50. The Altar lights.*
The candles should be lighted by the clerk, immediately before the celebration,† (See p. 10-11.)
* This only differs from the sung or solemn Service in this, that the celebrant, (who is always served by an assistant or choir boy,) performs the function without the Epistoler or Gospeller, and that all the parts directed to be sung by the Priest are only said; and parts directed to be sung by the choir are said by the server.
† Where incense is used it ought to be ignited in the thurible on the credence before the beginning of the celebration.
51. Directions for saying the Communion Office when there is only a Celebrant.
The Celebrant should be vested in his cassock. In silence he is to register (i.e. to set the markers in the proper places) the Office book in the Vestry, and to hand it to the clerk. He then washes his hands, and puts the wafers or the breads on the metal plate, (see Par. 12.) He places the paten on the chalice, upon this the pall, and over this a veil of silk, of the colour of the season, the burse containing the corporal being laid upon the top of all. (See Par. 11.) He next puts on the vestments, with assistance from the acolyte or lay-clerk.
(1.) The amice. The Priest rests it for a moment like a veil, upon the crown of his head, and then spreads it upon his shoulders, arranges and fastens it.
(2.) The alb. The Priest puts it completely over his head, passes through his right arm, then his left. He then binds it with the girdle round his loins, and adjusts it all round, so that it be a finger’s breadth from the ground.
(3.) The stole. This he crosses on the breast and confines with the girdle.
(4.) The maniple. This he puts on the left arm by means of a loop, which he fixes on a button upon the sleeve of the alb.
(5.) The chasuble or the cope. The latter if it is the Dry Service, which should never be used except on Good Friday and from default of the proper number to communicate with the Priest. (See note * Par. 46.)
The Celebrant may attach a white handkerchief to his girdle.
For devotions to be used by the Priest whilst vesting, and Preparatio ad Eucharistiam, see pp. 26-7.
The Celebrant takes the chalice by the knop with his left hand, putting his right on the burse, and proceeds to the Altar, holding the chalice near his breast, preceded by the acolyte with the office-book, metal plate with bread, and cruets, who places the plate and cruets,* on the credence, and the book on its desk at the Gospel corner of the Altar. (If however the chalice and paten covered with the veil, &c., be placed on the Altar by the Priest, and the metal plate with the breads and the cruets of wine and water on the credence before the commencement of the Liturgy, he walks with his hands united.) On arriving before the Altar, he inclines, and returns with his hands joined, to the centre of the Altar, and turning by his right, descends to the floor, and turns on his left towards the Altar, when the introit is sung, during which he ascends to the Altar,† and going to the Gospel side, says the lord’s Prayer and Collect for Purity, with his face to the Altar.
* The plate and cruets are conveniently carried in a stand.
† If the vested chalice and paten and burse thereon be on the credence, and not borne by the Celebrant from the family, he here places the holy vessels on the Altar, in the midst thereof.
52. The Collects.
The Celebrant “standing as before” viz., in the position he was in before rehearsing the commandments, at the Gospel or north side with his face towards the Altar, (see Par. 19) says the Collects.
53. The Epistle and Gospel.
The Celebrant goes to the south or Epistle corner, bowing to the Altar as he passes, and descending from the foot-pace, reads the Epistle, either facing the people, or else looking towards the east, in which case the book is placed upon a desk, which the acolyte or lay-clerk has removed to the Epistle side. The Priest now joins his hands before his breast, and goes to the book, which the acolyte has removed to the north side. The Priest may however himself remove the book. The book is placed obliquely, its back being north-east. The Priest says the Gospel, his hands being joined at the breast.
If the Name of jesus occurs he inclines towards the book.
If the Priest reads the Gospel towards the people, it may still be read according to the Sarum use ad aquilonem.
54. The Creed. See Par. 21.
The Celebrant now proceeds to the middle of the Altar, and extending his hands, says the Creed.
55. The Sermon.
After the Creed is finished, the Celebrant, for convenience’ sake, takes off his vestment, (chasuble,) which he lays upon the Altar,* and proceeds to the pulpit.
56. The Offertory and the First Oblation, commonly called The oblation of bread and wine. See Pars. 24 and 25.
The Celebrant returns to the Altar, puts on his vestment and begins the Offertory, or if he perceive, or know that there are not enough to communicate with him, (see note * to Par. 46,) he must put on his cope instead of the
* The chasuble is the only ornament of the Priest which it is permitted to lay upon the Altar. Caps, gloves, and the like ought never to be tolerated upon the Altar, and if incautiously placed there, ought instantly to be removed by one of the assistant Ministers, Sacrist, or other officer.
chasuble, as the Service is to be without celebration. But if the Dry Service be designedly used from the first, which it never ought to be (except on Good Friday,*) the Priest should not wear the alb and chasuble, but the surplice and cope, as the alb and chasuble are the authorized vestments for actual celebration, as well from beauty as for convenience. The surplice, though a graceful and fair vestment, is highly inconvenient from the size of its sleeves, for consecrating the elements; for other offices the surplice is the most comely as it is the most cherished of our vestments.
The Celebrant receives the bags which contain the alms in a basin, and presents it, standing erect, before the Holy Table. The alms dish is most conveniently placed on the south side of the Altar, and should be removed by the assistant to the credence or elsewhere, after it has been presented.†
The Celebrant then takes from off the veiled chalice the burse in both hands and places it upright on the midst of the Altar. He takes out the corporal with his right hand and places it in the middle of the Altar, he then puts the burse on the Altar towards the north side against the super-Altar. He then having first moved the veiled chalice towards the Epistle corner, (i.e., the ministerium) spreads the corporal‡ with both hands on the centre of the Altar. He then takes off with both hands the chalice-veil, folds it in three, so that the upward part may appear, and places it near the back of the Altar on the Epistle side, or gives it to the acolyte to fold and place on the credence. He removes the pall and places it erect against the super-Altar, or on the veil. He takes the paten from the chalice. The acolyte then hands the plate with the bread to the Celebrant, who places one bread on the paten, (see Par. 25,) and the others on the corporal.§ He then prepares the chalice, the acolyte having brought the cruets from the credence. He places the paten with the bread, i.e., the Priest’s own bread, upon the chalice, which he places in the midst of the corporal. See Par. 25.
57. Lotio Manuum.
See p. 44. Par. 26.
58. The Commemoration of the Living and the Dead.
See p. 46. Par. 27. and Note.
* Though on this holy day there will be neither alms nor oblations, one of the sentences, which is termed “The Offertory,” must be said.
† A choir boy should always serve the Priest.
‡ In the modern Roman rite the corporal is partially spread out at the beginning of the func-
tion, and the burse leant against the super-altar then, and not at the offertory, as with us.
§ “Laiyng the breade upon the corporas, or els in the paten, or in some other comely thyng, prepared for that purpose.”—King Edward’s First Book.
59. The Exhortation and Invitatory.
The Celebrant joins his hands in pronouncing them, unless he holds the book, looking to the west.
60. The Confession.
This is said by the assistant kneeling before* the Altar with joined hands, (see Par. 29.) At Solemn Service, see Par. 81.
61. The Absolution.†
The Celebrant fronts the people, and pronounces the absolution, (see p. 49. Par. 30. and Note.)
62. The Comfortable Words.
See p. 49. Par. 31.
63. The “Sursum Corda” and “Gratias agamus.”
See p. 49. Par. 32.
64. Preface with Ter-Sanctus.
See p. 49. Par. 33. and Note.
65. Prayer of Humble Access.
See p. 50. Par. 34. and Note.
66. The Canon.‡
See p. 50. Par. 35.
67. The Consecration.
See Par. 35, and Notes.
68. The Communion of the Priest.
See Par. 37.
* “Ad gradum altaris.”—Saris. Mis.
† “Deinde erectus signet se in facie dicendo absolutionem.”—Rubric in Bangor Mis.
‡ In the Sarum Canon at the word “fregit” (where the Fraction takes place in our Canon,) is the following rubric, “Hic tangat hostiam dicens...”
69. The Communion of the People.
When the Celebrant has communicated he lays the paten and chalice in their places (viz., in the middle of the corporal, the chalice is now placed before, that is, to the west side of the paten) covering the former with the pall. The Celebrant places the breads, if he has not done so when first placed upon the Altar, in the ciborium or on the large paten, which he takes in his left hand, and takes a wafer or a bread between the thumb and finger of the right hand, and approaches the communicants, beginning at the Epistle side. The Celebrant either inclines his head at the whole sentence, or at the Name of jesus. On repeating the words, “The Body of our lord jesus christ,” he places the Body in the palm of the hand of the communicant, and after he has placed It in his mouth the Priest continues: “preserve thy body and soul.” The same order is to be observed in communicating each several communicant of the Blood. The Celebrant should be careful not to turn his back upon the Altar during the communion of the people, but should communicate them obliquely. See p. 55. Par. 38. and Notes.
70. Consecration in one kind.
See p. 56. Par. 39. and Note.
71. The Veiling of the Blessed Sacrament*
See Par. 41.
72. The lord’s Prayer and Collects.
See p. 57. Par. 42.
73. The Gloria in Excelsis.†
See p. 58. Par. 43.
74. The Blessing.
In pronouncing the blessing, the Celebrant turns to the people, and extends his right hand open, before his breast, not raising it above his shoulders, nor
* The asterisk or cover, in form of a star, placed on the holy Bread in the Office of the Prothesis, in the Eastern Church, was used by Bishop Andrewes, though probably only for the chalice and instead of the customary pall—See Hierurgia Anglicana, pp. 9-11. And Neale’s Hist. of H. E. Church, p. 350, Gen. Int.
† If it be objected that the Gloria in Excelsis is used as a thanksgiving (see Par. 43, note †) when it is essentially a hymn, it may be answered that as a hymn it is appropriate. For we read in the holy Gospel that after the Sacrament the lord and His disciples sung an hymn before they went to the Mount of Olives, S. Matt. xxvi. 30; S. Mark xiv. 26. It should be also remembered that after the end of the Roman Liturgy the hymn of “The Three Children,” or the Te Deum is sung.
allowing it to go beyond them, and putting his left on his breast. After the blessing, he rejoins his hands, and turns to the Altar to consume any that may remain of the consecrated elements. See p. 58. Par. 44. and Notes.
75. Occasional Collects.
See p. 59. Par. 45.
76. Proanaphoral Service.
See p. 59. Par. 46. and Note,
77. The Bread and Wine*
See p. 61. Par. 47. and Notes.
78. The Consumption and Ablutions. See Par. 48.
Having uncovered the chalice and paten he purifies the corporal, scraping off with the paten any fragments that remain on it, and then wiping the paten with the square maniple, and laying it on the corporal, he drinks off the remainder of the sacrament of the Blood, or gives It to the communicants. He then takes the chalice to the Epistle corner, (Ad dexterum cornu altaris,) and having placed it on the Altar, holding it with his left hand he receives from the clerk a little wine (poured with the right hand) from the wine cruet, in the chalice. He takes care that any particles of the blessed Body and Blood which may have adhered to his fingers, be scraped off over the cup. After his first ablution he says to himself, “Quod ore sumpsimus, Domine, pura mente capiamus: et de muneri temporali fiat nobis remedium sempiternum.”—(Saris. Missale.) He then washes his fingers in the hollow of the chalice with wine and water poured in by the clerk, he drinks the ablution and says to himself, “Hæc nos communio, Domine, purget a crimine: et cœlestis remedii faciat esse
* “That the Communion be celebrated in due form with an oblation of every communicant, and admixing water with the wine; smooth wafers to be used for the bread.” Rules for the celebration of Divine Service during Prince Charles’s residence in Spain, a.s. 1623, attributed to Bp. Andrewes. See Collier, ii, 726.
“... it shall suffice that the bread be such as is usual to be eaten; but the best and purest Wheat Bread that conveniently may be gotten” —Rubric, Book of Common Prayer.
“It is not here commanded that no unleavened or wafer bread be used, but it is said only ‘that the other bread shall suffice.’ So that though there was no necessity, yet there was a liberty still reserved of using wafer-bread, which was continued in divers churches of the kingdom, and Westminster for one, till the 17th of King Charles,” (i.e. till 1643.)—Bp. Cosin’s Notes on the Book of Common Prayer, Third Series, p. 481.
consortes”—Saris. Missale. In drinking the ablutions he holds the square maniple, (see Par. 12.) below his chin with his left hand, and the chalice in his right. After the ablutions the Celebrant places the chalice upright upon the paten on the ministerium, i.e. Epistle corner, (see Par. 48,) he then takes the square maniple with both hands and dries his hands with it; he then takes the chalice off the paten in his left hand, and dries it with the square maniple in his right. He then gives the maniple to the assistant to place on the credence; he then folds the corporal, takes with the right hand the burse, and places the corporal in it with his left. He next shuts the service book with his right hand. He places the paten on the chalice, between which he puts the “square maniple” or purificator, over this the silk veil, and upon this the burse, as at first (see Par. 11). He then kneels before the Altar for private devotion, saying, “Gratias tibi ago Domine sancte,” &c. (see Par. 10.) He then takes the chalice in his left hand, and puts his right on the burse. He descends with it towards the Epistle side of the floor, when he makes an humble adoration. He then returns to the vestry, reciting the Benedicite. He takes off his vestments and folds them, or has them folded, and goes back to the church to give thanks.
The acolyte extinguishes the Altar lights, beginning at the Gospel side.
79. Solemn and Plain Service.
The midday celebration should always be “Solemn Service.” The early celebration, when the faithful will for the most part communicate, should be invariably “plain.” It is better to have no choir at Plain Service, and the Celebrant should not wear the set of vestments used for Solemn Service, but one of less costly materials, or at least of less costly orphreys.
CAUTELS AND DIRECTIONS.
80. Manner of Turning and Position of Hands.
When the Celebrant turns towards the people he turns from the left to the right.
When the hands are “joined,” the palms face each other, and the tips of the fingers touch, the right thumb is placed over the left in the form of a cross.
When the hands are “elevated,” they are raised apart, equal to the height of the shoulders, palm opposite to palm.
81. Normal Position of Priest, Deacon and Sub-deacon, and of those in Choir.
The normal attitude of Celebrant, Deacon, and sub-deacon, (viz., Gospeller and Epistoler*) is standing. During the collects, the Deacon stands immediately behind† the Celebrant, and the sub-deacon behind him again. They should occupy the same position at the intonation of the Creed, and during the Preface; passing the Deacon to the right, and the sub-deacon to the left of the Celebrant, at the Sanctus, and when the choir begin the Creed. The Confession (see Par. 29,) should never be sung by the choir or joined in by the people. It should be said by the Deacon alone, ‘in the name’ of the communicants, the Priest remaining standing facing the east, or else turned towards the Deacon. As the Confession is intended for communicants only, it is better that those who are not going to communicate should not kneel unless they are in that position previously. At the Canon,‡ the Celebrant of course stands, the Deacon and sub-deacon kneel after first consecration, until after the second. At the Post-communion the Priest, Deacon and sub-deacon should again stand one behind the other.
The proper position ought to be strictly observed also by those in choir. From the commencement of the service until the end of the Kyrie eleisons the choir should kneel. They should stand during the collects. From the commencement of the offertory until the Preface they should sit; (an exception being made when some of the choir are going to communicate. In this case it is perhaps best to secure uniformity, that they should all kneel during the Confession.) At the Preface they should stand. From the Sanctus until after the consecration, they ought to kneel, and then rife and remain standing until the blessed sacrament has been replaced on the altar, after all have communicated. They should rife again at the post-communion, and stand till the benediction.
82. The Vestments of the First Book of Edward VI.
“Upon the day, and at the time appointed for the ministration of the Holy Communion, the Priest that shall execute the holy ministry shall put upon him the vestment appointed for that
* Perhaps the phrase Epistoler and Gospeller has caused more ritual anomalies than any other, by leading persons ignorant of Catholic tradition to limit the functions of clergy discharging those offices to reading the Epistle and Gospel. Whereas it is the Gospeller’s function to assist the Priest, and the Epistoler’s function to assist the Gospeller.
† It is perhaps better, certainly in an æsthetic point of view, for the Deacon to stand a little
towards the right of the Priest, and the sub-deacon a little towards the right of the Deacon, thus forming almost a semi-circle,—this arrangement obtains frequently in the modern West.
‡ If the Celebrant kneels after the consecration of each Species, as it is ordered in the Roman rite, the Deacon kneels and rises with him; the sub-deacon should kneel after the first, and remain kneeling until after the second consecration.
ministration, that is to say: a white alb, plain, with a vestment or cope. And where there be many Priests or Deacons, there so many shall be ready to help the Priest in the ministration as shall be requisite; and shall have upon them likewise the vestures appointed for their ministry, that is to say, albs with tunicles.
“Upon Wednesdays and Fridays the English Litany shall be said or sung in all places, after such form as is appointed by the King’s Majesty’s injunctions; or as is or shall be otherwise appointed by his highness. And though there be none to communicate with the Priest, yet these days (after the Litany ended) the Priest shall put upon him a plain alb or surplice with a cope, and say all things at the Altar (appointed to be said at the celebration of the lord’s Supper,) until after the offertory. And then shall add one or two of the Collects aforewritten, as occasion shall serve, by his discretion. And then turning him to the people shall let them depart with the accustomed blessing.
“And whensoever the Bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion in the church, or execute any other public ministration, he shall have upon him, besides his rochette, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.” —Rubric in “The Supper of the lord, and Holy Communion; commonly called, The Mass.”
From a comparison of the above rubric it would appear, that whenever the Holy Communion was actually celebrated, the Priest* who celebrated was to wear an alb with a vestment (chasuble), and his assistants albs with tunicles; but that when no celebration took place, the Priest was at liberty to wear a surplice, and that instead of the vestment he was then to wear a cope.
The First Book of Common Prayer, which did not come into use till the third year of Edward VI., ought not to have any authority with us as to limiting the Ornaments of the second year of Edward. And it would in reality, if it defined the Ornaments of the Celebrant, make but one unimportant difference, viz., that the alb should be white and “plain,” that is, not without apparels, but of white colour and not enriched with embroidery; the “apparels” are not of course part of the alb, but supplemental ornaments removeable at pleasure, whilst amice, stole, and maniple would be included under the term vestment, which included the appendages of the Priest’s ornaments as well as the chasuble.
83. Arrangement of Vestments for Solemn Service by a Bishop in his own Diocese.
In the centre of the Altar, (if the Bishop do not vest in the sacristy,) the episcopal vestments in the following order: chasuble, dalmatic, tunic, cope (extended,) stole,† girdle, alb, amice, and the gloves on a silver salver; the whole will be covered with the gremial veil. At the Gospel corner will be
* As we have the function (though not the order) of sub-deacon discharged by the Epistoler, it is desirable to use the more ancient designation. See Par. 81, “Note*.
† The Bishop’s maniple is usually enclosed in the service book in the place of the Gospel for the day.
placed the costly mitre,* and at the Epistle corner the plain one, each on its stand.
An antependium, of more than ordinary costliness, should be used.
When the Eucharistic is not preceded by the ordinary Office, the cope will be omitted.
A stand for the pastoral staff, should be ready, if required.
84. The Gremial.
The gremial† is a silken apron placed upon the Bishop’s lap whenever he sits down in the intervals of the celebration of Holy Communion. An assistant Deacon attends to the placing and replacing the gremial on the lap of the Bishop as required; it is also used for covering the episcopal vestments when placed upon the Altar. See Par. 83.
85. The Rochet.
“And whensoever the Bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion in the Church, or execute any other public ministration, he shall have upon him, besides his Rochette, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.” — Rubric in First Book of Ed. VI.
The rochet‡ is a fine linen vestment reaching a little beyond the knees, and with tight sleeves. It is worn under the alb or surplice. It is, in fact, a diminution of the alb.
86. Arrangement of Vestments where there is no Sacristy.
The Celebrant, when not a Bishop, vests of course in the sacristy. A Priest
* The Ribbons are to hang over the ante-pendium. When the Deacon carries the mitre to the Bishop, he will be careful to let the ribbons fall towards himself.
The costly mitre is used till the Creed, after which the plain mitre is used: after the Offertory the costly mitre is re-assumed, and is used for the rest of the service.
The mitre is removed at the Collects, the Gospel and during the Credo, and is not resumed till the Absolution, after which it is again taken off, and not used till the final benediction. It is then removed, and at the end of the purifications and ablutions, the Bishop receives it again, and after bowing to the Altar proceeds to the faldstool to take off the sacred vestments.
† The gremial should be three feet long and two feet broad, and should have a border embroidered with gold or silver.
‡ The rochet is also worn under the chimere. There is however no authority either for its great length or large lawn sleeves.
may not receive his vestments from the Altar; where there is no sacristy that he may use, he should receive them from a table in the sanctuary.
87. Altar Lights and other Candles.
The candles should be always of pure white wax, those of sperm, composition, or other substance, not being permitted. Oil lamps may be used in extreme scarcity.
Candles of unbleached wax* should be used de missis de requiem, and at evensong† on Wednesday in Holy Week, and during all the services of Maundy Thursday and Good Friday.
88. The Washing of Corporals.‡
As the corporal is the linen cloth on which has been laid the lord’s Body, the Church of old ordered the washing of it with a minute and pious care.§
* When unbleached candles cannot be procured, white ones may be coloured with ordinary gamboge.
† The standard and other candles are lighted at Evensong; the Altar candles are only lighted at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist (see Par. 15), and therefore not at the Proanaphoral (see Par. 46, note #) Service on Good Friday.
‡ The corporal may not be touched after use by laics without especial permission, nor must it ever be washed after use in domestic vessels, until it has been first washed by a clerk in Holy Orders, when it may be touched by laics again. Those corporals which have been employed at the Altar should be left in the burses, and not be taken out and put away in drawers.
§ The following was the practice of the mediæval Church, A favourable time of year should be chosen for this purpose, either the pure air of spring or after the middle of September,
when the flies are less troublesome than in summer. Deep brazen vessels should be kept for this reverent custom. After evensong the corporals should be immersed, in the church, in cold water, twice, and rubbed in the hands; and both waters should be poured into the piscina over which the chalice is washed: fresh water should then be poured upon them the third time, in which they are to remain all night; and in the morning that water also should be poured into the same piscina. They may then be carried from the church, and regularly washed, (see the Consuetudines of Udalricus.) According to a gloss of Lyndewolde on a Constitution of Archbishop Walter, the use of March in corporals is forbidden, at least once. But the prohibition is merely an interpretation of the Decretum, “Non in ferico panno, sed puro linteo sacrificium consecretur altaris.”
 The choir, where there is one, says the responses, when the service is plain.
 The mitre is not worn during the Gloria in excelsis Deo) as in the Roman Rite, in which at the latter part of the Gloria the Bishop sits and assumes the mitre which he had laid aside at its beginning. The position of the Angelic Hymn in the English Liturgy gives it another phase, so to speak, to that which it shows in the Rite of S. Peter, and hence the different use. See Par. 43, note †.
 The chimere is properly a kind of cope with apertures for the arms to pass through. A scarlet one is used in Convocation, and when the sovereign attends Parliament; on ordinary occasions a black satin one is used.