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It is very desirable that the bread or wafers should be made in the Priest’s own household.* Doubtless some of our Sisterhoods would gladly prepare the breads for the use of the Church. The bread may be either leavened, or unleavened. The former is the more primitive custom, and is still that of the Eastern Church; the latter is more convenient, and is according to the usage of the West. Wafers are preferable as they prevent crumbling. If common bread is used, it should be cut up into squares in the sacristy, and the crumbs cleared away before being placed on the credence. The Priest’s own bread should be much larger† than the squares for the laity, which should be small. Should ordinary bread be used, it ought to be new, as in that case it is not likely to crumble.
Great care should be taken about the wine, to get it as pure as possible. Tent wine is the tradition of the English Church; and when it can be had genuine is to be preferred. But this is rarely the case. The editor is convinced of this both from chemical analysis, and from information derived from wine-merchants themselves. The wine used in many college chapels in Cambridge, is half good sound port, and half as pure a Tent wine as can be procured. A wine so prepared is sufficiently pure, of the required colour,‡ and its taste is removed from ordinary associations. The editor, since he caused “a first-class sample” of tent to be analysed, has used a cruet of three parts sherry and
* See the fifth Sarum Cautel and note § in the editor’s translation, p.5.
† See Parr. 25, 35, pp. 43, 53.
‡ “Is the wine for the communion white, or reddish, which should resemble blood, and doth more effectually represent the LORD’s Passion upon the crosse?”—Bp. Montague’s Articles of Inquiry. Tit. iii. § 14.
one part Tent.* The colour is dark and reddish, and the taste pleasanter than the mixture of Port and Tent. Claret and Asmenhausser are also pure wines of the required colour. The former was till lately used in the Royal Chapels, except in the German Chapel, where white wine is still used. White wine is also used very generally in the West, being considered most convenient, as it does not stain the altar linen. Red wine (Malaga) is used on feast days in the Latin Church in some countries.
Where there is a daily celebration it might be expedient to use white wine on ferial days and red on festivals.
N.B.—It is greatly to be desired that more care should be taken in preparing the oblations. The Priest should taste the wafers (or bread) and wine the day before they are used; if they are tasted on the morning of the Celebration, the server or other fit person, who is not going to communicate, must taste them for the Priest, in order that his fast be not broken. From neglect of these precautions, the editor knows an instance not many months ago of an orthodox and earnest Priest consecrating a chalice of ink, and also communicating of it without perceiving it, doubtless from intent devotion. The mistake was discovered by the first of the faithful who communicated, and was immediately rectified.
The editor has also known cases where the parish clerk has provided the elements, and has brought the breads to the sacristy in a pocket-handkerchief, and, more reverent than those who ought not to have permitted such a practice, has carried the bread in a rudely embroidered handkerchief which he kept for that purpose. Strange that reverence should survive in the unkindly soil that poor functionary was planted in.
It is of too frequent occurrence to excite surprise to find the chalice left with a considerable portion of the Blood therein to be impiously consumed for common purposes, or flung away by the parish clerk or sexton, contrary to the express direction in our rubric, which rules the consumption of the Blessed Sacrament to be done with reverence in the church immediately after the blessing, (see Parr. 48, 78). One can only trust that in such an awful matter the guilt of sacrilege has been incurred from thoughtlessness,—revolting as want of thought is at such a moment and in such a PRESENCE,—and not from “not discerning” the res sacramenti.
It is believed that the careful study of the Cautels† of the English Church used
* “Tent” is ordinarily a mixture of the lees of sherry and treacle. But many of the compounds fold under the name of “Tent” have only so very small a quantity of wine (and that bad) in their composition as not to be wine at all.
# They are placed in the Sarum Missal immediately after the Conclusiones Missarum, and may be found in the additional note to Maskell’s “Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England,” 2nd Edition, p. 168. An English Translation of the Sarum Cautels of the Mass, by the editor, has been just published. London: Masters.
in times of old, will be the means of wakening many priests to a sense of what is due on the score of reverence and decency to so great a Mystery. It should also be remembered that very nearly the whole of the above are to be found in the Provisions of the Canons and Constitutions of the Church of England passed before the sixteenth century, and that such of them as are consistent with the structure of our Service Book have the force of statute law in virtue of 25 Henry VIII. c. 19. § 7, and 35 Henry VIII. c. 16, § 2. They may be found in Perry’s “Lawful Church Ornaments,” pp. 472—482.
Of the Colours of the Vestments.
In addition to the days specified on page 24, White is to be used on Maundy Thursday at the Celebration as well as at the Divine Office, and at the celebration (only) on Easter Even.* All other drapings save those of the altar itself and of the ministers thereof, remain violet. White is the colour at Whitsun Even at nones, where that hour is kept. White is also to be used at the dedication and consecration of a church or altar, at the consecration of a Bishop, during the octaves of feasts whose colour is White, and on Sundays within the octaves, also at Missæ pro sponso et sponsa.
Red follows the invariable rule of octaves except in the instance of Trinity Sunday (see par. 110.)
Green. On ordinary Sundays and Feriæ, i.e., from the octave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima, and from the first Sunday after Trinity to Advent exclusive; except when a feast falls on a Sunday; excepting also Vigils and Ember Days.
Violet is discontinued throughout Maundy Thursday and till the Matins of Easter Even, Black being used on Good Friday; it is again discontinued at the Celebration on Easter Even, when White is used. It is used on the Vigil of Pentecost before the Celebration, when Red is the colour.
Black—Vestments and other ornaments of this colour should be fringed with silver.
N.B.—From the Evensong of the Saturday before Passion Sunday, or the fifth Sunday in Lent (i.e., on its first vespers,) the altar cross and other crosses, images of the saints, and pictures should be covered† till the Celebration on
* This does not mean a midnight celebration, but the midday solemn Service on Holy Saturday, otherwise called Easter Even. The only allowable celebration after noon is the solitary exception of the midnight celebration on Christmas Eve.
# They remain veiled, even should the feast of the saint to whom the church is dedicated, or the feast of the dedication of the church, occur. But see Par. 90.
Easter Eve. They are then recovered until evensong—the first vespers of Easter Day.
The veils used for this purpose should be of purple, having neither emblems of the Passion nor figures worked on them.
Of the Fashion of the Vestments.
* In the celebration of the Holy Eucharist the celebrant always wears the vestment (chasuble) over the alb. The celebrant never uses the cope except at the Missa sicca (which should never be used except on Good Friday.) He then wears it over a surplice, with the stole (pendent), but not the maniple.†
‡ The cope is worn instead of the dalmatic and tunic by the Assistant Bishops acting as Deacon and Subdeacon at the Consecration of an Archbishop or Bishop. They wear with the cope neither the maniple, nor stole (see Par. 189).
Assistant Priests attending the Bishop, or otherwise assisting, also wear the cope (without maniple or stole) at Pontifical celebrations, &c., (with the exception mentioned in Par. 192,) but except in the instance above, (viz., that of Assistant Bishops performing the functions of Deacon and Subdeacon at the consecrating of an Archbishop or Bishop,) the cope does not supersede the distinct vestments of the Deacon and Subdeacon.
* In the First Book of Edw. VI., the celebrant is ordered to wear “a vestment or cope” The chasuble was always called, by way of excellency, “the vestment.” It has been thought that the allowance of the cope refers to the case of a Missa sicca, which ought never to take place except in the instance in the text, if indeed we are right in not celebrating on that day. A Celebration ought to take place in every other case; as a sufficient number of the faithful ought always to be encouraged to stay (whether they actually communicate or not will not be discovered till afterwards,) to form a quorum in the sense of the rubric. Even if they go out after the Prayer of Oblation or the Exhortation, it will be too late for the Priest to stop. See Par. 46, note *, p. 61.
† If the Priest, however, wears the alb instead of the surplice he will cross the stole, and may also veil with the maniple. It is more correct to be vested in surplice, stole, and cope.
‡ In the west the cappa magna is quite distinct from the pluviale (cappa pluvialis) or cope. The former is now no longer what it originally was, a large cope, (see p. 147, Par. 180, note §, subnote 3,) but a rich dress worn by certain Canons, Bishops, and Cardinals. There used also to be a distinction between the cappa choralis (the quire cope) and the cappa pluviale (the processional cope),—the former being the richer vestment. There is now no difference.
The folded* chasuble (planeta plicata) should be worn by the deacon and subdeacon instead of the dalmatic and tunic, throughout Advent and Lent, except on the Sundays Gaudete et Lætare, viz., the third Sunday of Advent and fourth Sunday in Lent, when purple ornaments of more than ordinary costliness should be used; and on other fasts, except they be vigils of Saints’ Days. It is also worn on the vigil of Whitsun before the Celebration and on the Ember Days at Whitsuntide. The chasuble is folded before the breast on these occasions, taken off at the reading of the Gospel, and then placed (folded) over the left shoulder, over the stole: or in its stead a wide purple stole is used in form of a folded chasuble; after communion the deacon resumes his chasuble as before. The sub-deacon in like manner puts off his folded chasuble at the reading of the epistle, which he does in his alb and maniple only; after this he resumes his chasuble (planeta) as before.
The broad purple stole is not unfrequently substituted altogether for the folded chasuble (planeta), but this is not so correct.
Where neither the planeta nor broad purple stole are used, the deacon should wear only the alb, stole and maniple, and the subdeacon the alb and maniple.
Of the Preparation of the Altar and its Ornaments for the Holy Communion.
The Altar will be duly vested before service, and the ornaments placed on the super-altar.
The brass-book stand will be placed at the north-side.
At Solemn Service the Book is placed open on the stand: at Low Service the Book is placed closed on the stand, as it is then opened by the Priest at the altar.
N.B. When the Book is on the north-side it should be placed corner-wise, so that the Priest faces north-east. When it is on the south side, it should be placed square with the altar, so that the Priest reads facing eastwards. When the Priest stands in the midst of the altar, the Service-book should be on his left hand (ad latus evangelii) a little slanted that he may read without difficulty. As he stands facing eastwards, it cannot be placed immediately in front of the celebrant, as it would interfere with the corporal and chalice.
At Solemn Service the chalice is placed upon the Altar by the Sacristan before Service, at Low or Plain Service the celebrant carries it himself when he goes to the altar. He ought properly to wear the birretta till he reaches the Altar steps, when he hands it to the sub-deacon at Solemn, and to the server at Plain Service. (See note ‡ Par. 16.)
|* The colour of planeta is purple except on the Whitsuntide Ember days, when it is red. The chasubles are usually folded outside and not turned up underneath.|
The Sign of the Cross.
When the celebrant signs himself he places his left hand upon his breast; in blessing anything upon the Altar the left hand is laid upon the mensa; if such Benediction takes place during the Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, the hand is to be laid outside the corporal if before the consecration of the elements,—upon the corporal if afterwards.
Directions for Celebrant.
The celebrant should keep his head and body erect, but his eyes bent downwards even when turned towards the faithful, so as to avoid distraction. When he turns to the people, he turns from left to right, that is, standing in front of the altar facing eastwards, he turns round towards the south or right side, (epistle corner), when he turns again to his Normal Position at the altar with his face eastwards, he turns in the same way, i.e., from left to right.
When the hands are “elevated,” they are raised with the palms fronting each other, so that the tips of the fingers can be just seen above the shoulders.
The Collects are said with “extended and elevated hands,” but the hands are “joined” again at the close, “through our LORD,” &c.
The Nicene Creed is said according to the ancient English use, simply “junctis manibus.” In the west the hands are elevated and extended at the intonations and then joined. (See Parr. 21, 148, note *.)
The celebrant* first stands humbly before the steps of the Altar, he then ascends to the midst of the Altar, after which he takes up his position at the north-side; the Introit then commences. As there is in the minds of some an unaccountable confusion between the north-side of the altar and the north end† thereof, it may be well to define exactly what the Reformers meant by the term north-side. It is difficult to conceive how any one moderately acquainted with the ancient and the mediæval Liturgies, in neither of which is anything ever ordered to be done at the end (or short side) of the altar, should conceive that the north-side ever meant the north end.
* See the Ecclesiastic, vol. xx. p. 193, for a very valuable article (which has also been reprinted and published in a separate form) on “The Position of the Priest at the Altar.”
† The strange practice of standing at the north end of the altar did not begin to be general till about a hundred years ago. It originated, however, with the Nonjurors: probably from a misapprehension of the terms north and south sides in the ancient Liturgies. Before the time of the Non-jurors, whenever “end” was used, it was simply as the English translation of cornu, and not the end, or short side, of the mensa. It is so used in Laud’s Book, “the Presbyter standing at the north side or end thereof,” viz. ad latus septentrionale, vel, ad cornu Evangelii. See “The parts of the Altar,” p. 167.
The parts of the Altar.
[The old English rule was for the Priest at first, i.e., at the “Aufer a nobis,” &c., after the Præparatio which was said “ante gradum Altaris” to stand in medio* altaris, and before the Introit to stand “in dextro cornu altaris” where everything (except only the Gloria in excelsis which was sung in the midst of the Altar with extended hands) was said before the Epistle, (see Par. 21). The Gospel was said “in sinistro cornu altaris” The Creed and everything after it “in medio altaris.” As the Priest stood in front of the altar facing the east, the gospel corner or north side would be on his left, the epistle or south side on his right. None of the old Rubrics speak of anything to be done at the end of the altar. When the Reformers translated and re-arranged the old Service Books, they ordered in Edward VIth’s First Book, the Priest to begin the Celebration, “standing humbly before the midst of the Altar;” but in the Book of 1552† the part of the Communion Office which was said by the Priest in the unrevised service at the south side (in dextro cornu), and in the Book of 1549 “afore the middes of the Altar,” was directed to be said “at the north-side” (in sinistro cornu.) Had they intended the Priest to stand at the north end facing the south they would have said so, and would not have used a technical term (north-side) which every Priest knew to mean the part of the altar on the left of the midst thereof. But strictly speaking, the north or gospel “side” and gospel or left “corner” are not synonymous (see Illustration of Diagram of Mensa of an Altar, and also note * Par. 19.) The north “corner” is the extreme point, so to speak, of the front of the altar, going northwards—thence to the middle is the “north-side.” As a collateral proof the present Roman Missal may be quoted as to the technical meaning of “side” and “corner” as opposed to “end.” This is quite plain in the Rubrics about incensing, as e.g., “procedendo thurificat aliud latus altaris triplici ductus usque ad cornu Evangelii.” Rit. Cel. Miss. Tit. iv. § 4. But practically the two phrases are often interchanged in the Roman Missal.
The north and south sides and corners of the altar are called Gospel and Epistle sides and corners, in reference to the reading of the Gospel and Epistle
* “North-side.) Antiquitas vero ad medium Divini Altaris adstitit.” Eccl. Hier. cap. 3.
† About this time it became the unseemly practice of the puritan party to set the Altar table-wise, in which case, if the Priest stood as of old, in dextro cornu, his Service Book, &c., would hide the chalice, which the puritans desired should be seen throughout the whole function, therefore the north side was substituted for the south side. It would also prevent the Priest, when the Altar was table-wise arranged, from standing on the south of the Sacrarium with his face to the north, as was the custom of some puritan ecclesiastics.
therefrom, and left* and right sides and corners in reference to the position of the celebrant standing with his face to the altar.]
At the reading of the Epistle the celebrant moves to the Epistle side. At Solemn Service he stands fronting the Altar whilst the Epistoler reads it; at Low Service he descends to the Subdeacon’s step and reads it facing the people.
In the Creed the Priest genuflects† at “was incarnate—made man.” During the singing of the Creed (after the Intonations) the celebrant may sit between the Deacon and Subdeacon at the south side.
If the Priest deputes the Epistoler and Gospeller to say the Exhortation and Invitatory, he himself remains in his Normal Position.
At the Sursum Corda he raises his hands, the palms facing each other breast high.
In consecrating the elements the Hereford Missal has the following rubric immediately before the words of Consecration, “inclinet se ad hostiam, et distincte dicat.” The traditional manner of this inclination is to rest the elbows on the Altar, inclining moderately. The Paten should be held in both hands. The Priest then stands erect and elevates it. The same form is observed with the chalice, which is held by the foot with the left and by the knop with the right hand. When the Priest first takes the chalice into his hand, he holds it in his left hand beneath the cup.
After the Consecration, the Priest’s fingers having once touched the Blessed Sacrament, are not separated, save to touch It in communicating himself or others, in blessing or such-like necessity, until after the second Ablution. The thumb and forefinger are kept closed,‡ in case any particle of the Blessed Sacrament should rest upon either, and so be lost or desecrated. The celebrant kneels and adores after consecration of each species.
The celebrant on communicating the faithful should hold the pyx, paten, or ciborium in his left hand, and standing in the midst of the Altar§ with his
* In the Roman Missal the Epistle side is called the left, and the Gospel the right side, but this with reference to the crucifix on the altar. This arrangement, in the west, dates from 1485, when it was laid down as a rule in the Roman Pontifical, published at Venice. See Maskell’s Anc. Lit. p. 19, note 19. 2nd Edition.
† This is the only genuflection before the Consecration. See infra II., note #, p. 171.
‡ Et ex tunc illos digitos cum quibus levavit corpus Christi teneat junctos usque ad ablutionem, nisi cum necesse suerit. Post hæc cum aliis digitis discooperiat calicem, et teneat eam per medium et dicat: Simili modo posteaquam cœnatum eft. Hereford Missal.
§ The Priest may here say, secreto “Ecce agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi,” and then “Domine, non sum dignus, ut intres sub tectum meum, sed tantum die verbo, et sanabitur anima mea.” The Priest will be careful to teach young persons at Confirmation, on preparing for their first Communion, how to take the Holy Sacrament, viz., thus,—the right hand should be extended flat, quite clear of the body, and resting on the left for a support at right angles, so as to make the shape of the cross, and to say Amen at the first clause of the words used in delivering the Sacrament. See “Guide to the Eucharist.” London: Masters. The best Manual by far on the subject.
right hand should make the sign of the cross over them. He then goes to the Epistle corner and begins to communicate them, making over the pyx the sign of the cross.
When the Priest is about to return to the sacristy, he ought to resume his biretta.
If the Priest has to duplicate he must not drink the Ablutions, which must be poured into a chalice and left for him to consume at the second celebration. For to drink the Ablutions would be to break his fast.
When the celebrant returns to the sacristy, if the clergy there await him, he salutes them conjointly with the Sacred Ministers who are then at his side. The choir on reaching the sacristy before him will have parted asunder so as to form an extended aisle for him to pass through. He salutes them with an inclination of the head, which they return by a like reverence, he then salutes the Ministers of the Altar, who proceed to assist him to unvest, which being finished, he again salutes them and retires.
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 An Eve, Even, or Vigil, is the day before a Festival. See Par. 98, note *, and p. 80.
 “In these Injunctions, &c. (viz. the Injunctions and Advertisements of Elizabeth as well as the Canons of 1603,) the ‘Principal Minister’ with the ‘Epistler and Gospeller’ are directed to wear copes. And although copes have been worn in the English Church at the Coronations to this day, and in some cathedrals, as at Durham, to the reign of George III.; it is probable that the term included the chasuble with the tunicles, which, in both Eastern and Western Churches, were the correct vestments for the Administration of the LORD's Supper, the cope being more of a Processional Vestment. The word Cappa (cope) which as well as Casula, was formerly used to signify the Chasuble, may have given rise to this confusion of the Cope with the Vestment. ‘Presbyter, si responsorium cantat in missa, vel quaecunque agat, cappam suam non tollet; si Evangelium legat, superhumeros ponat.’ (Theodor. lib. de Poenit.) ‘This cappa is evidently our chasuble.’ See Rock’s Church of our Fathers, vol. i. p. 382. It may be here added that the cope is worn by the Archbishop of Rheims at the coronation of the French King.” Cleaver's edition of Bp. Wilson’s “Short and Plain Instructions for the better understanding of the LORD’s Supper.”—p. 267.
 “kai niyamenwn taV ceiraV udati tou ierarcou kai twn ierwn, d men ierarchV en mesw tou qusiasthriou kaqistatai. S. Dionys. Areop. de Eccl. Hierarchia, cap. 3, Op. p. 188, A. Cosin's Works, vol. v. p. 308.