The Occasional Offices
THE MINISTRATION OF
PUBLIC BAPTISM OF INFANTS,
TO BE USED IN THE CHURCH.
For Holy Baptism should be secured—
(1.) The integrity of the matter.
(2.) The integrity of the form.
(3.) The contact of the matter with the person.
(4.) The essential unity of the action in combination of matter and form together.
“The people are to be admonished, that it is most convenient that Baptism should not be administered but upon Sundays and other Holy-days, when the most number of people come together: as well for that the congregation there present may testify the receiving of them that be newly baptized into the number of CHRIST’s Church; as also because in the Baptism of Infants, every man present may be put in remembrance of his own profession made to GOD in his baptism. For which cause also it is expedient that baptism be administered in the vulgar tongue. Nevertheless (if necessity so require), children may be baptized upon any other day.
“And note, that there shall be for every male-child to be baptized two godfathers and one godmother: and for every female, one godfather and two godmothers.*
“When there are children to be baptized, the parents shall give knowledge thereof over night, or in the morning before the beginning of Morning Prayer to the curate. And then the godfathers and godmothers, and the people with the Children, must be ready at the font, either immediately
* In a council held at York, in 1195, it is decreed:—“Statuimus ne in baptismate plures quam tres suscipiunt puerum de sacro fonte; masculum duo mares, et una mulier; foeminae, duae soeminae, et unus mas.” A similar order was made in a council at Durham. (Wilkins’ Conc. Vol. I. p. 576.) a.d. 1220. And again at a Synod of Worcester (Ibid. Vol. I. p. 667) in 1240. The Canon (XXIX.) which forbids parents to be sponsors for their own children, is in strict conformity with the Sarum rubric: — “Similiter pater vel mater non debet proprium filium de sacro fonte levare, nec baptizare, nisi in extremae necessitatis articulo.” This, however, does not seem to have been always observed. In Leofric’s Missal we find the words, “Et accipiat presbyter eos a parentibus eorum,” which, explained by a further order given in the Bangor Pontifical, that the same parties who give the child to the priest should take it back from his arms, would necessarily imply that parents might be admitted to answer for their own children. Our own rule forbids the father, but allows the mother to be sponsor. See Canon XXIX.
after the last Lesson at Morning Prayer, or else immediately after the last Lesson at Evening Prayer, as the curate by his direction shall appoint. And the Priest coming to the font (which is then* to be filled with pure water) and standing there, shall say,”
Vestments: cassock, surplice, two stoles, one of violet and one of white silk. The violet to be worn till the Interrogations, when the white one is assumed.
The ancient Sarum use was to wear a violet stole in the first part of the Office, and to lay it aside for a white one before the Interrogations and the “Ego te baptizo,” &c. The Roman use† is the same.
The names of the Sponsors should always be sent in with the notice of a Baptism that is desired to take place; and they should be made to answer the questions one by one. Water should be poured on the child at the mention of each several name of the Blessed TRINITY. After a Baptism, the water should be let off immediately, otherwise it would be often consecrated over again.
“ It appertaineth to the Office of a Deacon, in the Church where he shall be appointed to serve, in the absence of the Priest to baptize infants.” Ordinal.
With regard to posture, the Priest should stand in every part, without exception.
It is desirable always to have a lay clerk or chorister, habited in cassock and short surplice (cotta), in attendance to hold the service book, and silver gilt shell (if the Priest use one,) and to make the responses, &c.
A napkin of fine linen, marked with a small cross, will be found very convenient for use at the font, e.g., to wipe the fingers before taking the Office Book into the hand again.
According to the ancient form‡ which was used at the door of the church, the male infants should be placed on the right hand of the officiating Priest, and the females on his left.
It is proper for the Priest, in celebrating this Sacrament, to make the sign of the cross in the water, at the words, “Sanctify this water,” in the Prayer of Benediction, as he does upon the elements in the Sacrament of the LORD’s Supper. He ought to stand according to the Sarum use “versus orientem.”§
The custom of the Western Church, English as well as Roman, is to pour the water in baptism thrice||—once at the name of each Person of the ever-
* In some churches it is the practice for an acolyte to fill the font with pure water, (for which purpose a large latten vessel should be provided,) in the presence of the congregation immediately before the administration of Holy Baptism.
† “Tunc Sacerdos indutus superpelliceo et stola violacei coloris,” &c. Rituale Angl. Bangor, MSS. “Hie deponit stolam violaceam, et sumit aliam albi coloris.” Rit. Rom. Lutetiae Pari-siorum, 1665. (De Sac. Bap.)
‡ “Masculus autem statuitur a dextra sacer-dotis; mulier vero a finistris.” Manuale ad usum percelebris ecclesiae Saris. 1554; Ordo ad fac. cat. In Leofric’s Missal, “Baptizantur primi masculi, deinde soeminae.”
§ Saris. Manuale.
|| “In the ancient Church the child to be baptized, was thrice dipped in the font, in the name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST; semblably is he to be thrice aspersed with water on his face, (if for fear of danger, not dipped, as the Book of Common Prayer appointeth) the Priest using those sacramental words; after which act doth he receive the child into his arms, unto CHRIST’s flock, and then set the badge of Christianity upon him, signing him with the sign of the Cross.” Bishop Montague’s Visitation Articles, p. 72, No. 7.
Blessed TRINITY — on the head of the recipient (which is uncovered for that purpose). Sprinkling is not recognized by the rubric of the English Church.* By the Canon law, confirmed by the Ecclesiastical Courts, baptism, although administered by a woman or even by a heretic or schismatic, ought not, if the proper form and matter have been used, to be iterated, conditionally or otherwise.
With regard to names given to children, the Priest has the power of altering them if they seem to him improper. It is well to give the godfathers and godmothers, in such a case, time to change the proposed name. It is a constitution of Archbishop Peckham,† a.d. 1281, which directs the Clergy to take care not to allow wanton names to be imposed on infants, especially those of the female sex.
The ancient English form of Baptism is as follows; — “Deinde accipiat sacerdos infantem per latera in manibus suis, et interrogato nomine ejus, baptizet eum sub trina immersione, tantum Sanctam Trinitatem invocando ita dicens, N. et ego baptizo te in nomine Patris; et mergat eum semel versa facie ad aqui-lonem, et capite versus orientem: et Filii; et iterum mergat semel versa facie ad meridiem: et Spiritus Sancti; Amen. Et mergat tertio recta facie versus aquam.” At the same time affusion was allowed according to our present practice. The practice of signing the infant with the chrism followed immediately on the baptism. In our formulary the announcement of its public reception into the Church takes the place of this ceremony, and of that of putting on the chrisom. Hence the sign of the cross is made upon the child’s forehead with the thumb.‡
THE MINISTRATION OF
PRIVATE BAPTISM OF CHILDREN
“The curates of every parish shall often admonish the people, that they defer not the baptism of their children longer than the first or second Sunday next after their birth, or other Holy-day falling between, unless upon a great and reasonable cause, to be approved by the curate.
* Immersion is the rule of the English Church with permission to use affusion.
† Lyndwood, Lib. 3, tit. 24. “Attendant sacerdotes, ne lasciva nomina, quas scilicet, mox prolata, sonent in lasciviam, imponi permittant parvulis baptizatis, sexus praecipue foeminini.” But see Stephens’ edition of Book of Common Prayer, vol. ii. fol. 1286.
‡ “Hie liniat infantem de ipso chrismate cum pollice in vertice in modum crucis, dicens.” Ma-nuale Sarisbur. fol. xiii.
“And also they shall warn them, that without like great cause and necessity they procure not their children to be baptized at home in their houses. But when need shall compel them so to do, then baptism shall be administered on this fashion:
“First, let the Minister of the pariah (or in his absence, any other lawful Minister that can be procured) with them that are present call upon GOD, and say the LORD’s Prayer, and so many of the Collects appointed to be said before in the Form of Public Baptism, as the time and present exigence will suffer. And then, the child being named by some one that is present, the Minister shall pour water upon it, saying these words:
“ N. I baptize thee in the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
“Then, all kneeling down, the Minister shall give thanks unto GOD, and say,
“We yield Thee hearty thanks, most merciful FATHER, that it hath pleased Thee to regenerate this Infant with Thy Holy spirit, to receive him for Thine own child by adoption, and to incorporate him into Thy holy Church. And we humbly beseech Thee to grant, that as he is now made partaker of the death of Thy SON, so he may be also of His resurrection; and that finally, with the residue of Thy Saints, he may inherit Thine everlasting kingdom; through the same Thy SON JESUS CHRIST our LORD. Amen.”
Note in the Office for Baptism, that at the words “Sanctify this water” &c. the sign of the cross should be made. Thus stood the rubric directing it in the order for the Benediction of the Font in the Sarum Ritual, “Hic dividat Sacerdos aquam manu sua dextra in modum crucis.”
For private baptism it is convenient for the parish Priest to have a baptismal basket, containing office book, small quarto; a small brass vessel marked with a cross and sacred monogram, and lined with lead—the material of the vessel itself being latten; two stoles—one of violet, the other of white silk; two linen napkins—one to spread on the table, and the other to wipe the fingers, both marked with a red cross; and a baptismal shell with a small stand.* The proper prayers to use are, the LORD’s Prayer; “Almighty and immortal GOD;” “Almighty and everlasting GOD, heavenly FATHER;” “Almighty everliving GOD.” In this, as in all private ministrations, the Priest will take with him the same vestments as he uses in Church.†
The water, of which it is well, therefore, only to consecrate a small quantity,
* The vessel used in private baptisms seems anciently to have been of sufficient size for the practice of immersion, as may be gathered from a gloss of Lyndwood’s (Lib. 3, tit. 24), who speaking of an order that the vessel employed as above should be burnt or set aside for the use of the Church, explains this to mean such uses as to wash vestments in, “vel possunt talia vasa verti ad usum praelati ecclesiae in aliquo ministerio honesto.” A small cruet, brass vessel, a shell, or stone, or rock bason, seems most fitting for our requirements.
† It is convenient to use a long surplice of fine lawn, as the Priest will probably be habited in a short cassock. The surplice, being of fine material, can be folded up in a very small compass, and can be carried in a brown Holland case.
should be either put into the fire, or carried into the church, and poured into the font and allowed to run through the drain.
“And let them not doubt, but that the child so baptized is lawfully and sufficiently baptized and ought not to be baptized again. Yet nevertheless, if the child, which is after this sort baptized,
do afterwards live, it is expedient that it be brought into the church, to the intent that, if the Minister of the same parish did himself baptize that child, the congregation may be certified of the true Form of Baptism, by him privately before used: In which case he shall say thus,
“ I Certify you, that according to the due and prescribed order of the Church, at such a time, and at such a place, before divers witnesses I baptized this child.”
The Priest having certified the faithful of the true form of Baptism will then proceed to admit the child into the Church, beginning the Office provided for that purpose, (see the Ministration of Private Baptism of Children in houses. Book of Common Prayer,) at the Gospel.
* “But if the child were baptized by any other lawful Minister;† then the Minister of the parish where the child was born or christened, shall examine and try whether the child be lawfully baptized, or no. In which case, if those that bring any child to the church, do answer that the same child is already baptized, then shall the Minister examine them further, saying”
The best plan which can be adopted in uniting the two Baptismal Offices for Infants, is to cause the child (or children) that is about to be admitted into the Church to be withdrawn (the sponsors of such child remaining with the other sponsors) and then to proceed with the Service as though it were an ordinary baptism till after the benediction of the water; and this done, to call up the child and receive it into the Church before the others are baptized. In this way there is no real awkwardness in the Service, provided that the sponsors of the child to be admitted can be made to understand that they are not to answer the third question—”Wilt thou be baptized in this faith?”
* This form should not be used if the Baptism has been done by a brother Priest, as it seems absurd to ask the question, in that case, about what matter.
† The term “lawful minister” with regard to the Sacrament of Baptism includes under certain circumstances not only persons clerical but lay. But even if it meant an “ordained” minister only, it would simply act as a discouragement to
lay and schismatical Baptisms, for which purpose it was introduced in the Book of 1604, as treating them as irregular but valid, and therefore not to be reiterated conditionally or otherwise, for the proper matter and form are alone essential to this Sacrament, “a lawful (ordained) minister is not” See Maskell’s Holy Baptism, c. ix. Procter, p. 361. Card well’s Hist. of Conf. c. iii.
THE MINISTRATION OF
BAPTISM TO SUCH AS ARE OF RIPER YEARS,*
AND ABLE TO ANSWER FOR THEMSELVES.
“When any such persons, as are of riper years, are to be baptized, timely notice should be given to the Bishop, or whom he shall appoint for that purpose, a week before at the least, by the parents, or feme other discreet persons; that so due care may be taken for their examination, whether they be sufficiently instructed in the Principles of the Christian Religion; and that they may be exhorted to prepare themselves with Prayers and Fasting for the receiving of this holy Sacrament.
“And if they shall be found fit, then the Godfathers and Godmothers (the people being assembled upon the Sunday or Holy-day appointed) shall be ready to present them at the Font immediately after the second Lesson, either at Morning or Evening Prayer, as the Curate in his discretion shall think fit.
“And standing there, the Priest shall ask, whether any of the persons here presented be baptized or no: If they shall answer, No; then shall the Priest say thus”
167. Immersion and Affusion.
“Then shall the Priest take each person to be baptized by the right hand, and placing him conveniently by the Font, according to his discretion, shall ask the Godfathers and Godmothers the name; and then shall dip him in the water, or pour water upon him, saying.”
The Priest may either immerse the head of the adult in the water, or pour water upon it. In some cases, where the adult has required total immersion, a bath or some large vessel has been brought into the church; but there is no authority for this incorrect practice. The water must be placed in the Font and no where else. It should be pointed out to a person wishing for total immersion that dipping does not necessarily imply the submersion of the whole body, but rather the immersion of a part thereof (viz., the head), and even if it did imply total submersion, the adult, from whatever cause, is physically incapable of being so dipped in a Font constructed for the immersion of infants, (and of these probably only the partial immersion was contemplated, as is evident from the directions as to trine immersion in the ancient Rubric, and from the Rubric in the First Book of Edward VI.,) and that the word “dip” is retained in the Office for adults as a protest that the Church only contemplates Infant Baptism, and uses the word to the adult which was more conveniently applied in the case of infants.
* “Si baptizandus non poterit loqui; vel quia parvulus, vel quia mutus, vel quia aegrotans aut aliunde impotens, tunc debent patrini pro eo respondere ad omnes interrogationes in baptismo. Si autem loqui poterit, turn pro seipso respondeat ad singulas orationes nisi ad interrogationes sui nominis tantum, ad quas semper patrini sui respondeant pro eo.” Manuale Sarisbur. De Baptismo, fol. xlvi.
Some Priests make the determination which Service should be used to depend on whether or no the child is of an age to be confirmed. At twelve or thirteen a child may very well be confirmed, and therefore should answer the questions for itself.
It is very strange that so good a ritualist and theologian as Johnson (see The Clergyman’s Vade Mecum, p. 21,) should suggest that Fonts should be made large enough for the submersion of adults; a practice which would have gone far to discourage the Church’s Rule of Infant Baptism, and in behalf of which the word “dip,” (whether taken to mean total or partial immersion) in the Rubric in “The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of riper years,” affords no ground to argue in favour of total immersion of adults whether in Fonts constructed for that purpose or in unauthorized vessels.*
168. Cautions and Directions.
The Priest during the entire Service will stand on the platform of the font, in order not only to perform the function conveniently, but to be seen of the people in the action of pouring the water.
Immediately after the child is baptized, and without descending from the stone platform of the Font, the Priest will proceed with the Collect of Reception,—he will thus be seen by the faithful when he makes the sign of the Cross on the child’s forehead. The prayer should be said without the use of the Office Book. After the prayer he will (without leaving the platform) deliver the child to the person in charge of it.
The whole Function should be most carefully performed.
169. The Rochet.†
A short surplice with close sleeves (Rochet) is more convenient for the administration of this Sacrament than the surplice proper.
* The editor knows an instance of a bath having been brought into the church for an adult Baptism in the Diocese of Ely, and has heard of some recent cases where the demand has been made.
† Winchelsea’s Constitution, a.d., 1305, in force by virtue of 25 Henry VIII. c. 19, orders, amongst other ornaments and furniture to be provided for Divine Service by the parishioners, one rochet (“unum Rochetum”). The following is Lyndwood’s Gloss: “The rochet differs from the surplice, because the surplice has hanging sleeves, but the rochet is without sleeves, and is ordered for the clerk who serves, or perhaps for the work of the Priest himself in baptizing infants, left his arms be hindered by the sleeves.” See Gibson’s Codex, fol. 225. The rochet, however, may be either with or without sleeves. See Pugin’s “Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament.” Art. surplice. If with sleeves, they should be rather tighter from the elbow to the wrist, and somewhat more full at the shoulder, (decreasing towards the elbow) than those of the alb. A rochet with sleeves is most convenient for Baptisms, as it protects the cassock sleeve, and as in point of fact, a rochet is a cotta with the sleeves diminished, cloned and gathered round the wrist; it answers to the description of “a decent and comely surplice with sleeves.” LVIIIth Canon of 1603. Not that the Canon can limit the Rubric which orders the ornaments of the second year of Edw. VI. This vestment is sometimes so short that it reaches only midway down the thigh; but for this there is no ancient authority. See supra, Par. 85.
170. Parents not to Baptize their own children.*
If a Priest or Deacon may not be had, in an urgent case of private Baptism (the speedy death of the child being apprehended) the parents had better get some friend to baptize the child. If such cannot be procured, the father must administer the Sacrament; the mother may only do so if the father knows not the Sacramental words,† or some other impediment exists.
171. A Priest not to Baptize his own child during Divine Service.‡
It of course is quite irregular (see Par. 170, note *,) for a Priest to baptize his own child in the church. If there be a Deacon he may, in such a case, administer the Sacrament, although in the presence§ of the Priest.
THE ORDER OF CONFIRMATION,
OR LAYING ON OF HANDS UPON THOSE THAT ARE BAPTIZED AND COME TO YEARS OF DISCRETION.
“Upon the day appointed, all that are to be then confirmed, being placed, and standing in order, before the Bishop; he (or some other Minister appointed by him) shall read this Preface following”
In the sacristy the proper vestments|| should be prepared for the Bishop,
* The following are the old English Rubrics on the subject:—”Non licet laico vel mulieri aliquem baptizare nisi in articulo necessitatis. Si vero vir et mulier adessent ubi immineret necessitatis articulus baptizandi puerum, et non esset alius minister ad hoc magis idoneus praesens: vir baptizet et non mulier, nisi forte mulier bene sciret verba sacramentalia, et non vir: vel aliud impedimentum subesset.” “Similiter pater vel mater non debet proprium filium de sacro fonte levare nee baptizare, nisi in extremae necessitatis articulo: tunc enim bene possunt sine praejudicio copulae conjugalis ipsum baptizare, nisi suerit aliquis alius praesens qui hoc facere sciret et vellet.” Manuale Sarisbur. fol. xlv.
† The sacramental words (= “form”) are: “N. I baptize thee in the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST.” The “matter” of course pure water. The water should be poured upon the head of the infant, and the contact thereof should be plainly seen. Sprinkling is not only contrary to the rule of the Church, but in a case of private Baptism by a lay person, it might happen if the fingers were dipped into the water, that not even a drop in the hurry of the moment might come in contact with the child’s person, in which case it would die unbaptized. The water ought to be seen evidently to run upon the child’s person (not its clothes:) laics should be careful to pour plenty of water upon the child.
Two corollaries seem to follow here:—a. that the Priest should use some instrument like a shell for holding the water. (See Parr. 165, 166.) p. that the cap should be removed from the infant before it is given into the hands of the Priest.
‡ In most parishes it will be easy to obtain the aid of a brother Priest (or Deacon). But the Priest must not baptize his own child in church under any circumstances. He may at home, if there be immediate danger.
§ “In the absence of the Priest to baptize infants.” Ordering of Deacons.
|| “Whensoever the Bishop shall.. execute other public ministration, he shall have upon him beside his rochette, a surplice or albe, and a cope or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.” Edw. VIth’s first Prayer Book. The Roman Pontifical does not order both the rochet and surplice. The rochet is ordered, unless the Bishop be a religious, in which case he wears the surplice instead.
viz., a rochette, an amice, a surplice, a white stole, a white cope, a gold embroidered (aurifrigiata) mitre, and pastoral staff; and the usual surplices, hoods, and cottas, for the Priests and assistants. The pastoral staff may be carried in his hand, or else borne by his chaplain. If the Litany is sung or said previously a kneeling-stool should be prepared for the Bishop before the episcopal throne, which should always be placed a little distance from the altar, against the north* wall. During the administration of this Sacrament† the throne should be adorned with white hangings, and the arms of the diocese may be suspended behind. Seats should be prepared for the chaplains, one on each side the throne. The altar should be vested in white, and vases of white flowers may be placed upon the super-altar. In the ancient English Church the lights on the altar were burning.
At the time of Confirmation a chair should be placed facing westwards, in the centre of the altar, as at Ordinations.
The preparation of persons to receive the grace of Confirmation by the laying on of the hands of the Bishop, consists in these two things, viz.: I, instruction in the Catechism; and 2, examination of conscience according to the promises made at Baptism. In the latter, the parish Priest must do all he can to assist the candidates individually. The rite itself consists in the laying on of hands. The question asked before is intended to satisfy the congregation that the candidate is in earnest. The first Book of Edward VI. does not contain the renewal of Baptismal vows.
The candidates in order to be confirmed come up and kneel either at the footstep of the Sacrarium; or, so that the Service may be both seen and heard, sometimes at the step of the chancel.
It is a Catholic custom for females to be dressed in white, and to wear veils without caps.
* The Bishop’s throne proper is always at the easternmost stall of the south side, and there he sits during the Offices; but if he takes part in any celebration or function at the altar, it is always on the north side opposite the permanent sedilia on the south side. It is only during the celebration of the Holy Eucharist that he has a chair and faldstool on the north side. (See also p. 7,sec. 5.)
† “ Therefore, neither it (Absolution) nor any other Sacrament else, be such Sacraments as Baptism and Communion are.”—Second volume of Homilies, of Common Prayer and Sacraments.
“Confirmation is a Sacrament of no mean character, though the Church does not place it among the two Sacraments (Baptism and the LORD’s Supper) which are necessary to every one for his own salvation. Where there is no Bishop to confirm, it cannot be done, no one else can do it.” —Bishop of Chichester; apud Newland’s Confirmation and First Communion, p. 215.
THE FORM OF
SOLEMNIZATION OF MATRIMONY.*
The Office for Holy Matrimony consists of three parts, viz., the Address to the Congregation, the Betrothal,† both of which the Rubric orders to take place in the nave,‡ (in which will be prepared the faldstool,) and the more sacramental part, imploring the graces needful for the married state, which is said at the altar. In pronouncing the first Benediction, the Priest may lay his hands on the heads of the man and woman, or he may perform this function as in Par. 44. The Psalm (which except the woman be “past child-bearing” should always be the 128th, Beati omnes) is to be said in procession.
In the sacristy should be prepared a surplice and white stole for the Priest, and also the Eucharistic vestments (white), surplices for the clerks and servers, together with the office book and the books of registration.
The altar should always be prepared for the celebration of the Holy Sacrament, in the event of the parties desiring to meet the LORD in His fullest manifestation of grace; or, if they have not desired it, as a testimony, that the Church is ready to administer it, and wishes to do so.
The antependium should be white, and vases of flowers may be placed on the super-altar. The deacon or sacristan will, of course, be careful to see that everything is prepared for the celebration. If there be a celebration, and the Priest and his assistants do not vest in the Sacristy, the chasuble and maniple for the celebrant, and tunicles for the deacon and subdeacon, and maniple for the deacon may be laid upon a table in the sanctuary.
* “Have any been married in the times wherein marriage is by law  restrained, without lawful licence, viz., from the Sunday next before Advent Sunday until the fourteenth of January; and from the Saturday next before Septuagesima Sunday until the Monday next after Low Sunday; and from the Sunday before the Rogation week until TRINITY Sunday.” Bp. Montague’s Visitation Articles, p. 74, No. 17.
† The words of Betrothal, and indeed great part of the Rite, are verbatim from the old Sarum Form. The old Rubric provided that the ring should be placed on the thumb of the woman’s left hand at the name of the FATHER, on the fore finger at that of the SON, on the third at that of the HOLY GHOST, and on the fourth at the Amen. Some trace of this is found in our present Rubric which says, “the man leaving the ring upon the fourth finger of the woman’s left hand,” &c., and, indeed, the custom still prevails in some places.
‡ “The persons to be married shall come into the body of the church.”—Rubric of Book of Common Prayer.
“It is convenient that the new-married persons should receive the holy Communion at the time of their Marriage, or at the first opportunity after their Marriage”
If the notice has been given to the Priest that a celebration is desired, he will wear the alb* instead of the surplice and also the amice, in which case he will not wear the hood, but may substitute a white cope.
The assistant Ministers will wear albs and amices. They may wear, as well as the Priest, white copes during the Solemnization.
The celebrant and sacred Ministers will vest† themselves with the exception of their maniples, and then proceed to vest the celebrant, after which they will put on their maniples.
Only the bride and bridegroom and their immediate friends communicate.
Kneeling stools should be prepared for them before the altar, at the sanctuary rails, which will be covered with the Communion cloth (see p. 56, Par. 38,) immediately before the bridegroom and bride are communicated. The man will be communicated before the woman.
A deacon should never venture to administer the lesser Sacrament of Matrimony.
For the person occupying the place of “father” (it is a great mistake that this is not ordinarily the actual father), when the Priest inquires, “Who giveth this woman?” himself to place her hand in that of the Priest, is of course right, and should be always observed.‡
174. Position of Assistant Minifters, &c.
During the betrothal the clerks and acolytes will be in their place in the choir; the Priest in the body of the church, being served by a single acolyte, who should be provided with a scutum or a dish or alms bag, for the reception of the accustomed duty to the Priest and clerk, after it has been laid upon the service book.
When the Priest goes to the altar, the sacred Ministers will occupy their respective steps as gospeller and epistoler on the south side of the Sacrarium,
* The Herf. Missale even ordered the maniple to be worn—in violation of the rule that it was not to be worn at any service but the Holy Eucharist.— “Coram presbytero amictu, alba, fanone, et stola vestito.”
† According to Catholic custom only the Deacon wears the stole (see p. 2, note †); both Deacon and Subdeacon wear the maniple. In the old English Ordinals (see Pont. Sarisb. apud Maskell. Mon. Rit. iii. 182; and Pont. Exon. apud Barnes, p. 84,) the maniple was given to the Subdeacon as a distinctive badge—thence the custom of epistoler and gospeller both wearing maniples; and the latter the stole.
‡ The old English and present Roman use is for the father to place the hand of the woman in that of the man, without delivering her to the Priest. Our present rite seems preferable, as being more symbolical.
and the acolytes their places at the credence—all standing laterally, till the Introit of the Communion Office begins.
If there be no Sermon, which may either be instead of the address, or in the proper place in the Communion Office, the Exhortation may be read by the deacon or subdeacon as directed by the Priest.
N.B.—Only the man and the woman kneel, when so ordered by the rubric: the faithful stand.
THE ORDER FOR
THE VISITATION OF THE SICK.
The object of the Office for the Visitation of the Sick is to prevent the departure of any baptized person out of the world without the Church’s blessing. Should the sick person be already in a state of grace, and in the habitual use of the privileges which the Church provides, he will be of course at once entitled to it. If not, the business of the Priest is, after the manner here laid down, to effect his reconciliation. The Office should not be repeated.
The Priest should be vested in cassock, surplice, and purple stole.*
The Preface to the “Visitatio Infirmorum” (London: Masters,) contains some careful instructions on this head.
The accustomed form for making a confession (as the sick are to be moved to do) is as follows, (to be said kneeling):† “In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen. I confess to GOD the FATHER Almighty, to His only-begotten SON JESUS CHRIST our LORD, to GOD the HOLY GHOST, and before the whole company of heaven, and to thee, Father, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault, [here comes in the confession.] For these and all my other sins which I cannot now remember I humbly beg pardon of Almighty GOD and grace to amend; and of thee, Father, I ask penance, counsel, and absolution. And therefore I beseech GOD the FATHER Almighty, His only-begotten SON JESUS CHRIST, and GOD the HOLY GHOST, to have mercy upon me, and thee, Father, to pray for me.”
In pronouncing the Absolution it is proper either to lay the right hand, or hands, upon the head of the person, or else to raise the hand as directed in
* “In primis se sacerdos superpellicio cum stola.” Man. Sar. Ordo ad Vis. Infirm.fol.lxxxv. The surplice, however, may be omitted; all that is essential as far as ritual is concerned is the stole.
† Not kneeling, of course, if the sick person be a clinic.
Par. 44. The imposition of hands is the usual custom in the English Church. In either case the sign of the Holy Cross should be made over the penitent.
N.B.—”The Spirit of the Church” (London: Masters,)—a collection of articles from the “Ecclesiastic”—contains a most valuable paper on “The Visitation of the Sick.” The concluding observations with reference to the care of the body after death are very important. If they were followed, “the laying out” would be a pious and dutiful Christian office, instead of the ghastly and shocking process it has degenerated into only too often.
THE COMMUNION OF THE SICK.
“Forasmuch as all mortal men be subject to many sudden perils, diseases, and sicknesses, and ever uncertain what time they shall depart out of this life; therefore, to the intent they may be always in a readiness to die, whensoever it shall please Almighty GOD to call them, the Curates shall diligently from time to time (but especially in the time of pestilence, or other infectious sickness) exhort their Parishioners to the often receiving of the holy Communion of the Body and Blood of our saviour CHRIST, when it shall be publicly administered in the Church; that so doing, they may, in case of sudden visitation, have the less cause to be disquieted for lack of the same. But if the sick person be not able to come to the Church, and yet is desirous to receive the Communion in his house; then he must give timely notice to the Curate, signifying also how many there are to communicate with him, (which shall be three, or two at the least,) and having a convenient place in the feck man’s house, with all things necessary so prepared, that the Curate may reverently minister, he shall there celebrate the holy Communion, beginning with the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, here following.”
Vestments:* cassock, albe, chasuble, &c., of the colour of the day.†
For the Communion of the Sick the Priest should take with him the elements required, and altar cloths and linen. It is desirable to use the Prayer of Oblation before the consecration.
The small toy-like vessels which are sometimes used ought to be avoided; the chalice should, at the least, be six inches in height, and the paten of a corresponding size.
* The following are the ancient English Rubrics on the subject:—”Interim sacerdos prae-paret se omnibus sacerdotalibus indumentis, prae-ter casulam.” Ordo ad Comm. Infirm. Bangor Pontifical apud Maskell. Mon. Rit. Vol. i. p. 66. “Induat se superhumerali, alba, et stola, cum phanone, atque planeta, si affuerit; sin alias casula non induatur.” English Order of the ninth century. Ibid. p. 68. “In primis induat se episcopus superpellicio cum stola.” Pont. Saris. Ibid. p. 69. “Sacerdos praeter casulam indutus aut stola pro necessitate.” Manuale Ebor. Ibid. The present Roman Rubric prescribes a surplice and stole, and white cope. “Sacerdos indutus superpellicio et stola, et si haberi posset, pluviali albi coloris.” Rit. Rom. De Sac. Euch., p. 94. As with us there is no reserved Sacrament, the Sacrificial Vestments must be used; in accordance also with the old English practice which existed in times when the Eucharist was reserved for the sick.
† The Priest will send a server, or other fit person, with the vestments he uses at Low Service.
There is ample authority for the use of a portable altar of stone,* marble, or alabaster. The use of portable stones was enjoined by many early English Canons and visitation articles.† These were formed of a thin stone or piece of marble, set in a wooden frame, and ornamented with gold, and silver, and jewels. They were sometimes employed in churches or oratories, which possessed only wooden altars, being placed upon the fixed slab to hold the paten and chalice. Their‡ size was about one foot long by six inches across, and about two inches high. It was the custom for Bishops to consecrate many of them to be distributed, not only to persons who had private chaplains and oratories of their own, but to guilds and brotherhoods and parish priests, that thus the Holy Eucharist might be celebrated without irreverence even in unconsecrated places.
It seems also desirable to provide (besides altar linen, pall, chalice veil, and veil of linen and lace,) a cross or crucifix, and a pair of small candlesticks, all of which add greatly to the solemnity of the Function, and to impress those present with the necessity of a reverent demeanour, a thing much to be wished.
The Priest should be served by an assistant, who will previously have made the requisite preparations, and must be vested in cassock and surplice.
It is highly desirable to administer the Holy Communion in the morning— that being the universal practice of the Catholic Church. If, however, this be impracticable, it is only seemly for the Priest to have been fasting at least for some hours previously. For a Priest ought not ever to celebrate except fasting.§
N.B.—Should the sick person, in accordance with the command in the fifth chapter of the General Epistle of S. James, desire the Priest to “pray over him, anointing him with oil in the Name of the LORD;” the proper place will be after the Collect which follows the Absolution in the “Visitation,” just before the “Communion of the Sick,” as the sick person will, in this case, probably be visited, and communicate “all at one time.” If at different times—the anointing will be ministered immediately after the Prayer—”The Almighty
* Its size should be one foot by six inches, and it should be marked with the usual five crosses.
† See Rock: Church of our Fathers. Vol. I. pp. 247, sqq.
‡ Superaltar, for Communion of Sick. Bede tells us of two Priests, who “Quotidie Sacrifi-cium Deo victimae salutaris offerebant, habentes secum vascula sacra, et tabulam altaris vice dedi-catam.” Hist. Ecclesiast. Bedae, lib. v. cap. x.
§ Except in cases of necessity. The old rubrics permit the sick man to communicate after eating in extreme cases, and hence a Priest may be allowed to celebrate in case of extreme urgency after eating, under present circumstances of not being allowed to reserve the Blessed Sacrament. If a Priest went to a sick person after eating his usual meal, and found him dying, he would be justified in returning to get the Sacramental vessels and Eucharistic vestments, &c. to celebrate, because we have no reserved Sacrament. But except in the like emergencies there is no justification—(save on the plea of ill-health)—to warrant celebration after eating.
GOD who is a most strong tower,” etc., in the Office of the Visitation of the Sick.
The Priest should use the Office in the first Book of Edward VI.*
“But if a man, either by reason of extremity of sickness, or for want of warning in due time to the Curate, or for lack of company to receive with him, or by any other just impediment, do not receive the Sacrament of CHRIST’s Body and Blood, the Curate shall instruct him, that if he do truly repent him of his sins, and steadfastly believe that JESUS CHRIST hath suffered death upon the Cross for him, and shed His Blood for his redemption, earnestly remembering the benefits he hath thereby, and giving Him hearty thanks therefore, he doth eat and drink the Body and Blood of our saviour CHRIST profitably to his soul’s health, although he do not receive the Sacrament with his mouth.”
The very same provision occurs in the pre-Reformation Service Books. †”Deinde communicetur infirmus nisi prius communicatus fuerit, et nisi de vomitu
* “¶ If the sick person desire to be anointed, then shall the Priest anoint him upon the forehead or breast only, making the sign of the cross, saying thus:—
“As with this visible oil thy body outwardly is anointed: so our heavenly FATHER, Almighty GOD, grant of His infinite goodness, that thy soul inwardly may be anointed with the HOLY GHOST, who is the Spirit of all strength, comfort, relief, and gladness: and vouchsafe for His great mercy (if it be His blessed will) to restore unto thee thy bodily health and strength to serve Him; and send thee release of all thy pains, troubles, and diseases, both in body and mind. And, howsoever His goodness (by His divine and unsearchable providence) shall dispose of thee; we, His unworthy ministers and servants, humbly beseech the Eternal Majesty to do with thee according to the multitude of His innumerable mercies, and to pardon thee all thy sins and offences, committed by all thy bodily senses, passions, and carnal affections: who also vouchsafe mercifully to grant unto thee ghostly strength, by His Holy Spirit, to withstand and overcome all temptations and assaults of thine adversary, that in no wise he prevail against thee, but that thou mayest have perfect victory and triumph againft the devil, sin, and death, through CHRIST our LORD: Who, by His death, hath overcome the prince of death, and with the FATHER, and the HOLY GHOST, evermore liveth and reigneth GOD, world without end. Amen. Usque quo, Domine. Psalm xiii.” First Book of Edw. VI., Order for the Visitation of the Sick.
The holy oil stock should be made of silver, or at least of latten. It should be shaped like a cruet. The holy oil stock should have a case of purple silk, and may be preserved in the aumbry on the gospel side of the altar, or if there be not one, in some convenient place in the sacristy, or in the house of the Priest if he resides far from the church.
The Priest will anoint the sick person by making the sign of the most holy cross upon the forehead with his right thumb, steeped in the holy oil. He will then cleanse his thumb with a particle of bread, which he will have brought with him for that purpose, and at the end of the function wipe the unction from the sick person’s forehead with a piece of cotton stuff. The Priest will be careful to take the particle and cotton so used to the sacristy, there to be burnt in the accustomed place.
# “Mox autem ut eum viderint ad exitum propinquare, communicandus est de sacrificio sancto; etiam si comedisset ipsa die.” Rubric, Leofric. MS., apud Maskell. Mon. Rit., vol. i.
vel alia irreverentia probabiliter timeatur: in quo casu dicat sacerdos infirmo: Frater, in hoc casu sufficit tibi vera fides, et bona voluntas: tantum crede et manducasti.” Manuale Saris. de Extrema Unctione, fol. xcvii.
THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD.*
Vestments: Priest—surplice,† black stole, black cope, and birretta.
‡Clerks—cassocks and surplices.
It is very desirable that the Burial Office should be celebrated chorally, and gloominess avoided in all the arrangements. The coffin, which ought to have nothing black about it, should be placed on a bier in church before the mourners, and covered with a purple (or for unmarried persons a white) pall, with a cross of red or white. The people should be instructed to stand during the Psalm,§ and to sing or say the alternate verses. The last prayer is called “the Collect,” because it is to be used as such in the Communion Office, which should form a part of this Office as well as of that for Holy Matrimony.
The most proper place for the Priest and clerks to say the Psalm appears to be in the middle of the chancel, half-way between the choir-doors and the lower step of the altar, where a small lectern should be placed for the Office-book. A clerk might stand on either side the Priest, all of whom should face eastward. The Lesson should be read from the lectern outside the chancel screen. If the Holy Eucharist be celebrated, it should commence immediately after the Lesson when the Priest and sacred Ministers will vest themselves for the altar function at a table placed in the chancel, for that purpose, (see Par. 173), and after the blessing, the Priest will uncross his stole, and resume the black cope and birretta, as preparatory to going toward the grave.
* At the burial of infants, who have died after baptism under seven years of age, the Priest will wear a white stole.
† If there is a celebration the Priest had better wear the girded alb, and amice, (instead of the surplice) from the commencement of the function. The stole pendent till he vests for the celebration. The sacred Ministers should also wear the girded alb, and amice. Immediately before the celebration they will vest themselves with the exception of their maniples; they will then assist the celebrant to vest in his maniple and chasuble, and will then put on their own maniples.
‡ Clerks are not Priests and Deacons, but Ministers, acolytes, or lay clerks (properly so called.)
§ The first is more suitable for the young; the other for old persons.
Bishops, Priests, and other clerics, are each buried in vestments proper to their order. It was an ancient custom to place a chalice and paten of inferior metal into the hands of Priests and a pastoral staff into the left hand of Bishops; examples which it would be well to follow where practicable now-a-days.
Both in the procession, from the churchyard gate to the church, and afterwards from the church to the grave, a cross should be borne before the corpse, (a) as symbolizing the faith in which the deceased died, and (b) also as showing forth the truth that by the Cross alone salvation is looked for.
The altar should be vested in black. The sanctuary hangings, if there be any, may be of purple or violet. The Service book should be put into a cover of black silk or velvet, and no flower-vases should be suffered to remain on the altar,—nothing but a plain cross and two lights. If a coloured pede-cloth be in ordinary use, a black or violet carpet should, if possible, be substituted for it. The coffin should be placed in a bier outside the chancel screen or in the usual place, with the head towards the west; except in the case of ecclesiastics, when it may be brought into the chancel, and should be placed with the head towards the east. If there be a funeral sermon, the pulpit will be hung with black drapery. (Vide Funerals and Funeral Arrangements. London: Masters.)
In Heylyn’s History of the Reformation (London, 1660; p. 119), where he treats of the obsequies of the French King, celebrated at S. Paul’s cathedral, by Parker, Barlow, Scorey, &c., we find—”a communion was celebrated by the Bishops then attired in copes upon their surplices.”
The purpose for which of old the corpse was brought into the church was to have the Eucharistic Sacrifice offered in the presence and on behalf of the dead. Our own practice is a standing protest against the neglect of the Holy Sacrament, and it is in conformity alike with ancient precedent and modern directions that the altar Service should commence after the Lesson: the coffin standing before the congregation in the nave.
When there is a celebration of the Holy Eucharist in the presence of the deceased, “the Collect,” O merciful GOD, the FATHER of our LORD JESUS CHRIST, which occurs at the end of the Order of the Burial of the Dead as if it were an occasional prayer, is to be used in the Communion Office instead of the Collect for the day—it is, of course not to be repeated afterwards. When there is no celebration, “the Collect” is a kind of link between the Burial of
* If the Epistle and Gospel for the day are used, the Collect for the day must be used also, followed by the Collect from the Burial Service.
the Dead and the Eucharistic Office, and also the Church’s protest for a celebration on behalf of the soul of the deceased person.
If there is to be a Funeral Oration it will, of course, be delivered in the appointed place before the Offertory, if there is a celebration; if there is not, it will be spoken after the Lesson. In the former case, if the celebrant is preacher, he will preach in his full Eucharistic vestments either from the altar or from the pulpit. If one of the sacred Ministers preach he will do the same. If a simple Priest he will be vested in surplice or cotta and black stole.
Funeral palls should be made of a violet colour, ornamented with pink or white crosses. For children or young people they should be of a white material. If adorned with inscriptions, the following, from the best authorities, are recommended:—
“Blessed are the dead that die in the LORD.”
“ JESU Mercy.”
“ LORD of mercy, JESU blest, Grant them Thine eternal rest.”
“The souls of the righteous are in the hands of GOD.”
“ Eternal rest give to them, O LORD, and let perpetual light shine upon them.”
“The LORD grant that they may find mercy of the LORD in that day.”
Wilkins, i. p. 180. Laws of Keneth, 840 A.S.: “Let every tomb be esteemed sacred, adorn it with the sign of the cross, and beware that you trample not upon it with your feet.”
N.B.—The altar lights should be lighted by an acolyte in cassock and cotta immediately after the lesson.
It is an ancient custom to have three lights burning on each side of the bier,* and for a mourner holding a lighted taper to kneel on each side facing the chancel gates.
All the candles should be of unbleached wax. See Par. 87.
* “The funeral tapers (however thought of by some) are of the same humble import (viz., Gospel lights). Their meaning is to show that the departed souls are not quite put out, but having walked here as children of light, are now gone to walk before GOD in the light of the living.” Gregorie’s Works, p. 169.
THE THANKSGIVING OF WOMEN AFTER CHILDBIRTH,*
THE CHURCHING OF WOMEN.†
“The Woman, at the usual time after her Delivery, shall come into the Church decently apparelled, and there shall kneel down in some convenient place, as hath been accustomed, or as the Ordinary shall direct: And then the Priest shall say unto her,”
It is convenient to have a kneeling-stool and portable rails placed near the church door‡ for the woman who is to be churched.
The proper time for women to return thanks after childbirth is just before the service in which they are going to take part, whether Morning or Evening Prayer; most fitly of all before the celebration of the Holy Sacrament, in which the Rubric directs them to partake.§ The address “Forasmuch” should be said to the woman near the door. The Psalm—the first if before Holy Communion, the second at other times—should be said by the Priest close to the woman, who follows him secreto. It is the Priest teaching her what to say. The Psalm is not a processional one. The Psalm ended, the Priest will lead the woman by her right hand|| to the altar rails, and complete the Function at
* “If she be an unmarried woman, the form of thanksgiving shall not be said for her, except she hath either before her childbirth, done penance for her fault, or shall then do it at her coining to be churched, by appointment of the Ordinary. Abp. Grindal’s Art. for Cant. Prov. 1576.” “It is to be done immediately before the Commu-munion Service.” Bp. of Norwich, 1536. “If there be a Communion she is to receive It.” Bp. Cosin’s Works, vol. v. Notes and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer.
† “The Order for the Purification of Women.” Edw. VIth’s First Book. In Latin, “Purificatio Post Partum” or “Purificatio Mulierum.” Ma-nuale Sarisbur.
‡ “Ordo ad purificandum mulierem post par-tum ante ostium ecclesiae.” Man. Saris.
§ “If there be a Communion it is convenient that she receive the Holy Communion.” Book of Common Prayer.
|| “Deinde inducat eam sacerdos per manum dextrum in ecclesiam dicens.” Man. Saris.
“Et ipsa ingressa genuflectit coram Altari et orat, gratias agens Deo de beneficiis sibi col-latis: et sacerdos dicat.” Rit. Rom. De Benedic. Mul. p. Partum.
the altar. The service ended, the woman should come forward and make her offering, unless there be an Offertory.*
If there is not a celebration the Priest will place the woman’s offering# on the altar, and then pass to his place in the choir. If there be a celebration the offering will be given through the Offertory. It is desirable to fold it in paper, as though an offering to Almighty GOD—and so always offered as an oblation on the altar—the Priest has warrant to take it from thence, as deputed by him, as S. Paul plainly shows. 1 Cor. ix. 13, 14; Heb. xii. 10.
The Priest should be vested in surplice, and white stole, and should be attended by a lay clerk or chorister in surplice. The office book should be prepared in the sacristy.
OR DENOUNCING OF GOD’S ANGER AND JUDGEMENTS AGAINST SINNERS,
with certain prayers, to be used on the first day of lent, and at other times, as the ordinary shall appoint.
“After Morning Prayer, the Litany ended according to the accustomed manner, the Priest shall, in the reading-pew or pulpit, say,”
Vestments: the same as at Matins—the stole violet or black.
The Commination Service is to be regarded as a protest against the abeyance of that Godly discipline by which the Church has never rested till her sinning members are brought to confess their sins, and to seek reconciliation.
* “Tunc surgat et eat ad locum ubi sedere de-beat, usque poll missam. Peractaque missa surgat et reveniat ad eundem locum ubi prius, videlicet, ad gradum altaris: et ibi genuflectens ut sumat et recipiat absolutionem a sacerdote. Hoc modo dicat sacerdos. Misereatur, etc.” Man. Ebor. apud Maskell.
† The use of the chrism which was put on the child at Baptism was disused in 1552. And in 1561 we find amongst the Bishops’ interpretations of the Royal Injunctions the following directions: “To avoid contention, let the curate have the value of the chrism, not under the value of fourpence, and above as they may agree, and as the state of the parents may require.” This appears to be a rule for the amount of the offering at Churching. See Stephens’ Book of Common Prayer in loc. fol. 1762.
The word “reading-pew” in the Rubric prefixed to this Office is merely an ancient expression for “reading stall,”* i.e., the stall in the chancel from which the ancient “Lections” were read, which was usually one of those placed against the chancel screen; supposing then, that the chancel be used as in olden times, this is the place from which to read the address, “Brethren, &c.” Or, as the Rubric asserts, the pulpit may be used.
“Then shall they all kneel upon their knees, and the Priests and Clerks kneeling (in the place where they are accustomed to say the Litany) shall say this Psalm”
Miserere mei, Deus. Psal. li.
The Litany stool should be placed between the choir and the altar: that is, at the eastern end of the stalls, at the commencement of the Sacrarium.
* This may be seen from any old church wardens’ account book: the expression is found in use more than a century prior to the erection of Puritan “dozing-pens.”
 Solemnizatio non potest fieri a prima Dominica Ad-ventus usque ad octavas Epiphaniae exclusive; et a Dominica lxx. usque ad primam Dominicam post Pascha inclusive; et a prima die Rogationis usque ad septimum diem Pentecostes inclusive; licet quoad vinculum his diebus contrahi possit. Lyndwood’s Gloss apud Gibson’s Codex, fol. 518. See also Stephen’s Edition of Book of Common Prayer, fol. 1502.
 But outside the chancel—the Priest will stand on the step in front of the screen gates.
 “Dum dicitur praedictus Psalmus a choro vel a clerico, accipiat interim sacerdos oleum infirmorum super pollicem dextrum:” et sic cum illo pollice tangat infirmum cum oleo, signum sanctae crucis faciens, super utrumque oculum inci piendo ad dextrum, et dicat sacerdos hoc modo.” Man. Sarisb. fol. xciv.
“Deinde intincto pollice in oleo sancto in modum crucis ungit infirmum.” Rit. Rom. de Ex. Unc.
 “Whether your parson, vicar, curate, minister, or reader do church any unmarried woman who hath been gotten with child out of lawful marriage, and say for her the Form of Thanksgiving of Women after Childbirth, except such an unmarried woman have either, before her childbirth, done due penance for her fault to the satisfaction of the congregation, or at her coming to give thanks do openly acknowledge her fault before the congregation, at the appointment of the minister, according to order prescribed to the said minister by the Ordinary or his deputy; the same churching to be always on some Sunday or Holy Day, and upon no other day.” Articles, &c. within Prov. of Canterbury. Art. 22, Grindal’s Remains, p. 164.
 “The Minister shall put upon him his white vesture, commonly called the chrism.” Rub. 1st Book Edw. VI. This preceded the anointing. The same Book of Edw. VI. orders, that “the woman who is purified must offer her chrism and other accustomed offerings.”