One God. The Priest then takes the Chalice by the knob with the left hand and still holding the Particle over it says, world without end.

The Server responds, Amen and the Priest says, The Peace + of the Lord be + always with + you, making three Signs of the Cross within the Chalice from rim to rim with the small Particle of the Host. The Server having responded And with thy spirit, the Priest lets the Particle fall into the Chalice by the side at which he will communicate, saying, Let this commixture, &c.; he rubs his fingers over the Chalice, covers it with the Pall and makes a genuflection.

Rising and inclining moderately, his hands being joined before his breast he says the Agnus Dei, striking his breast lightly with the three last fingers of his right hand at the words have mercy upon us, again at the second have mercy upon us, and a third time at grant us Thy peace: in the meantime the left hand is to be placed on the Corporal. Then bowing down, joining his hands and placing the fingers on the edge of the Altar, he recites the three following prayers keeping his eyes fixed upon the Blessed Sacrament. (In Requiems, the first of these three prayers, that for Unity, is omitted, and the Priest does not strike his breast during the Agnus).

At the end of the three prayers, the Priest genuflects and adores the Blessed Sacrament, then while rising says, I will receive, &c., and slightly inclining he takes both halves of the Host between the thumb and forefinger of his left hand and the Paten between the same forefinger and the middle one and raises both slightly above the Corporal: then bending forward a little, but without resting upon the Altar, he strikes his breast three times with the three last fingers of his right hand while thrice saying, humbly and devoutly, Lord, I am not worthy, &c.

Standing erect, he takes the two parts of the Host between the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, keeping in his left hand the Paten alone and holding it about three or four inches above the Corporal. Saying, The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, he raises the Host to a level with his eyes and then lowers It in a straight line towards the Paten: raising the Host a little in order to cross this first line about the middle, he makes another line from left to right, at the same [page 41] time saying, preserve my soul unto everlasting life. Amen.

After signing himself, he inclines moderately and placing his elbows on the Altar, reverently receives the Communion. Standing upright, he lays the Paten on the Corporal, resting it on the foot of the Chalice and then places his hands together in front of his face and remains for a few moments in meditation.

After this he lowers his hands, places the left on the Corporal or on the foot of the Chalice and with the right uncovers the Chalice, while he says, What reward shall I give unto the Lord, &c. He genuflects, rises, and takes the Paten with the first and second fingers of the left hand and then takes the Chalice by the knob, between the first and second fingers of the right hand, saying, I will receive the Cup of Salvation, &c. If there be any fragments of the Sacred Host remaining on the Corporal or the Paten, the Priest will first be careful to collect the same and then place them in the Chalice by holding the Paten nearly flat over the Chalice with the left hand while he removes the fragments with the thumb and forefinger of his right hand. Then holding the Chalice in his right hand and retaining the Paten in his left, resting upon the Corporal, he makes the Sign of the Cross with the Chalice, by first raising it so that the upper part may be level with his forehead, and then lowering it in a straight line, saying, The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ; raising the Chalice a little, he makes a transverse line from left to right, to cross the first line, and says, preserve my soul unto everlasting life. Amen.

Having signed himself, he brings the Chalice to his mouth and holding the Paten under his chin, he reverently receives the Precious Blood together with the Particle of the Host, while still standing erect. The Priest ought to avoid holding the Chalice so high as to compel him to throw back his head, when receiving the Precious Blood or the Ablutions.

Having communicated, he replaces his left hand, holding the Paten on the Altar and puts down the Chalice in its place, first passing his lips over the edge to dry it and then covers it with the Pall and puts down the Paten on the Corporal. Having made a genuflection, if there be Particles in a Ciborium he brings it forward and places it in the middle of the Corporal, where he uncovers it, placing the cover on the Corporal, or if the Particles be on the Corporal he collects and places them on the Paten, he then genuflects again.

Rising, he takes the Paten between the first and other fingers of the left hand, or if there be a Ciborium, he takes it with the same fingers by the knob; then he takes a Particle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand and raises It a little over the Paten or Ciborium and turns by his right until he faces the Communicants. He then says, Behold the Lamb of God, &c., and Lord, I am not worthy, &c., the latter being repeated three times.

After the third repetition, he begins to descend the steps by the middle; arrived at the bottom of the steps, he approaches the Communicants and commences with those on the Epistle side. If Clerics in Surplice and Stole communicate, they should kneel on the top step; other persons on the lowest step or at the rails. The Communicants should be instructed to come into the Chancel and to take their places while the Priest is making his own Communion and not to wait until he turns towards them.

Before giving Communion, the Priest will make each time a Sign of the Cross with the Particle, above the Paten or Ciborium, taking care not to exceed the limits of either and at the same time says The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ. He then places the Particle in the palm of the right hand of the Communicant, laid upon the left, and completes the formula. If the Particles are carried on the Paten, the Priest must be very careful to hold it perfectly straight and not to move too quickly or in turning sharply, the least breath of wind may cause some of the Particles to fall to the ground; if there be many, it is a prudent plan to keep the thumb and forefinger of the left hand on the Particles. The Priest should hold the Particle by the lower edge with the thumb and forefinger of his right hand and in delivering It should so bend his wrist as to place It perfectly flat on the palm of the recipient.

The Priest will neither genuflect to the Blessed Sacrament nor bow in passing [page 42] by the middle of the Altar when giving Communion.

When the first row have communicated, the Priest re-ascends to the Altar, keeping the thumb and forefinger of his right hand over the Paten or Ciborium, which he then replaces on the Corporal, and covers, first making a genuflection.[12] Uncovering the Chalice, he again makes a genuflection, then taking it by the knob with the right hand and holding the foot with his left, he proceeds to communicate the people as before. He must be careful that all receive from the same part, and to prevent risk it is undesirable to give the Chalice entirely into the hands of the Communicants. Before delivering the Chalice, the Priest will each time make with it the Sign of the Cross, but this should be done very gently and with the utmost care, especially if the Chalice be at all nearly filled.

VII. From the Communion to the End of the Service.

The Communion over, the Priest again ascends to the Altar and replaces the Chalice on the Corporal, covering it with the Pall, but first passing his lips over the edge to dry it; having made a genuflection, he proceeds to reverently consume any Particles there may be remaining on the Paten or in the Ciborium, then holding the Paten with the first and second fingers of the left hand, he uncovers and takes the Chalice by the knob with the right and reverently consumes what may remain of the Sacred Species, holding the Paten under his chin as when he made his Communion.

The Priest will then place the Chalice on the Corporal, with his left hand hold over it the Paten or Ciborium, and with the forefinger of his right hand carefully remove any fragments that may adhere to the surface or sides, and let them fall gently into the Chalice.

If the Hosts have been on the Corporal he must take the Paten between the first and second fingers of the right hand, and raising the Corporal slightly with the same fingers of the left, pass the Paten lightly over the surface so as to collect upon it, with the edge, any fragments that may remain, and these he then places in the Chalice in the manner before described.

He covers the Chalice,[13] makes a genuflection and then says the LORD's Prayer and one of the two prayers following.

If the Gloria in Excelsis be said, the Priest first extends his hands in front, then raises them to the height of his shoulders, without elevating his eyes, and says aloud at the same time, Glory be to God on high. At the word God he bows slightly to the Cross and then rejoins his hands, which remain joined to the end. He also bows moderately at (i) worship Thee, (ii) we give thanks to Thee, (iii) Jesu Christ, and (iv) receive our prayer; at the words with the Holy Ghost, &c., he makes the Sign of the Cross upon himself, rejoining his hands while saying Amen.

Bowing moderately, with hands joined on the edge of the Altar, he says the prayer, O most Holy Trinity, &c.

Then he lays his hands extended on the Altar (the thumbs and forefingers joined being placed on the Corporal on either side) and kisses it in the middle; having raised himself up and rejoined his hands, he says, The Peace of God .... Jesus Christ our Lord; at the words Jesus Christ he bows his head to the Cross, then he lifts his eyes and extends, raises and rejoins his hands, [page 43] saying at the same time, And the Blessing of God Almighty; at the word God he genuflects[14] and rising, turns towards the people, but in such a manner that he does not turn his back upon the Blessed Sacrament. Placing his left hand extended on his breast, he makes with his right hand the Sign of the Cross over the people, saying slowly, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, &c. At the word Amen, having rejoined his hands, he turns by his left to the Altar and first uncovering the Chalice, makes a genuflection.

Then taking the Paten in his left hand, and resting it on the Corporal, he presents the Chalice to the Server, holding it over the Altar but without resting it thereon, so as to receive the wine for the first Ablution, saying at the same time, Grant, O Lord, that what we have received, &c. If the Server be too small to reach above the Altar, the Chalice may be presented in front of the Altar. Sufficient wine must be taken to make it possible for the Priest, by turning the Chalice gently from side to side to pass it over all the parts, which have been in contact with the Precious Blood.

If it has been impossible to remove all the fragments from the Ciborium with the forefinger, the Priest must present the Ciborium to the Server and receive therein a little wine, which he will pass all round to detach the frag­ments, using the forefinger of the right hand if necessary, and then pour this wine into the Chalice so that he may receive it with what is there already, but he first carefully dries the Ciborium with the Purificator and places it on the Altar, outside the Corporal.[15]

Then he receives the Ablution at that part of the Chalice which has been used in the Communion, holding the Paten under his chin as before.

The Priest then places the Chalice in the middle of the front part of the Corporal and the Paten on the Corporal, towards the Gospel side.

Placing the thumbs and forefingers of each hand, still joined, over the Chalice and holding the Cup itself with his other fingers, he carries it to the Epistle side and resting it, if possible, upon the Altar, there receives from the Server wine first[16] and then water over his thumbs and forefingers. He rubs his thumbs and fingers together so as to effectually remove any fragments that may adhere and holding the Chalice in the same manner, carries it back towards the centre and places it on the Altar between the Corporal and the Purificator. He next gently shakes his fingers over the Chalice and taking the Purificator with his right hand, places it over the fingers of his left, while they are still over the Chalice, and wipes them all together, saying in the meantime, May Thy Body, O Lord, &c. Having dried his fingers and arrived at the middle of the Altar, he takes the Chalice with his right hand and holding the Puri­ficator under his chin with his left hand, receives the Ablution.

Depositing the Chalice in the middle of the Corporal, he wipes his lips and then the Chalice with the Purificator, which he then spreads over the Chalice: he places the Paten on the Purificator and the Pall over the Paten.

Putting the Chalice outside the Corporal, on the Gospel side, he folds the Corporal, beginning with the front part, and places it in the Burse, which he takes with his right hand and holds open in the middle of the Altar. Covering the Chalice with the Veil, he places upon it the Burse and then removes it to the middle of the Altar, where he places it as at the commencement of the Service.

Then with hands joined he makes an inclination to the Cross and proceeds to the Epistle side, where he reads the Communion with hands joined before his breast; he returns to the middle of the Altar, places his hands upon it, kisses it in the middle and turning to the people, says, The Lord be with you, with hands extended and then joined as usual. After this he returns to the Epistle side, where he reads the Post Communions one or more, in the same number and order and in the same manner as the Collects before the Epistle.

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The Post Communions finished, he closes the Book[17] with his right hand in such a manner that the opening is towards the left, then turning by his left he proceeds to the Gospel side, where he says with hands joined, The Lord be with you. The Server having responded, And with thy spirit, the Priest makes the Sign of the Cross with his thumb on the Altar, or on the Book, and then on his forehead, mouth and breast, saying, The beginning of the Holy Gospel according to S. John.[18] The Server responds, Glory be to Thee, O Lord, and the Priest then reads the Gospel, with his hands joined. At the words And the Word was made flesh, he places his hands on the Altar and makes a genuflection towards the Gospel side. Rising, he rejoins his hands and concludes the Gospel, the Server responding at the end Thanks be to God.

Without kissing the Book or the Altar Card, the Priest returns to the middle of the Altar, makes an inclination to the Cross, raises part of the Veil which covers the Chalice, and turns it over the Burse, then taking the Chalice by the knob with his left hand and placing his right upon the Burse, to prevent any­thing falling, he turns by his right and descends the steps a little towards the Gospel side. Arrived at the foot of the steps, he turns towards the Altar and makes a profound inclination,[19] then receiving his Biretta from the Server he covers his head and returns to the Sacristy in the manner in which he left it, reciting as he goes the Benedicite. Arrived at the Sacristy, he makes an inclination to the Cross, sets down the Chalice, uncovers his head and takes off the Vestments in the reverse order to that in which he put them on, kissing those which he had kissed before.

Afterwards, without speaking to anyone, he goes to make his thanksgiving, and on returning, unless some proper person be charged with the duty, should at once, carefully put away the Sacred Vessels and Vestments.

In conclusion, "Let the Priest's whole deportment and his pronunciation of the words be so reverent and devout as to mark the faith and fixed attention which all Christians ought to have for the Presence of CHRIST and of the Holy Angels at the Sacrifice."

VIII. Notes for the Server.

The Server should be vested in Cassock and Surplice.

His first duty is to see that the Altar is duly prepared, the cover removed, and the book desk and Cards placed thereon in proper position. The Wine and Water Cruets, the box or canister with the breads, and the dish and towel for the Lavabo being all in readiness on the Credence, he will proceed to light the Candles, vide p. 2.

He then returns to the Sacristy and assists the Celebrant to wash his hands and, if it be the custom, to vest; if so, he kisses the Amice, the Maniple and the Stole by the Cross, as he presents them.[20] He must take care that the Alb hangs equally on all sides.

The Priest being ready to enter the Church, the Server takes the Missal with both hands at the lower part, on either side, and holds it straight before his breast, the opening being towards his left; he must be careful not to disarrange the markers.

Making a reverence to the Cross in the Sacristy and then to the Priest, he precedes him into the Church.

Arrived at the steps of the Altar, he moves a little to the right to permit the Priest to come to the centre, he salutes him and receives the Biretta with his right hand, drawing it towards his lips as though to kiss it. He then turns, and [page 45] with the Celebrant makes the proper reverence to the Altar, afterwards placing the Biretta on the Credence or Sedilia, then he places the Missal on the book desk or cushion, with the opening of the Book towards the centre, but without opening it.

He descends to the pavement and kneels with hands joined, at the side of the Celebrant, on that side which is opposite to the Missal. Then alternately with the Celebrant, he says the Antiphon, Psalm Judica, Confession, &c., taking care to make his responses slowly and in a low but clear voice.

He bows his head when the Priest says the Confession, and at the end, turning toward him, responds, May Almighty God have mercy upon thee, forgive thee thy sins, and bring thee to everlasting life. The Priest says Amen, and the Server, being still inclined, at once says the Confession, turning towards the Priest at the words you father, and striking his breast gently three times with his right hand at the words my fault, &c. He remains inclined till after the Priest has said May Almighty God, &c., to which he responds Amen, and then raises himself and makes the Sign of the Cross, with the Priest, at the words May the Almighty and Merciful Lord, &c., to which he again responds, Amen. He bows moderately at Wilt Thou not turn again, &c., and remains in the same position until the Priest is about to ascend to the Altar, when he stands and raises the Vestments slightly in front with his right hand.

The Priest having arrived at the Altar, the Server kneels, with his hands joined, on the lowest step, with his face towards the Altar and near the extremity on the side opposite to that on which is the Missal. He remains in this position, making the necessary responses in a distinct voice, until the end of the Epistle, unless it be necessary before the Collect of the Day to remove the Book to the Epistle side of the Altar, in which case he will rise to do so at the last clause of the Prayer for the Queen.

After the Epistle, the Server responds, Thanks be to God, he then rises and proceeds to the right of the Celebrant, where he remains, with face towards the Altar, until the conclusion of the Gradual or Tract, he then removes the Book to the Gospel side of the Altar, placing it so that the opening be turned somewhat towards the centre. Standing a little apart from the Altar, at the left of the Priest, and turned towards him, the Server waits until the Priest announces the Gospel, and then makes the Sign of the Cross, with his thumb, upon his forhead, mouth and breast; rejoining his hands, he says, Glory be to Thee, O Lord, then returns at once to the Epistle side and stands below the steps. The Server will always pass from one side of the Altar to the other below the steps, or, at least, below the predella,[21] and will take care in passing the centre to turn and make the proper reverence to the Altar or to the Blessed Sacrament. He turns towards the Celebrant during the Gospel, at the Name of JESUS makes an inclination of the head, and at the end says, Praise be to Thee, O Christ. If the Priest makes a genuflection during the Gospel, the Server will do likewise.

Then, whether the Creed is said or not, he kneels at once[22] and remains so until the Offertory, when he stands, makes the proper reverence in the centre, collects the Alms and presents them to the Priest, then proceeds to the Credence and prepares the Cruets. Standing, if possible, below the predella, he first brings to the Priest the breads, and then spreads the napkin on the Altar at the Epistle side and places upon it the dish with the Cruets, from which the stoppers have been previously removed or opened. He will take the Wine Cruet with his right hand, kiss it, and inclining his head to the Priest, present it to him. He then takes the Water Cruet in his right hand and receives back the Wine Cruet with his left, and kisses it as before. He kisses but retains the Water Cruet until the water has been blessed, and then presents it to the Priest in precisely the same manner as the Wine Cruet; he receives it [page 46] again from the Priest, with his right hand and kisses it, and then replaces the Wine Cruet on the Credence. Whenever the Priest and the Altar are vested in black all kisses are to be omitted.

The Server returns to the Altar and adjusts the napkin so that it can be readily taken up, then holding the dish in the left hand and the Water Cruet in his right, he stands below the predella at the end, and when the Celebrant comes, first kisses the Cruet and then pours the water gently over his fingers. When he has received the napkin from the Priest he kisses it, makes an inclination of the head and retires to the Credence, where he deposits the Cruet, &c., and arranges everything in order.

It is sometimes inconvenient or undesirable to place the dish with the Cruets on the Altar, in that case the Server leaves the dish and the napkin on the Credence until he returns there with the Cruets, then he places the napkin over his left arm, and taking the dish in his left hand and the Water Cruet in his right, proceeds as already directed.

Having arranged the Credence, the Server returns to the step and kneels on the Epistle side. When the Priest has said Brethren, pray, &c., he responds The Lord receive the Sacrifice at thy hands, to the praise and glory of His Name, to our benefit and that of all His Holy Church, to which the Priest adds Amen. If it should happen that when the Priest begins Brethren, pray, the Server has not returned to his step, he should kneel, at once, on the lowest step near the Credence and make the response. After the Exhortation, he says the Confession, and in the Absolution, makes the Sign of the Cross upon himself, at the words pardon and deliver you.

At the Sanctus he inclines moderately and rings the bell three times. At the Benedictus he makes the Sign of the Cross upon himself.

In the Canon, at the words Who in the same night the Server should rise and kneel on the top step, a little to the right of the Priest, being careful to bring the bell with him. Just before the Elevation, he will take the Chasuble with his left hand raising it slightly as the Priest makes the Elevations but not holding it while he genuflects. At each Elevation he rings the bell three times, first, when the Priest genuflects after the Consecration; secondly, when he elevates the Sacred Species; and thirdly, when he is again about to genuflect.

During the Elevations, the Server will bow in profound adoration.

At the Agnus Dei, except in Requiems, he strikes his breast at the same time as the Priest.

When the Priest is about to communicate himself with the Sacred Blood, the Server will rise (unless he is himself to communicate[23]), make a genuflection, take the bell to the Credence and then kneel, parallel with the top step of the Altar, facing sideways, and not towards the East, in case he should turn his back upon the Blessed Sacrament while the Priest is communicating the people.

When all have communicated, the Server proceeds to the centre makes a genuflection and then kneels as before on the lowest step at the Epistle side.[24]

During the Gloria in Excelsis, he will make the usual inclinations and, at the end, the Sign of the Cross at the same time as the Priest.

He remains kneeling until after the Blessing, during which he makes the Sign of the Cross upon himself, then rises, goes to the centre, makes a genuflec­tion and proceeds to the Credence.

Taking the Cruets, the wine in the right and the water in the left hand, he goes to the Altar, and remaining, if possible, on the step below the predella, pours into the Chalice, when the Priest offers it to him, a sufficient quantity of wine, bowing to the Priest before and after. When the Priest again [page 47] presents the Chalice he pours first, a little wine over his fingers and then, a much larger quantity of water, bowing as before. Then the Server returns to the Credence and replaces the Cruets. He moves the Book to the Epistle corner, in readiness for the Priest to read the Communion and Post Communions, and then goes to kneel on the Gospel side.

If the Priest does not close the Book, the Server must move it to the Gospel corner.

During the Last Gospel he will stand, as usual, at the Epistle side, although the Book may then be on that side. He makes the three Signs of the Cross at the announcement as at the first Gospel, says Glory be to Thee, O Lord, turns towards the Priest, genuflects with him at And the Word was made flesh, and responds at the conclusion, Thanks be to God. He then takes the Missal from the stand, carries it as before, fetches the Biretta and stands at the bottom of the steps, a little to the right of the centre. When the Priest has descended he makes with him the proper reverence to the Altar, then kisses the Biretta and presents it with his right hand to the Priest, turns and precedes him to the Sacristy.

Arrived at the Sacristy, he steps a little aside and as the Priest passes, salutes him and then turns and with him makes an inclination to the Cross of the Sacristy. He puts down the Missal and standing at the left of the Priest, assists him to unvest, kissing the Stole, Maniple and Amice as he receives them. He then proceeds to the Altar and extinguishes the Candles, removes the desk and the Cards, covers the Altar, and brings back the Cruets, &c., which he puts into their proper places. Removing his Cassock and Surplice, he salutes the Priest and retires to the Church to say a short prayer before leaving.

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Appendix

Additional Notes.

A. Of the Sacred Vestments.

FOLDED CHASUBLES are worn, in place of the Dalmatic and Tunicle, by the Deacon and Sub-deacon in Cathedrals and principal Churches during Advent and Lent and at certain other times. They are of the same character, but usually somewhat plainer and smaller than the Chasuble of the Celebrant. They are folded outside and not turned up underneath. A large stole should also be provided for the Deacon, for use on the same occasions. It is broader but shorter than the ordinary Stole and without any Crosses. Folded Chasubles and large Stole are only needed with the violet set of Vestments.

The HUMERAL VEIL is required for the Sub-deacon. It should be 7 ft. 10 in. long, exclusive of the fringe, and 3 ft. wide; the fringe at the ends should be similar to that on the Stole and Maniple; some sacred emblem or monogram may be embroidered in the centre. The Veil should be of the same colour and material as the set of Vestments to which it belongs, and be lined throughout with plain silk. A black Veil will not be required.

B. Of the Feast of the Purification.

If the Second of February be Septuagesima or one of the following Sundays, the Blessing of Candles and the Procession will take place as usual (vide p. 9). The Deacon and Sub-deacon assist in albis or wear folded Chasubles, but at the Holy Eucharist which follows, should wear violet Dalmatic and Tunicle as usual; these should, therefore, be placed in readiness on the Sedilia, as well as Maniples of the same colour.

C. Of Processions.

The Cross of an Archbishop is entirely distinct from a Processional Cross. It should not be carried at the head of a Procession but immediately in front of the Archbishop, with the Figure turned towards him. It is never carried or held by the Archbishop himself but is held or borne before him; in his own diocese, in addition to the Archepiscopal Cross, he will use the Crosier or Pastoral Staff; this he will carry in his left hand, unless unable to do so from fatigue or infirmity.

A Bishop should not use the Crosier or Pastoral Staff, except he be vested in Chasuble or Cope, or at least, in a Stole, with the Mitre.

D. Of the Office Hymns.

The publication of the OFFICE HYMN BOOK (Pickering) renders it possible to use the ancient Office Hymn, with its own proper melody, on all occasions, and the Editors have thought it desirable to give the subjoined Tables which show the proper Office Hymn for each day in the year. The ancient Versicles and Responses at the end of the Hymns are also provided, and by restoring the Office Hymn to its original and more dignified position in the Service, the old order will be complete, viz., Chapter, Office Hymn, V/., R/., Antiphon, Benedictus or Magnificat, Antiphon, Preces and Collect.

Although the Service may not be chorally rendered, the Office Hymn should not be omitted but should be recited in monotone, like the Psalms and Canticles.

Two Hymns are given for Mattins, the first being that used in the ancient Office of Mattins and the second, at Lauds; the latter will be usually found the most appropriate, unless the Office be said at a very early hour.

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THE COMMON AND PROPER OF THE SEASONS.

MATTINS.

EVENSONG.

Daily throughout Advent

730 or 731

729

On * Christmas Day and vacant days until the Epiphany

733 or 734

733

On the * Epiphany and daily throughout the Octave
(Hymn 739 should not be used at Mattins on the Feast itself but only on the days within the Octave.)

739 or 740

739

From the day after the Octave of the Epiphany until the 1st Sunday in Lent:

   

On Sundays, when the Office is of the Sunday

701 or 702

709

On Mondays

711 or 712

713

On Tuesdays

714 or 715

716

On Wednesdays

717 or 718

719

On Thursdays

720 or 721

722

On Fridays

723 or 724

725

On Saturdays

726 or 727

728

On the * 1st Sunday in Lent and daily until Passion Sunday

742 or 743

741

On * Passion Sunday and daily until Maundy Thursday exclusive

745 or 746

744

On Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday

No Office

Hymns

On Easter Day and daily till the Eve of Low Sunday

747

747

From * Low Sunday until the Feast of the Ascension

750 or 751

749

On * Ascension Day and daily until Whitsun Eve

753 or 752

752

On * Whitsun Day and daily till the following Saturday

756 or 757

754

On * Trinity Sunday

759 or 760

758

On Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday after Trinity Sunday, the Office Hymns are as on the days after the Octave of the Epiphany

   

On * Corpus CHRISTI and daily throughout the Octave

763 or 764
(i & ii)--(i & ii)

762(i&ii)

After the Octave of Corpus CHRISTI and daily until Advent, the Office Hymns are as on the days after the Octave of the Epiphany, except that on Sundays the Office Hymn at Mattins until the Sunday nearest October 1st, is

703 or 704

 

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THE COMMON AND PROPER OF SAINTS.

MATTINS.

EVEN­SONG.

On all Feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary

810 or 811

808

——————— of Apostles and Evangelists

792 or 791

791

——————— of Apostles and Evangelists, from Easter till Trinity Sunday

793 or 794

793

——————— of Martyrs

795 or 796

795

——————— of Confessors

800 or 802

800

——————— of Confessors and Bishops

800 or 801

800

——————— of a Virgin

805 or 803

803

——————— of a Virgin and Martyr

804 or 803

803

——————— of Holy Women

807 or 806

806

——————— of the Dedication of a Church

812 or 813

812

The Hymns in the Common of Saints are used on all Festivals according to their class, with the exception of the following: —

   

Holy Innocents' Day

737 or 738

738

Conversion of S. Paul

765 or 791

765

Invention and Exaltation of the Holy Cross

745 or 746

744

Nativity of S. John Baptist

768 or 769

767

S. Peter (and S. Paul)

792 or 771

770

S. Mary Magdalene

774 or 775

773

S. Peter's Chains

778 or 779

777

Transfiguration of our LORD

780 or 781

780

Holy Name of JESUS

783 or 784

782

S. Michael and All Angels

785 or 787

785

All Saints' Day

788 or 790

788

The Hymn at the first Evensong of a Feast is always the same as at the second Evensong, but Simple Feasts have no second Evensong.

   

On Sundays within Octaves, the Office Hymns are those of the Sunday and not of the Feast, except on the Sundays within the Octaves of Christmas, Epiphany, Ascension and Corpus CHRISTI.

   

** At the first Evensong of Advent Sunday and of the days marked * the Office Hymn is the same as at the second Evensong.

E. Notes for the Server.

At a Low Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, according to present Western Use, the Celebrant on arriving at or leaving the Altar will make only a profound inclination, unless the Blessed Sacrament be reserved in the Tabernacle, but the Server is directed to make a genuflection at these times, and on all occasions when he has to pass the centre of the Altar,



[1] These are in addition to the waxed Cloth required to cover the consecrated stone.

[2] If S. Thomas of Canterbury be observed, Office Hymns at M. and E., H.N., 81; H.A.M., 442; P.H., 206.

[3] Unless the Patronal Festival happen to be that of S. Stephen, S. John, Holy Innocents, or S. Thomas of Canterbury in which case it would, of course, be observed with an Octave as usual.

[4] For fuller and more complete directions as to the Ritual and other arrangements at the Funeral Offices, the Editors beg to refer the reader to Requiem Services (Mowbray & Co., Oxford and London).

[5] A genuflection, if the Blessed Sacrament be reserved in the Tabernacle.

[6] A genuflection, if the Blessed Sacrament be reserved in the Tabernacle.

[7] It is usual during the Collects and other Prayers to hold the hands extended before the breast in such a manner that the palm of each is turned directly towards that of the other, the elbows touching the sides, the fingers united and extended; but not above the level of the shoulders. The hands are held in this position, (i) throughout the LORD's Prayer, (ii) from the Preface to the Sanctus, (iii) during the Canon when not otherwise ordered, and (iv) during all the other Prayers till the concluding sentence of each, which is said with the hands joined.

[8] The Commandments and Prayer for the Queen are usually omitted at Low Celebrations.

[9] It is usual during the Collects and other Prayers to hold the hands extended before the breast in such a manner that the palm of each is turned directly towards that of the other, the elbows touching the sides, the fingers united and extended; but not above the level of the shoulders. The hands are held in this position, (i) throughout the LORD's Prayer, (ii) from the Preface to the Sanctus, (iii) during the Canon when not otherwise ordered, and (iv) during all the other Prayers till the concluding sentence of each, which is said with the hands joined.

[10] If there be any Alms to be offered, the Priest receiving the dish or basin from the Server will humbly present them.

[11] For the private prayers of the Priest before and after the Consecration, &c., the Editors have followed the trans­lation given in Requiem Services. (Mowbray & Co., St. Aldate’s, Oxford.)

[12] It is unnecessary to cover the Paten or Ciborium or to make this genuflection when no Particles remain. It is improper to cover the Paten with a corner of the Corporal, the best plan appears to be to use the Pall for that purpose while the Priest is away from the Altar with the Chalice.

[13] Contrary to all ancient rule and to any other known Use, the Prayer Book rubrics appear to direct that the com­plete consumption of the remains of the Sacred Species and the Ablutions shall be deferred until after the Benediction. If this be the real intention and force of the rubrics, the only logical and practicable course seems to be the method directed in the text, but if it be considered that the rubrics do not imply what is ascribed to them or it is possible, owing to special circumstances, to revert to the more liturgical and convenient method, the Priest does not cover the Chalice but carries out all the directions which are enclosed within brackets on page 43, before he says the LORD's Prayer, which with the following prayer, he will then say at the Epistle side. For the Gloria in Excelsis (if said) and the prayer, O most Holy Trinity, &c., he goes to the centre. After the Benediction, he joins his hands and completes the circle by turning again to the Altar by his right hand and proceeds to the Gospel side, where having arrived, he says with hands joined, The Lord be with you. The Server responded, And with thy spirit, the Priest goes on to read the Last Gospel and to the conclusion of the Service in the manner described in the text.

[14] Makes an inclination to the Cross, if the Ablutions have been taken.

[15] If wine be used in the purification of the Ciborium, it is advisable to leave it uncovered for a short time.

[16] Very little wine and a much larger quantity of water.

[17] Unless he prefers to use it for the Last Gospel, or some other Gospel than that of S. John has to be read. When a festival is observed on a Sunday, the Gospel of the Sunday takes the place of the Gospel of S. John, which is also superseded on Christmas Day. When this is the case, the Priest does not close the book after the Post Communions and the Server will remove it to the Gospel corner in readiness for the Priest to read the Gospel there­from. He makes the Sign of the Cross on the Book at the beginning, as at the first Gospel, but does not kiss the Book at the conclusion, and closes the Book with his right hand, with the opening toward the left.

[18] Or, The continuation of the Holy Gospel according to S. N.

[19] A genuflection, if the Blessed Sacrament be reserved in the Tabernacle.

[20] Some authorities say that when he presents such Vestments as have the Cross wrought upon them, he will draw them to his lips, as if to kiss the sacred emblem, but, out of reverence, he will refrain from actually doing so.

[21] When he is moving the Book from one side of the Altar to the other, it seems best he should walk on the step below the predella, and at other times when he has to cross the Sanctuary, that he should do so on the pavement below the steps.

[22] During the Creed, he will make the usual inclinations and the Sign of the Cross at the end, at the same time as the Priest.

[23] The Server makes his Communion next after the Celebrant, even though a Priest be present, about to assist and desiring to communicate.

[24] If the Ablutions are taken immediately after the Communion of the people, the Server, will at once, proceed to the Credence and then carry out the directions in the text enclosed within brackets. After the Blessing he rises, goes to the centre, makes a reverence to the Altar and then proceeds to the Epistle side where he stands for the Last Gospel but first conveys the Book to the Gospel side, if it be necessary.