MATINS AND EVENSONG.*
“ The Morning† and Evening Prayer shall be used in the accustomed place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel;‡ except it shall be otherwise determined by the Ordinary of the place. And the Chancels shall remain as they have done in times past.”
“And here it is to be noted, that such ornaments of the church and of the ministers thereof at all times of their ministration, shall be retained and be in use
* The old Matins and Lauds are now called Matins; Vespers and Compline Evensong. So Cranmer writing to Henry VIII.
The ancient rule for the East and West is, that the Holy Eucharist should never be celebrated unless matins and lauds, at least, had preceded. The intention of the English Church as a general rule is still, no doubt, the same, (see supra Par. pp. 1—2,) and is clear for Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at least; since the Litany appointed to be sung “after Morning Prayer” is properly preparatory to the Liturgy, (see Par. 16, note #,) and it was in this character that it first found its way into our Service Book. (Conf. Injunctions of Edwd. VI. 1549.) “The Litany shall be said afore High Mass in the midst of the choir;” and rubric at end of Communion Office, First Book of Edwd. VI., “After the Litany ended the Priest shall... say all things at the Altar,” &c.
† Hour of Matins. Matins and Lauds (the Matins or Morning Prayer of the English Church) may be said or sung at any time from 12 a.m. to 12 at noon.
‡ Trullan canons (69th). “That no layman come within the Holy Chancel, except the Emperor, when he comes to make his offering, according to tradition.”
“ We come now to speak of the Chancel Arch and the Rood Screen, two of the most important features in a church. These, as separating the Choir from the Nave, denote literally the separation of the Clergy from the Laity, but symbolically the division between the Militant and Triumphant Churches, that is to say, the Death of the Faithful. The first great symbol which sets this forth is the Triumphal Cross, the image of Him Who by His Death hath overcome Death, and has gone before His people through the valley of its shadow. The images of Saints and Martyrs appear in the lower panelling, as examples of faith and patience to us. The colours of the Rood Screen itself represent their Passion and Victory; the crimson sets forth the one, the gold the other. The curious tracery of network typifies the obscure manner in which heavenly things are set forth, while we look at them from the Church Militant.”—Introductory Essay to Neale and Webb’s Durandus, p. cii.
For poll-Reformation authorities see “Chancel and Roodscreens” in contents of “Hierurgia Anglicana.”
as were in this Church of England by the authority of Parliament, in the second year of the reign of King Edward VI”
The direction that “chancels shall remain as in times past,” implies that they shall be separated from the nave by a Rood-screen,* and that the clergy, together with all who are about to assist in the service, i.e. the choir, should have their places there, and no one else.
“The ornaments of the church and of the Ministers thereof” are fully described under the heads: “The Celebration of the Holy Eucharist,” and “The Order of Administration.” A complete list of furniture of the Altar, and of the sacred vestments is given in the Appendix.
The Daily Office is ordered to be “sung or said;” i.e. either recited musically on a single note, or with the use of certain simple inflections, which constitute “Plain Song.”
Public worship consists of praise and prayer. The first part of the service is introductory. The office of praise begins with the Gloria Patri, and includes the Psalms (furnishing topics of praise as well as Divine instruction); Lessons, Canticles (a descant of praise on the lessons and on the whole economy of redemption). The remainder comprises the Creed (which declares the object of the act of prayer, and has also an avowed relation to the first part of the office, and is as it were a link between the praise of the office and its intercessory function), and the office of prayer; the portion after the third collect: being devoted to intercessory prayer.
In the Prayers, Psalms, and Creeds, with which the people are familiar, it
* The Rood Screen should be always fur-mounted by a Cross. This architectural ornament, so distinctively authorised by the recent judgment of the Privy Council, in the case of the Knightsbridge Churches, will of course everywhere be restored.
Crosses exist in the following churches:
This list has no pretension to be a complete one.
is better not to make the termination ed a separate syllable. In reading Holy Scripture it may be sounded separately.
114. Vestments for the Daily Service, or Divine Office*
Preparatio ad chorum.
On entering Church.—” This is none other but the House of GOD: this is the Gate of Heaven.”
On entering the Vestry kneel down and say,—O LORD, I am come now
into Thine House, and am
On putting on the Surplice or Alb.—Have mercy upon me, O LORD, and cleanse me from all stains of sin, that, with those who have made their robes white in the Blood of the Lamb, I may have grace to attain to everlasting happiness. Amen.
Ad Stolam.—Stola justitiæ circumda Domine cervices meas, et ab omni contagione peccati purifica mentem meam. Amen.
Ad Caputium.—Indue me Domine lorica fidei et galea salutis et gladio Spiritus Sancti. Amen.
In passing to the Choir.—Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD, or who shall rise up in His holy place ? Even he that hath clean hands, and a pure heart, that hath not lift up his mind unto vanity, nor sworn to deceive his neighbour. He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the GOD of his salvation.
In Choir.—O GOD, before Whose Presence the very Angels veil their faces, help me to adore Thee present in this Sanctuary with reverence and GODly fear. May the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in Thy sight, O LORD, my strength and my Redeemer. Amen.
As applying to several departments of Services.
Unite our prayers and praises to those of Thy Church throughout the world. Amen.
Give unto us the preparations of heart which are from the LORD;—an open mouth to show forth Thy praise;—a wife and understanding heart to receive the knowledge of Thy truth, and to praise Thee for all the glorious things which Thou haft done;—a spirit of supplication to seek those things of which we have need. Through our LORD JESUS CHRIST.
Aperi Domine os meum ad benedicendum nomen Tuum, munda quoque cor meum ab omnibus vanis, perversis, atque alienis cogitationibus, intellectum illumina, affectum inflamma, ut dignè attentè ac devote hoc officium recitare valeam, et exaudiri merear ante conspectum divinæ Majestatis Tuæ. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.
* Bands may be worn in choir during the recitation of the Divine Office. They are of course never worn with the Eucharistic vestments.
Choristers.—Cassock, cotta* (viz. short surplice,) square cap.
Deacons.—Cassock, cotta, silk hood “agreeable to their degrees,” or decent tippet of black, so it be not silk, for those not graduates, square cap.
Priests.—Cassock, cotta, silk hood “agreeable to their degrees,” or decent tippet of black, so it be not silk, if not graduates, square cap, perhaps the stole also. Note: the cassock should reach to the feet.
The rector, or vicar may wear causa honoris the grey amys over a long ministerial surplice. If not taking part in matins he need not wear the hood; if he assist thereat, the grey amys can be worn over the graduate’s hood.†
116. The Stole.‡
Neither Priests or Deacons need wear the stole at matins, the office not being of a decidedly sacramental character. See p. 13. Par. 4.
117. Mode of proceeding to Choir.
(i) The choristers, (2) Deacons, (3) Priests preceding the (4) rector or vicar issue from the sacristy with heads uncovered, and advance towards the choir in such a manner that the right shoulder of the one may nearly touch the left of the other; and thus each two maintaining an equal distance from the other, proceed with measured step, holding their caps with both hands before the breast. Having arrived in the choir, they bow towards the Altar,§ and those who form each pair, face one another, and retire to their places at
* Choristers should wear the alb at the Eucharist, as the alb is the sacrificial, the surplice the choral vestment.
† That the grey amys (see Sparrow’s Collection, 227) was used since the Reformation is proved by its being forbidden to be worn by a set of canons put forth in 1571. These canons, never having been submitted to the Lower House of Convocation, and never having received the Royal sanction, nor been ratified by Parliament, are of not the slightest authority. They are considered to have been subscribed and approved by Grindall, Archbishop of York. Strype’s Parker, ii. 57—62.
‡ If a deacon wear the stole at the ordinary office, he had better wear it pendent over the left shoulder, and not crossed as in the Eucharistic.
§ Canon VII., of the Synod of 1640. This canon may serve as a recommendation of this most reverent practice, though it is not binding as a legal authority, having been framed in a synod of Convocation, which had been improperly convened. See also Bishop Jeremy Taylor’s “Treatise on Reverence to the Altar.”
opposite sides of the choir, where they remain standing,* till they take their seats laterally north and south, the choristers on the floor of the chancel.#
The rector or vicar goes to the Decani stall with back to rood-screen and fronting the east. #
The Priest, if one there be, who is appointed to pronounce the Absolution may occupy the corresponding Cantoris stall.
If it be the custom (a very undesirable one) for the choristers and ecclesiastics
* See Cærem. Epis. Liber I. cap. 18.
† It is the custom in some choirs for the Officiant and choristers to kneel on taking their places, and at the same time to cover up their heads in the sleeves of their surplices, this latter unseemly usage should never be permitted. It is not necessary to kneel on entering the choir, bowing to the Altar is enough; but if kneeling is practised on the choir first taking their places, the head should simply be bowed over the joined hands.
‡ Worshipping towards the East. Clemens Alex. Strom. I. 7. p. 724. (Wheatley.)
From the 27th chapter, concerning the HOLY GHOST, to Amphilochius.
He speaks of the written doctrine and unwritten traditions of the Apostles, and says that both have the same efficacy as to religion. The unwritten traditions, which he mentions, are the signing our hope in CHRIST with the cross, turning towards the East, to denote that we are in quest of Eden from whence our first parents were ejected, (as he afterwards explains it.) Canons of S. Basil (92nd), now owned only by the Eastern Church. See also Neale and Webb’s Durandus, Appendix B.
“The very position of our Blessed saviour on the Cross as represented in the Great Rood and in stained glass is not without a meaning. In modern paintings, the arms are high above the head, the whole weight of the body seeming to rest upon them. And this, besides its literal truth, gives occasion to that miserable display of anatomical knowledge, in which such pictures so much abound. The Catholic representation pictures the Arms as extended horizontally: thereby signifying how the saviour, when extended on the Cross, embraced the whole world. Thus, as it ever ought to be, is physical sacrificed to moral truth.” — Introductory Essay to Neale and Webb’s Durandus, p. lxxxv. — vi.
“The Priest being in the quire shall begin with a loud voice the LORD’s Prayer, called the Paternoster.” First rubric in the “Order for Matins daily through the year,” in King Edward’s First Prayer Book.
See Cardw. Con. p. 314, 351, which will show that the mind of the English Church is not to read prayers westward fronting the people.
Till after the Restoration, there was no instance, it is believed, of the desk for prayers facing westward. Jebb’s Choral Service, p. 329.
See also Robertson’s “How to Conform,” p. 623. A very cautious and moderate writer. It appears that in Elizabeth’s time though the reading-desk might be put up in the body of the church, it never fronted the west; it may have done so between 1552 — 1553. See rubric of 1552. See Robertson for first introduction, 66. Proctor, 180.
For full post-Reformation examples, besides those given by Mr. Robertson, the reader is referred to that book of great authority “Hierurgia Anglicana,” pp. 32 — 40; 73, 109; 260, 261; 363, &c.
not to enter the choir processionally, it is only seemly for them to kneel some little time in prayer in their places. See notes to Par. 117.
It is quite irregular for any clerics to occupy the sedilia during matins and evensong, or to sit in two easy chairs at the north and south ends of the Altar. Note: the legs are not to be crossed in choir.
THE ORDER FOR MORNING PRAYER,
DAILY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
“At the beginning* of Morning Prayer the Minister shall read with a loud voice some one or more of these Sentences of the Scriptures that follow. And then he shall say that which is written after the said Sentences”
The old rubrics direct the making the sign of the cross before beginning any Office.†
N.B. In all processions what will be the right hand in going into the choir
* A brief prelude of praise in the form of a short hymn, followed immediately by the Sentence, would certainly be in accordance with the purest conception of Divine Service. The authority of the injunction of Queen Elizabeth can be pleaded for this flight variation from the rigour of the Rubric:—” That there be a modest and distinct song so used in all parts of the Common-Prayers in the Church, that the same may be as plainly understanded, as if it were mere reading without singing; and yet nevertheless for the comforting of such as delight in musick, it may be permitted, that in the beginning, or in the end of Common-Prayers, either at Morning or Evening, there may be sung an hymn, or such like song, to the praise of Almighty GOD, in the belt sort of melody and musick that may be conveniently devised, having respect that the sentence of the hymn may be understanded and perceived.”—Injunctions by Q. Elizabeth, 1559. Sparrow’s Collection, ed. 1671, p. 79.
† The sign of the Cross is made by lifting the right hand to the forehead and afterwards a line to the bottom of the breast, and then another line crossing the former from the left shoulder to the right. Whilst performing this action it is proper to invocate (secreto) the Three Persons of the Ever Blessed Trinity in token of our faith therein. The Cross is made with the whole hand. In the aft of blessing anything the Cross is made over it in the air, and in benediction of the faithful it is made towards the congregation. In the West, at the Gospel, a distinct Cross is traced with the edge of the thumb on the brow, lips, and bosom. In the East, the Cross is made with three fingers, that is, the thumb and two fingers, in honour of the TRINITY. The sign used to be made at the end of the Gospel, the Creeds, the LORD’s Prayer, the Gloria in excelsis, the Sanctus, the Agnus Dei, the Benedictus, Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis, the end of the Liturgy, when the Priest gives the Benediction, and whenever mention is made of the cross of the crucified.
is the place of honour; in returning, the place of honour is the left. In chanting, the first verse is sung full; the, Cantoris side takes the second, the Decani side the third, and so on.
The Sentences are to be regarded as antiphons, and not as “exhortations.” Consequently, they should be musically recited, also not towards the people.* The following arrangement has been suggested:—
123. Arrangement of Sentences on Occurrence of Fridays and Festivals.
When a festival falls on a Friday, it is seemly to use the festal antiphon. The meaning of “reading with a loud voice”† is, reading according to musical notation “some one or more of these sentences,” and not the colloquial utterance of certain Scripture texts to the congregation. The feast of the Nativity being the only festival which supersedes the Friday Abstinence-day. When Christmas Day falls on a Friday, of course no penitential antiphon, nor the collect, “O GOD, Whose Nature,” should be used.
124. Position of Hands.
Joined before the breast, with fingers extended, and the right thumb placed over the left in the form of a cross, when kneeling. In sitting the same rule is observed, and the hands are placed upon the lap. In standing the hands should still be joined before the breast.
125. The Exhortation.
“And then he shall say that which is written after the said Sentences.”
To be said, facing the congregation.
* When celebration of Holy Eucharist is about to follow the Ordinary Office the same arrangement of sentences will obtain. The Eucharist has its penitential aspect on Wednesdays and Fridays in the English Church. Those days were customary days of celebration in the African and Eastern use, in addition to Sundays, especially in Lent. A separate Epistle and Gospel was provided, in the English uses, in Epiphany for Wednesdays and Fridays, and in the Trinity period for Wednesday only.
† In contradistinction to the inaudible tone called secreto in the Western Church. The loud or audible voice (clara vox) is identical with the Ecclesiastical tone.
126. The General Confession.
“ A general Confession to be said of the whole congregation after the Minister, all kneeling.”
“After the Minister,” not with* the Minister. Each clause of the Confession is marked by a capital letter commencing it, a rule which should be carefully observed, as, pervading similar places in the Prayer Book, and ought to be repeated in each interval, when the Minister has paused after the manner of the Litany.
127. The Amen.
It will be observed that the word “Amen” is printed at the end of the General Confession; but that the first rubric, directing it to be said by the people at the end of all the prayers, occurs after the Absolution: also that the word is printed in a different type at the end of the prayers. In these the Officiant says the prayer or the collect, and there stops, while the people answer their “Amen.” In other parts as the General Confession, LORD’s Prayer, Creeds, “Gloria Patri,” which are repeated by the Officiant and people, there is no such difference, the Minister goes on, and says “Amen” himself, thus directing the people to do the same. The Gloria should always be said full.
128. The Absolution.
“ The Absolution, or Remission of sins, to be pronounced by the Priest alone,† standing; the people still kneeling.”
* The parts which are said with the Minister are, the LORD’s Prayer, (except in the ante-Communion Service when the Priest says it, and in the post-Communion where it is said after him,) the Apostles’ Creed, and the Nicene Creed. Those which are said after the Minister are the General Confession, and by analogy (for precise rubrical directions are wanting) that in the Communion Office, and the prayer, “Turn Thou us, good LORD,” in the Commination.
† The old form was said interchangeably, with the exception of the last clause, by Priest and people. Vide Maskell, Anc. Lit. p. 6, 1st edit. P. 12, 13, 2nd edit.
A Deacon ought not to read prayers save in the presence of a Priest, except in cases of necessity. For the part that a Deacon may perform, see Ordination Service. If a Deacon be performing the introductory portion of the service when a Priest also is present, and in his place in the choir (no cleric occupies the sedilia or other seat in the sacrarium save during the Sermon in the Communion Office), the Priest should stand and pronounce the Absolution, the Deacon kneeling with bowed head and joined hands in his stall, as he is acting as assistant to the Priest, and ready to proceed to lead the people in the next petitions. But when no Priest is present, the Deacon should continue kneeling and proceed to the LORD’s Prayer. It is quite wrong to insert the prayer, “O GOD, Whose nature and property,” or “O LORD, we beseech Thee, mercifully hear our prayers,” from the Commination Service, in the place of the Absolution.
When a Deacon is officiating he should continue to kneel even where the Officiant (who is supposed to be a Priest) is directed to stand. Where a Priest is present he must read the intercessory part of the Office as well as the Absolution.
“The Priest alone” probably means not in contradistinction to a Deacon, but to the people, in reference to the old custom. In a translation of our Prayer Book, by Elias Petley, dedicated to Archbishop Laud, the Absolution is ordered to be said upo tou diakonon monou.
The Absolution should be pronounced “junctis manibus” according to mediæval custom.*
“The people shall answer here, and at the end of all other prayers, Amen.”
Vide supra, Par. 127.
130. The LORD’s Prayer.
“Then the Minifter shall kneel, and say the LORD’s Prayer with an audible voice; the people also kneeling, and repeating it with him, both here, and wheresoever else it is used in Divine Service”
Audible voice, “clara vox.” “If,” says Archbishop Laud, “in some principal part of the service there be a caveat given that the presbyter shall speak with a loud voice and distinctly, it implies that he be very careful in that place that his voice be audible and distinct.” The LORD’s Prayer was in the ancient office for matins repeated in a low voice throughout. The Church of England in order to secure distinctness of recitation, as is seemly in the enunciation of the LORD’s own words, orders it to be repeated here with the Minister, and not after him.
The LORD’s Prayer concludes the introductory part of matins. The doxology at the close of it was not added till the last review, it is used here only in the office of matins, and is greatly to be prized as possessed by us alone among Western Churches. It also serves to impart to this Divine summary of all our worship, as the general thanksgiving does to the office itself, the dominant and pervading aspect of praise.
“Wheresoever else it is used in Divine Service,”—with this exception, the opening of the Communion Office. The rubric in the Communion Office orders the Priest “standing at the north side of the Table to say the LORD’s Prayer with the collect following, the people kneeling;” not, observe, saying it with him. In the post-Communion Service it is ordered that the LORD’s Prayer shall be repeated every petition after the Priest by the people, and it is unreasonable to suppose that at the last revision there was any intention to make
* For bowing the head at the Name of the LORD JESUS, see Canon XVIII., 160¾. Some have held that the head need not be bowed in kneeling, and consequently that the people need not bow the head when in that position, but in our upright way of kneeling it is seemly to do so.
a rubric at matins abolish in an underhand manner a Catholic rubric in the Liturgy. Indeed the character and predilections of the revisers render such an hypothesis absurd. We should also remember that wherever the LORD’s Prayer occurs, save in the commencement of the Holy Communion, the direction for the people to say it with the Minister is usually repeated, although the rubrics are in different terms. “Wherever else it is used in Divine Service,” must mean wherever else, except there be a rubric to the contrary; the one rubric to the contrary being the one in the opening of the Communion Office as we have seen.
131. The Versicles.
“Then likewise he shall say,”
These two* pairs of Versicles should be used as the link between our penitential preface or introduction, and the act of worship itself. When we remember that the first pair is from Psalm li. and the second from Psalm lxx., their humbling and penitential character will be manifest. A low pitch is always assigned to them in musical recitation.
132. The Praise of the Office.—The Gloria, Versicle and Response.
“Here all standing up, the Priest shall say,”
With the “Gloria” the praise of the Office begins, and here all, clergy, choir, and people not only stand, but according to the Sarum Use, still retained as a Catholic tradition in many places, they who in choir are ranged laterally, turn to the Altar, the head moderately inclined.†
V. “Praise ye the LORD.” R. “The LORD’s Name be praised.” This Versicle, and its answer represent for us both the “Alleluia” and “Invitatory.” Indeed the exhortation “Praise ye the LORD,” (the old Alleluia) answers the purpose of the regular Invitatory, and was probably intended to do so, when‡ in the First Book of Edward VI., the Venite was ordered to be sung “without any Invitatory,” i.e., without any of the exact type which had been customary.
* They were formerly sung, all turned to the Altar.
† “Quotiesque dicitur Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto, ad eadem verba Deo humiliter se inclinent.”—Canon of English Church, Wilkins, iii. 20. According to the Roman Use, the head is inclined, but they do not turn to the Altar.
‡ “Praise ye the LORD. (And from Easter to Trinity Sunday.) Hallelujah!”—Edward VI.’s First Book of Common Prayer.
The response was added at the last revision, but was first inserted in the Prayer Book for Scotland (1637).
Consequently the Versicle and Response forms the Alleluia and Invitatory to the Venite, the prelude of the psalmody and worship of the day.
Praise ye the LORD, (or Alleluia) is to be said by the Priest, turned to the people.*
133. The Venite.
“Then shall be said, or sung this Psalm following: except on Easter Day, upon which another Anthem is appointed: and on the Nineteenth day of every Month it is not to be read here, but in the ordinary course of the Psalms.
Venite, exult emus Domino. Psalm xcv.”
Whatever† loss we may sustain from the general unvarying character of our Invitatory Psalm, this tends to put a singular degree of honour upon the one day in the year on which we lay it aside, the great and supreme festival of Easter, the queen of feasts. It is not that at other times we fail to acknowledge CHRIST as the Great King, One with the FATHER and the holy spirit; but that the one piece of heavenly tidings which we recognise as making Christian praise itself more Christian still, and so claiming to supersede our ordinary Invitatory, is that “CHRIST is risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.” The omission of the Venite when it occurs in the ordinary course of the Psalms, which has been sometimes animadverted upon as a novelty, was customary throughout the West.‡It anciently occurred as a proper Psalm for the Epiphany.
In some parish churches where an imitation of the choral service is prosessed, the Venite is often chanted whilst the Psalms are not even said in monotone, but colloquially. It is not necessary to enlarge upon the absurdity of this practice, which after having given the appropriate musical expression to the invitation to praise, denies it to the act of praise itself. Where partial chanting is used, it would be much more consistent to confine it to the Canticles after the Lessons, though even this is undesirable. The service ought either to be said (monotoned) throughout, or chanted.
The first seven verses of the Venite being of a joyful character, the rest more penitential, it is well suited to precede the Psalms of the day, whether joyful or otherwise.
* In the Western Church the organ does not sound throughout Lent or Advent, except on the Sundays Gaudemus and Lætare.
† It may be conjectured, though we have no positive evidence of the fact, that the temple service commenced daily with the 95th Psalm itself, or with some part of it. The Synagogue Service on the Sabbath so commences at this day.—Freeman, Principles of Divine Service, whose interesting note see p. 402.
‡ “In Brev. Rom. the Psalm was still treated invitatory-wife, but in Sar. not so.”—Freeman’s note.
At the Venite the organ usually sounds for the first time. Before it commences, the first half of the first verse is intoned by the Officiant or by the Precentor the faithful usually bow the head at the Gloria Patri. According to the Sarum rite (our legitimate guide,) they turn* towards the Altar, and incline.
The Venite should be recited on decani and cantoris sides, antiphonally.
134. Psalms.—Eagle Lectern.† Gloria.
“Then shall follow the Psalms in order as they are appointed. And at the end of every Psalm throughout the Year and likewise at the end of Benedicite, Benedictus, Magnificat, and Nunc Dimittis, shall be repeated,
Glory be to the FATHER, and to the Son: and to the HOLY GHOST;
These should immediately follow the “Gloria” of the Venite, without giving out the day of the month, or number of the Psalm, such as “the first day,” “the first Psalm,” “Morning Prayer,” and the like, which is a modern corruption never contemplated by the Rubric.
The choir stand laterally except at the Gloria, the rector or vicar fronting the Altar from his Decani stall.
The chief thing to be borne in mind in the saying or singing of the Psalms, is that we are now fairly embarked in but great enterprise of Praise, in which we give all glory to GOD and offer ourselves in body, soul, and spirit to Him. This part of the service is therefore of the same kind, and should be performed in the same spirit, as that greater and more acceptable act of oblation (or offering,) praise and thanksgiving, which we are privileged to make at the Holy Eucharist, when we “offer (as a second oblation,) ourselves, our souls, and bodied, to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice,” to GOD.
The Psalms are chanted antiphonally by those who occupy the opposite sides of the church, the choir leading: they should not be said alternately by Minister and choir, but antiphonally, viz., on Decani and Cantoris sides.‡
* In one widely prevailing variety of the Western Rite special provision was made for a penitential act in connection with the Venite. For it was ordered by the Rubric that at the words, “O come, let us worship, and fall down: and weep (sic, after the Vulg. and LXX.) before the LORD bur Maker,” all were “to fall down” accordingly.
† This is now usually used for reading the Lessons from, and is sometimes placed without the roodscreen. In mediæval times it stood in the midst of the choir, fronting the Altar, and the antiphonary was placed on it, and the Precentor who gave out the antiphon took his stand there.
‡ Where there is no choir the Psalms may be said by Priest and people alternately.
To read the Psalms colloquially instead of chanting them, or at least saying them in monotone, is absurd and unedifying. It would be as proper to chant the sermon, or to intone the notices of holydays, banns of marriage, and excommunications. S. Basil points out as one use of the alternate method of singing, in chanting the Psalms, viz., that they are also great media of knowledge as well as of praise, though that is doubtless their first function.* The Gloria should be said full.
In some parish churches the GLORIA PATRI is chanted whilst the Psalms are said. In this there is nothing abstractedly wrong; since the Gloria Patri is a separate hymn. Still, as the repetition of the doxology# after each Psalm signifies our belief that the same GOD was worshipped by the Jewish church as by us, and many of the Psalms (and probably the 95th) were used in the Temple worship, only the mystery of the HOLY TRINITY is more clearly revealed to us; and we by this addition turn the Jewish Psalms to Christian hymns: it seems improper to dissociate the Psalms by so different a manner of performance from that hymn which so markedly stamps them with the character of Christian songs. The prophecies of David being now converted into the praises of the Church, we ought to aid the Church, not hinder her, in the assimilation she designed. Besides this consideration to say the Psalms, and to chant the Gloria Patri violates the general rule that the office should be either monotoned, or chanted, throughout.
The chants called Gregorian, there is good reason for believing, have David for their author no less than the Psalms, and are the identical melodies to which the Psalter was sung from the very first in the service of the sanctuary.
For the position of the clergy, choir, and people, during the Gloria, see Par. 132.
135. The Voluntary† after the Psalms.
The sanction of old custom is all that can be urged in favour of the voluntary. In churches where the lessons are read from the lectern in the centre of the choir, or without the Roodscreen, it might be well to play a few bars
* dich dianemhqenteV antiyallousin allhloiV.— Ep. 3, ad Neocæs. See Freeman, p. 331, and Jebb, 277, 278.
† The repetition of the Doxology at the end of every Psalm was ordered in 1549. First Book of Edward VI.
Benedict in his rule speaks of the Gloria Patri being used at the beginning of the offices. It has been conjectured that it began to be used. here some time before the age of Benedict as a termination to some introductory Psalms, which were then repeated entirely. — See Palmer, vol. i. p. 220. But see Freeman, vol. i. p. 329.
“In hac provincia (Gallia) in clausula psalmi, omnes adstantes concinunt cum clamore GLORIA PATRI et FILIO et SPIRITUI SANCTO.” — Cassianus, lib. ii. c. viii.
‡ See Neale’s letter to Daniel. Vol. v. pp. 3 — 4 of Daniel’s Thesaurus Hymnologicus.
upon the organ whilst the Minister is going from his stall to the lectern, so as to avoid the indecorum of moving about whilst any part of the office is going on.
The Voluntary may plead, however, some analogy in that musical prolongation of the last note of the Alleluia of the Gradual, to which the Sequences were afterwards adapted. Thus viewed, it should be a quiet harmony, winding on out of the last note of “Amen” following the “Glory be to the FATHER.” Its significance would thus be like that of the Sequences, the echo and prolongation, in the heavenly courts, of the Praise.
136. The Lessons.
“Then shall be read distinctly with an audible voice the First Lesson, taken out of the Old Testament, as is appointed in the Kalendar, (except there be proper Lessons assigned for that day.) He, that readeth,so standing, and turning himself, as he may best be heard of all such as are present. And after that, shall be said, or sung in English, the Hymn called Te Deum Laudamus, daily throughout the Year.”
These are to be read from a lectern in the midst of the choir, or immediately outside the chancel-screen, the reader fronting the west. They are, however, sometimes read from the Reader’s stall in the choir. By the words “He that readeth,” an intimation is given that the reader of lessons is not necessarily assigned to the Officiant at Matins or Evensong. The reader in Deacon’s orders, to whose office it pertaineth to assist the Priest in Divine Service, reads the first lesson; a Priest, causa honoris, might read the second.
“Read distinctly with an audible voice:” this evidently refers to reading according to musical notation with the “clara vox,” that is, the lessons are to be read in a chanting tone. In former rubrics the lessons were ordered to be sung in a plain tune, when of course ordinary reading in the speaking tones of the voice was at once put out of the question.* At the last revision the rubric was altered to its present form. The rubric is worded so as to permit ordinary reading in the lessons taking the words in their usual conventional meaning, whilst technically the animus of the rubric is perfectly unaltered.
In cathedrals the lessons are the portions of the service most indistinctly heard, indeed as far as being “understanded of the people,” they might as well be read out of the Vulgate. Though doubtless whether read in Latin; or, so indistinctly read as to be inaudible, in English, they are to be honoured, and given thanks for, as the Words of GOD, as the sounding of the Divine
* “And (to the end the people may better hear) in such places where they do sing, there shall the lessons be sung in a plain tune after the manner of distinct reading: and likewise the Epistle and Gospel.” Rubric of 1549, 1552, 1559, 1604, and Scotch Prayer Book of Laud, 1637. See Keeling, pp. 12, 13, for comparison of rubrics.
Voice in the ears of men. In cathedrals and large churches it is expedient therefore to read the lessons in a plain tune, or, at least on a high sustained pitch, to the end the faithful may better hear, according to the mind of the English Church.
In parish churches of ordinary size, it may suffice to read the lessons in the speaking tones of the voice, dropping alike the monotone and the chant.
In regard to “the plain tune after the manner of distinct reading,” it should be remembered that in ancient times the musical tone (as in the modern Opera recitative, and as in the recitation* of Roman Tragedy,) was used not only in the prayers but in all lessons of the Church. The “distinct” reading means the inflexions by which the tone was varied, which were fixed by stated rules: the interrogations, exclamations, pauses, &c., being marked by corresponding rises and falls. For these inflexions very exact rules are laid down in the ancient treatises on Church Music. So that those who justify a monotonous mode of reading the lessons by the alleged inflexibility of the ancient tone, are altogether mistaken. If they chant, the inflexions of the chant, the end of which is due expression, ought to be used.
When the lessons are read in the speaking tones of the voice, by analogy the due varieties of ordinary speech ought to be used. Those who are capable of managing their voice (and this ought to be a matter of study to all†) ought,
* “At Paris I once saw Mars, with Talma, in a tragedy, where the whole of her part was plaintive supplication; and I remarked to my companion at the close, that during the entire representation her voice, said to be the sweetest pronunciation ever known, had never changed from one note” Note to a letter by Ven. Archdeacon Thorp, addressed to the editor of the “Guardian,” which appeared in that paper Sept. 19, 1855.
† “Clergymen’s sore throat is due entirely to a neglect of observation of the mechanism of speaking; a mechanism which is obvious to any one whose attention is once directed to the matter. Look at a public singer, who wishes to exert the voice to the utmost, at a Greek or Roman statue of an orator, at Raphael’s S. Paul preaching at Athens, at most of our really powerful speakers and preachers, and what is the attitude ? The lungs are expanded to the full, the windpipe is held straight, the shoulders thrown back, and the arms swung loose; the muscles of the whole trunk have full easy play. Every one of them can be brought to bear in throwing out the voice, because they have nothing else to do; the cartilages of the ribs are stretched so that their elasticity is also made useful, and saves the muscles considerably. Not a single part is overworked, because all act at once, and assist one another. But make a man with clergyman’s fore throat read, and you see the origin of his ailment in a moment. The windpipe is bent at an angle, so as to make it difficult to speak at all; the shoulders are brought forward, so that the poor costal cartilages have no chance of exhibiting the beautiful elasticity they are endowed with, and the lungs emptied, so that the relaxed muscles and the diaphragm have to act at an enormous disadvantage, and to strain themselves in order to squeeze out the creaking falsetto which results. Naturally enough all the delicate muscles of the throat are overworked, and affect, secondarily, the mucous membrane that clothes them. There was a quack fellow who made quite a fortune by curing clergymen who had loft their voices. He used to make them promise or swear secrecy concerning his method of treatment, and so it was not generally known that the whole art consisted in teaching them to speak with the chest dilated, and thus to get rid not only of sore throat, but of stammering, and a variety of other impediments arising from feeble muscle. The cure, or rather the prevention, is so simple, and occurs so naturally to every person who has studied ever so superficially the mechanism of speaking, that the ailment ought never to be heard of among educated persons.” Dr. Chambers. Lectures to Ladies on Practical Subjects. Cambridge: Macmillan.—p. 145.
“Another of your grievances is the feebleness of delivery of the officiating Minister; he has not health or strength to get through his duties on the morning of the LORD’s Day in an efficient manner. Of course not. How should he? He shuts up his church from Sunday to Sunday, and instead of saying or singing the service, reads it in a feigned, unnatural voice, and very soon has a ‘clergyman’s throat,’ from the unwonted exertion, and his own wretched reading. One of these Priests, with the usual mysterious malady in his bronchial apparatus, consulted the late Bishop of Lincoln upon the matter, whereupon his Lordship advised as a remedy the saying of Matins and Evensong daily. I know very well what a daily service is, there is no blessing like it, whether for pastor or for flock; and, moreover, the voice rarely gets out of order, and the Priest never feels fatigued by the length of the Sunday service.”— “The Book of Common Prayer unabridged.” A Letter to the Rev. Jas. Hildyard, B.D., by the Rev. J. Purchas, M.A., p. 23. London: Masters.
“ It is sometimes alleged as an objection to this mode of saying the service (viz., intoning or monotoning it) in the church, that it is one which probably very few clergymen would be found able to use, from want of voice or musical ear. So far, however, as the present writer’s experience goes, he must confess that he has found it a much rarer occurrence to meet with a person who can say the prayers reverently, without more or less
intoning them, than it is to find clergymen who are able to intone them properly. Surely there must be very few indeed, who are unable to sustain one note in their prayers, if it be only one of easy compass to them; and this is, after all, as much as is really necessary for the purpose of intoning. The less it has of the character of a musical performance and the more simple and natural it is,the better.”—The Churchman’s Library, Church Worship, p. 27. London: Masters.
“ If the Sunday services are so heavy a drag, if they occasion such wear and tear to the lungs, what must daily prayers be ? But, by the same rule, a man who is compelled to take violent exercise once a week, would do well to take none at all on the intermediate days. What is the reason that consumption is so fearfully prevalent among the English clergy, while among their French brethren, certainly not physically stronger, it is almost unknown ! Doubtless, in some measure, the most injurious effect of reading instead of intoning, but certainly also because the one set of men tax their lungs to their utmost once a week, the other call theirs pretty equally into play every day. So in like manner, English lawyers, who do not intone, and who speak as much as, or more than, clergymen, are comparatively free from phthisis. The reason is, that when they exercise their voice, the strain is continuous and equable; and when they rest, the rest is complete. We believe, and we are sure we should be borne out by the testimony of physicians, that daily prayers would be found a preventive of that which they are commonly thought to induce. And we are told by the editors of the ‘Guide,’ that, in their very numerous inquiries, they found only one instance, where daily service, having been commenced, was given up on the score of ill-health.”—Christian Remembrancer, quoted in Monro’s “Parochial Work,” 2nd edit. pp. 75, 76.
even in ordinary reading so to pitch it, as to lay the prevailing stress upon one of its strongest tones; not straining it upon a high key, after the manner of inexperienced readers, but dwelling upon that tone which is most natural to them, whether it be bass or tenor, so that the voice may come from the chest, and not from the throat, and may admit of that elastic sound, which makes even a low voice audible throughout the largest building. A judicious mixture of musical tones ought to be observed, and the conversational quarter tones as
little dwelt upon as possible. The contrary practice is too general., and the reading of the lessons, even by those who can chant admirably, is often degraded to the indistinct and hurried cadences of the most ordinary conversation. The tone ought to be slightly elevated above that of common speech, so as to partake somewhat of the character of a chant, just in that degree which a judicious reader of solemn poetry ordinarily assumes. But to lay down any precise rules on this matter is impossible, so much depends on taste, judgment, and devotional reverence. Where there is affectation, or a love of display, on the one hand, or irreverence on the other, the case is hopeless.
It may be observed that a good reader will preserve some of the archaisms of pronunciation which the best precedents have made customary; such as, the making a distinct syllable of the termination of the past tense or participle “ed,” as err-ed, instead of err’d and the like. In a paper of the Spectator, the affectation of some young readers, who even then curtailed these syllables, is remarked upon. In solemn poetry, and in the speech of the common people in many parts of England, this more ancient and harmonious mode of pronunciation is kept up; and the dignity of Holy Scripture, and its matchless rhythm demand it. It may also be observed that the word “wind” ought in lessons of Scripture to be pronounced as in poetry “wind.” How the anomalous and inharmonious pronunciation of this word now naturalized in England crept in, it is difficult to say. The ancient method is still retained in common speech in Ireland, which, in this particular, as in many others, both of prosody and grammar, has been preserved from the degrading barbarisms of English colloquial idioms.
It has been argued that the lessons should be read colloquially, as read to the people, to distinguish them from the monotoned or chanted prayers addressed to GOD. We may answer that as the Praise of the office under the form of Scripture meditation is still going on, it is seemly to say the lessons in recitative as a loftier mode than that of the ordinary speaking tone. Doubtless this is so, but generally the size of the church will determine the mode of reading the lessons as a practical matter.
It is only necessary to refer to the rubric to see the impropriety of the frequent usage, of announcing the lessons in these terms: “The first or second lesson appointed for this morning (or evening) service is such a chapter of such a book.” Or having announced the lesson according to the rubrical formula, to add with imbecile iteration, “such a chapter or verse of such a chapter.” The consideration that every one present must know whether the lesson be the first or the second, and whether the service is morning or evening, shows the absurdity of the practice, and the “vain repetition” alluded to, besides being unrubrical, makes the announcement needlessly long.
Equally wrong in announcing the first lesson, if not canonical, is the introduction of the word “Apocryphal;” an innovation, not authorised by the Church.
Other irregularities are frequent: such as saying, “Here beginneth such a chapter at such a verse” instead of “Here beginneth such a verse of such a chapter;” or of mentioning the verse at which the lesson terminates, (in cases where the whole chapter is not read,) for which there is no authority whatever.
Where it is directed that a chapter shall be read to a certain verse, it means that verse exclusive; but where it is to begin at a certain verse, it means that verse inclusive.
N.B. Lay persons who have been solemnly admitted to serve in a church choir, or recognized candidates for holy Orders, may, by the analogy of the ancient minor Orders, be permitted to read the Lessons. When the Lessons are read by a layman he may be vested simply in cassock and cotta, or in cassock and surplice, bands, and silk hood agreeable to his degree if he be a graduate. The former is to be preferred.
“note, That before every Lesson the Minister shall say, Here beginneth such a Chapter, or Verse of such a Chapter, of such a Book: And after every Lesson, Here endeth the First, or the Second Lesson.”
In many places “Thus endeth” is said instead of “Here endeth.” It may be said these are trifles. So they are in themselves. But since the Church makes certain orders, it is an act of holy and dutiful obedience to observe them, especially since it is not some “great thing” which is required of us, but something so easy for us to do, if we love her. Besides which, the transgression of these orders of our holy Mother implies either an ignorance or inattention to the rubric with which every clergyman ought to be familiar; and which if disregarded in smaller matters, is sure to be violated in those of the greatest moment.
The reader should not stand at the Lectern while the Canticle is sung after the First Lesson, unless he turn round and face the Altar, but should reverently retire to his stall with measured pace, first bowing towards the Altar.
According to ancient usage, the faithful sit at the Lessons in the Ordinary, and at the Epistle in the Eucharistic Office. If they sit at the Psalms, as is the custom still at the Metrical Psalms in some parts of England and Ireland, they rise or incline at the Gloria Patri. They stand at the Canticles.
137. The Canticles.
“And after that shall be said or sung, in English, the Hymn called Te Deum Laudamus, daily* throughout the Year.”
The Lessons and Canticles should, in accordance with the ancient ideas and
* In the Sarum Office the Te Deum was used as an addition to the Festal Service, not forming as in ours, an integral or variable portion of it. If Te Deum was not said, nothing else was re cited in its stead. The Ancient Offices of the English Church gave this Hymn the title of the “Psalm Te Deum” or the “Song of Ambrose or Augustine” indifferently.
modes of service which they represent, be considered primarily as carrying on jointly the work of praise begun at the Gloria, and going forward in the psalms without abatement. For the Lessons supply fresh matter for the Praise of the Office by continually advancing our knowledge of GOD, and of His work on behalf of man; whilst the Canticles descant on these great subjects, and render due acknowledgment for them in a storm of rapturous praise after scripture meditation.
The option given in the rubrics as to the selection of the Canticles, must be regulated by Catholic usage, in the manner following:—
te deum and benedicite.—The hymn Te Deum* is to be sung at Matins on all Sundays and Festivals (except the Feast of the Holy Innocents, when it does not fall on a Sunday,) and on Ferial days from Easter to Advent,† and from Christmas to Septuagesima.
It should not be said, according to Sarum Use, in Vigils, nor on Ember Days. Nor should it be said from the Sunday in Septuagesima, inclusive, to Easter Day.
It is well to use the Benedicite, at least on occasion, on Ferial days, besides those of Lent, except in the Easter and Christmas periods. For it certainly may well be used at other times than Lent, as having been a fixed Sunday
* It is customary in many places to bow the head at the “Holy, holy, holy” in the Te Deum; the Priest and choir should always do the same.
This “Creed set hymn-wise,” grows out of the angelic hymn found twice in Holy Scripture (Isa. vi. 2, Rev. iv. 8,) with certain variations. The head is therefore bowed at the opening words (Holy, holy, holy) of the hymn in token of the exalted estimation in which the Church holds it, and of our exceeding reverence.
“It appears that this hymn was always sung.” Mirroure, lxiii.
“ ‘This angels’ song is taken out of the prophet Isay, that see in spiritual vision, our LORD GOD, set on a high seat, and cherubim seraphim singing loud either to other, Holy, holy, holy, LORD GOD of Sabaoth; and therefore, according to the angels ye sing choir to choir, one ‘Sanctus’ on one side, another on the other side, and so forth on to the other side; and for by cause angels praise GOD with great reverence, therefore ye incline when ye sing this song.’“ Ibid. Sarum Psalter, Chambers’ Translation, p. 53, Masters, London, 1852.
† The Te Deum is in the Western Church used only on Sundays and holydays, except those in Lent and Advent, Vigils and Ember Days. On these days the Benedicite supplies its place, except on the Ember days in Pentecost, when the Te Deum is used. The organ is silent in Lent and Advent, unless on the two Sundays GAUDEMUS and LAETARE.
“Non dicatur Te Deum Laudamus per totum Adventum.” (Whatever be the service, Chambers’ Psalter, p. 53.) Brev. Sarisbur.
“ After the first lesson shall follow Te Deum Laudamus, in English, daily throughout the year, except in Lent, all the which time, in the place of Te Deum shall be used Benedicite Omnia opera Domini Domino in English, as followeth,” Rubric in Edward VI.’s First Book, 1549.
See also Keeling for variations, pp. 14, 15.
This rubric would seem to imply that Benedicite was to be sung on the Sundays and festivals, as well as on the ferial days in Lent.
Lauds feature, and so Jubilant. In the East (see Freeman, Vol. i., p. 124) it was a week day feature. Cf. ibid. p. 350. See also Brev. Saris. fol. v. et Psalt. ibid. fol. vii.
“Or this Canticle. Benedicite, omnia Opera.”
According to the Sarum Use, Benedicite would be used every day in Lent, including Sundays* and other Holy days.
It is convenient also to use it on Septuagesima, (which besides being the first note of the approaching Lent has for its Proper Lesson at Matins Gen. i.,) Sexagesima and Quinquagesima. It is proper also to say this Canticle on the Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity, when the First Lesson at Matins is Daniel iii.
Benedicite† should also be used every day in Advent, Sundays and Saints’ inclusive, according to the mind of our present Prayer Book.
“ Then shall be read in like manner the Second Lesson, taken out of the New Testament. And after that, the Hymn following; except when that shall happen to be read in the Chapter for the Day, or for the Gospel on S. John Baptist’s Day.
Benedictus. S. Luke i. 68.”
* “Sequens Hymnus (Te Deum) a Septuagesima usque ad Pascha non dicetur nisi in Festis”—Brev. Rom. no authority however for us.
† “There can be nothing more fitting for us, as we have said, than having heard the lessons and the goodness of GOD therein preached to us, to break out into a song of praise and thanksgiving, and the Church hath appointed to be used (either of them) after each lesson, but not so indifferently but that the former practice of exemplary Churches and Reason, may guide us in the choice; for the Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat, and Nunc Dimittis being the most expressive jubilations and rejoicings for the redemption of the world may be said more often than the rest, especially on Sundays or other festivals of our LORD, excepting in Lent and Advent, which very times of humiliation and meditation on CHRIST as in expectation, or His sufferings, are not so fully enlarged with these songs of highest festivity (the custom being for the same reason in many churches in Lent to hide and conceal all the glory of their altars, covering them with black to comply with the season) and therefore in these times may be rather used the following Psalms than the foregoing Canticles as at other times also, when the contents of the lesson shall give occasion, as when it speaks of the enlargement of the Church by bringing in the Gentiles into the Fold of it, for divers passages in these three Psalms import that sense.
“ As for the Canticle Benedicite, (O all ye works of the LORD,) it may be used not only in the aforesaid times of humiliation, but when either the lessons are out of Daniel, or set before us the wonderful handiworks of GOD in any of the creatures, or the use He makes of them either ordinary or miraculous for the good of the Church. Then it will be very seasonable to return this song, (O all ye works of the LORD, bless ye the LORD: praise Him, and magnify Him for ever;) that is, ye are great occasion of blessing the LORD, who therefore be blessed, praised and magnified for ever.”—Anthony Sparrow, one of the coadjutors at the revision of the Book of Common Prayer, 1661, sometime Bishop of Norwich.
This Canticle is called the Song of the Three Children in the Sarum Psalter, and was sung on the LORD’s Day at Lauds, and concludes with these two verses which our Prayer Book omits, and puts the Gloria instead thereof: “Bless we the FATHER, and the SON, with the HOLY GHOST: praise Him and highly exalt Him for ever.
Blessed be Thou, O LORD, in the firmament of heaven: worthy to be praised, and glorious, and highly exalted for ever.” See Chambers’ Translation of the Sarum Psalter, p. 60.
“Or this Psalm.
Jubilate Deo. Psalm c.”
benedictus and jubilate.*—The Benedictus, if the rigour of the rubric is preserved, is sung at Matins every day, except when it shall happen to be read in the Lesson for the Day, or in the Gospel for the Feast of S. John Baptist, on which occasion, and on no other, shall be used the Jubilate. The above occasional and very restricted use of the Jubilate is a wise provision of the Church for avoiding the repetition of the same portion of Scripture in sequence.
Benedictus is the proper Canticle for Matins, (at any rate on Ferial days,) and its distinctive feature, as Magnificat is of Evensong.
The Jubilate is however recommended for Sundays, as at least on a par with Benedictus. For it is distinctly a Sunday Lauds feature, (see Freeman, Vol. i., p. 357,) probably as referring to the resurrection of “that Great Shepherd of His sheep,” (“we are His people and the sheep of His pasture.”) It is also highly and purely jubilant, whereas Benedictus, as pertaining to S. John Baptist, has a penitential touch.
After the Canticles have been sung the Praise of the Office ends.
138. The Prime Function—Intercessory Prayer.
The Apostles’ Creed.
“ Then shall be sung or said the Apostles’ Creed by the Minister and the people, standing; except only such days as the Creed ofS. Athanasius is appointed to be read.”
The recitation of the Creed is a Prime feature, personal and practical, and
* Jubilate. Not in the first Book of Edward VI., except in ordinary course of Psalms. The second Psalm at Lauds on Sundays in the Sarum Breviary.
It has been sung among the Psalms of Lauds in the old Offices; and the only difference between its former and present position is, that it was formerly read before the lesson, and is now read after it. It is an appropriate song of praise for Creation and Providence, and has been most commonly used. Jubilate is generally ordered, together with the Te Deum on Solemn Thanksgivings, though not from a very evident rubrical propriety, as the Benedictus is quite as proper for such an occasion.
In some Prayer Books the colon in the second verse is printed after the words “we ourselves:” it should be according to the Sealed Books after the words, “He is GOD:”
The Jubilate, called in the Hebrew a Song of Praise, is said by the Jews to have been sung at the Eucharistical sacrifices as the Priest was entering into the temple.
stands in avowed relation to the preceding part of the Office. It has ever succeeded hearing, whether of Psalms or other Scriptures, or both, no less than it has preceded or been associated with prayer. It is this that renders the transition to the Prayers from the Praise of the Office, viz. the Psalms, Lessons, and Canticles,—to the Prime tone from that of Matins and Lauds,— though sensible by no means abrupt. We pass by a delicately shaded gradation out of the stage of service in which the objective is dominant, to that in which the subjective claims the larger part, though it can never rightly be the supreme consideration. This function is well performed by the Creed; while it rounds up, fills in, and completes the cycle of Christian doctrine, brought to view by the Lessons, it at the same time turns towards us its subjective and practical side, as the faith of living men, and admonishes that “praying is the end of preaching,” and prayer in this world the condition and the instrument of the fruition of GOD.
The Creed* is faid aloud, with the Minister still landing, junctis manibus, to express the firmness and openness with which we avow in the sight of GOD and man, that it is the creed of our Baptism, and in obedience to the XVIIIth Canon of 160¾.
In saying the Creed the choir and such of the clerics as are arranged laterally turn to the east† and therefore to the Altar.
* The Apostles’ Creed was formerly said under the breath; the Athanasian Creed aloud. When the two Creeds changed places in King Edward’s Book, 1549, the manner and partly the occasion of using them underwent a change.
After the Benedictus in King Edward’s First Book, is this rubric:
“Then shall be said daily through the year, the prayers following, as well at Evensong, as at Matins, all devoutly kneeling,
Then the Minister shall say the Creed and the LORD’s Prayer in English with a loud voice” &c.—King Edward VI.’s First Prayer Book.
See Keeling in loc. 22, 23 for subsequent variations.
† In this work, I have supposed all the congregation “worshipping towards the east;” but where the internal arrangements of the church do not unhappily admit of this, the Faithful will doubtless turn to the east according to immemorial usage. The custom is a very ancient one, and doubtless originated in the practice of the Jews, who always turned their faces in the direction of Jerusalem when they prayed. For the Jews before the captivity there was this reason for the practice, that they thus prayed towards the mercy seat where GOD vouchsafed to dwell. The primitive Christians in like manner, and by an acceptable analogy, turned towards the part of their churches, which contained the Christian Holy of Holies. For Christian churches are generally placed with the Altar-end to the east, and ought always to be so, as to the Place where the Dayspring from on high visited us. But this is unfortunately not universal; and it is remarkable that in churches which are placed north and south, the custom of turning to the Altar during the Creed has immemorially prevailed. We turn to the Altar to express more strongly our faith in CHRIST, Whose death is there specially commemorated, and whence His most blessed Body and Blood are dispensed to the faithful.
The custom of bowing the head at the Name of JESUS has continued in the Creeds, even where, contrary to Catholic usage and the canons of the Church of England, it has been omitted else where in Divine Service. This can only be accounted for by remembering that the custom was early introduced among the ceremonies of baptism, in which it was usual to renounce the devil with the face to the West, and then to turn to the east to make the covenant with CHRIST, the east, or region of the rising sun, being the source of light. Hence the turning towards the east became associated with the recitation of the Creed.
dio kai o QeoV auton uperuywse, kai ecaristo autw onoma uper pan onoma to uper pan onoma to onomati Ihsou pan gonu kamyh epouraniwn kai epigeiwn kai katacqoniwn, Kai pasa glwssa exomologhshtai oti KurioV IhsouV CristoV eiV doxan Qeou patroV.-Fil. ii. 9, 10, 11.
Canon XVIII. of 160¾.— When in time of Divine Service the LORD JESUS shall be mentioned, due and lowly reverence shall be done by all persons present, as it hath been accustomed, testifying by these outward ceremonies and gestures their inward humility, Christian resolution, and due acknowledgment that the LORD JESUS CHRIST, the true and eternal SON of GOD, is the only saviour of the world, in Whom alone all the services, graces, and promises of GOD to mankind for this life, and the life to come, are fully and wholly comprised.
Eliz. Injunc. 1559. Sparrow, 81.
It hath been the custom of Christian men... at the Name of JESUS to bow.—Hooker, Eccl. Pol. xxx. 3, p. 531. ob. 1600.
That due reverence be visibly done by all persons present when the blessed Name of the LORD JESUS is mentioned. Bishop Wren’s Injunctions, Card. Doc. An. II. 203.
The rubric gives a permission to sing the Apostles’ Creed. Now there is no record of this Creed being so performed in the Church of England. The Apostles’ Creed is simply recited on one note, and the only inflection is the cadence on Amen, adopted in some choirs, but not found in the most ancient Service Books. The hymn is not constructed for chanting, not being divided into verses; it is however divided into three paragraphs, as the Nicene Creed: the first relating to the FATHER, the second to the SON, the third to the HOLY GHOST and to those particulars of the Christian Faith which have reference to the dispensation of the Spirit.
At the Name of JESUS in the Creed, the universal custom of the Church has been to bow the head. This, however, is more than a custom: it is a positive injunction of the Canons of the Church of England, extending however to every occasion on which that Name of our Blessed LORD is repeated, which designates His human nature; the prescribed act of adoration thus marking the indissoluble union of that Nature with the Divine. The same act is not prescribed when the designation of His Office, Christ, is employed.
139. The “Dominus Vobiscum”—”Oremus” and Lesser Litany.
“And after that, these Prayers following) all devoutly kneeling, the Minister first pronouncing with a loud voice”
“First pronouncing,” i.e. before kneeling during the “Lesser Litany.”
It will be seen (supra Par. 138, note *) that the “Lesser Litany” stood
before the Creed in our first revision. But as it was of old used as a notice of transition to some department of service, it is appropriate here, as a sort of introit, as we pass from the Praise to the Prayer of the Offices.
The salutation between Priest and people is entirely in the spirit, and to the purpose, of the old interchange of Confiteor and Misereatur. It is still to us what that formula was designed to be, a touching recognition of the equal need, under difference of position, of clergy and laity. These forms, faith an ancient council, (Bracarense a.d. 563,) all the East retains as delivered down by the Apostles.
The Officiant turns to the faithful, and pronounces junctis manibus the Dominus Vobiscum and the Oremus. The clerks and choir resume their lateral position.
The “Lesser Litany” ushering in the LORD’s Prayer, Preces, and collects, is to the Prayer what the “Gloria” is to the Praise of the whole Office; a prayer setting the tone and fixing the object of all the rest by being addressed to the Holy Trinity. It was triple, as with us, at its first occurrence in the old Eastern Offices; in our own it was threefold before the LORD’s Prayer at Lauds, though ninefold at Prime.
After the Oremus* all devoutly kneel, as the Prayer of the Office begins.
When the Service is said, the choir only repeats the middle versicle; when it is chanted, the three versicles are sung by Officiant and choir.
140. The Pater Noster.
“Then the Minister, Clerks, and people, shall say the Lord’s Prayer with a loud voice”
The LORD’s Prayer as used in the introductory part of the Office, (see supra Par. 130,) acted as a summary of all our worship, especially of the office in hand; so in this place it acts as a summary, though under a different aspect. In the introductory part the doxology imparts to it that Eucharistic aspect which the “General Thanksgiving” does to the Office itself: in this part of the Service, from its position and the absence of the doxology, it has quite another office and function. It has a baptismal character, from its connection with the Creed, and is used rather, in its Prime or Compline position, in reference to the needs of the coming day or night, than to the remainder of the Office.
* After the Priest and people have interchanged salutation, the “Oremus,” according to Catholic custom may be pronounced by a Deacon, the Priest and people then proceed with the Lesser Litany or “Kyrie Eleison.”—See Sparrow, Rationale, p. 69. Ed. 1657.
The direction* to say the Pater Noster with the “clara vox” is to abolish the practice of saying it secreto, at least in this place and others where the like rubrical order occurs.
141. The Preces.
“Then the Priest† standing up shall say.”
The Preces follow the rule of the Versicles, but the officiant stands junctis manibus. The direction for the Priest to stand while saying the suffrages is a continuation of the rubric in the Sarum‡ Office.
The Preces§ have an apparent reference to, and are in fact a short summary
* In ancient times the LORD’s Prayer was said secretly, except in the two last clauses, “And lead us not,” &c., “But deliver us,” &c., which were repeated as versicle and response with the usual cadences. See also Par. 139, Note *.
† The Rubric directs that the suffrages after the Creed should be said, “the Priest standing.” When a Deacon says prayers, he may kneel.
This Rubric was first inserted in the Second Book of Edward VI., (1552.) The following is its Rationale. In the First Book of Edward VI., immediately after the Benedictus came the Lesser Litany, Apostles’ Creed, Paternoster and Preces. The last clause of the LORD’s Prayer, “But deliver us from evil, Amen,” forming the first ‘answer’ of the Preces, which went on as at present with “O LORD, show Thy mercy upon us,”—the Dominus vobiscum and its “answer” forming the concluding pair of versicles. It would seem from the Rubric before the three collects which conclude the Office, that the Officiant, contrary to the Catholic use, knelt at the Preces though of course he stood at the Creed. But in the Second Book of Edward VI., the Creed was removed from its place after the Lesser Litany to its present position after the second lesson, only the Canticle intervening, followed by a direction for all to kneel devoutly at the Lesser Litany which succeeded the Creed, during which of course all stood, and as the Rubric infers at the Dominus vobiscum, which had been removed from the end of the Preces to the beginning of the Lesser Litany and Paternoster. It therefore became necessary to order the Officiant, who had been kneeling since the Oremus, to stand at the Preces in accordance with Catholic tradition, which, strangely enough, in this instance had been departed from in the First Book.
‡ “Finito Psalmo solus sacerdos erigat se et ad gradum cho. accedat ad mat. et ad vesperas tunc dicendo hos usus.”—(ad Laudes) Brev. Sarisb. Psalt. Fol. xxii. p. 2. Paris, 1556.
“Ita tamen quod immediate post psalmum erigat se sacerdos solus sic dicens.”—(Preces complet.) Brev. Sarisb. Psalt. Fol. lvii. p. 2. Paris, 1556.
See also Sparrow (in loc.) “It is noted that the Priest in the Holy Offices is appointed sometimes to kneel, sometimes to stand. The Priest being a man of like infirmities with the rest of the congregation, and so standing in need of grace and pardon, as well as the rest, in all confessions of sins and penitential prayers, such as the Litany is, is directed to beg his pardon and grace upon his knees. He being moreover a Priest of the Most High GOD, that hath received from Him an office and authority, sometimes stands to signify that his office and authority.... and in all these acts of authority, such as teaching, baptizing, consecrating the Holy Eucharist, absolving the penitent, which he does in the Name and Person of CHRIST, he is to stand.”— Rationale, 77-8. Ed. 1657.
§ See Comber, Cosin, Freeman, Jebb, Palmer, Wheatley, in loc.
of, all that is contained in the collect and prayers, or in the collect and Litany.
The first and two last petitions, “Grant us Thy salvation;” “Give peace, &c.;” “Take not Thy Holy spirit, &c.,” correspond with the three collects which are respectively for salvation, peace, and grace. The intermediate three answer to the prayers for the Queen,* the Clergy, and for all conditions of men.
These six Preces, followed by various collects, and among them, that for the Clergy and people, and on occasions at least, if not always, one for the King, were used† every Sunday and Festival, according to the use of some English Dioceses.
142. The Orationes.
The first collect connects the Ordinary with the Eucharistic Office, and is a reflection of the mind and spirit of the Epistle and Gospel, and presents the appointed variation of the Liturgy for the current week.
* “The order in which the temporal powers and the clergy were prayed for was here, as elsewhere in the old Western forms, the reverse of that which we now have, both in these petitions and in the longer prayers, and which has often been severely commented on as a note of Erastianism. It is however the old Eastern order, both in Liturgies and ordinary offices: and indeed we may say, it is the order prescribed by S. Paul himself.”— Freeman in loc.
† For examples, see Rev. H. O. Coxe’s Forms of Bidding Prayer, p. 11, (Diocese of Worcester, 1349): p. 29, (Liber Festivalis,
‡ The words “all kneeling,” were inserted at the final Revision in 1661. In the First Book of Edward VI., the rubric concluded thus: “The Priest standing up and saying,
Let us pray.
Then the Collect for the Day.”
It would therefore seem that the Priest said the Collects standing, according to the ancient use. In the Second Book this portion of the rubric was omitted, and Officiant and faithful probably both knelt as they generally do at present. But it appears that as there is no express direction for the Priest to kneel, he may continue standing, as, indeed, is the practice in some churches for him to do until the Anthem. (See infra, par. 145.)
The second collects at Morning and Evening, both entitled “for Peace,” have a peculiar and deeply interesting origin. In the old English Lauds and Vesper Offices, certain “memorials” were introduced on week days varying with the season. Besides these were one or two fixed “memorials,” used daily. One of these was of the holy spirit, another of Peace. Of the collects on the latter subject, one (our evening Coiled for Peace) was used at Lauds and Vespers, the other (our Morning Collect) at Lauds only. They were from a special Eucharistic Office on the subject of Peace. These collects represent a whole Communion Office, and are designed like that to embody and appropriate though of course in a far lower way than the holy oblation itself, our LORD’s Eucharistic promises of peace.
The third collects at Matins and Evensong are found in the sacramentaries or collect books of Gelasius and Gregory. The third Morning Collect is based on Psalms xc. 1, 2, 3, 12, and 17; and xci. 11 —16. The third Evening Collect on Psalms xiii. 4; xviii. 28; and xxi. 1—6: and in virtue of the latter reference associates us with our LORD in His commendation of His Spirit into the hands of GOD.
The heading of the collect should never be announced. For the Ordo of saying the collects, (see par. 20.)
The intercessory part of the Office is said throughout junctis manibus.
143. The Anthem.
“In Quires and Places where they sing, here followeth the Anthem.”*
The choice of the Anthem ought to be a matter of deliberate and religious study. It should harmonize with some portion of the service of the day, the Lessons, or the Collect, or the Psalms, or the Epistle and Gospel. At each of the particular seasons of the year, as Lent, Advent, the Octaves of the great Festivals, and indeed the whole season from Easter to Trinity Sunday inclusive, it would be well to have a fixed rule as to the Anthems from which
* The word Anthem is a corruption of the ancient word Antiphona. It originally meant anything sung antiphonally. In the Breviary it has several significations. It is ordinarily applied to a short sentence, generally from Scripture, sung before and after one or more psalms of the day. The same name is given to the prayers or ejaculations in the commemoration used at the end of various Services; and also to the metrical hymns at the end of Compline and other Offices. In the present English Office the rubric relating to the Anthem dates from the final Revision of the Book of Common Prayer in 1661. The place of its performance seems suggested by that which the antiphons occupy in Commemorations and concluding parts of the Service of the Breviary. In respect to the Anthem in connection with the Litany, we find in the time of S. Gregory the Great, that the Service (Litany) during the procession consisted in chanting a number of Anthems. See also Par. 16, note †.
a selection should invariably be made; and on the greater Festivals the particular anthem should be designated.
Where Hymns are used, this is a proper place for them, (see Par. 16, note †) in cases where the Anthem* cannot conveniently be sung.
Hymns.—The singing of hymns has ever formed a part of Christian worship. The metrical Psalms should be used as little as possible: their versification has been pronounced by the best judges incurably bad; and there is another place in the Service where the Psalms are already appointed to be sung in their proper natural poetry. Wherever they are used, the Gloria Patri should in all cases be appended. Hymns formed on the ancient catholic model assist very much in giving variety to our Services, and bring out objectively the great truths of the Gospel. The ancient melodies too are generally far superior to modern psalm tunes. The notice of what is to be sung should be given out by one of the Clergy officiating, and without any such preface as “Let us sing,” &c.
All persons should stand when the praises of GOD are sung. See Nehem. ix. 5.
* The Greater Antiphons of Advent. Our Church by retaining “O Sapientia” in her Calendar on the 16th of December evidently intends that these Antiphons should be sung as formerly at the Magnificat at Vespers every day forward, except on the Feast of S. Thomas, until Christmas Eve.
Dec. 16. Antiphon. O Sapientia.
O Wisdom, which camest out of the mouth of the Most High, reaching from one end to another, mightily and sweetly ordering all things: Come and teach us the way of understanding.
Dec. 17. Antiphon. O Adonai.
O LORD, and Ruler of the house of Israel, Who appearedst to Moses in a flame of fire in the bush, and gavest him the Law in Sinai: Come and deliver us with an outstretched arm.
Dec. 18. Antiphon. O Radix Jesse.
O Root of Jesse, Which standest for an ensign of the people, at Whom kings shall shut their mouths, Thou to Whom the Gentiles shall seek: Come and deliver us now, tarry not.
Dec. 19. Antiphon. O Clavis David.
O Key of David, and Sceptre of the house of Israel, Thou that openest and no man shutteth, and shuttest and no man openeth: Come and bring the prisoners out of the prison-house, and him that sitteth in darkness and in the shadow of death.
Dec. 20. Antiphon. O Oriens.
O Orient, Brightness of the Everlasting Light, and Sun of righteousness: Come and enlighten them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death.
Dec. 22. Antiphon. O Rex Gentium.
O King and Desire of all nations, Thou Corner-stone, Who haft made both one: Come and save man, whom Thou formedst from the clay.
Dec. 23. Antiphon. O Emmanuel.
O Emmanuel, our King and Lawgiver, Hope of the Gentiles, and their saviour: Come and save us, O LORD our GOD.
Here the Office Book of Matins and Evensong ended till the Revision of 1662;* and does so still, when the Litany is said at a later hour, in which case the five prayers are omitted. It is permissible though not advisable to add one or more of the Collects from those appended to the Communion Office.
See Par. 20, pp. 35, 36, for the proper occasion and the right method of using these Collects.
144. The five Prayers.
“ Then these five Prayers following are to be read here, except when the Litany is read; and then only the two last are to be read, as they are there placed”
The remainder of our present Office consists almost entirely of Intercessory Prayers. But though the conclusion of the Service is of so late an introduction as 1661, it belongs to a time when ancient customs were well understood. Our intercessions thus not only have their counterpart in the former phase of our ordinary Office, but follow the pattern of the Communion Office.
“A Prayer for the Queen’s Majesty.”†
See supra Par. 141, (note *).‡
* The Rubric ordering the anthem was then first inserted.
† The Scotch Liturgy, (1604) has the following rubric: “After this prayer ended, followeth the Litany; and if the Litany be not appointed to be said or sung that morning, then shall next be said the prayer for the King’s Majesty, with the rest of the prayers following at the end of the Litany, and the benediction.” See Keeling, p. 24.
Although the following prayers (viz., prayers for the Queen, Royal Family, Clergy and People, of S. Chrysostom, and the Benedictory Prayer,) have long been used in the Church of England, yet they were not placed in their present position till the year 1661, having been previously repeated at the end of the Litany. The appellation of “prayers,” which is given to these collects, in itself marks their introduction into the Divine Office at a different period to the collects. The Rubric before the collect for the day says “Then shall follow three collects.” That before the collect for the king, “Then these five prayers following.” Had these prayers been all introduced at the same time, they would all have been called “collects” or “prayers.” (See Keeling, pp. 24, 25, 48, 49, for the dates of the changes in the position of these prayers in our service book.) In fact there are now six collects after the collect for the day, besides the benedictory prayer. According to the ancient English Offices, these collects would be termed memoriæ or commemorations, de Pace, de Gratia, pro Regina, &c. But see Palmer in loco, Vol. 1, p. 248.
‡ The earliest form of this prayer that has yet been discovered occurs in two little books, from the press of Berkelet, the king’s printer, at the end of the reign of King Henry VIII., and the beginning of Edward VI. In the Prayer Book of Edward VI., this prayer was not put in the morning or evening service, it was, however, placed in the Primer, (1553) as “the fourth collect for the King” at morning prayer; and another and shorter form, “Prayer for the King” was added to the collects “for Peace” and “for aid against all Perils” at evening prayer. In Elizabeth’s time this prayer for the Queen was altered and shortened and together with the prayer for the Clergy and people was placed before the “Prayer of Chrysostome”at the end of the Litany, where it remained till the rubric of 1661 placed it in its present position.
See Procter, p. 218-220. Keeling, 24, 25, 48, 49. “Liturgies of Edward VI., and other documents,” pp. 393-406. Ed. Park. Soc.
The prayer itself was approved if not composed by Archbishop Whitgift, and appears for the first time after the revision by King James on his sole authority. The place it then occupied was among the collects at the end of the Litany. See Cardwell’s Conf. p. 235. Procter, p. 220. Keeling, pp. 24, 45, 50.
The prayers for the Queen, &c., are placed in precisely the same situation they would have occupied, had they been repeated in the Ordinary Office by the English Church in ancient times. See Palmer, in loc. Vol. i. p. 218.
“A Prayer for the Royal Family.”
“A Prayer for the Clergy and people.”*
“A Collect or Prayer for all Conditions of men, to be used at such times when the Litany is not appointed to be said.”
It is not necessary to give notice of such persons as desire the prayers of the Church before the Prayer for all Estates of Men, as the congregation are advertised of the fact in the Prayer itself. But see Par. 160.
“A General Thanksgiving.”
It is customary to introduce the General Thanksgiving daily in this place; but there is no rubrical authority for its continual use, which rests on purely voluntary grounds. Some ritualists hold that its interpolation interrupts the Service. Others, with greater reason, that it perfects the Eucharistic analogy of the Office, holding as it does a parallel position to the “Gloria in excelsis” in the Liturgy. It would therefore perhaps be well, at any rate, to omit it in the Litany when followed by a Celebration of the Holy Eucharist, and from that Service and also from the Divine Office during Advent, Lent, and on Ferial days.
“A Prayer of S. Chrysostom.”†
The Prayer of S. Chrysostom sums up in a reverse or retrospective order the
* “O omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui facis mirabilia magna solus: prætende super famulos tuos pontifices, et super cunctas congregationes illis commissas, spiritum gratias salutaris: et ut in veritate tibi complaceant, perpetuum eis rorem tuæ benedidtionis infunde.”—Brev. Saris. Psalt. fol. lx. p. 2. Paris. 1556.
This collect is as old as the fifth century, being found in the Sacramentary of Gelasius, a.d. 494. Gelasii Sacramentar. Muratori, tom. i. p. 719. (quoted from Palmer.)
This was originally one of the prayers after the Litany, and was also in the Scotch Service Book, (1637) though slightly altered. See Keeling, 50, 51. There has been an English version of it in the Primer since the fourteenth century. See Maskell, Mon. Rit. Vol. ii. p. 107.
† This prayer is found in the Liturgies of SS. Basil and Chrysostom; and although the composition of it cannot be traced to either of those fathers, the prayer has been very anciently used in the Liturgies which bear their names. This prayer was placed at the end of the Litany when that Service was revised by Cranmer in 1544, and at the conclusion of the Daily Matins and Evensong in 1661, according to the rubric of the Prayer Book for Scotland (1637).—See Procter in loc. p. 222.
features of the foregoing Office, desiring first the fulfilment of our petitions; secondly, knowledge of GOD’s truth; thirdly, life everlasting, the occupation of which will be endless praise. And though this was perhaps not contemplated in appointing it, it is at least significant, that in its ancient Eastern position it was part of a prelude, (the prayer of the second antiphon to the hymn “Only-begotten,”) to the Holy Communion.
The Benedictory Prayer *
“2 Cor. xiii.”
The Prayer which concludes our Office stands related in several ways to the ancient ritual. It represents first, the closing Prime and Compline benedictions, of which the former was in the Name of the FATHER, SON, and HOLY GHOST. Again, it was the short chapter used at Terce, or Nine a.m. Office, on Sundays throughout the West; and as such, and not merely as a suitable apostolic benediction, found its way to its present position. But the selection of it for that hour on the first day of the week, (said to be due to S. Ambrose,) doubtless arose from hence, that it formed throughout the greater part of the East, the introductory benediction to the more solemn part of the Communion Office; for the celebration of which Nine a.m., the hour of the descent of the holy spirit, was more especially set apart.
The chief excellence accordingly of this conclusion is, that while it breathes the present peace of old apostolic blessing, it is nevertheless not an absolute
* This prayer is derived from the Liturgies of the Eastern Churches, in which it has been probably used from the most primitive times. It is a common form of blessing used by S. Paul at the close of his epistles, turned into a benedictory prayer. The benediction appointed in the Breviary at the conclusion of the prayers at Prime was nothing more than the ordinary commencement of a religious action, “In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST.” This was omitted in the Reformed Offices, but nothing was substituted until our present precatory form was placed at the conclusion of “the Litany used in the Queen’s Chapel.” The words are somewhat altered from what they are in the text whence they are taken. For 1. The first person is put for the second, so that the Officiant shares in them: 2. The word “evermore” is added. By the former of these alterations the form is turned from a benediction into a prayer. It is also expressly called a “prayer” in the rubric before the Prayer for the Sovereign. There is therefore no direction for the Officiant to stand whilst he utters it, as there would have been had it been a benediction,— he remains kneeling as in the other prayers.— See Procter, p. 222, and Stephens, Ed. of Book of Common Prayer in loc.
conclusion at all, but points onward still to some better thing hoped for; and so leaves the spirit, which has most faithfully yielded up itself to the joys of this lower service, in the attitude of one unsatisfied still, and expecting a higher consolation.
“Here endeth the Order for Morning Prayer throughout the Year.”
145. Manner of leaving the Choir.
The Clergy and choristers leave the chancel and return to the sacristy in exactly the same order in which they entered it. (See Parr. 117, 122.) The people standing in like manner as when the procession entered the nave before the beginning of the Office.
N.B.—After Office the Service Books should be placed in their covers by the Sacriftan.*
THE ORDER FOR EVENING PRAYER,
DAILY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
The rules for Evensong follow those for Matins, and from analogy the Collects may be said or sung by the Priest kneeling, although there is no rubric to that effect. It may however be reasonably doubted whether, “all kneeling” in the rubric before the Orationes of Matins applies to the Priest at all. For according to the ancient rule the collects were invariably said standing.† And here is no direction for the Priest to kneel. There is for the people. (See Par. 141, note †.)
147. The Magnificat.
It was formerly the old English custom to burn incense at the Magnificat.
“While the antiphon of the ‘Benedictus’ or ‘Magnificat’ was being sung, the Priest, who had retired during the last verse of the hymn, returned with his silken cope, Taper-bearers, and Thuribles; and the boy having offered him the Thurible, he filled it with incense and blessed it; and bowing to the altar, censed it in the middle, then the right, then the left, then the reliquary of the church; then bowing at the lowest step of the altar, he returned to his stall. Then the Boy censed the Priest himself, then the Rulers of the Choir, then
* “Be they (viz. the Service Books and Bible) well and fairly bound and embossed ? and at end of Divine Service are they clasped or well tied up with fair strings, to keep out dust and soil, and to prevent tearing of the leaves ?”—Bishop Montague’s Visitation Articles, p. 49, No. 3.
† Both Sarum, Roman, and Greek Offices order the collect to be said standing, i.e., the collect properly so called.
the Dignitaries in order, beginning with the Dean’s side and ending on the Precentor’s side: bowing to each as he did so.” From the Arlyngham MSS. at Vespers. Chambers’ Sarum Psalter, p. 65.
CAUTIONS AND DIRECTIONS.
Caution to officiant and choir in recitation of the Divine Offices.
The officiant and choir should rather use a monotoned rendering of the confession than any other, as its position in the Divine Office is merely introductory. (See Parr. 131—132.)
Where there are many Priests it is convenient for them to recite parts of the Divine Office. The Service naturally distributes itself into three divisions, which may perhaps indicate the period when a fresh Officiant may take his part; viz., The Introductory part,—The Praise—(see Par. 132), and the Prayer, (see Par. 139) of the Office, which last may be subdivided at the Anthem, thus marking the distinction between the Orationes and Prayers.
The Creeds in the Divine Office are said junctis manibus throughout. In the Holy Eucharist the intonations of the Nicene Creed are said levatis manibus,* the remaining is said junctis manibus. The following is the rationale of the use. The Apostles’ Creed in the old English Office was said under the breath,— “credo in Deum a toto choro privatim.” Brev. Sarisbur. fol. iii., of course junctis manibus without any elevation. The Athanasian Creed in the Sarum Breviary was appointed to be sung daily after the Psalms† and before the Prayers, and is called Psalmus‡ Quicunque vult. It would, of course, be sung like any other Psalm, simply junctis manibus without any elevation.
Hence our present use of raising the hands at the first clause of the Creed in the Holy Eucharist, and not doing so in the Ordinary Office.
149. The Cope.§
It is proper to wear a Cope of the colour of the Feast at Solemn Vespers, viz., on the Evensong—both First and Second—of Sundays and Festivals.
* The old English use is to raise the joined hands; the present Roman use to raise the extended hands.
“ Et sacerdos stando in medio altaris manibus junctis aliquantulum levatis dicat vel cantet: et jungat manus prosequendo.” Herford Missale.
“ Deinde ad medium altaris extendens, elevans, et jungens manus, dicet, si dicendum sit, et prosequetur junctis manibus.” Missale Ro-manum.
† Brev. Sarisbur. Psalt. fol. xii.
‡ Brev. Sarisbur. fol. v. Psalt. ibid. fol. xi.
§ Copes were worn at Durham till lately. See Hierurgia Anglicana; Table of Contents, p. xvii.
150. The Collects.
When the Priest says the Collects standing, (see Par. 142, note #) he should do so extensis manibus, joining them at the close “through our,” &c.; when he says them kneeling, junctis manibus.
The way in which many pronounce, or rather mispronounce o is a growing defect in reading, viz., it is pronounced more like the Italian or French long a, or like our au; whereas it should have a round sound.
152. A Collection after Office.
If a “Collection” is made after Office, an Anthem should be sung, during which the Alms should be collected by deacons, acolytes, or other fit persons habited in cassock and surplice. The alms bags will be presented kneeling to the Priest, who will be vested in a cope of the colour of the season, and placed by him on the altar.
153. Dress of the Preacher after Office.
Cassock, surplice, hood and stole, and bands.
N.B.—There seems no objection to the Preacher wearing his academical habit; in which case he will not wear the stole.
No introductory Prayer should be delivered in the Pulpit before the Sermon. But see p. 41, Par. 23, and note* for the proper use of the Bidding Prayer. See also Bishop Montague’s Visitation Articles, p. 70, No. 23.
[page 119 continued here]
 For authorities see Freeman’s “Principles of Divine Service,” Vol. ii., p. 116.
 The idea is that the praise of the Ordinary Office is a contribution to that of the Eucharistic.
 Singers would be considered to be in orders.
 The hymn should be commenced by the choir without any preface, such as “Let us sing, &c.,” either by clergy or acolytes.
 The Jacobites and Eutychians use only one finger.
 S. Benedic. ad Vig. The injunction was doubtless borrowed from the Greek Rite which enjoins three reverences (metanoiaV, v. Goar, in loc.) to be made at the words of the Invitatory “O come, let us worship, and fall down before,” &c. Horolog. in loc. Freeman.
 Ye incline at this verse as ye do at Gloria Patri.— Mirroure, lxvii.
 According to the Sarum use the Et ne nos and Sed libera were reiterated after the Pater Noster and Amen, (said secreto,) had been finished. See Seager’s Ed. of Brev. Sarisbur. Fasc. i. fol. xv. and Chambers’ Translation of the Sarum Psalter, p. 14, note w.
 See “Loss and Gain.” Compare Tracts for the Times, 86.
 Viz., S. Mark’s; Syriac S. James’; and S. Basil’s Liturgies. The Greek S. James’ does not mention “kings:” S. Chrysostom’s and the Armenian have the Western order.
 See the Eastern Lauds, Neale, pp. 915—916.
 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2.
 See Procter, p. 227, where this note occurs:—”S. Gregor. Antiphonarius. ‘In Litania majore... ad processionem Antiphonæ;’ 47 Anthems are given. Greg. M. Opp. iii. 689.”
 Brev. Sar. Psalt. fol. xxii. Memoriæ Communes ad Laudes.
 The form occurred in the Liturgies of Antioch, Cæsarea, Constantinople, and Jerusalem.—Goar. Euchol. pp. 75—165.