Project Canterbury













[Typed by Worthington Jukes in 1925.]


Transcribed by Wayne Kempton
Archivist of the Episcopal Diocese of New York, 2007

[Transcriber's Note: The original of this manuscript may be found at the Cambridge University Library: Royal Commonwealth Society Library, Reminiscences of Worthington Jukes, GBR/0115/RCMS 90 (former reference: Y3022EEEE). In 2001 a microfilm copy was obtained from the library by Elizabeth Hughes Clark. (See her dissertation "Thomas Patrick Hughes, Missionary to British India: The Class Ceiling" 2002). In 2005 she donated her research materials to the Archives of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. This transcription was prepared from a print-out copy of the Jukes manuscript made by Ms. Clark and included, along with the reel of microfilm, among her donated materials. The illustrations found in the original manuscript are not included with this transcription.]

Bequeathed to my wife
Catherine Scott Jukes
22 March 1936
Signed: Worthington Jukes.


It would have been impossible for me to give all the details herein recorded, with dates, had it not been for the fact, that my dear Aunt, Miss Elizabeth Hole, who acted as our second Mother on the death of our beloved parents in 1854, carefully preserved so many of my letters, at our home in Tiverton, Devon.

Some information I have culled from a few old reports of the Peshawar Mission, and have kept them by me for so many years.

The only other books from which I have taken some information about the Afghan War, is the "Cambridge Modern History", and also a few details about Bishop French from his Life by Mr. Birks.

It would perhaps have been better had I let these Reminiscences seen the light of day soon after my retirement in 1890, but the exigencies of a country parish, my dear Wife's bad health, the call of my Brethren to act as Rural Dean, the care of my two children, the request to act as Deputation in the Missionary cause, the compilation of the History of my Parish &c took up all my spare time.

Since my Resignation of the Benefice of Shobrooke owing to increasing deafness, I have been able to respond to the wish of many friends, especially to Dr. Cox of the Peshawar Mission who visited us last year, and had never heard many of the facts herein related of the work God gave me to do among the Afghans, to record some of them.

I have always heard that our dear Mother prayed constantly that her Children might become Missionaries; her prayers were answered, for all seven of them have made Missions their first thought, whether they were able to do so abroad or not, and our eldest sister had six children all engaged in God's work in the Mission Field.

These Reminiscences have been rather hurriedly put together, and as type-writing is quite new to me, I am aware that many mistakes have been made.

Will readers therefore very kindly excuse all faults under these circumstances.

December 1925 Worthington Jukes
2 Execliff


St. Peter's Church and St. Paul's Church, face preface
Trinity College, Cambridge, and the face page 1
The Residency, Lucknow.3
The Cawnpore Memorial.4
The Revs Robert Clark and Rowland Bateman.7
The Hujra for Afghan Guests.16
The Principal's Verandah, Mission School.17
Plan of Temporary Church.18
Afghan Scholars of the Hostel.19
The Mission House.21
My Humble Tent.22
Sayd Hazrat Ali.29
Sayd Hazrat Ali, his Brother, and the Rev. A. E. Day.30
The Rev. Worthington Jukes in Afghan Costume.30
Mrs. T. P. Hughes.42
Street in Peshawar.44
Muhammad Ibrahim Khan and other Chiefs.48
Shamoneer and the Afghan Boys of the Hostel.49
Khalifa Mian Nathu the head Persian Teacher51
H. R. H. The Prince of Wales.52
The Right Rev. Thomas Valpy French D. D..61
The Mission Cemetery.69
H. R. H. The Duke of Edinburgh.78
Blundell's School, Tiverton.95
Adeu Beauties or otherwise.98
The Diwan-i-Khas, Delhi.101
Mosque in Peshawar face
The Rev. Thomas Edwards, face page 106
Sayd Shah and Ati, the boy from Kafiristan.109
All Saints (Memorial) Church.113
The Pastor's House and Family.116
Mrs. W. Jukes and her Drawing Room.125
Miss Annie Norman's Tombstone.127
The Rev. T. P. Hughes in Afghan Costume.128
Sayd Shah and Aziz-ud-din.132
Qazi Khair Ullah, Shamoneer and others.137
The Chief's Hujra, Mission Compound.139
Plan of Camp of Lieut. Gov. of the Panjab.143
The Rev. F. E. Wigram and his Son.149
The Rev. F. E. Wigram in the Village of the Arab of Taikal.150
Mrs. Worthington Jukes.153
St. Swithin's Church, Shobrooke.160


It was on the 26th September 1872 that I first sailed for India in S. S. Viceroy in company with the Rev. Mr. Sharp of Masulipatam and with the Revs Malcolm Goldsmith and Francis H. Baring who were my contemporaries at Cambridge, at St. Catherines and Trinity Colleges respectively, and from which latter I had also taken my degree.

We spent a few months at the Islington College whilst reading for our Ordination, and were put through a somewhat severe training in public speaking by preaching in the streets. We took our stand at a street corner of an evening near a lamp post, and had to begin with an audience of 2 or 3, till the numbers increased and occasionally had to stand some heckling. It was rather nervous work for young fellows straight from the University.

We were eventually ordained as Deacons in St. Paul's Cathedral, by the Bishop of London, Dr. Jackson on Trinity Sunday 1872.

Bishop E. C. Stewart who had formerly been C. M. S. Secretary in Calcutta and had recently retired from the Bishopric of Waiapu, kindly came down to the docks to see us off and to give us his blessing. All three of us were much impressed with his saintliness and sympathy, and were much cheered by him on our leaving the dear old shores of England, for the happy work in India which we were so much looking forward to.

My brother Henry, the Rev. H. A. Jukes also came down to see us off. He slept on board with us the night before, as the ship was to leave the docks somewhat early in the morning.

As soon as we had said our last goodbye, and had sent off our last letters by the pilot at the mouth of the Thames, we settled down at once to study Hindustani which we had already commenced at the Islington College, with the help of a munshi who had been deputed to begin our instruction.

[2] The first place we touched at, after passing through the Suez Canal, which had only been opened two years before was Aden, and we reached Madras on the 5th November, where we dropped Messrs. Sharp and Goldsmith and others voyagers.

It was Sunday 10th Nov. that Baring and I landed at Calcutta. We stayed a few days there as guests of the C. M. S. Secretary the Rev. Mr. Welland. Baring, the nephew of the Viceroy Lord Northbrook was disappointed at not seeing his uncle as the latter was away.

It was decided by the C. M. S. Committee that Baring should go first of all to Allahabad and that I should spend a year first all at Amritsar, and after that go on to Peshawar, where the Rev. T. P. Hughes was working single-handed.

So after spending a few days at Calcutta, seeing Missionary work and visiting the shrine of Kali at Kali Ghat I set off on the 15th Nov. for Benares by train, passing through the very pretty scenery of the Santhal district, filled with mango trees, cocoa nut and date palms. At Benares we had to cross the Ganges, by a bridge of some 60 large barges, joined together by stout planks, and then after driving about 5 miles we reached Sigra, where the Mission is located, and I stayed with Mr. Reuter one of our German Missionaries. The Rev. Mr. Shackell late Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, Principal of the Mission College, showed me all round and I was much impressed at seeing so many Hindus with the marks of idols on their foreheads, but showing great alacrity in answering the scripture questions that were put to them, in fact their knowledge of the bible was wonderful.

I also visited the native Observatory and the Hindu temples and was disgusted at seeing all their obscene worship.

[3] After staying at Benares from 21st to 25th Nov. I went on to Allahabad (90 miles from Benares and 565 from Calcutta) where Charlie Fagan an old Blundellian had died from cholera shortly before my arrival, and where he had been chaplain.

On 27th Nov. I went on to Cawnpore and Lucknow 40 miles away, a place of peculiar interest, associated as it is with General Havelock and the Indian Mutiny. Four miles from Lucknow we passed the Alum Bagh, the scene where the mutineers made their first stand against 2300 British troops and where Havelock was buried. I stayed at the Zahoor Bakh (sic) a large Palace built by one of the Prime Ministers of the Ex-king of Oudh, but which was afterwards confiscated by the British Government, and let to the Mission Clergy, at a nominal rent of L25 per mensem. The building as I saw it was partitioned off into four residences for the various Mission workers. There were about 600 rooms in the Palace covering some 60 acres of ground. The arch at the entrance of the Residency, where the flag flies every Sunday, where the lamented Sir Henry Lawrence received his mortal wound.

It was in Lucknow, that I occupied the room in which the missionary Robert Fitz-Frederick Trench lived 4 years before, he was a great friend of my brother Henry at Cambridge, but God called him early to higher service. His tombstone bears the following inscription:

Robert Fitz-Frederick Trench
Arrived in India Dec. 31st 1868. Went Home June 4th, 1869.
Aged 25 years.
(To me to live is Christ, to die is gain)

We also went up to Secundra Bagh, another large garden, where about 3000 sepoys made their final stand but were all killed. I shall [3/4] never forget the visit we paid to the Public Gardens in Cawnpore so very beautifully kept. In the midst of it, is that wonderful Memorial to all those English men, women, and children (2 or 300), who were so brutally murdered by Nana Sahib and then flung, living or dying into the well, over which the Government erected that most pathetic Memorial of the Angel watching over the dead, but all this is so well known, that there is no necessity for further description. We also went to Secundra where is a large Orphanage of some 5 or 600 native children, the building is part of King Akbar's tomb. Amongst the children was a boy of about 8 or 10 years old, who was found six years before in a wolf's den, where he had been mothered by a wolf. He was brought to the Orphanage on a Saturday, and hence called Sunechar. He could understand nothing that was said to him and therefore could not speak and was quite unable to learn. Regularly every day he would stand in the middle of the playground and stare at the sun. I was told that he was so continually tapping his temples with his fingers, that he had succeeded in making indentations on the side of his face. When I saw him he was crouching in the corner of his room and no one would sleep in the same room with him, he stared straight in front of him, moving his head at the same time backwards and forwards, as if accustomed like a wild animal to cave life.

It was some little time after this that Mr. Rudyard Kipling (whom I met in after years at Rawal Pindee as a news-paper Correspondent, and who at that time was writing some very striking leaderettes in the leading Newspaper of North India, which attracted considerable attention) saw the lad, and created the character of Mowgli, in the Jungle Book, by which the lad has become immortalized!! Another boy with similar characteristics was [4/5] brought in to the same Orphanage a few months before I was there, if possible was still more to be pitied, but he died soon afterwards. Within a year or so of the time I was at Secundra Mowgli died. I believe it was never possible to get him to smile, although everything was done for his happiness and comfort.

It was early in December 1872 when I reached Agra. Most interesting of course is the Taj Mahal, built by the Emperor Shah Jehan as a Mausoleum for his beloved and only wife Arjumand, known as Mumtaz-i-Mahal, "The exalted of the Palace." The perfect scheme was only half completed; for Shah Jehan, it is said designed for himself a second tomb of equal splendor on the further bank of the river Jumna to be connected with the other by a bridge of purest marble; a striking symbol of the thought that death was powerless to sunder love like this.

In Ecclesiastical history Agra is noted as the scene of spiritual activity of Henry Martyn's only convert Abdul Masih who had embraced Christianity in 1812 at the age of 40.

In 1825 he was ordained by Bishop Heber. He had given up the lucrative office as Keeper of the Jewels at the Court of Oude for a catechist's salary of 60 Rupees, of which he gave away fully half. He was a skilled Doctor, treating his poor countrymen to drugs and medicine free of charge.

Abdul Masih is described by one who knew him at the time of his coming to Agra as remarkably handsome, with an air of Asiatic dignity, tempered by a sweetness of demeanour which was perfectly fascinating.

[6] It was in Agra that the Rev. Thomas Valpy French (afterwards the First Bishop of Lahore) began his Missionary work in 1851. Calm and dignified he remained at his post at the College as long as possible during the Mutiny, and when orders were issued for Europeans to enter the Fort, he did so, but when he found that Native Christians were refused admittance he resolved to remain outside at the risk of his life, for he knew that they were absolutely loyal to the Government.

Better counsels ultimately prevailed and they were admitted to the Fort. They soon showed they were worthy of the reliance that was expected of them by helping the English Officers to man the guns, and to do every other duty that was expected of them, in a beleaguered garrison.

All took their share, day and night in nursing the wounded in Hospital.

All these reminiscences of Mission Stations and their staffs were great incentives for me to push on, and be settled down at Amritsar for a year, so that I might get on with Hindustani as fast as possible.



For a whole year I was living in the city of Amritsar under the hospitable roof of the veteran Missionary the Rev. Robert Clark, who had in 1851 started the Mission at Amritsar, and in 1855 the Peshawar Mission, with Dr. Pfander and Colonel William Martin. I soon got an insight of some branches of Mission work, first of all in the Mission School, where I was requested to give some assistance, under the excellent Head Mastership of Babu Singha and got to know intimately some of the bigger boys of the Government School who came to my rooms to read English with me, this lead some of them to resolve to become Christians, I am thankful to say.

I also got an insight into Bazaar preaching and went out into camp with the Rev. Rowland Bateman and the Rev. T. R. Wade. The former was especially a very breezy individual, who at once put me at my ease with him, the happy way he had with men and lads, on the road, and in the villages, everywhere, were inspirations to me all through my Missionary life. Mr. Clark's help in my studies, in reading the Greek Testament every evening, and his methods in making calls on the native resident Gentry when he took me with him, were all most helpful in my after life.

The fine big house he built in the city was on the site of the Fort of Maha Singh (the father of Maharajah Remjit Singh). It was from this little Fort that the Sikh power spread itself by degrees from Amritsar over the whole Panjab. From the roof can be seen the Chief Sikh Temple, surrounded by a large Tank, with a causeway to the chief entrance. This Temple is called the Golden temple, and is very [7/8] sacred to all members of the religion of Baba Nanak. The object of the Mission House being so large in the middle of a large garden was that living in the city necessitated healthy surroundings with plenty of fresh air. The lower rooms were intended as classrooms, in which there could be lectures, classes &c.



In April 1873 I was privileged to accompany our veteran Missionary Mr. French on a preaching tour through the towns and villages to Ferozepore on the river Sutlej. In 1869 he had started a College in Lahore for the training of Hindu and Moslem converts for the Sacred Ministry. He had been very unwell for some months, but it was thought a change would do him good. It was getting very hot, so he decided to travel only in the evenings and mornings in his pony trap. I had been so much impressed with his holiness and humility, that I jumped at his invitation to accompany him, more especially as his grasp of languages was prodigious. He had been called the haft zaban sahib, one who could talk in seven languages.

He acted on the Eastern principle that there are three stages in the life of a godly man, first, the students stage, secondly, the married stage, and thirdly the faquir's. He had reached this third stage, and hated to be seen traveling in even the simplest kind of trap. One day he said to me "I hope you won't say anything to the people in England about our grand carriage." The fact was everyone was amused at his purchase of such a simple conveyance which proved to be of such doubtful importance. In going to preach in the bazaars he never would let me carry his blue stuff bag containing Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, Hindustani, Hindi, bibles and other books, but insisted on carrying it himself.

[9] I was often much impressed with the way he could translate from the French of Lacordaire's life into the most perfect English, with such ease, as if he had been reading aloud from an English translation.

When preaching in the bazaars, he would use far too scholarly Persian and Arabic words, although he knew the great necessity for using the simplest language understandable by all.

It was soon after my arrival at Amritsar, that I consulted Mr. French about the languages I ought to take up, and I shall never forget his reply, which has been inserted by the Rev. H. Birks in his life of Mr. French (i. 47).

"You must of course" he said "commence with Urdu or Hindustani, so as to be able to talk with your servants, to help in the services of the Church and in the schools. You had better give some six or eight hours a day to that, and also spend two or three hours to the study of Panjabi, to be able to talk with villagers. You should also try and give two or three hours to Persian, which you will find invaluable in the schools, and all your spare time to Arabic, so as to be able to read the Quran."

Indeed it was a crushing suggestion, but if we take the minimum requirement, they are hardly above the level of his own actual performances in his early days, and I had to read for Priest's Orders as well!

He was always most patient with true enquirers, but angry with triflers and those who tried to involve him in some metaphysical difficulty.

He often spoke about his want of success in the ministry and hoped I might have more. He was far more anxious about the success of others, than of his own.

[10] The heat was getting too great for camp life, so it was decided we should return to Lahore. We were in the district about a fortnight, but it was a time of great experience for me, and I learnt much from that great and holy man, which proved of much help to me in after life.

During the hot weather Mr. Clark and I were thrown very much together; he was full of information after his 21 years experience of the Panjab. He did not offer his opinion on any subject, unless it was asked for. His advice was always very valuable, and from his treatment of the natives, a very great deal was learnt. I was much struck one day with the simple, yet very telling way he spoke to one of my enquirers, in enforcing spiritual truths by practical realities of every day occurrence.

He was always uncommonly calm and cool, nothing seemed to excite him, he never lost his temper, a very great point in dealing with people, but was always master of himself.



A few months before I arrived in Peshawar, the Mission station there had been thrown into some state of excitement, owing to Mr. Downes making an attempt to get into Kafiristan. He had previously been an officer in the Royal Artillery, but having become dissatisfied with the apparent uselessness of his present employment, and longing to be employed in more definite work for God, he left the army and joined the Mission at Madhapore on the banks of the Ravi. He had not been there very long before some uncharitable person made some unwarrantable attacks on Missionaries in general, saying that they lived far too comfortable lives, but were not willing to go through hardships and trials in pursuance of their calling. Mr. Downes fiery zeal [10/11] was soon stirred up, he got permission to be transferred to Peshawar in order to study Pakhto and Persian, and to get acquainted with the customs and manners of the tribes on the Frontier, and eventually to shew that there were some who would brave every danger in order to take the Gospel into Kafiristan.

He made known his wish to Messrs. Hughes, Clark and French, who encouraged him to make the attempt, notwithstanding the fact that Government had set its face against any Englishman going over the frontier. Mr. Downes was quite conscious of the difficulties before him, but felt it was quite lawful to make the attempt. Not wishing to complicate the Government in any way, he left a paper to be forwarded to the Commissioner, stating his reasons for crossing the frontier and requesting the Government to take steps should he be murdered, as he went entirely at his own responsibility.

So one day, a European dressed in Pathan costume accompanied with guides, mules &c was to be seen crossing the frontier at gunfire 6 a.m., but they had not proceeded more than one days march to a village, when horsemen came up with directions from Government officials, to deliver up the Englishman in disguise.

The Afghan chiefs, true to their national hospitality to honour their guest, said "Why? what has he done? has he committed murder? if so we will stand by him to the last, but if he has committed no crime, we will deliver him up to you." They were true to their national izzat (honour), to stand by thieves, murderers and vagabonds, but they could not be troubled to protect an honest man!

Before leaving this subject, I must mention that Mr. Downes [11/12] published an account of the Kafirs in a paper "On the Siah Posh Kafirs", in the October number 1874, as well as in a previous number of "The Church Missionary Intelligencer", and afterwards in a special pamphlet "Kafiristan", printed by Ball of the Punjab Printers Co. Lahore in 1873.

For an account of earlier efforts to get into Kafiristan and its history see "The Panjab and Sindh Missions" by the Rev. R. Clark. p. 188.

Before leaving Amritsar, I was entertained to a dinner given by Babu Singha, the Head Master, at which the second Master Babu Badha Raha, Messrs. Bateman, Mayer and Harvey (a Master of the Government School, but who lived with us at the Mission House, with whom I had been on the most friendly terms) were all present. I felt very much the honour they did me, but of this I will say no more. All these, as well as the boys of the Mission School, with whom I had most to do came to the station to bid me farewell.

I need hardly say how much I felt their kind appreciation of my humble efforts in the place which for one year I had called my home, and where I learned a great deal of the joy and happiness of Missionary work.



It was in October 1873 that I joined the Peshawar Mission for work among the Afghans.

I had to travel some 270 miles by dak ghari from Lahore. It would have been an expensive journey, had not the Native Christian, who was in charge of the office, franked me through.

Those not acquainted with Indian traveling in those early days may be interested in knowing that a dak ghari consists of a four-wheeled conveyance with accommodation for 4 persons inside, [12/13] but on a long journey, a board is placed from seat to seat, on which your own bedding is placed, so that one or two persons can lie down at full length, and go to sleep. Two ponies, often half broken in, are harnessed and made to gallop the whole stage of 6 miles, where they are changed for fresh ones.

The Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Peshawar, 1500 miles in length, is one of the best roads in the world, most of it being metalled with kunka (nodules of lime) which, when well rolled, forms a beautiful surface; a side track of equal width on both sides being generally used by bullock carts and Cavalry regiments on march.

Early next morning we reached Wazirabad on the bank of the River Chenab, one of the five great rivers of the Panjab, which means "Five Rivers." The river here is very broad, no less than 4 or 5 miles in the summer and autumn months, owing to the melting of the snows in the Himalayas. The ponies were exchanged for draft oxen, to draw the vehicle over the heavy sand, between the many branches of the river, each branch being crossed by a bridge of boats. It took several hours to cross this mighty river. In the afternoon we reached Gujerat, 90 miles from Lahore, the scene of a great battle, which, under Lord Gough, broke the power of the Sikh Army at close of the Second Sikh War 1848, 1849. The Panjab (annexed by Proclamation on 29th March 1849) became a British Province, Maharajah Dhulip Singh receiving an allowance of L58000 per annum.

At Gujrat I called upon Mr. H. E. Perkins the Deputy Commissioner a very great friend of Missions. He was the son of a S. P. G. Missionary who baptized the first convert from the Sikhs in 1849 who was also the first native to be ordained in the Punjab.

[14] After Mr. Perkins had been a Commissioner for some years of an important Province in the Panjab, he resigned, in order to take Holy Orders, in obedience to a long expressed wish to be engaged in more definite work for the Evangelization of the Panjab.

The fact that an Englishman was willing to resign so highly paid an office, and become an Honorary Missionary, made a great impression on a large number of half-hearted enquirers, who could not make up their minds to be baptized. He became of strength in the Amritsar Mission in the early years of this century, and was warmly supported by Mrs. Perkins.

It was in Gujrat, at the house of Mr. Perkins that that great and good man Dr. Elmslie died in 1872. He had started Medical Missionary work in Kashmir only a year or two before.

I was anxious to see his grave, as his Widow was on the Missionary staff during the time I was in Amritsar, and was much beloved by all fellow-workers, English and Indian.

From Rawal Pindee I left the main road for a short visit to Murree (7000 feet high) in the hills, where I was to meet Mr. Hughes. Murree is 40 miles north of Pindi, which I reached by mail cart.

I need hardly say I much enjoyed this delightful Hill station after the very hot weather in the plains.

Mr. Hughes and I left Murree together on the 20th Oct. and drove to the house of Major Hoggan in Pindi to await our dak ghari bringing in the English mails. I found a friend in Major Hoggan at once, as he was much delighted with my Uncle Andrew's book "The Law of the Offerings." At Midnight we started off with the English Mail, as soon as it arrived. We breakfasted at Attock (70 miles from Pindi) the next morning, and then crossed the Indus, the mighty river which separates India from Afghanistan. The bridge of boats reminded me of Alexander the Great, [14/15] who has crossed the river at the same place and in the same way over 2000 years ago. The fort which he built overhanging the river, was visited by me some years later. Since those days it has been excavated, and much interesting information about it has been obtained. Another run of 40 miles brought us to Peshawar which was to be the scene of my Missionary labours for about 18 years.

On my arrival I found a letter from dear Mr. Clark of Amritsar in which he said, "I miss you very much, and very thankful should I have been had your lot been cast in Amritsar. You were getting a hold over some of the Government School boys, and helping forward the work in many ways. But you have now been clearly called to labour in another sphere, and I can only hope and pray that the same good Spirit of God may rest on you there, that has guided and blessed you here....your room looks quite desolate without you, I have not seen any of your boys any case we know that the seed which has been sown will spring up some day and bring forth fruit."

Mr. Hughes gave me two rooms in the large mission house, and asked me to relieve him of some of the scholastic work, this I consented to do, but as Bishop Millman, the Metropolitan of India was going to hold an Ordination before long at Allahabad, I determined to give most of my time to reading for Priest's Orders, as I had been doing at Amritsar. But I could not expect to be ordained, till I had passed the language examination. All possible time therefore was given up to these two subjects, so that I should present myself for the latter, at the time of the Missionary [15/16] Conference of Clergy at Amritsar at the close of the year.



Mr. Hughes was most energetic in dealing with the Afghans, and spoke Pakhto fluently. A few years before he had been told that if he went about amongst them in their villages, he would most certainly be murdered, but he adopted Afghan dress in the villages, and was received by the Chiefs in a most friendly way, accepting their hospitality. The Afghans are by far the most independent of all the races under British Rule in India. They are a warlike race, and never so happy as when they are fighting. They have plenty of fun and humour in them, and notwithstanding their warlike spirit and treachery they are most hospitable to all who know how to talk to them, and treat them in a friendly spirit. Mr. Hughes accordingly adopted a reciprocal hospitality, built a guest house called a Hujra, filled it with native bedsteads, pillows and coverlets, and appointed an Afghan to cater for all who came to see him and to give them the pipe of peace.

The result was, the Hujra was hardly ever quite empty, indeed it was often crowded. The monthly expenditure was not more than what was paid to a good catechist, and it drew to our confidence at the Mission House, large numbers of Afghans of all classes whom we wished to influence. This hospitality was continually exercised, for the great benefit of the Mission, till I retired in 1890. In no other Mission in India did I ever see so many natives coming voluntarily under Christian influence. I shall have more to say about this later on.

[17] There is a large Garrison in this Camp of Peshawar, for it is one of the largest in India, to keep in check the turbulent Tribes of the frontier, who are never happier than when fomenting discord, stealing rifles and anything else they can lay hands on, for it is their nature so to do!!!

There are generally, in times of peace, 2 English Regiments, 4 Native Regiments, and a few Batteries of Artillery.

Amongst the Officers and their Wives, we found many kindred spirits, who were very friendly with us. On one occasion, many of us rode or drove out to Jamrud, an old Sikh Fort, built by Hari Singh, small compared with what it eventually became during the war, 2 or 3 miles from the entrance of the Khyber Pass. It was not safe to go there alone, but on this occasion some armed tribesman, were told off to accompany us for protection. The scenery was very wild, for after leaving the Cantonments no trees were visible, only bare mountains of the Suleiman range capped with snow in the winter, all the Afghans we saw being armed to the teeth.



In the city there is a large School attended by Muhammadan, Hindu and Sikh boys of the city. The building is large, the site of it having been the residence of a great Chief, Sardar Yar Muhammad Khan of the Durani Dynasty, which was confiscated by the Government and handed over by Sir Herbert Edwardes the Commissioner, for the purposes of a school, to Major Martin through whose efforts the Mission had been started. A large central School had been erected by him on the old site, with [17/18] class rooms all round for scholars of what was then called the Middle School, the Principal's room was in front of all these with a verandah facing the Kohathi Gate. There were also a number of class rooms for the Lower School, one of them being used only for a Church, it had, what is usually called its East end, back to back with class rooms of the Middle School, till the New Church was built. It was in this make-shift of a Church, that the first baptisms took place but it originally formed part of the School. This is a plan I made at the time of this little Oratory.

A. Holy Table
B. Reading Desk
C. Seat for Clergy
D. Parda Nashins
E. Vestry
H. Harmonium
J. Doors
L. Lecturn
K. Baptistery for Immersion Covered.
S. W. Seats for Women
S. M. Seats for Men

We had several Armenian Christians from Kabul in the Congregation; their women friends sat in D.

Frequently English Officers and their Wives attended Service.

This little Sanctuary was in use for about 25 years. The Rev. Imam Shah being the Pastor since his Ordination, conducted daily Services.

[19] At the time of my joining the Mission, there were some 3 or 400 boys in the school, all belonging to the city, Moslems and Hindus, but we had no influence over them after school hours, and there were no boys among them from the district who were strictly Afghans, with whom we wished to have to do. So Mr. Hughes and I decided to offer scholarships to such lads who wished to attend school, but had nowhere to live; as several at once applied to come from amongst our Afghan friends, we saw the necessity for building a hostel for them, which we did in the Mission House compound. Among the Afghans, it is the rule, that the Mullahs supply board and lodging to lads who wish to be instructed by them, hence the necessity for our doing the same; and by our building the hostel in our compound, we were able to see a good deal of the boys. They catered for themselves on their way, to and from school. We thus got to know them intimately.



It was at the close of December 1873 that I had to make that long journey again of 270 miles by dak ghari to Amritsar to be examined in Urdu. The examination proved successful. Early in January I went another 700 miles by train to Allahabad, where I was ordained Priest by the Bishop of Calcutta Dr. Millman whose Diocese then included the whole of North India to Peshawar. The Bishop's Chaplain was the Rev. Edgar Jacob, afterwards Vicar of Portsea, and then Bishop of St. Albans. There were a few other Missionaries to be examined with me. The Bishop's addresses, each day of the examination were full of spiritual power, which we all much enjoyed. At the close he told us how very pleased he was with the examination, which showed great thought and study, [19/20] and that it was much better than the last examination he had held. He gave me much kudos for the exhaustive paper I had written on the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

We were all ordained on the 11th of January 1874, after which I returned by easy stages, stopping at Lucknow, Agra, Delhi and Amritsar to see a little more of the Missionary work in those places, which I was then better able to appreciate.



On my return to Peshawar, I at once set to work on Pakhto, to enable me to carry on with the Afghans, as Mr. Hughes and his family were going to England in a years time; I also took over the charge of the Mission School, as Mr. Hughes spent as much time as possible itinerating in the surrounding villages.



It was in 1872 the year I arrived in India that Mr. Hughes compiled the Kalid-i-Afghani, with the assistance of Maulvie Ahmad of Tangi in Hashtnagar, a learned Afghan Poet.

It is a compendium of all the well known Afghan authors. By the sanction of the Panjab Government it became the Text book for all who wished to pass the Pakhto Examination. It was the study of this book which occupied the next few years of my life. Life amongst the Afghans, whether in the Army or Civil Service or in the Church Militant has always proved full of exciting interest, and it has always been looked upon by all the Missionaries from the earliest days, as one of the most thrilling periods of their lives.

Afghanistan, it must be remembered, is not only that part over which the Amir of Kabul bears rule, but also that part under [20/21] British rule which has for its Eastern Boundary, the River Indus. The inhabitants of this latter part, being almost entirely Afghans; the population in the Peshawar district alone numbers more than half a million, so there is plenty of work to be done. It is full of the deepest historical interest from the time of Alexander the Great. Much has been written about the Afghans being descendants of the Lost Ten Tribes. They call themselves Ben-i-Israel. Every other man is either an Abraham, an Isaac or a Jacob, their very features are Israelitish, and their customs are more Israelitish than any of the Eastern races. The very bread they eat is of the same size and texture, as that which used to be put on the Table of Shewbread in the Tabernacle. The bread was unleavened; in fact the Hebrew word for cake, implying that it was pricked all over and smeared with oil, is just how the bread is baked now. The system of Land tenure, methods of prayer &c. are much the same as in the days of Israel of old. As much has been written on the subject, no more need be said here. It makes the work of far greater interest than it otherwise would be.



The Mission House had been acquired by Colonel Martin in earlier days, as the Government had forbidden the Missionaries to live in the city, as it was considered far too dangerous.

It was situated very near the R. A. Mess, on the road leading to the city, and just opposite the grave of a Muhammadan faqir who according to local belief had been such a saint in his life, that he continued to grow after death!!! and this growth continued for some years, till it became nine yards long!! The Government then thought it necessary that he should be forbidden [21/22] to grow anymore and ordered a wall to be built round it. It became a well known ziarat or shrine, with the name Nau Gazqabar or "The grave nine yards long." So when we wished to describe to our friends in the district where they could find our Hujra, we told them it was opposite this nine yards long grave. Such graves of abnormal length are frequently to be met with all over Moslem lands; the longest I have heard of is that of Eve which is reputed to be 300 feet long, just outside Jedda, the port of Mecca on the Red Sea.



One of the most encouraging methods of our work was itinerating in the district. We supplied ourselves with a small double-fly two-posted tent, sufficiently large for a single bed, a small table, two chairs, bathroom accommodation behind a screen at the end of the tent, a few small carpets &c, a couple of small tents for the Catechist and servant completes the equipage. It was necessary to hire a camel or two, to carry about all this paraphernalia including various Bibles in different languages, and also a box of medicines.

It would be foolhardy for any one to attempt such an Evangelistic tour, unless he had some command of the language, and knew much of the habits and customs of the people.

Mr. Hughes always found that he could get on very much better in the villages, by adopting the Afghan costume, and I had no hesitation in following his good example.

The people at once saw that we were not visiting them as [22/23] one of the conquering race, but by adopting their dress they instinctively felt that we wished to approach them in a friendly way, and in a friendly spirit they invariably received us.

As soon as the cold weather began in October, we made our preparations, intending to be away two or three weeks or a month, so long as it was advisable for the Head of the Mission to be away from head quarters, and had a colleague at the base who could carry on in the meantime.



Afghans are naturally by birth Muhammadans; by some English people it is often written Mahometans, but the word is derived from the head of their religion, the transliteration of which can only be Muhammad, his followers then are necessarily Muhammadans. But this term they seldom apply to themselves, the more general one is Musalman or Muslim, pronounced Moslem by Europeans.

The words Muslim and Islam are derived from salam in the Semitic languages Hebrew and Arabic.

Let us see how these words came to form so important a part in the Muslim religion. We must remember that Muhammad first as a shepherd and camel driver and afterwards as a merchant, was a pagan, accustomed to the worship of idols as all his ancestors were. In his journeys, he came across Jews and especially Christians, and soon imbibed the idea of the Unity of the Godhead with a hatred of idol worship.

We can well imagine how this young Arabian, disgusted with the obscene rites and worship of paganism, became interested [23/24] in the worship of Christians in their villages of Arabia and in the large cities of Syria, and how he was hospitably entertained and instructed by them in the true faith of the Living God. He must have heard then, for the first time possibly, the true significance of the love of God towards mankind, and how the reciprocation of that love resulted in the grasp of true life, that which God called Life, resulting in doing the will of, in the consciousness of forgiven sin, bringing with it real happiness. Then it was he must have learnt much of the deep truths about the Peace of God, inculcated in the Old Testament, and how in the New Testament, God in His love for man became man, to show mankind how to live and die for others.

It is not too much to imagine that he then learnt something of what Peace meant, "the Peace of God which passeth understanding." He must also have witnessed the animosity of Jew toward Christian, though both professed to worship the true God, though both appealed to the Old Testament, and both revered the names of Abraham, and all the Prophets, and professed to abhor that idolatry in which he had been bred. He must have been impressed with the Creed of the Jews, the "Shema-Israel," recorded in Deut. vi. "hear O Israel, the Lord our God is One Lord &c," as well as the Creed of the Christian. Both of them must have inspired him with the desire, on his return to Arabia, and laying claim to the prophetic office, to announce his new Creed, "There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the Prophet of God." He subsequently based all his teaching on what he had learned from the Old and New Testaments, the Mishna and the Talmud, and called it Islam.

But we cannot for a moment suppose that this word "Islam," [24/25] was first of all coined by him for the new religion. This word he must have learnt during his travels among Jews and Christians, for it occurs in one form or another, over and over again in the Old Testament e. g. yishlam; vashlam; shalom; shalem (in Kings xx. 3.); this last word is translated 'perfect'.

Gesenius in his Lexicon tells us that Islam means "submission." According to Abdul Haqq (the Muhammadan Commentator on the Mishkat) it implied "Submission to the Divine Will."

Even Muhammad did not wish to arrogate this word to his own Religion, for he himself tells us in the Quran that Islam was the religion of all the Prophets from the time of Abraham, as appears from the Surat-Ul-Imram verses 78.79.

"We believe in God and in what hath been sent down to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the Tribes and in what was given to Moses and Jesus, and the Prophets from their Lord. We make no difference between them, and to Him are we resigned (i. e. Muslim). Whosoever desireth any other religion than Islam, that religion shall not be accepted of him, and in the next world he shall be lost."

We therefore must not allow the word "Islam", to be reserved solely to the Muhammadan religion, as is so often the case. There has been submission to the Divine Will ever since the revelation of God's will has been known, and no one submitted to God's will as did Jesus himself.

We must therefore insist on Christianity being the true Islam. [25/26] The same argument holds good with reference to the word Muslim as seen from the above quotation from the Quran. The word occurs in Isaiah 42.18 under the Hebrew word Meshullam, and is translated in the R. V. "He that is at peace," the words are "Who is blind as Meshullam, and blind as the Servant of Jehovah."

Dr. George Adam Smith, in his beautiful Commentary on Isaiah says ii. 263 "The context shows that the Servant here, or Meshullam as he is called, the "Devoted" or "Submissive One", from the same root, and of much the same form as the Arabic Muslim - is the whole people..."

Meshullam also occurs as a proper name in ii Kings xxl.19 xxii.3; Neh. iii.4.6.30.

We therefore must not allow Muhammadans to arrogate to themselves the title Muslim, (any more than we should the Romans to arrogate to themselves the title Catholic) for All Christians who seek to do God's will are God's Muslim.

The Christian Missionary puts himself at a disadvantage, if he cannot show that he too is a Muslim--submitting to God's will. Not only these two words, but almost all Muslim customs and religious ideas come from Judaism and Christianity.

Repentance and Remission of sins, are signs of the true Muslim, but what do Muhammadans know of these?

On one occasion I was in an Afghan village, the Chief of which had not seen me before but seeing that I was dressed as an Afghan he said to me in Pakhto, "Are you a Musalman?" So I said to him in a humorous way, before replying to the question, "That [26/27] is a very interesting question of yours, will you kindly tell me the meaning of that word?" He was non-plussed and was obliged to acknowledge he did not know. So I said to him, "it is rather that you should ask me a question, you do not know the meaning of, but as you cannot tell me, I will tell you. A Musalman is one who submits to the Will of God, and as such, I am a Musalman, but I am not a Muhammadan, and never will be." I then explained to him the difference between the two, how I pinned my faith on One, who was far more able to save than Muhammad, for the Blessed Jesus was the Saviour of the World. When I told him I was an Esaiyi Haji (one who had been on a Pilgrimage to Jerusalem) I am afraid I went up in his estimation more than by telling him about the Saviour from sin, but he listened to all I said to him. I tried to impress upon him that we are all sinners in God's sight, and must obtain pardon from Him, if we wished to be true Muslim.

There can be no doubt whatever, that one way of impressing Afghans, is to appear like one of themselves, and at the same time, to let them know how we became more Godlike, by accepting Salvation through Jesus Christ, Who is still alive and pleading for us. (see page 38)



I longed to get out into the villages as often as possible. One or two Catechists generally accompanied me, well acquainted with Islam, able to meet the stock objections which Afghans are accustomed to bring forward against Christianity. It was absolutely necessary that he should be an earnest, warm-hearted Christian, full of the love of God, conciliatory in meeting the most objectionable of foes and cheerful in the face of all opposition. Of these we had several.

Jalaudin was an Afghan Convert before my arrival. He was very earnest and keen, ready to grapple with any argument and always most helpful.

Syad Shah, was another, from Ningrahar, or some other country in the wilds of Afghanistan. He had originally been a ploughman, regular in saying his prayers, but dissatisfied with the result of them, and anxious to get more light. He afterwards joined the Afghan army, but was restless and longed to see something of the sights of India. He went down to Calcutta, and there became a policeman. In his beats of the city he was much struck with the kind and conciliatory way the Missionaries met the objections and opposition of Hindus and Muhammadans, being particularly struck with what he heard in street preaching, of the tender appeals of the Saviour, made to the souls of men, "Come unto Me all ye that rest."

This was what he had been longing for, for years. It led to his conversion. He came back to Peshawar acted as a Catechist, and as such I found him on my arrival there. He was a rough diamond but learned to read and love his Bible. He often [28/29] accompanied us in our visitations in the district.

Hazrat Ali was a lineal descendant of Muhammad, and belonged to one of the leading families, possessing land in the tappa of Hashtnagar. As a boy he attended the Mosque school under Hamidulla, hereafter mentioned. Hamidulla had received some Christian books which had much impressed him, and which he showed to his pupil Hazrat Ali, who was also touched by them.

Hazrat Ali then joined the Mission School, and spoke of his convictions to his elder brother, who was a bigoted, opium-smoking, Moslem, who often was a guest in our Hujra, and cursed his younger brother for wishing to become a Christian.

The brother sent Hazrat Ali down to a school at Lahore 270 miles away, hoping thereby to cool his ardour, but he could not have sent him to a better place, for there were many Christians there, to whom he soon got attached. In course of time he left School, came back to Peshawar, and obtained an appointment of Assistant Revenue Officer. In due time he would have passed the necessary examinations, and have risen high in that department, but he gave up all these prospects in a desire to use all his power and influence for bringing his fellow-countrymen to a knowledge of the truth. He endured so much persecution in his home, as to warrant Mr. Hughes baptizing him about 1877 and sending him down, I think, to the Christian School at Batala, or possibly I may have sent him, for the strengthening of his faith.

By his baptism, he had become disinherited from his patrimony which galled him very much, but he succeeded in winning much respect by his conciliatory manner, and was anxious to go about with Mr. Hughes in his preaching tours. He proved an able controversialist, had a kind and winning way. About 1884 he married [29/30] the daughter of the respected Pastor of Peshawar, the Rev. Imam Shah. It was a very risky thing to do, to take his Bride to his home, with the permission of his brother, to live on his share of the estate; he naturally wished to have a home of his own, and we hoped that before long he might become Assistant Missionary in the Hashtnagar District, where he might exercise much influence as a landed proprietor. This necessitated his living entirely among Muhammadans which proved too much for him, and he found that temptations and oppositions became stronger than he expected. No doubt he gave up some of the means of grace, the result was, he vainly hoped he could live as a Christian, whilst conforming to Moslem customs, which eventually made shipwreck of his faith. Unfortunately Mr. Hughes had left the Country, and I was in England during this time. I believe it eventually ended in his recantation, much to the grief of his good little wife and the whole community of Christians.

It is sad that one who had endured so much persecution, should afterwards fall away so lamentably.

Maulvie Hamidullah was originally Hazrat Ali's teacher in a Mosque, but the teacher was more slack than his pupil in accepting Christianity. He determined to give up his position in the Mosque, and became a contractor in the Swat River Canal, which was then being constructed. After his baptism he gave great help as a Catechist, his knowledge of Arabic enabled him to help us in dealing with mullahs, and in translating the Prayer Book into Pakhto. He was always most helpful to me in the villages.



We generally sent on our head man with the camels, and a letter [30/31] to the Chief in whose village we wished to stay, with the request that the tents might be pitched in a place convenient to himself. On our arrival the Chief would be expecting us, and with true Afghan politeness, would shake us most warmly, with both hands, or if a great friend, with an embrace, and would then shower upon us all their salutations, almost unlimited, and would take it for granted that we, and our party, including our animals, would be his guests. Nothing could be kinder.

There is never any difficulty in beginning a conversation, for Afghans are anything but shy. Should I have never seen the Chief before, he might possibly ask why we had come, and without any hesitation I used to say, "I have come to bring you a message from God." By this time we should all be seated in the open, not on chairs, for possibly they have none, but on light wooden bedsteads, which the Chief has ordered to be brought from the Hujra, and placed in the shade of some trees, and then he would begin by asking some question on religion. Sometimes it is responded to by asking him some question, but he is soon out of his depth and longs for his mullah to be present, on whose shoulders he may throw the responsibility of answering. We soon take the opportunity of speaking about sin, and the necessity for its being pardoned. But this is a point the chief knows nothing, to him it is an abstruse subject, and he sends to the Mosque for the mullah to come and argue with us. The mullah who is probably engaged in teaching the Quran to his pupils, either thinks it is not right to be called away from his religious duties, or he is afraid of meeting the Padre, not knowing whether he will get the best of the argument, and so sometimes he sends back word to his chief, that he is not at home!! The Mullah has [31/32] told a lie on my account, as the chief knows it to be a lie. Not only will the Mullah be a bitter enemy of ours, but he will do his best to prevent any of his flock coming to see us.

How can this hatred be overcome? Only by our resolving to go and see him in his Mosque! There is nothing an Afghan hates so much, as to see Englishman, or as he prefers to call him, an unbeliever, entering his mosque, even should the latter take off his boots; the hatred would be so bitter, no good would be accomplished, but this difficulty is at once overcome, if we enter his mosque dressed as a Muslim, as we have proved over and over again. The Mullah at once recognizes our friendly attitude, and comes to meet us halfway. He apologises for not knowing (so he says) that we were in his village, otherwise he would have come to see us!

He is, as a well known Persian proverb says about the Mullah class:
"Tasbih dar kaf, tauba bar lab, dil pur az zauqi gunah"

In other words: He may count the names of God on his rosary, he may outwardly have confession on his lips, but his heart is full of the desire of sin, in plain language, he is a hypocrite. All Moslems have a very poor idea of the morality of their Mullahs.

We therefore go to the Mosque, accompanied by the Chief, we take off our shoes at the entrance of the Mosque. The Mullah has caught sight of us, and comes forward to meet us, we approach him in a friendly spirit, he asks us to sit down on the mat, and at once begins the conversation: by this time the floor of the Mosque is filled up with those who have come in to hear the discussion. The Mullah at once wants to know [32/33] what the books are we are carrying with us. We tell him they are Kalam Ullah, the Word of God:--The Taurat (Pentateuch), the Zabur (Psalms), the Injil (Gospels). They are the very books which he theoretically believes to be inspired, and which he wishes to see, which he believes to have been revealed by God to Moses, David and Jesus. He is very grateful at seeing them, as he has never done so before. We tell him that they contain the Words of Salvation, and of Eternal Life. He takes the Bible from me very reverently, kisses it, and then places it on the top of his head, implying that he wished to give it all the reverence that was due to it.

He wants to see each one of them, so we take up the Hebrew Bible and show him the Taurat. He says he does not recognize the characters. Can we read him some of it? We do so. Although the Hebrew characters differ from the Arabic, the pronunciation of many of the words are the same, and as we read the Hebrew, he at once recognizes it to be the Word of God. He then asks to see the Psalms. We explain that the language is the same. We then show him the Gospels in the Greek Testament. We astonish him more, by being able to read that too, so we go up very much in his estimation, and he shows great inclination to listen, more so than is often the case.

All this leads to no end of discussion. He wants to know the subject of each book. We tell him how sin entered the world, how sin can be forgiven, how the Prophets foretold the coming of the Worlds Saviour, to save us from our sin, how Jesus as the Saviour was absolutely free from sin &c &c The Mullah at once says, "Of course he was free from sin; all the Prophets were." [33/34] But we ask how he can prove that; and I take up the Quran and ask him to show me passages which warrant such a belief. He takes up his own Quran, turns over the leaves backwards and forwards, hoping to light upon such passages, but we tell him he might go on doing so till dooms day, but he will find nothing; we then point out how David made the most abject confession of his sins in Psalm li, and beg him to read it. He does so out loud from the Arabic Bible which I hand to him, we tell him that no doubt he understands what he reads, but will he kindly translate it into Pakhto for the benefit of all the Mosque.

He has no objection to do this, for he knows he will go up very much in the estimation of his followers, for being able to read and translate a book he had never before seen!

The Mullah is doubtless impressed with the great confession of sin, but at the same time, he makes the excuse that David in his humility said he was a sinner, but could not have been really such. I tell him of other passages which prove the sinfulness of all mankind, and then clinch the argument by reminding him of one of the traditions of Muhammad (which they set so much store by) to the effect, that at the Day of Judgment, a great sinner will go up to the Prophet Adam and ask him to intercede for him, but Adam will say, No, I cannot, "I once eat of the forbidden fruit. You had better go to Hazrat Nuh (Noah)." After making his petition to Noah, the latter will say, "I cannot intercede for you, I once got drunk, (GEN. ix. 20) go to Hazrta Daud (David)." David will likewise plead his inability, eventually he will go to the Prophet Jesus, who is the only one who does not plead inability, but tells him to go to the last of the Prophets [34/35] Muhammad. But no amount of arguing will have much effect, unless he is touched by the Spirit of God.

By getting the Mullah to read the Bible for me, I get him interested, as well as all others in the Mosque.

Another subject which they never tired of asking about was the Holy Spirit of God. It seldom occurs in the Quran, but in the 2nd Sura 11th R. it says that "Jesus was strengthened with the holy spirit," but the Muhammadan commentators state that "this spirit was the angel Gabriel, who sanctified Jesus and constantly attended on him" (Sale). Muhammad certainly did not mean the Holy Spirit, in the Christian Acceptance. According to Moslem ideas, each of the Prophets to whom God gave a revelation, had a Kalima (Creed).

Adam was styled Sufi-Ullah, the Chosen of God.
Abraham was styled Khalil-Ullah, the Friend of God.
Moses was styled Kalim-Ullah, one who conversed with God.
Jesus was styled Ruh-Ullah, the Spirit of God.
Muhammad was styled Rasul-Ullah, the Messenger of God.

So in the time of Abraham, the creed of his followers would have been: La-ilaha-il-lal-laho Ibrahim Khalil-Ullah.

The creed of the followers of Jesus till the time of Muhammad would have been: La-ilaha-il-lal-laho Isa Ruh-Ullah.

By this title Jesus was greatly distinguished above the others. In the Quran He is also called Qaul-ul-Haqq, the Word of Truth. Muhammadans naturally wished to know something definite about Jesus being the Spirit of God, about Whom their commentators knew nothing but what was wrong. This subject alone gave us ample opportunities for telling them all we knew about Him and read the passages from the Bible about the Blessed Spirit of [35/36] Life, the Author of all Purity and Holiness in man, how the indwelling Spirit of God convicts a man of sin, and helps him to lead a new life.

During this long discussion, the Mullah forgets that he is missing one of his daily prayers, so up he jumps, tells us he will say his prayers "as quickly as possible"! and come back again. After a little further discussion, he thanks me very warmly for coming to the mosque, and asks if he may come and see us in our tent. We tell him we shall be delighted and request his presence at a certain hour, and hope he will join us in a cup of tea.

He comes and a most friendly chat again ensues. Of course I give him the seat of honour.

The discussion in the Mosque has done no end of good. I have often since then, felt very sorry, when the Mullah left me to say his prayers in the Mosque, I did not say mine as well, by prostrating myself on the floor, as the Saints of old always did, and as Moslems do still, and thus show my Afghan friend that Christians are as much as, and should be more, desirous than the Afghans to fulfill all the duties of a good Christian.

I think the reason why I did not do so, was owing to what our Saviour said about saying prayers to be seen of men, and yet He did not forbid Public Worship. When having my meals with them, as I always made a point of doing, I always said my Grace with them, both before and after meal.

On another occasion, after an interesting discussion outside the tent late at night, I had wished them a pleasant night's repose, and retired to my tent, intending to have a quiet time to myself, I heard a gentle voice outside saying, "Are you asleep [36/37] Sir?" I open the tent door once more, and ask the man to come in. He comes in at once, looks round the tent, under the table and bed, to make sure there were no eaves-droppers about, and tells me he wants to have a quiet talk with me, anent the discussion of the evening. He is an Afghan Nicodemus coming by night, as he is afraid to do so by day.

Such then are the friendly discussions which have occurred over and over again, as we go from village to village.

I could tell of many more equally earnest discussions. Is there any wonder that they came to see us in Peshawar, and became our guests?


Afghans have generally two meals in the day, consisting of either palao, kabob, curds, and whey, pickles, jam, bread and fruit, and as we are guests, we refuse to eat unless they join us, beginning and ending with rinsing the hands and saying grace, both of which they are most particular about.

There are some who, at first, make objection to eating and drinking with us, because they would never think of doing so with Hindus, and Hindus would sooner die than share their meals with those of another religion. But we tell our guests that we are Ahl-i-Kitab, "People of the Book", an expression used in the Quran for Moslem, Jews and Christians, worshippers of One God, and therefore it is legal for them to eat together.

All the time I was in India, I never knew of any other Mission where there was this freedom in eating and drinking together, for the simple reason that Hindustani Islam is tarred with the Hindu brush.



[38] We have always felt that the wearing of the Afghan costume has been a distinct help to us in itinerating in the villages.

Since beginning to write these Reminiscences I have been reading Lowell Thomas' book "With Lawrence in Arabia", and I have been particularly struck with what has been said on pp. 197, 198.

"The magnificent Bedouin clothes that Colonel Lawrence wore, were not theatrical garb. They were a part of his carefully worked-out plan to gain complete mastery over the Arabs, (whose language he was a perfect master of). Although he did not attempt to disguise either his religion or nationality, outwardly he was an Arab. Except in certain areas, he found that being known as a British Officer and a Christian was less of an hindrance than full other British Officers who desired to visit a tribe, he recommended simply the Arab head cloth to be worn out of courtesy, and not as a disguise. Bedouin have a malignant prejudice against a hat, and believe our persistence in wearing it, is founded on some irreligious principle. Lawrence's maxim was, "Adopt the kuffieh, agal and abba, and you will acquire the confidence and intimacy of the sons of Ishmael to a degree impossible in European garb. But to don Arab kit has its dangers, as well as its advantages. Breached of etiquette, excused in a foreigner, are not condoned if he is in Arab clothes....complete success comes when the Arab forgets your strangeness and speaks naturally before you." His advice was that if you wear Arab dress, you shall always wear the best for the reason that clothes are significant among the tribes,....if you use the Arab custom at all, go the whole [38/39] length, leave your English friends, and customs on the coast, and rely entirely on Arab habits....the effort of living and thinking a foreign language, the rude fare, strange clothes, and stranger ways, with the complete loss of privacy and quiet, and the impossibility of ever relaxing your watchful imitation of others for months on end, prove such an added strain that this course should not be taken without serious thought."

All this advice is of infinite value, and is equally true for those who would adopt the Afghan or any other costume.

All those who are acquainted with Missionary publications know how much many Missionaries in China have adopted the Chinese dress, and it was from reading such books, that I resolved whilst in my teens, to do the same, when I went out into the Mission field.

In Peshawar I first began to adopt it about 1877, soon after I began to talk Pakhto at all fluently, but when on going home to England in 1881, the Masters and Afghan Scholars of the school gave me a beautiful illuminated Persian address, and a magnificent khilat or dress of honour, consisting of a lovely embroidered pashmena choga, turban, and golden-threaded kulla. On thanking them for it, I told them that I took it for granted that they wished me to wear it, and wear it I did, whenever I subsequently went into camp. I was never treated by any, except with the greatest respect. It was only after this, that I heard with the greatest satisfaction, that Dr. Pennell of the Derajat, had adopted the costume with the greatest success.



It was owing to the extreme unhealthiness of Peshawar, that we were ordered away to the Hills for a few weeks every summer. Thandiani was situated some 12 miles from Abbotabad in the Himalayas, about 7000 ft. above the sea. It was a most delightful and healthy spot, and here it was that the Mission possessed two small cottages, so I arranged to take alternate leave of absence with Mr. Hughes, and there to work hard at Pakhto and Hebrew. I also wanted to see the property the Mission owned there, before Mr. Hughes went home on leave. I enjoyed the respite from the heat of the plains immensely. It was a short lived pleasure, for owing to an accident and fever, the Chaplain of Peshawar had to go away for several weeks, and much of his work, devolved on Mr. Hughes and myself, in addition to all our other work.

As soon as Mr. Hughes and family left for Thandiani, I invited Dr. Duke of the Royal Artillery to live with me in the Mission House for company, the result was I often dined with him at his Mess, and was made an Hon. Member of it. That year there was a great amount of sickness in the Artillery, and other Regimental Hospitals. I had a slight attack of fever, but it was nothing compared with the majority of cases I attended.

I was therefore glad to get away to Thandiani in the middle of July, and to enjoy the splendid view of Nanga Parbat, 26000 ft. high, the third highest mountain in the Himalayas.

The Divine Services on Sunday, we held by invitation in one of the larger houses, and most of the residents attended both Services. Some Kindred spirits were up there, which made it very pleasant.

I remained there one month.



There are very few alive now who can remember the unhealthiness of Peshawar during the seventies of last Century. During those years there were visitations of Cholera, every three years, and the Peshawar fever, carried off many lives every year, owing to malaria caused by decaying vegetation on the banks of the rivers, and also to the fact that there was only one well (that at Mackeson's Monument) in the whole of the Cantonments, from which drinking water could be obtained; but water-carriers would not go so far, if they could fill their mussucks from a neighboring ditch. All the water therefore had to be boiled and filtered, and no wonder, for the Cantonments had been laid out originally, over a huge Muhammadan burial ground! The reason for placing the Cantonment there, was, it was the only big piece of ground, situated between the City and the Kyber Pass, on high ground that could not be irrigated. A very suitable place for a graveyard.

[Transcriber's Note: Memorial at Peshawar - "Here lies the body of Frederick Mackeson Lieutenant Colonel in the Bengal Army Companion of the Bath and Commissioner of Peshawur who was born September 2nd 1807 and died September 14th 1853 of a wound inflicted by a religious fanatic. He was the beau-ideal of a soldier: cool to conceive, brave to dare, and strong to do. The Indian Army was proud of his noble presence in its ranks - Not without cause. On the dark page of the Afghan War, the name of 'Mackeson' shines brightly out. The frontier was his post and the future was his field. The defiles of the Khyber, and the peaks of the Black Mountains, alike witness his exploits - Death still found him in the front. Unconquered enemies felt safer when he fell - His own Government thus mourned the fall "The reputation of Lieutenant Colonel Mackeson as a soldier is known to, and honored by all. His value as a Political servant of the state is known to none better than to the Governor General himself, who in a difficult and eventful time had cause to mark his great ability, and the admirable prudence, discretion and temper which added tenfold value to the high soldierly qualities of his warlike character. The loss of Colonel Mackeson's life would have dimmed a victory. To lose him thus by the hand of a foul assassin is a misfortune of the heaviest gloom, for the Government which counted him amongst its bravest and best." General Orders of the Marquis Dalhousie, Governor General of India 3rd October 1853. This monument was erected by his friends."]

It was only after I had been there about ten years that the Government realized the absolute necessity of bringing in a good supply of drinking water by pipes from the Bara river, and lay it through out the Cantonments and city. The mortality was lowered immediately.



It was during my visit to Thandiani next year in 1874 that it was decided to build a little Church. The English Community at once responded to an appeal, and raised about Rs350.

It was decided that it should be a log Church built upon a stone foundation. Sanction was obtained from the Authorities to cut down trees at one rupee each. The dimensions of the Church were 38ft. x 18ft. Deodars and other pine trees of great size [41/42] were put into requisition, masons and carpenters having been got up from Abbottabad. We were able to put on the roof, but the sides had to remain open, till we should have more time the following year to complete it. The little Church proved a blessing.

A few years later, when Mr. Hughes was in England, I made it a little Ecclesiastical, by building on an apse to it, and thereby giving greater accommodation to worshippers.

The pine trees of Thandiani are many and varied, e.g. Pinus Excelsior, Pinus Longifolia, Pinus Webiana, the Spruce and Deodar, the latter being particularly valuable for building purposes.


We looked upon Abbottabad as a sub-station for our Missionary work, as we found many enquirers, more especially a post-master, with whom we were particularly pleased. Captain and Mrs. Battye were very helpful to us in all our work.

The 54 miles ride between Hassan Abdal (on the railway), and Thandiani was always very invigorating, some officers at Abbottabad were always very kind in lending us a mount. On my return to Peshawar in October, I was very anxious to live in Ghorkhatri, in the city, to be more in the middle of my work, but as Mr. Hughes and his family were starting for England in a few months, it was necessary for me to be at the head quarters in the Mission House in Cantonments.

The Ghorkhatri was the name given to a house (handwritten note: large serai in the highest part of the city, at the corner of which a house had been built by Gen. Avitabile) & improved by the Rev. Robert Clark, some years previously, with the sanction of the Government. Hundreds of years ago it was the site of a Buddhist Monastery, and was situated in the highest part of the city. The work at Peshawar was always very congenial, as there were many enquirers, and a constant realization of the Presence [42/43] and blessing of God, whether engaged at the Garrison Church and English Hospitals in the absence of the Chaplain, or in the Hujra with the Afghans, or in the city. I was often left to myself, as Mr. Hughes was frequently in the district, exercising great influence among the village chiefs and mullahs.

It was encouraging to think that we were helping to build up that Glorious Temple, with stones of different colours, but all fitted and squared by the Great Master Builder, some in one place, and others, in an altogether different clime.

Mr. Hughes and family left Peshawar at the end of March 1875 for England, leaving me alone to carry on, but the Afghan boys in the Hujra were always great company for me, to say nothing of the grown-up Afghans who were constantly coming and going.

One day I went to a village on the confines of our territory when I saw the uncle of one of my boys, who requested me "to give his nephew a thrashing, every time he did not say his prayers! and hoped I would not make him a Christian!!"

On another occasion, one of the greatest Afghan landed proprietors brought his son to be educated by us; the father was plainly told that he would be taught Arabic, Persian, English, Mathematics &c &c, and that possibly the boy might elect to become a Christian. The father at once said, "Well Sir, if he does not become a Christian, probably his son will"!! A few years after, the father himself became much impressed. That son is now in high Government service. So great a confidence had they in our honesty of purpose, in not putting pressure on the boys to become Christian, that they gladly left them with us. Several lads of the higher classes did come under our influence.



It was during May 1875 that a vast conflagration took place in the city, lasting for three days, fanned by a strong breeze. The houses being chiefly of wood, and having become very dry owing to the exceedingly hot weather, burned like tinder. I was down there with many Officers, the best part of 60 hours, helping them to cut off the fire from the rest of the city, by blowing up with gunpowder whole rows of houses, to prevent the fire jumping over the narrow streets to other quarters.

One of these Officers of the Royal Engineers said to me after a time, "Jukes! you have mistaken your calling, you should have been a sapper"! Many thousands of houses were thus destroyed. We did all we could to impress the many hundreds who came to look on, to help put the fire out. One said, "I am a Sayid, its not my work". Another was a Brahmin, who would lose his caste: all thought it was a matter of kismet, and that it was wrong to fight against God.

The Mosques were all full of devout worshippers, praying very loudly. Many of them thought that the fate of Sodom and Gomorrow awaited them. Some 15000 persons were thrown out of hearth and home. The conflagration did this good, that it afforded the Government and Municipality the opportunity that was long wanted, to widen the streets. Our Mission property was mercifully preserved.


It was in June 1875 that I entertained a very interesting Greek Traveller, named Dr. Potagos at the request of the Deputy Commissioner. He had been knocking about Persia, Turkestan, Thibet, Chinese Tartary, Russia &c, and could converse in French, Italian, [44/45] Turki, Persian, and Greek. I found that I had forgotten all the French I ever knew, but I attempted a conversation, and failing that a correspondence with much difficulty in Greek, which would, I am sure, have made the hair of my old Masters in Blundell's School, stand on end! My knowledge of Persian was little better.

He would not tell why he was so anxious to get through to Kabul but some years later it was discovered, that some time before, he had found gold and precious stones, in the Northern parts of Afghanistan, and that he wanted to get permission to work the mines.

He could only get permission to get through to Kabul, by a very roundabout way, and then the Amir would not listen to his arguments, telling him that if he allowed him to start mining, he would soon have a lot of hornets round him, in the shape of English and other races, whom he wished to avoid.



In September 1875, I walked with my Persian teacher Khalifa Mian Nathu, from Murree to Kashmir by double marches each day, and was able to be of some help to Dr. Maxwell, who was then in charge of the Medical Mission in succession to Dr. Elmslie.

There was no Clerical Missionary resident then, and I was able to baptize the first Kashmiri family.

The march into Kashmir was warm, but the exercise did me much good, and I got on with my colloquial knowledge of Urdu and Persian. We crossed the river Jhelum (the ancient name for which, in Alexander the Great's time was Hydaspes). We passed some Buddhist ruins on the road, buried in the jungle. Much was in excellent preservation, and built of granite.

Six-sevenths of the people in Kashmir are Moslem, although the [45/46] Maharajah is a Dogra. On the arrival of the Maharajah from Jummu to Srinagar, all the English there, were invited to go and meet him on the river in boats, 2 or 3 miles from the Capital.

In the evening he entertained the English visitors to a dinner in the Palace. In August, just as I was about to return to Peshawar I developed fever, which kept me in bed for 16 days, and as Dr. Maxwell needed a holiday, we went to Gulmarg, some 2 or 3000 feet higher than Sprinagar, to enable us to recover strength.

We had to live in tents, under the pine trees, which was very pleasant, till we were able to secure a hut, on its vacation by other English visitors. I soon got stronger, owing to the kind attention of Dr. and Mrs. Maxwell, and very much enjoyed the walks in the mountains. Unfortunately he was in a bad state of health, had to resign his post and return to England.

I accompanied them to Murree. We had to go by easy marches as he was suffering much from nervous depression and fainting fits, owing to a weak heart.

Just before we left Sprinagar, the British Government presented the Maharajah with a Steam-launch, through the British Resident Major Henderson. At the launch in the lake, the whole population was on a fete, and Europeans were once more entertained, in the beautiful Shalimar Gardens, made by the Emperor Akbar and his son Jehangir in the 16th century. The departure of Dr. Maxwell was much regretted, and the Maharajah honoured him, by sending one of his Dewans to present him with a grand Kashmir shawl, and other Pashmena goods to the value of 40 or L50.

At Murree I left the Maxwells, they went to Bombay, and I went to Peshawar, glad to have been of some help to them, in return for [46/47] their kindness to me.


On arriving at Peshawar early in October I at once went out into the District with a catechist for a little preaching tour. We slept at Nowshera and in the morning breakfasted with some friends Captain and Mrs. Birch, and eventually left the Grand Trunk Road at Jehangira, and crossed over to the left bank of the Kabul river. After passing through several Afghan villages and talking to the Chiefs and their retainers, we reached Zeyda, the abode of a loyal Chief and our friend, Ibrahim Khan, who had entrusted us with his little son Abdul Ghafur Khan for instruction in the Mission School.

There were at that time, two great rival religious leaders among the Afghans, one lived at Swat across the Frontier and was generally called Akhund, which means Teacher; and the other was the Mullah of Kotah, who lived between Jehangira and Zeyda. It was this latter I went to see, as I passed through his village.

It was during the last ten days of the Fast of Ramazan, when the Mullahs spend almost their entire days in their Mosques, and are willing to talk to all who come for advice; so I sent in my salaams, signifying thereby that I wished to have a conversation with him. I was immediately ushered into his presence.

The old gentleman was almost blind from a cataract, had as much difficulty in seeing me, as I had in seeing him, owing to the room having been made dark. I found him surrounded by a great number of men, some from Bokhara or Kabul, some reading the Quran aloud, so there was no little hubbub. His son acted as interpreter, as my Pakhto was anything but perfect. The old Mullah gave me a long ovation, and two or three times offered up prayer, the purport of which, I believe, was that I might be led [47/48] into "the right way." He showed true hospitality, and begged me to pass the night in his village. A former Missionary had, I found out, presented him with a handsomely bound copy of the Gospels, but had then to go with a guard, as it was not then considered safe to travel without one; but the reputation of the Peshawar Mission for hospitality, through Mr. Hughes, had so grown that I had nothing but kindness shown me.

The Khan of Zeyda, Ibrahim Khan, allowed me to use his guest house, which looked quite like a European Bungalow, with lofty rooms which he had built for the benefit of such Englishmen who might visit him; it was the only one on the district of Yousafzai and Hashtnagar. I was warmly received by the Chief, and all the male members of his family, who insisted on having me as their guest at every meal.

There was in that village, a Christian Zamindar named Shamoneer, entirely isolated from all the means of grace. He had put in a long period of distinguished service in the Corps of Guides and had become a Christian, chiefly through the influence of that grand man Subadar Dilawar Khan, whose interesting story has been published by Mr. Hughes. This Subadar had been sent on a political mission by the Government into Central Asia, so much had he been thought of by those in authority. But he had been recognized as a Christian and was foully murdered.

Shamoneer had received a pension after long service, and resolved to live on his own land, and I am thankful to say he was not ashamed to call himself a Christian. He was a true Afghan and was in his old age accustomed to dye his beard red and sometimes blue! but he was in no sense a "Blue Beard"!!!

He took me round his fields, and we sat together in his linney talking over various religious matters. I expressed regret [48/49] that I had not my Bible with me, but he at once jumped up, saying that he had one, and proceeded to take it down from the rafters of the roof where he always kept it, and together we read some portion of it. It was during some time in his life, after he had been baptized, that some of the hot-bloods of the village wanted to compel him to become a Muhammadan again, but he scorned the idea and told them that under no consideration would he give up his Christian Religion. They were all in the village Hujra at the time; they rushed at him, threw him down to the ground; fastened a rope round his ankles, put the rope over a beam in the roof, and hoisted him up, with his head dangling on the ground, "Will you now become a Muslim?" they shouted, His answer was "Never." "Then you will die, and there will be no one to bury you" they said. Shamoneer's laconic answer showed the grit that was in him for he simply said "You will soon get tired of me if you don't"!! They let him down for they were afraid of the strong arm of the Law, and did not wish to be hanged. He often used to come into Peshawar and join us at our worship and Celebration of the Holy Eucharist.


After this I went to the extreme end of the Yousafzai district, and spent the Sunday at Torbela on the banks of the Indus, as it debouches from the Swat country, spending the time in villages. At one of them the Maulvie of the Mosque brought out some books and was very agreeable. The Catechist had some very interesting conversation with him.

[50] The next day we went towards Hurreepore, half way between Hassan Abdal and Abbottabad, and we had a long conversation with the Khan, who seemed to appreciate our visit. Some of the Mullahs proved very bigoted, and seemed more anxious to show their followers how far superior their knowledge was to ours, than to learn anything from us.

The next day ay Hurreepore I had another attack of fever and could not accompany the Catechist into the bazaar to preach; the next day I had another attack at Hassan Abdal, having been obliged to ride 22 miles in the meantime. Under the circumstances I thought it best to remain quiet at Attock in the staging Bungalow till the fever disappeared.

On reaching Peshawar, I had the pleasure of baptizing an adult Muhammadan, although I generally left the Baptisms to our Pastor, the Rev. Imam Shah. The man had been a Mohout or elephant driver, but having had his shoulder broken by one, he took to some other employment. He had been wishing for Baptism for sometime; a day or two before his Baptism, he dreamed about my baptizing him, and was radiant with joy as he narrated the dream to me, his name was Gholab Shah.

My tour in the district impressed me with one thing, and that was, the necessity for getting on with all three languages, for without them I felt I could not be of much good.

The Rev. Imam Shah was ordained Priest at Amritsar on the 28th Nov. 1875, he was able to read his Hebrew Bible and Greek Testament and talk in English. His wife was the daughter of the Rev. Daud Shah, the first Sikh Convert.

[51] I baptized another man on Christmas Day: his coming to me was the result of my tour in the District a few months before, he been showing every sign of true conversion.



Frequent earthquakes happened in Peshawar. One rather serious awoke me one Sunday morning at 1 a.m. shortly before Christmas the whole house seemed to be reeling backwards and forwards, but I did not get up till it increased most suddenly in violence, when I made for the arched doorway, expecting every moment to see the roof subside. Many of the Barracks were pronounced unsafe for habitation, there was not a house in Cantonments which was not more or less injured. One Officer in Nowshera was imbedded for a time amongst the debris of the fallen roof.



In Peshawar there is always a possibility of assassination; Missionaries as well as Officers, take their lives in their hands. Mullahs in their ignorance and fanaticism, teach their pupils that one sure way of getting to heaven, is by murdering some European. One day I went down to the school as usual, on my arrival there, the Head Persian Teacher (handwritten: Khlaifa Mian Nathu) who was a Muhammadan, but very friendly to me, told me there was a fanatic about the playground, who was looking out for me. The fanatic enquired of several Muhammadan boys, when I was expected, and what I was like, thinking that as they too were Muhammadans, they would be sure to favour the attempt, but as they had some friendly feeling towards me, they were horrified at the idea, and at once reported [51/52] it to their Persian teacher. Fortunately I did not meet him, but I reported the circumstance at once, as was my duty, to the Chief Police Officer, who doubtless had him watched. I heard nothing more about him.



During the first week of the New Year 1876 I went down to Amritsar to attend the Missionary Conference. Mr. Hughes had just returned from England, and was at Amritsar on my arrival.

He was engaged in preparing an address of welcome from the Panjab Christians to H. R. H. Prince of Wales, (afterwards Edward vii) who was soon expected, and I was deputed to arrange for an ivory-worked casket for the Address.

I did not wait for the Royal Arrival, but returned to Peshawar to relieve the Rev. Imam Shah, who was to be present with other Panjab Christians at the presentation of the Address, as well as of Bibles in Urdu, Panjabi, Persian, and Pakhto. Everything went off well.

Among other National events, the Great "Alexandra" Bridge over the Chenab, 1 _ miles long, was opened by the Prince. Messrs Clark, Hooper, Hughes, Wade, and Gordon remained at Lahore to attend the Levee held by him.

Sir Bartle Frere and Canon Duckworth who were on the Staff of the Prince came up to Peshawar in February 1876. The former called on Mr. Hughes and myself, the Sunday he was there. He took great interest in our Library, and thought he could supplement it by some books from the India Office. Canon Duckworth preached the same day in the Garrison Church. In the evening Mr. Hughes [52/53] and I with many Officers and Ladies met them both at dinner at the House of our Commissioner Sir Richard Pollock.

The next day they both visited our Church and School and were much pleased with all they saw. The Teachers and Scholars were particularly struck with Sir Bartle's humility and affability.



In my spare moments I sometimes studied the subject of Numismatics, for Peshawar City and the neighbourhood, were rich in all manner of very ancient coins.

Just before Sir Bartle's visit, there had been a great find of gold coins, and I had been asked by the Deputy Commissioner to write a report of them, for the benefit of the Indian Government. There were 2 or 300 of them, and I discovered that they belonged to the Kings Kadphises, Kanerkes, Oerki, and Baraoro of the Graeco-Bactrian Dynasty, as I believed, of the 1st Christian Century, and they all looked as if they had all just come out of the Mint. At the request of Sir Bartle Frere, I took them the next day for him to see, and it ended in my sending him, with the permission of the Panjab Government, 60 specimens of duplicates for the benefit of the Indian Office, where there is an excellent Collection of Central Asian Coins.

I only wish I could have kept some of them for myself, but as they were each worth at least L1, it was out of the question.

I have no doubt that such a very ancient city as Peshawar can produce any amount of Treasure Trove.

I sent up my report in March 1876, to the Government, and in due time received their thanks in the following words: [53/54] "The thanks of the Panjab Government should be conveyed by the Deputy Commissioner to the Rev. Mr. Jukes who made so careful and exhaustive a report on the coins."



In the middle of the City at a place called Pipul Mandi, Colonel Martin had secured a particularly convenient site, and on it had built a Preaching Chapel as it was called, for on the steps leading up to a very convenient room, Missionaries and Catechists, since the time of Colonel Martin, have stood and preached to the large numbers of Afghans, and men from Central Asia, who were constantly passing by. There it was, that many who had heard the Good News of Salvation for the first time, were persuaded to take away copies of the Gospel, the reading of which has brought happiness into many a darkened heart, in their homes hundreds of miles away. There it was, that the celebrated brigand Dilawar Khan, who afterwards accepted from "Lumsden Sahib", the Commanding Officer of the Guides, a post in that Regiment, first heard the Gospel of Christ preached, which resulted in his Baptism.

Often were the Mullahs so exasperated at the temerity of Missionaries boldly preaching the Gospel, that they sent their disciples to heckle them, and to do their best to get them to lose their tempers. Often have they thrown dust, dirt, and rotten eggs at them, and so tried to discredit their message among the listeners.

No matter how they rage, the Gospel must still be preached.

Another time the Missionaries would change their tactics, and invite the listeners outside, who would often collect together outside in such numbers, as to stop the traffick, to come inside. This we were virtually compelled to do, as the Police had to see that the road was kept open for traffick.

Inside they were invited to sit down and listen to some European or Native brother explain one or other of the doctrines of Salvation, Forgiveness, Mediation, Sanctification, Purity &c &c.

Opportunity would then be given to any one of the audience to say what they had to say, even in opposition, and at the close the lecturer would answer the various objections.

Sometimes a Moslem or a Hindu would request permission to give the opening lecture, this was always assented to, and then one of the Christians would respond to it. The Chairman always insisted on each one having a quiet hearing.

The audience had thus the opportunity of hearing both sides of the question being reasonably discussed.

Some of my lectures were entitled, "Longings of Humanity", "Primitive Hinduism", "Teaching of the Prophets", &c. These lectures led to the Chapel being styled the "Literary Institute", to which all the literary classes, as well as others were welcomed, to discuss quietly with the Missionary or Catechist in charge. We found this a far better way of teaching, for then we could ensure order being observed.

In the Literary Institute was a Reading Room, to which all classes were invited to come and read various publications and books supplied by the Mission. In course of time it came to be called the "Anjuman", and was used as a recreation room for Citizens. There was no daily or even weekly paper issued in Peshawar, and those who attended the Anjuman were anxious to know what was going on in the world, so the "Akbar-i-Anjuman" was issued in Persian, it was first started by Mr. Hughes, and afterwards [55/56] continued by myself, with the invaluable assistance of our head Persian Teacher.



It was in February 1876 that Bishop Milman, the Bishop of Calcutta visited Peshawar, attended by his Chaplain the Rev. Edgar Jacob, afterwards Bishop of St. Albans. We enjoyed their visits very much indeed. Bishop Milman was a most saintly man, full of the spirit of St. Augustine. His sermons were most helpful. In our little temporary Church he confirmed about a dozen candidates, some whose parents were Christians, and others who were converts. His addresses were most impressive and all that he did, showed that he was anxious to do all for his Master's glory. He was the first Metropolitan of India, who has ever been able to preach extempore in the vernacular.

He told the Commissioner that he much wished to be present with Mr. Hughes at the Bazaar Preaching, but the Commissioner would not hear of it, as he said he would not be responsible for what might happen to the Bishop. So on one occasion, he determined to act on his own responsibility; after lunching with us one day, he went down to the Bazaar with us, and thoroughly enjoyed the preaching, standing in the crowd with others, listening to all the objections that were brought forward, amongst men from Kabul and Central Asia who joined in the discussion.

Mr. Jacob was also with us. I found he was a cousin of my former Head Master of Christ's Hospital.

We then all went to our daily Evensong, the Bishop joining with other Christian worshippers, whilst the Rev. Imam Shah, read [56/57] prayers and expounded.

On the following Sunday he administered the Blessed Sacrament in the Mission Church, after which we all went to the Garrison Church and assisted him and Mr. Rebsch the Chaplin, in the English Service. All were much impressed with the Bishop's Sermon and the collection amounted to about Rs 300 for our local Mission work.



On the occasion of distinguished Visitors to Peshawar, we usually held an Educational Durbar in the Mission compound, which was very much like a Prize Day in England.

All the Rais of the city and neighbour hood were invited to be present, to meet the Bishop, the Commissioner and all the European friends of the Mission. Recitations were given by the boys in English, Persian, and Pakhto; after which the Bishop, Mr. Hughes and some Native Gentlemen gave addresses. I was very glad it all went off so well, as I was the Principal of the School. These Educational Durbars were held at least once a year, all the time I was in Peshawar, and were very popular events enabling us to get into friendly intercourse with all classes.

The Bishop was not at all well when he left us, and Mr. Jacob seemed anxious. He got as far as Rawal Pindee, and there passed away into Higher Service. He was very much missed, for he possessed a great personality, much energy and great holiness.

His devotional work, "The Love of the Atonement" is a most beautiful and Evangelical exposition of Isaiah liii. After reading it, I was able to understand why he had been called a Second Augustine. It is full of the tenderest sympathy and grasp [57/58] of the intense Love of the Saviour. I only wish I had known the book at the time he ordained me Priest, and afterwards visited Peshawar as above stated, for then I should have appreciated the Saintliness very much more.

He had a very keen Missionary spirit; the following is a memorable statement of his: "At any cost, and at any sacrifice, as far as I am concerned, India shall be won to the Lord Jesus."


There was a Hindu lad, called Thakur Das who lived in the city only 15 years old, who seemed most anxious to receive Holy Baptism. He came to my house one day, and refused all entreaties in my presence, to go home with his parents. But when they tried compulsion and beat him severely, I felt bound to prevent it; the most agonizing scenes then ensued in my verandah; the poor mother got distracted and beat herself, in order to appeal to her sons affections. The parents then appealed to the Deputy Commissioner, who sent word to say, that the boy was too young to decide for himself, and must go home. I heard afterwards that he had been bearing his persecutions manfully.

It was always necessary to be more careful with Hindu boys in their conversion, than with Muhammadans, for should it afterwards turn out that they had had some wrong motive for becoming Christians, and turned out badly, they could not be received back into Hinduism, for they had lost their caste, and would therefore remain as black sheep within the Christian fold. Whereas a bad [58/59] convert from Islam could easily recant and become a Moslem again.

I need hardly say that our custom was never to baptize until the convert had undergone some definite persecution in proof of his faith, and had been an enquirer for some time.



The Diocese of Calcutta, comprising the whole of Northern India, in addition to the Panjab and Sindh in the West, and Burmah in the East, comprising 2000 miles in length, was far too large for any one man to be responsible for.

The Panjab and Sindh had been annexed after the Panjab Wars. Bishop Wilson was the Bishop of Calcutta at the time. A little incident happened at the time before the Annexation, which is apt to be lost sight of, but which proved the saintliness of his character, and willingness to undertake still greater responsibility in the Panjab for his Divine Master.

During his Visitation of his vast Diocese he had come to the great river Sutlej, the western boundary of it. He was watching a fine body of warlike men, crossing over the river into British Territory, and he longed for the time when they might form part of the Church of Christ. Suiting his actions to his words, he stretched out his hands over the river and claimed the whole of the Panjab for Christ.

Little did he think that within 50 years, there would be scores of churches, and thousands of Panjabi Christians who proclaimed Christ as King.

It had long been desired to cut off the Panjab and Sindh, to reduce the size of the Calcutta Bishopric, and to consecrate a [59/60] Bishop for those two Countries; the man was ready, a saintly man, a Scholar, and a Gentleman, with a greater knowledge of the vernaculars than any living man, to say nothing of Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French, in the person of the Rev. Thomas Valpy French.

He was in England at the time of Bishop Milman's death at Rawal Pindi in March 1876, and being of a kindred spirit with Professor Westcott, afterwards Bp. of Durham, and being much appreciated by the Archbishop for his very great ability and saintliness, he was nominated to the First Bishopric of Lahore.

There had been no new Bishoprics formed in India, since that of Bombay in 1837, and on Bp. Milman's death, it was difficult to find a successor to grapple with the enormous Diocese, which had so vastly increased in size and European population.

The S. P. G. at once set on foot a scheme for the formation of ten Indian Sees; two of them, Lahore and Rangoon, one at each end of the Calcutta Diocese, were really established before the close of 1877. Lord Northbrook the Viceroy, presided at a meeting in Government House, Calcutta very soon after Bp. Milman's death, to inaugurate the Lahore Diocese in memory of him.

Another meeting was subsequently held at Lambeth Palace under Archbishop Tait in July 1876 with the same object, and funds at once began to flow in. The S. P. C. K. gave L5000 towards the endowment of the See, the Colonial Bishopric's Fund L3000, the S. P. G. L2000, and the Marquis of Salisbury L1000; by the end of January 1877, over L20,000 was collected, and Government was prepared to supplement this Endowment with the annual grant of L800, the stipend of a Senior Chaplain.

[61] The districts of the Panjab and Sindh, with the ready consent of the new Metropolitan Bishop Johnson, were assigned to the New See. At the request of the Archbishop, Mr. French allowed his Nomination to the appointment, after a few days consideration, with the following proviso:

"Any distinctly understood prohibition of Missionary work, as inconsistent with liabilities incurred towards the Government of India, would compel me to beg your Grace to excuse my compliance with your kind offer to nominate me to Lord Salisbury for the appointment."

On the 30th August 1877 he received the formal offer of the See.

The appointment gave unbounded satisfaction to all who knew Mr. French's qualifications and the needs of India.

At the time there were some 20 million Hindus, Moslems, and Sikhs; 20(0)00 Europeans, 100 Native Christians, and 60 Clergy within the New Diocese.

On St. Thomas' Day (Dec. 21st) 1877, he was consecrated Bishop at Westminster Abbey. He entered his Diocesan See at Lahore on 4th March 1787.



It was in April 1876 the Government came to open conflict with the Afridis, owing to their refusal to keep open the road between Peshawar and Kohat, notwithstanding the annual Subsidy of several thousand Pounds sterling to them. As they refused the permission of Government to make a metalled road, the Pass was blockaded and no Afridi was allowed entrance into British territory.

The Bussi Kheyl, who lived near Fort Mackeson came first into [61/62] collision with our troops, but the whole Afridi Kheyl before long became submissive.


One of our Afghan lads, Ghulam Haidar at this time became favourably inclined to Christianity; and notwithstanding all the threats and exhortations from his father, relations and Chiefs to leave, he refused to obey, and went through a great amount of persecution. It was by having these lads continually about me, giving them free access to my rooms at all hours, that we could hope to embue them with the Spirit of God. The results of our scholastic endeavours must be looked for in the next generation, more than in the present. It is a work of faith.


In the summer I used to get up at 5 a. m., open the school at 6:30 a. m. give one or two scripture lessons, and see that the Masters carried out my instructions with regard to secular teaching. I then used to go and see some native gentleman and return home for breakfast at 10 or 10:30 a.m. At 11 I had my Pakhto teacher till 1 p. m. From 2 to 4 p. m. my Persian teacher. Dinner was at 4 p. m. so that it should not interfere with evening duties. I then went down to the Bazaar Preaching in the city, finishing up with Evensong. We had tea at 8 p. m. and eventually retired at 10 or 11 p. m. Later on I gave up tea, and dined at 8 p. m. All this gave me little or no time for myself.

Occasionally I went to the Club in Cantonments, had a game of tennis and so saw something of the Officers and their wives. Experience proved that it was a very necessary part of our work.



Sometimes of an evening when the nights were dark, I used to go to the house of a neighbouring friend Dr. Courtney, the Civil Surgeon, who owned a very fine reflector telescope, equatorially mounted, to look at the starry firmament, and get lessons on practical Astronomy. He instructed me in the use of the sextant and artificial horizon; how to find Latitude, Longitude, mean time &c &c. I necessarily found myself dabbling once more on Logarithms and spherical Trigonometry, which I had been rapidly forgetting. I became very much interested in it all, but found it very difficult to make time, for observing double stars, comets, planetary moons &c &c. It was a very pleasant recreation while it lasted, but before long Dr. Courtney was posted to another station and had to leave, much to my regret, as he was the only scientific man I knew in the neighbourhood, so my star-gazing did not last long unfortunately.

After his death, his widow gave us his telephone which we fixed up between the Mission House and the Afghan Hostel, at the farther end of the compound. Dr. Courtney took the greatest interest in all the latest inventions, and I was heartily glad to get it. It astonished the Afghans more than words can say, it was impossible for them to restrain their excitement. His Widow also kindly gave us a Radiometer. All these, together with the plant we had for making Oxygen and Hydrogen, galvanic batteries, Orreries &c I found most useful for the instruction of science in the school, and for amusing Afghans.



During the summer of 1876 I took up the study of Hebrew again, on account of its cognate languages Arabic, Persian &c. I knew that it would prove most useful when I became more proficient in Pakhto in helping Mr. Hughes in the revision of the Old Testament in that language, which became a great pleasure in subsequent years.

The first translation of the Pentateuch into Pakhto had been made under the auspices of Mr. Carey of the Serampore Mission in 1824 by someone, probably a Jew, who knew the language, which Mr. Carey probably did not. It was a most creditable undertaking, but it is not a good translation, and the type made in the Mission, was too stereotyped to be of any value, and often difficult to read.

The next effort was made, it is believed, by the Rev C. G. Pfander, in Peshawar, by translating the New Testament into good readable Pakhto, and was printed by Stephen Austin of Hertford in 1863. It appears as if it had been printed by Photo-zincography. It is very clear, but the volume was too large to warrant its being sold or even given away in any numbers.

In 1876 Mr. Hughes began the retranslation of the Pentateuch, at the instance and expense of the British and Foreign Bible Society, with the assistance of Maulvie Ahmad of Tangi, a good Arabic Scholar, on the basis of Hebrew and the Arabic edition of the Bible. It was completed by me and then written out on foolscap paper by the best Caligraphist in Peshawar, Khushnavis Ghulam Jilani, and photo-zincographed in London by the Bible Society.

At the request of the Bible Society, a sub-Committee for the re-translating of the whole Bible was appointed, consisting of [64/65] the Rev. T. J. Lee Mayer of Bannu and myself, under the chairmanship of that great Eastern Scholar, Bishop French.

Mr. Mayer and I divided the work between us, which we submitted to the Bishop, as often as he could arrange to meet us.

The great difficulty was, what word should be used for JEHOVAH. The Bishop naturally decided in favour of transliterating the Divine Tetragrammaton, but the Bible Society strongly objected to this, as their Secretary, the Rev. Mr. Wright, who had had much to do with the translation of the Bible into Arabic at Baynut, had used the word "Rab", except on very few occasions when "Jehovah" alone could be used. But "Rab" only meant "Master."

During my itinerations in the villages, I often found in my discussions with the Mullahs, that the great subject which interested them was the Ism-i-Azim, or the Great Name of God, which they had learned from Jews, had been lost. I told them how it was written in Hebrew, and how the pronunciation of it had been lost, probably from the time of King David, the Jews thinking that this great and holy Name was too sacred to be pronounced; but that its original pronunciation was probably YIHVEH.

The next question they invariably asked was, "Is it a name descriptive of God's Essence, or of one of His Attributes?" I told them unhesitatingly, that it described His very Essence, it meant the great I AM, which appealed to them very forcibly, for they already had 99 Names of God, descriptive of His Attributes, which they were continually recounting.

All this I explained to the Bible Society Committee when I was in London, but the argument did not appeal to them [65/66] as a body, and the Committee insisted that the word "Rab" should be used.

I then wrote to all the great Hebrew Scholars in England asking their advice, giving them the above arguments and telling them that the Mullahs were acquainted with HU and YAHU which undoubtedly referred to the Great Name in their ignorance. The great majority, especially Professors Westcott and Lightfoot (afterwards Bishops) stated most firmly that in every case, the great name must be transliterated, and not translated.

Again I met the Committee of the Bible Society, and laid before them all the correspondence, and yet in face of it, they rejected it, for the majority of them were not scholars.

But it did not influence my action, for I resolved that in every case, the Great Name which God revealed of Himself should be used. The only one of the Committee who was in favour of my action, was the Rev. Mr. Sharp, formerly Missionary in Masulipatam, and who was one of my fellow passengers on my first voyage to India. He told me that the majority of the Committee who voted against me, could not grasp the distinction between the Essence and the Attribute of God.

Ultimately the portions of the Bible translated by me, contained the original word in every case. This edition is what is in use now.

Since I retired I have learnt that the Bible Society have acted on my advice in all their editions.

No pains were spared, that the Pakhto edition should be in good colloquial language, understandable by all. [66/67] The edition was printed in London by Nops, 19 Ludgate Hill and published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1889.



I then revised Mr. Clark's Translation of the Book of Common Prayer into Pakhto. This had never been printed.

It was done with the assistance of our Afghan convert and Catechist Hamidullah. It was written out by Khushnavis Ghulam Jilani, and published in the same way, by the S. P. C. K. about 1886, and was very frequently used by me in All Saint's Church, as I much wished that the medium of the service of the Afghan Mission should be in the dialect of the Country.


In August 1876 I went up to Thandiani, and took 4 of my Afghan boys with me, as they were so anxious to see the mountains, so much of my time was spent with them in reading and talking with them, and in enjoying the mountainous scenery.

One of them was Ghulam Haidar, who was like so many others, fully convinced of the truth of Christianity, but had little idea of the heinousness of sin, and consequently had not really sought forgiveness; he tried very hard to keep himself pure, and received an immense amount of abuse for persisting to live with me.



Cholera again developed in Peshawar, notwithstanding the great precautions made against it by the Medical Authorities, and I promptly returned from Thandiani at the call of duty. I am thankful to say, I was never nervous about it, and never suffered from it. It proved to be one of the worst outbursts, [67/68] about 800 died in Peshawar district. Quarantine was strictly established between the city and Cantonments. One battery of Artillery was decimated by it, and the English and Native Regiments suffered severely.

Unfortunately the Chaplain Mr. Rebsch was away on leave, and I was doing duty in his place, and had to visit Cholera Hospitals, in which Mr. Hughes assisted me. It was sad seeing so many men in various stages of collapse, seized with awful cramps, and dying suddenly.

Several had often to be buried the same day, one Service doing for all, without any Military ceremony.

Each Regiment, European and Native, was marched out into Camp as soon as possible, after a few cases in each happened. The Chaplain was, of course, recalled to duty, and so we were after a time relieved by his return.

There were two English Cemeteries in constant use, 2 or 3 others had been filled up and closed. I do not remember any deaths among our Native Christians.



There was an old Cemetery outside the Kohat Gate of the City, in which many English Officers and Soldiers were buried in 1849 when Peshawar was first occupied, before the present Cantonments and two cemeteries were laid out, in course of time it had become disused, but it was very conveniently situated for a Cemetery for our Native Christian Community. A grant of land was obtained by Mr. Hughes from the Government to enlarge it. The enlargement comprised peach, plum, and pomegranate orchards, but as most [68/69] of the trees had become very old and straggling, I had them all cut down, and in their place I planted gum trees, cypresses &c, and made the place as pretty as I could, a true (coimhthzion - handwritten Greek text) for all who lie buried there.

Close to it was a Muhammadan burial ground, from which thoughtless Muhammadan boys and young men used to throw stones at the Christian graves. Mr. Hughes and I stopped this by erecting a beautiful entrance gateway, of Eastern architecture, surmounted by a stone Cross.

The contrast between an unkempt Muhammadan grave yard, and the beautiful garden-like cemetery of the Christians, impressed them so much, that there was no more stone-throwing, and nothing more to complain of; in fact many Muhammadans used to come, sit down, and admire it.


As soon as the Cholera abated in Nov. 1876, I went to Abbottabad to see some enquirers, chiefly through the keenness of the Postmaster Sohn Lal, an Honorary Catechist of the Mission. He was a very worthy little man who did much good.

The Afghan Catechist Jalaluddin was with me, but I left him at Hurripur whilst I went on to Abbottabad for a few days, intending on my return, to go with him to Torbela and staying at the various villages on the banks of the river Indus, down to Attock.



By the time we arrived at Peshawar, we found it all agog with the new Viceroy, Lord Lytton, the Commander-in-Chief and the Lieutenant Governor of the Panjab and their respective [69/70] Staffs. The Conservatives having come into power in 1876 with Lord Salisbury as Prime Minister, a change took place in Afghan Politics; Lord Northbrook had resigned as Viceroy and Lord Lytton had taken his place.

During the preceding years, Russia had taken possession of Bokhara and Khiva, and had even a Fort at Kila Panja on the banks of the Oxus, not 400 miles from the Indian Frontier, and there was great fear lest Afghanistan should fall under its power. There was much to frighten the Rulers of India, lest the threat of Peter the Great to seize India should become a practical reality.

In 1873 Sher Al, the Amir of Afghanistan earnestly desired a closer alliance with Great Britain, having a lively apprehension of Russian designs, but owing to the "Masterly Inactivity" of the Government of the day, he had been assured that his fears were groundless, and all possibility of making the Amir a firm friend of the British Government, came to an end when he found, later on, that the British were insisting on a British Representative being stationed at Herat, the better to keep watch over the Russians.

A plausible pretext for a Political Mission to Afghanistan was found in the assumption by the Queen, of the title "Empress of India" which had been proclaimed by Lord Lytton at a great Durbar at Delhi on 1st January 1877.

To Lord Lytton's request that the Amir Sher Ali should receive an Envoy to explain what was meant by the Proclamation, the Amir sent a polite refusal, in much the same way as he had recently refused Russia, as he feared his own inability to protect [70/71] an Envoy from the fanaticism of his subjects.

Lord Lytton considered this a great insult, became impulsive and impatient, as he had been persuaded to believe that Sher Ali was intriguing with Russia. The fact was, he was anxious to keep both his European suitors at arm's length.

Lord Lytton then requested the Amir to send an Envoy down to Peshawar to talk matters over with the British Representative. It was to prepare for this that the Viceroy visited Peshawar on this occasion, towards the end of November 1876.

With Lord Lytton came the Commander-in-Chief, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab, and also Sir Lewis Pelly of Baroda notoriety, having committed the Guicowar of Baroda for trial. He had also acted as Charges d' Affaires at Teheran, Resident at Bushire and Zanzibar.

The Viceroy made a grand entry into the City, and I had the Mission School boys drawn up, to give him a good reception, the streets were well filled with loyal subjects of the Queen. The roads were all lined by Native Infantry and Calvary, as well as by English Regiments, which had just returned from cholera camps in good health.

The next day a Levee was held in R. A. Mess, when in company with all other Officers and Civilians, Mr. Hughes and I were introduced to His Excellency.

Next day we both received a summons to give him a private audience. He chatted in the freest possible way, asking Mr. Hughes about the attitude of the Afghans at Peshawar and in Kabul, the probable feeling existing between Kabul and Persia, and Kabul and Russia, the possibility of a Jehad, and our personal [71/72] relationship with the Afghans in general. He let out that the Russian Government had proposed to the English Government, the advisability of disarming the whole of Central Asia. Mr. Hughes, who had had so much experience of the Afghan Policy, was of course the person to reply.

On leaving, he took hold of Mr. Hughes' hand with both his, and thanked him for all he had done, and promised a subscription to the School.

Sir Lewis Pelly was left behind, after the departure of the Viceroy, to carry on Political Conversations, in the house which had been occupied by the Lieutenant Governor; but as he was there attacked by a bad bout of fever, Dr. Bellew who was politically attached to him for the time, and who had spent some time in Yarkund and Central Asia and Herat, asked permission to bring Sir Lewis to the Mission House. So we accordingly put them both up. Sir Lewis and Mr. Hughes had long and constant conversations with each other. Sir Lewis soon got better and was most grateful to us for taking him in.

What with Colonel Raper renting part of the house, and the Calcutta Clerical Secretary being with us for a few days, the Mission House was uncomfortably full, but in India we always kept open house, putting up a tent if necessary.

It must not be supposed that Sir Lewis put the mission to any expense, for he gave Mr. Hughes Rs. 500 for his board expenses, the balance going to the Mission.

We went up 100 p.c. in the estimation of the Natives, and we hoped it might indirectly do some good.



In January 1877 Sir Lewis Pelly returned as Envoy Extraordinary to meet the Prime Minister of Kabul who came as Special Envoy.

Instead of accepting the hospitality of the Commissioner Sir Richard Pollock, Sir Lewis preferred to put up again in the Mission House. Dr. Bellew was again with him, to act as Interpreter as he knew Persian and Pakhto well.

We gave the former 3 rooms for his use, and 2 to Dr. Bellew, allowing them the use of our Library for a Reception Room. He arrived under the salute of 15 guns, and expressed great satisfaction at the arrangement Mr. Hughes had made for him.

The only way we could account for the honour he did us, was, that Mr. Hughes views on Central Asian politics, coincided with those of the Viceroy and Sir Lewis Pelly, for Mr. Hughes had always given much attention to Kabul affairs, and had corresponded with notables there.



The Educational Durbar and Distribution of Prizes was an annual event of the Mission. In 1877 it took place on the 13th of February, under the Presidency of Sir Richard Pollock K. C. S. I. Commissioner of the Division.

Their Excellencies, Sir Lewis Pelly, K. C. S. I., and Syud Nur Muhammad Shah the Kabul Envoy, were present, as well as a considerable assemblage of English Ladies and Gentlemen, and leading Gentry of the City and Neighbourhood.

The proceedings commenced with a number of recitations in Persian, Pakhto, and English, after which, as Superintendent of the School, I requested Sir Richard Pollock to Distribute [73/74] the prizes. In the course of his speech which followed he said:

"I have, on behalf of the Peshawar Mission, to thank you for your kind attendance here today, proving as it does the interest you take in the good work of the Mission School. It is gratifying to see that we have an unusually large number of visitors here today, including their Excellencies Sir Lewis Pelly and Syud Nur Muhammad Shah the Prime Minister of our friend and neighbour His Highness Sher Ali Khan, Amir of Kabul.

Although on such occasions as the present it is understood that we leave politics behind us, I may venture to say that I regard the presence of the two Envoys amongst us today as an assurance of those friendly relations which exist between ourselves and the Kingdom of Afghanistan.

We have also a visitor, who if not a distinguished, is certainly an interesting visitor. I refer to Qazi Syud Ahmad, an Attaché in the Foreign Department, who first was a pupil, and then Head Master of this School for many years. He has now returned from Persia, after an absence of three years, to his native place in high and honourable employment, on which I heartily congratulate him, whilst I hope the example of his success will be encouraging to the pupils of the School.

I miss today a face we have been in the habit of seeing here on such occasions as the present of Lala Cheyton Shah, Assistant Surgeon whose eminent services [74/75] during the frequent epidemics in Peshawar have earned our most grateful recollection. I am glad however, that he is well employed in rendering professional services to his Highness the Amir of Kabul.

No poor words of mine can do justice to the memory of the late Bishop Milman, but I am painfully reminded of the loss all India sustained last year when God removed him from the scene of his labours, within a few days of his performing his last official act in addressing the boys of this School on a similar occasion to the present. All those who knew him could properly appreciate his manly simplicity of character, his indomitable energy, his devotion to his work, and last but not least, his love for Mission work. I know he was much struck and most favourably impressed with what he saw of the Peshawar Mission, and expressed himself as well satisfied with what he had seen of its work.

In concluding my short address I would wish also to add the expression of my full confidence in the management of the Peshawar Mission School. More I must not add, for I know how distasteful personal praise would be to the Heads of the Mission."


Maulvie Ahmad, the Afghan Poet, then recited a poem of his own composition in the Pakhto language.

Captain Plowden, Deputy Commissioner, addressed the assemblage in Pakhto. Mr. Elsmie, Additional Commissioner, in Urdu, and Qazi Syud Ahmad, in Persian.

Mr. Elsmie in the course of his speech, remarked upon the rapid advance, which had been made in knowledge and useful [75/76] discoveries during the last few years, e. g. "At the commencement of the century there were no such things as Railways and telegraphs, and yet who knows but what in a few years such discoveries may be made that men will fly through the air!" (Quite prophetic) The Prime Minister of Kabul, who understands Urdu, upon hearing this laughed and exclaimed, "Oh! I think you have made discoveries enough! You have nearly conquered the whole world already, without being able to fly like birds!"

The proceeding closed by the Rev. T. P. Hughes thanking the Commissioner, the Kabul Prime Minister, and all present, for having honoured the School with their presence.


Sir Lewis Pelly, K. C. S. I. was in daily touch with the Afghan Envoy but as the latter had been suffering from a chronic disease for some time, nothing satisfactory, I believe, was accomplished owing to his frequent inability to attend the Conference.

The Envoy was then advised, at the invitation of Mr. Hughes to take up his abode in one room of the Mission House, and there unfortunately before many days he died.

The Amir had been trying to persuade the Indian Govt. to continue their largesses of big sums of money, without any Treaty, or recognition of the wish of His Majesty's Govt. to send Ambassadors to Kabul, and other great centres, or to allow Englishmen to travel through his Dominions. The occupation of Quetta and Khelat, which had been in no way tributary to the Amir, led the Amir to consider it a case of war.

With the death of the Kabul Envoy, Sir Lewis Pelly's work in Peshawar came to an end.

[77] On leaving us early in April 1877 Sir Lewis Pelly showed much gratitude to Mr. Hughes for all the help he had given him. The following is an extract from his letter:

"Allow me to thank you and Mr. Jukes for your constant kindness and hospitality to me during my stay at Peshawar, which has been so protracted. I shall always feel indebted to you for the great and practical aid you have afforded me in becoming acquainted with the Personnel and other details of these Regions.

I sincerely congratulate both you and Mr. Jukes on the obvious success which attends your efforts at Peshawar towards civilizing the wild people round you. I regard your Hujra as an instrument of the highest utility, and I only wish we had more of them in other parts of India."

He kindly more than defrayed his expenses and those of his Secretary, for he sent Mr. Hughes a cheque for L350 for the three months he was with us. L150 would have covered the cost. The rest Mr. Hughes magnanimously devoted for Mission purposes.

Sir Lewis, though not impressed by the religious motives of the Peshawar Mission, quite saw the necessity of pushing forward Missionary work, having seen the general influence which the Mission had upon the Natives at large. He looked upon the conversion of the Natives, as a necessity to the State.


It is very doubtful if the Home Govt. and Viceroy really grasped the great objection the Amir had, to admit a British Resident into Afghanistan. It is so easy to be wise after the event. [77/78] The Amir felt he was laying himself open to the taunt of being a puppet of a Christian nation, so hateful to all Afghans. The Marriage, about that time, of the Duke of Edinburgh with a Russian princess was looked upon as a conspiracy between England and Russia for the partition of Afghanistan.

The Viceroy could not understand the objet of the Amir in withstanding their friendly proposals, more especially as an event happened, which determined the English Govt. to bring matters to an issue. On 13th June 1878 a Russian Mission under General Stoletoff started from Tashkent for Kabul. Sher Ali had vainly endeavoured to stay the General's progress, using the same arguments that he had employed against the British.

The General threatened that Russia would put up a rival candidate to the Amir's throne, in the person of Abdal Rahman, his nephew, at that time a pensioner of the Russian Government, who had been exiled by the Amir. The Amir felt compelled to yield and signed a treaty with the Russian Government.

The Viceroy not knowing at the time the full circumstances of the case, but only that a Treaty had been signed, was much exasperated. He felt that he had been outwitted, and consequently obtained permission from the Home Govt. to take further drastic steps. He promptly dispatched a letter to the Amir, demanding that a like privilege should be accorded to Great Britain.

Without waiting for a reply, he announced his intention of sending Sir Neville Chamberlain as his representative.

In the meantime Stoletoff had left Kabul. The Viceroy received no reply from Sher Ali, the probability being that Abdulla Jan, his favourite son, the Amir's heir to the throne [78/79] had died, which was reported to have almost unhinged his reason.

On 21st Sept. an advance party of Sir Neville Chamberlain's Mission under Major Cavagnari, the Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar, got as far as Ali Masjid, where his further advance was challenged by the Afghan Officer in command, who politely told him he should be obliged to oppose his further progress by force. The situation was critical. Lord Lytton seized upon this incident as affording a plausible pretext for a war, which he had long believed to be inevitable.

An ultimatum was dispatched to the Amir requiring a definite acceptance of the British terms within a specified time.

The reply was considered unsatisfactory.


War was declared on 21st Nov. 1878. The boundary was pierced simultaneously by three forces. General Sir Sam Browne was in command of the force through the Khyber Pass to Jalalabad. Major General Roberts in the Kurram Valley leading up to the Peiwar Pass, and General Stewart on the road from Quettah to Kandahar. There was not much opposition and a Military occupation was speedily carried out. Ali Masjid Fort was soon captured, when a big hawl of brass canon was made.

Dr. Duke and I rode out the next day to Jamrud, where we joined a big convoy of 300 camels under a strong escort. Some Officer friends of mine in H. M. 51st Regt. kindly entertained us for the night, having previously looked round the Fort, which we had heard so much about as being impregnable.

[80] In December, the Amir Sher Ali fled northwards to Turkestan, leaving his son Yaqub Khan to make what terms he could with the British Army. Sher Ali, worn out with anxiety and disease, died at Mazar-i-Sharif in February 1879.

There were some Englishmen who thought that this tragic sequel might have been avoided by more considerate and less precipitate statesmanship on the part of the Viceroy.

Yaqub Khan, Sher Ali's eldest son, was thereupon recognized as Amir. The Treaty of Gandamak was signed in May 1879, by which the Amir agreed to surrender all the points in defence of which his Father had forfeited his Crown, the chief one being that a British Officer should be allowed to reside at Kabul.

In return the Amir was to be supported with arms, money, and troops against any foreign aggression, and to receive an annual subsidy of six lakhs of Rupees.

Sir Louis Cavagnari had been acting as Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar, and always showed very great promptitude in dealing with the Afghans on the Frontier.

He was the one who was naturally chosen by the Viceroy, Lord Lytton, to go to Kabul as our Ambassador.

On a farewell visit to Mr. Hughes, he told him that he had informed the Viceroy, that he must go either single-handed, with no troops, or else he must have an army, as he knew only to well, how easy it would be for the Afghans to pick a quarrel with a handful of escort; but the Viceroy would not listen to him, and ordered that he should be accompanied by about 100 of the Guides Corps stationed at Mardan. Cavagnari felt it would be fatal, but knew he would be absolutely broken by Lord Lytton if he resisted. [80/81] Sir Louis took with him as Assistant Mr. Jenkins, a member of the Indian Civil Service, who had been one of his Subordinates in Peshawar; as an escort, a fine body of the Guides, a crack Regiment which had always been stationed at Hoti Mardan, and was always ready for any emergency on the Frontier.

In July 1879 they all took up their residence at Kabul. On the 6th Sept. only a few days after Sir Louis' laconic message, "All well" had been telegraphed to the Viceroy, the terrible news came over the wires that he and all his suite had been massacred three days before, by the disorderly Afghan army, which had risen in revolt. His escort was all too few, notwithstanding the brave fight which was made. Sir Louis' forecast had come only too true. The murder of Cavagnari was a staggering blow to the Viceroy.

It was this which led to the war with the Afghans in 1879. Retribution was not long in falling upon Kabul. General Stewart re-occupied Kandahar, General Roberts moved on Kabul through the Kurram Valley, defeated the rebels at Charasiab on Oct. 6th, and entered the city. Stern vengeance was meted out, to all those whose complicity in the murder could be proved.

Yaqub Khan surrendered himself, and after an inconclusive enquiry had been made into his innocence or guilt, he was deported as a State prisoner to India.

The probability is, that he had no wish that any treachery should be shown, but having been a prisoner under his Father's rule for some time, his intellect had been weakened, and was incapable of ruling a turbulent people like the Afghans.

It was with the greatest difficulty that Sir Fredk. Roberts [81/82] kept his communications with India open.

In the Spring of 1880 Sir Donald Stewart by his Victory at Ahmad Kheyl made that astonishing march between Kandahar and Kabul, with enemies on both sides the whole way, and joined General Roberts at the latter place. This march was generally accepted by Military men, as a far more difficult movement of troops than the subsequent one of General Roberts, who marched from Kabul to Kandahar with an army on a momentous occasion, but then he had picked troops who volunteered for the occasion, as well as picked horses for the transport, with no enemy on either side, and did it in record time.

To subdue and hold down the whole country with the forces at his disposal was utterly beyond Robert's power. To withdraw them, without establishing some form of Government, was to abandon Afghanistan to anarchy. The solution of the difficulty came from an unexpected quarter.

Abdurrahman Khan, the Nephew of Sher Ali, had been living since 1868 in exile under Russian protection. He now appeared in Northern Afghanistan, with the connivance of the Russians, who probably believed that his presence would be an embarrassment to the British; the British Government determined to offer him the Throne. The decision was a singularly bold but happy one.

But before this decision could be formally ratified, Lord Lytton had ceased to be Viceroy.

In April 1880 Mr. Gladstone succeeded Lord Beaconsfield as Prime Minister, with the Marquis of Hartington as Secretary of State for India, under whom it was impossible for Lord Lytton to serve, and eventually he was succeeded by Lord Ripon.


[83] One great event which happened on 1st January 1877 which interested the whole population of the district, was the great Review of all the troops of the Garrison, at which the Proclamation of the QUEEN EMPRESS, as EMPRESS OF INDIA, was Announced.

It had been suggested that the Title should be KAISAR-I-HIND; but this Title did not in the end appear in the Royal Proclamation.


I must now go back and take up the thread of Mission Work where I dropped it in 1877.

We were allowed to preach annually at the Garrison Church of Rawal Pindi, to lay before that very large Garrison the claims of the Peshawar Mission.

On this occasion I took the opportunity of seeing the American Presbyterian School, but I was anything but struck with the way they conducted the Service for heathen boys, so very different to our own. They compelled all their boys to attend the Service, and administered punishment when the boys refused to learn by heart their Scripture lesson.

We in Peshawar, simply sent them out of the class with a gentle reproof, which had the effect of making them so ashamed of themselves that they seldom repeated it.


Another Hindu boy, Lal Ji, who had been much influenced for good by a Christian Master, suffered much persecution from his [83/84] brother-in-law in the Postal Department, and others, for showing himself eager to suffer, in order to become a Christian. For several months he had made up his mind, but could no longer keep the matter secret. He was 16 years of age, and therefore a minor, unable to decide for himself. He mentioned it to his school-fellows as he could not keep the secret to himself.

I also heard from a Hindu School-master (almost a Christian) that he had heard, he had been praying with one or two boys in the school after school hours. Other boys told his guardian about it, who kept him from school.

It was under these pathetic circumstances that he came to me and I gave him food, and encouraged him to go to Abbottabad and be under Christian influence. The case subsequently came into Court. There are very few English Magistrates who will give up lads to Missionary Guardianships, and only such lads who can give sufficiently intelligent answers as to the cause and degree of their religious convictions.

It is a most difficult business for a lad being publickly examined in a Court of Law, surrounded on all sides by bigoted Hindus, to state exactly his convictions.

I am afraid the case went against him, but since then I heard from a Native Pastor at Hosiapore, who had seen him and believed him to be thoroughly sincere; he let his light shine [84/85] so brightly, that all the people in the village talked of him as a Christian.

Ed.: The following Handwritten note is inserted in the text just before page 85.
In 1875 arrived the remarkable woman Miss Charlotte Maria Tucker, sister of the Henry Carre Tucker, who was Commissioner of Benares at the time of the Mutiny. Miss Tucker had written many books for young people with the non deplume of A. L. O. E. (a lady of England); and the starting of A. L. O. E. for India (Amritsar) [to my age in Miss Cook (sic)] at the age of 54 excited much interest amongst her numerous friends and scalors. Two years later she took up her residence at Batala, which then became a ____ station and there she made her home for the 16 remaining years of her life, and there built her home which she named Gharubi Aftab, the Setting Sun.


During the year 1878 the Rev. F. H. Baring established the Batala High School for Christian boys. It fulfilled a great need for the parents of the Christian Church, as the number of Christians was rapidly increasing in the Panjab.

Fortunately Miss Tucker, (more usually known in England for her many excellent books as A. L. O. E.) had come to India at the age of 60, and took up her abode at Batala, where she proved no end of a blessing to all the inhabitants, more especially to the Ladies of the C. E. Z. M. S. and to the boys of the School, to all of whom she was a veritable Mother in Israel.

Some of our Afghan lads were sent there, at a most critical time of their lives; the future only will reveal the help she was to them all. She proved an inspiration to many, not the least, to the younger generation of Missionaries, men and women, who found in her the link which they had lost on leaving their dear ones in England. They found in her a sympathy and geniality born of the deepest spirituality and intellectual cheerfulness, and they were always happy in her company.

Many of these Missionaries were deeply honoured by being allowed to call her "Auntie", and I was one of the fortunate Nephews; of the nieces there were many.

She loved to make anagrams of their names, Christian and surnames. One day she asked me if I had any other Christian name than "Worthington", as she wished to make an anagram of them, which would in some way or other, include some characteristic [85/86] of me. I told her I had only one Christian name.

She knew something of the difficulties I had in my work, and had on one occasion honoured me by allowing me to receive her as my guest in Peshawar. Her active and intellectual mind soon enabled her to produce the anagram she needed, which was "Just the working on." I thought it was very clever of her, for it was just what I wished to do, to 'carry on' the work I had begun. She built a house for herself in Batala as an Honorary Missionary, and called it "Ghurub-i-Aftab", i.e. The Setting Sun, and there she remained till called to a Higher Service, a blessing to all around her.


Colonel (and Mrs.) Watson of a Bengal Calvary Regt. took the keenest interest in our work, and we naturally saw much of them all the time the Regiment was in Peshawar. Mrs. Watson often drove down to our Church in the city, and helped us in many ways.


In September 1877 I went up as usual to Thandiani, and enjoyed very much a tour with a young Officer, beginning at Muzaffarabad which lies at the junction of the rivers Ninesuk (in the Khagan Valley), the Kishengunga and the Jhelum. We crossed the Ninesuk by a rope bridge, the river being about 100 yards broad, rock bound and very rapid. The bridge consisted, as in all mountainous districts, of three strands of twisted withies, or untanned thongs of leather, the two upper strands for each hand are connected with the lower one for the feet, by a thin bough of the shape of a V, every three or four yards. [86/87] Towards the middle, the rush of the water below makes it appear that the bridge is tossing backwards and forwards.

It requires a good head to enable one to cross, but it had no fears for me. A walk on the Kashmir side of the river for 8 miles, brought us to Muzaffarabad, where we found a number of porcupine quills, which I have found make excellent pen holders. We then crossed the Kishengunga, and walked 12 miles to Rarar, a rest Bungalow on the left bank of the Jhelum. Facing Rarar there was a high range of mountain, on the top of which was Thandiani. The only way of crossing the river, as the current was very strong, was by swimming with the assistance of two inflated goat hides, with one hand on a native for support, who was on another hide. We were carried down the river some little way, but we managed to get across all right. Other men on separate hides accompanied us to carry our clothes.

We then had a hard climb for three hours to the village on top called Patan, where we stopped the Sunday, and had an opportunity of talking with Mullahs in their Mosques. It was literally impossible to sleep on the village beds, they were alive with bugs.

Next day we had a long walk before breakfast of 16 miles to Berangully, along the ridge of the hill opposite.

The Moslem call to Prayers, every few hours in the afternoon from a Mosque, uttered in a musical voice, sounded weirdly beautiful, as it echoed among the mountains. Another march of 18 miles brought us to Abbottabad. We much enjoyed the tour, the whole of the country which we traversed was exceedingly beautiful, but it is impossible to describe it properly. Sleeping out, under a water-proof sheet, was most enjoyable.

After this I itinerated in the Pakli Valley, but I suppose I [87/88] exposed myself too much to the sun in that low valley, which brought on fever which I could not shake off till I returned to the Gullies among the mountains between Abbottabad and Murree, where I botanised and made a collection of ferns.

After a few days the Chaplain invited me to stay with him; my old friends Captain and Mrs. Battye of the Panjab Frontier Force, also entertained me, till I quite recovered.


It has always been the custom to keep open house in India as there were no Hotels, and on my return I found two young Noblemen as Mr. Hughes guests, one was an infidel, and the other was a Roman Catholic, they had asked permission to share the house, through a ship-board acquaintance. The exceedingly nice tactful way Mr. Hughes managed them both, was an eye-opener to me, for he always kept the discussion on religion on a high and spiritual level, without causing any ill will whatever.

On my return Mr. Hughes went out Itinerating, so I entertained the guests, as well as Captain Jacob, a Sapper engaged in Canal work in the Hashtnagar district, and a great friend of ours.


It was at the close of 1878 that Amode Lal Roy, a Bengali Hindu was baptized. He then joined the Lahore Divinity College but found it hard to subject himself to the discipline of the College, to which he had been a stranger so long, on account of his having been an object of devotion, reverence and almost worship among the Hindus. But he got on well there.

Havildar Kamar-ul-din Khan, also an enquirer, went down to Lahore for his baptism. He hoped his wife and children would also soon be baptized.

[89] Early in 1879 I went down to Amritsar to attend the Missionary Conference, and to be present at the Bishop's Synod at Lahore. I then met my brother, Dr. Andrew Jukes, who had just come out from England, to take up Medical Missionary Work in the Panjab. It was nice to welcome another member of the family. Unfortunately our work lay far apart.

It was about this time that the Rev. A. E. Day joined the Peshawar Mission, he was a great help to me, in the absence of Mr. Hughes in England. He showed every sign of making a good Missionary, and we worked very harmoniously together. Mr. Hughes returned in February.

That summer I spent in Thandiani, when the Rev. F. A. P. Shirreff of the Lahore Divinity College, was my companion. We studied Persian together every morning, and at night we read Isaiah in Hebrew, spending the intermediate time in very enjoyable walks. I got much help from him owing to his superior knowledge of Hebrew.


In May 1879 we had another visitation of Cholera, which extended to our Army on the line of march towards Jalalabad.

Although about 100, out of 200, cases died in Peshawar, it was not so virulent as it was three years before. Disinfectants and the burning of some herb mingled with sulphur, all over the city and Cantonments, according to native wishes, was tried, with some considerable amount of success, as was supposed.

It was found that ten drops of carbolic acid, in two drachms of water were useful, so long as purging and vomiting continued, and a subcutaneous injection for cramp. Death frequently ensued [89/90] from the after effects of the clotting of blood, due to the serum which had previously passed off in the purging.


In May the Bishop made his First Visitation of Peshawar, but the dear man's sermon, both in English and the vernacular, were far too long, they tired us out as well as himself.

It had been decided that should he go up to the Front, I should accompany him as his Chaplain.

It was on the 26th May that I drove out the Bishop to Jamrud in the morning. There we got into my light bamboo cart, reaching Ali Masjid at 9 a.m. accompanied by an escort of Sawars.

There I managed to get a congregation for Evensong in one of the new Barracks, when I read prayers and he preached. The next morning at 4:30 a.m. we held a Celebration of the Holy Communion, at which several Officers were present.

After breakfast we set out for Landi Kotal, the road passing through a magnificent gorge, mountains towering up on both sides to a great height; no trees were visible, but any number of rotting carcasses of camels and oxen polluted the air making the journey very trying, for the heat was excessive.

At Landi Kotal (2000 ft.) the temperature in tents reached 100 and over. There were some 3 or 4000 troops there, and we became the guests of General Maude's Head Quarter Mess.

The next day we drove down to Landi Khana and Dhaka, the Bishop described the scenery as Sinaitic. The Geological formation seemed to be lacustrine, the barrier of the lake having been burst ages before, at the Ali Masjid Gorge.

[91] At Dhaka the Officers put several tents together, in which a Service could be held, where he had a good congregation, but the heat and storms, hot wind &c were appalling. The next day Saturday, we left for Basawal, the road to which led through the Khurd Khyber Pass, after which the valley opens out again. On the right could be seen the Kabul River backed up by high mountains belonging to independent tribes, receiving subsidies from Kabul; to the left, the district called Peshbolak, containing numberless villages which were all walled, with high towers at the diagonal corners, between the river and Peshbolak, Basawal is situated.

Generals Michell and Doran were very kind indeed, and did all they could to make the Bishop as comfortable as possible in the excessive heat and sandstorms which blew all that day.

The Bishop's Double Tent which I brought up for him, was improved by having a Sepoy's pall thrown over it, which tended to make it a little cooler as possible. My own small tent I deserted in the daytime, and took refuge in the larger tent of Major Gwynne, General Doran's Brigade Major, who had had all the earth to a depth of three feet, dug out from inside his tent, which made the temperature inside, some 8 degrees cooler.

On Sunday a Parade Service was held, the European Garrison being formed up on three sides of a square, the Bishop, Staff Officers and myself forming the fourth. I read a shortened Service and the Bishop preached for about ten minutes, bringing the Service to a close just after sunrise. After this we had the Holy Communion Service in a tent, which many Officers attended. In the evening a Voluntary Service was held. We also visited a Camp Hospital. It was here that the Bishop received a telegram from General Sir Sam Browne to the effect that all [91/92] the European troops would have left Sufed Sang, the next march farther on, before the following Sunday, as the Treaty of Gundamak had been signed. This determined the Bishop not to go further on; I had previously tried to persuade the Bishop to return, as I found the heat was telling considerable on him.

Personally I was bitterly disappointed as I wanted so much to go on as far as Jalalabad.

On the following Monday we returned to Peshawar by easy stages. At Landi Kotal, the Bishop was entertained by the Chaplain, the Rev. A. N. Spens, and held a service there; he also went round the Cholera and other Hospitals with the Chaplain.

At Landi Kotal on our return, our Camp was threatened with an attack from the neighbouring Afghan tribes.

On our way up, the Bishop on one occasion, declined the offer of an escort, but on our way down, without consulting him I applied for the necessary escort, as I would not risk any more, so valuable a life as our Bishop's, in an enemy's country; for although there were convoys going backwards and forwards, they were moving too slow for us.

At the various encampments, I tried to persuade him to use a portable bed, which I had taken for his special use, but he never would use it, preferring to lie on the ground.

During that very hot weather he felt the sun severely, but he never would take off his boots whilst resting. I found also that he did not have with him a pair of slippers, as he thought them very effeminate articles of apparel.

On our march we saw a large number of Buddhist remains; Ali Masjid Fort, to begin with, was an old Buddhist place of worship. Since I was there in the previous December, an old [92/93] Buddhist Temple or Monastery had been discovered, but all the figures of Buddha, of which there were a vast number, were all of plaster, which made me think it was of much later date than others in the Peshawar neighbourhood. A few of these portable figures I picked up and have them with me still. I was anxious to add to my collection of Buddhist statuary, which I had placed in the open verandah of the Mission House, at the entrance to the Library but circumstances prevented our breaking our journey then for collecting trophies.

There is no mistaking a Buddhist wall. It is always built of large irregular blocks of stone, laid in regular lines, all the interstices being filled up with thin lamina of slate, the whole face presenting one smooth surface.


We returned to Peshawar early in June 1879 most thankful for the opportunity I had had, in ministering to our dear Bishop.

The Bishop left us on the following Friday for Rawal Pindi and I resolved to go to Thandiani on 16th June for a month. The troops returning from the front were suffering from cholera, and left the Grand Trunk Road, on which the camping grounds were much infected with cholera germs, for side roads, with the hope of shaking off the cholera on their way down country. At the request of the Bishop I visited these cholera camps.


It was while our troops were in Kabul in 1879, and the lines of communication were open, that Mr. Hughes thought it best to send up the Rev. Imam Shah to Kabul in November, to visit the Armenians, who had relations in Peshawar city, and who were members [93/94] of his congregation. He went up with an Armenian, called Sarkis on 24th July 1879.

The Fort at Kabul, called the Bala Hissar, was where the Armenians lived, but which had to be destroyed by our Army of Occupation. He was received most warmly by them, and they were very glad to receive his ministrations, in their little Church in the Bala Hissar, the Fort, but during November 1879 the Fort was leveled to the ground, and with it, the Little Church. The sacred Communion Vessels and Office Books of their Church, were subsequently taken possession of by the Roman Catholic Chaplain, who made himself very friendly, and I have no doubt he had persuaded them to let him keep them in safety. But nothing more has since been heard of them.

He brought back a copy of the stamp, with which their Wafer Bread had been stamped, ever since there had been an Armenian Church there, possibly for hundreds of years, which I now possess.

A few Armenians made their abode subsequently in Peshawar, whom I often used to visit as they made themselves members of our Christian Community.


It was in November 1879 that Mr. Hughes obtained the Honorary services of Mrs. Middleton Scott for work in the Zenana Mission. She afterwards married the Rev. N. Spens, Chaplain.


Having overhauled my camp equipage I went out for a fortnight into the Hashtnagar district, east of the Kabul river. My itinerary has not been preserved, so I can give no detail.

[Ed.: The following handwritten note is inserted in the text just before page 95]
The Rev. M. E. Wigram of Peshawar sent to me in June 1926 the following memo from the Log Book of the Peshawar Mission: August 1879. The Rev. Imam Shah returned from Cabul having administered the Holy Communion and preached in the Armenian Church in the Bala Hissar, and having baptized several Armenians. T. P. H.


During the Afghan War no less than three old Blundellians stayed with me for a short time. Boileau, whose parents were in Tiverton, for about a year. He was a good young fellow, but suffered much from fever, and came to us for a time to get nursed. Lett, who was in the Royal Artillery, and Wells, who was in the Royal Engineers. It was very nice seeing them again, and talking over old times.


In August 1880 I held a service for the troops at Nowshera, and then an Urdu service. After that I visited the Hospitals of the 8th Hussars, and all the sick men who had been sent down from the front. I had much encouragement in my visits and Services in the 8th Hussars Hospital. The men seemed a very superior body. This took me from 6 a.m. till noon.

After that I went on to Attock and held a Parade Service in the evening, as no Clergyman had officiated there for some time, nor administered the Holy Communion. All this was done at the request of the Bishop, as the various Regiments were so scattered on the line of march down country.

Next morning I visited more Hospitals, and then left for Hassan Abdal, in a Dak Ghary, from whence I rode my pony to Abbottabad (44 miles). On the way I interviewed several enquirers, whom our Afghan Catechist Syad Shah had found out.

There was one very intelligent Brahmin, Duni Chand, 18 years of age, who was a seeker after truth. Another was the Head Master of the Government School, a very thoughtful and intelligent Muhammadan, named Najab Ali, whom I found very humble and willing [95/96] to be taught the truth. The cool breezes at Thandiani were very enjoyable after the heat of the Plains.


By a preconcerted arrangement my brother Andrew met me, and we much enjoyed our walks and talks together. We got glorious views of the Pakli Valley which is a continuation of the Hazara Valley, between Mansera and Ghari Habibullah, where I itinerated 2 or 3 years before and contracted a small sun stroke by exposing myself too much to the sun.

Between Thandiani and that Valley there is a lower range of hills, some 4 or 500 ft. below Thandiani. Beyond which, there is a nicely wooded range of mountains, over which runs the Ogee Pass connecting the Pakli Valley with Independent Territory beyond, beyond that again is a still higher range, on the other side of which runs the Indus, which has, I believe, never been explored.

To the N. E. of Thandiani, and about 100 miles away, is Nanga Parbat (26950 ft.), all the intermediate mountains of varying heights being in Kashmir Territory. On the N. E. and S. runs the Jhelum River. On the W. is seen the River Indus spreading its wide waters, swollen with the melting snows of Central Asia, Thibet &c; when it is fine, the Kabul River passing Nowshera, as well as the mountains beyond Peshawar, may be seen; and then to the S. are the plains of the Panjab, 100 miles away.

It can well be imagined, what a perfect panorama, and what varied and extended scenery we were able to enjoy.


In the Spring of 1881 I began to make my arrangements for my leave Home, which had been long due.

I had been anxious to go home through Persia, to see the grave of my grandfather, Dr. Andrew Jukes, a well known Doctor and Persian Scholar, who had been appointed Special Envoy to the Shah of Persia at Teheran. He got seriously ill on the way, died and was buried at the Armenian Cemetery of Julfa in 1821.

Unfortunately my letter to Dr. Bruce of Persia did not reach him soon enough, and in his reply he said that if I did not start immediately, it would be too late, as the steamers on the Caspian stopped running in October on account of the ice, so I had to give up all idea of it.

The Chaplain in Peshawar at that time was the Rev. C. M. Saunders, who lived with us in the Mission House. He had previously been one of the Clergy of St. Peter's, Eaton Square, under Mr. Wilkinson, afterwards Bishop of Truro. He had on one occasion visited Palestine, and inspired me with a very great desire to make a Pilgrimage there, and so become a Christian Haji.

I took my passage in the British India Steam Navigation Company's S. S. Patna which was to sail from Karachi on 10th March. At Karachi I had the pleasure of acting as Best man, at my brother Andrew's wedding.

I only booked as far as Port Said, as I hoped to branch off thence to the Holy Land. The steamer was one of the slowest tubs in existence, making only about 6 or 8 knots an hour.

Her engines were almost worn out, and to make matters worse she had come from the Persian Gulf, and was supposed to have the plague on board, for we were put into quarantine every [97/98] Port we came to. On our arrival at Aden, we had to fly the yellow flag, and remain in quarantine for a whole week, without being allowed to land, at the end of that time, the ship discharged her cargo for the Mozambique. If there was plague on board, it was kept very dark. We were only allowed to land, for an hour or two, we saw the large tanks for the storage of rain, which was the only supply of water for drinking purposes, for the Town,

We also saw the English papers and learned that the Czar had been assassinated. On arrival at Suez, I was told that if I wanted to go to the Holy Land, I should first have to go into quarantine at Moses' Wells, some little way down the Gulf of Suez, and live there among the Arabs for ten days, owing to the quarantine regulations. This was too much of a good thing, much as I should have liked to make the acquaintance of the place, where Moses had lived for a time by the side of his wells. I might have become a master of Arabic!!

At Port Said, it was just the same, and I was forbidden to leave the ship for the Holy Land, so, although so near, I had finally to give it up at least for that voyage.

We had to fly the yellow flag again at Algiers and Lisbon, and not allowed to land which was most tantalizing, as I felt I should never have such opportunities, of seeing those last two Ports again.

Mr. Beasley, a Chaplain and I were allowed by the Captain to hold Services on board. As we steamed down the River Tagus we made arrangements to hold a Celebration of the Holy Communion the next day which was Easter Sunday. however as we were rounding Cape da Roca, a terrible storm arose, and I with many others had to remain below, and no Service was held at all.

[99] One of the passengers on board was Mrs. W. (Weitbrecht) and her children. The eldest boy a lad of six years, frequently disturbed our sleep. His mother was too ill to look after him, and as he still persisted in his screaming I gently knocked at her door, and asked if I could be of any help. The Mother was most grateful, and gave me permission to take the boy out of her cabin.

I spoke kindly to the little fellow, but he yelled louder than ever, till I got him into the bath room. A little chastisement on the place intended by nature to receive it, had the most wonderful effect. After a little drying of tears, I took him back to his Mother, as quiet as a lamb.

I received not only the gratitude of the Mother, but the heartfelt thanks of all the passengers next morning at breakfast!!

The little boy and myself became fast friends.

Her eldest little girl had been ill the whole of the voyage, no fresh milk being obtainable. At one time I thought I should have obliged to stay with the Mother and children in Suez or Cairo, till the little one was better, but happily she recovered.

The Mother was the Wife of one of our most valued Mission Priests in the Panjab.

As soon as we anchored in the Thames at the Docks, the yellow flag had to go up again, but it was very soon removed by the Port Doctor, and we were all glad to land, after a voyage of six weeks. I arrived in England in May 1881. It was the beginning of a very happy holiday in the visiting relations and friends, and laying before the Public, in sermons and addresses, how God was claiming many in Afghanistan to be members of His Church.



It was on 1st December 1881 that I experienced the great joy and happiness of being Married to Miss Emily Susannah Crossley, whose widowed Mother was living in Belfast.

We were married in St. Thomas' Church, by the Rev. Mr. Welland, and my old friend Major Spencer Acklom of the Connaught Rangers was my Best-man.

We left England in January 1882 for India, and on the way we spent a happy day or two, with my wife's married sister at Stuttgart, and then went over the Brenner Pass to Venice, the sights of which place we both thoroughly enjoyed.

My visit to Palestine had only been temporally postponed, I had resolved that my wife should enjoy the visit with me on our way to India, and we were both looking forward to it very much. We left Venice by the P. & O. S. S. Malwa for Alexandria, there we transshipped for Jaffa, and rode on ponies, over the Plain of Sharon to Jerusalem. We visited as many places as possible during the week, e.g. the Holy Sepulcre, Mount of Olives, Bethany, Bethlehem, &c, and then had to return to Port Said, in order to catch the S. S. Kashgar at Suez, in which berths had previously been engaged to Bombay, which we reached on 1st March 1882.

No words can tell the pleasure the visit to Palestine gave us. Our Honey-moon had been a most enjoyable one.


Having spent a day or two in Bombay, we left by train for the Panjab. We stayed at first in Delhi, where the Cambridge Brotherhood, under the leadership of Mr. Bickersteth had recently begun their useful Mission, in co-operation with the S. P. G.

At Amritsar we were the guests of Mr. Clark, who gave us a very warm welcome. Then the long and tedious journey by dak ghari had to be gone through to Peshawar, where we came to our journey's end about the 18th March. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, Mr. and Mrs. Knowles, who had joined the Mission during the past year, and all the flock, received us gladly.

The next morning we both drove down to the Church and School, where I introduced my wife to the Native Pastor and the Christians and interviewed Masters and Scholars, the latter being assembled on the gallery. One of the boys read an address of Welcome, making suitable allusions to our Wedding. My wife took the warmest interest in everything.


A very sad event happened very soon after our arrival in Peshawar. We were driving in the Cantonments near the Law Courts on our way home, when I heard a shot, and very soon afterwards we overtook four natives carrying in a blanket Captain Fulford who had just been shot by an Afghan fanatic, owing to ignorant mullahs telling their followers, that to murder an Englishman was a sure way of getting to Paradise!! As I discovered that the Officer lived almost opposite the Mission House, I hastily drove home, where I left my wife and hastened to his Bungalow, to see what I could do.

Doctors were soon in attendance, and it was found that an artery had been grazed; the slugs were withdrawn, and for two or three [101/102] weeks, he hovered between life and death. I found out that he belonged to an old Devonshire Family of Fulfords, who had occupied the ancient Plantagenet Mansion of Great Fulford since the time of King John.

Captain Fulford asked me to go in every day, and to act as his Amanuensis in writing letters to his wife &c. Unfortunately the wound proved fatal, and a gallant Officer was lost to his home and country.

The assassin had immediately been shot dead in the lines of a Native Regiment, and to act as a deterrent of such brutal and cowardly assassinations, his body was burnt in a pig skin, by order of the Civil Authorities. The punishment was one which was most abhorrent to Muhammadans, and according to their ideas, effectually prevented his getting to Paradise!


That extreme punishment exasperated the fanatics. It was not long after this that an attempt was made on my life, by a man who possibly had never seen me before. I was driving with my wife in the city, when an Afghan, at a distance of a few yards, flung a big stone at my head with all his might, fortunately he missed, I drove quickly on, but he had soon picked up the stone again, and I heard it whistling past my head once more, but providentially he missed again.

I knew that no one in that narrow street thronged with Muhammadans, would have dared to give evidence against him. As I was afraid of what might happen to my wife, I drove home and at once gave information to the Police Officer of what had happened.

I never mentioned the subject to my wife, hoping she might [102/103] not have seen it.

I have no doubt that this outburst of fanaticism was owing to the punishment of the Ghazi, for a very nasty feeling was manifested in the city and neighbourhood, for several weeks after. Any European's life might have been taken by the relatives of the Ghazi who had been burned.


It was not long after this that I was asked by the Bishop to go to Kohat, to take Divine Service on Easter Sunday.

My wife was very anxious to go with me, and I ought to have applied for a cavalry escort, as we were both mounted, and the road lay across part of independent territory, but in going about my Missionary work, I scorned such assistance.

I thought it necessary however to be armed on this occasion, knowing only too well what might happen. So I obtained the possession of a beautiful silver plated bull-dog revolver, which I carried in my holster. No sooner had we left British territory, than an armed Afghan appeared, and we soon got into conversation. After passing the time of day, he asked if I was armed, and I at once showed my revolver, for had I not had it, he could easily have carried us both off and demanded a ransom.

He admired my revolver very much, and soon asked if it were loaded. In reply I said, "Of course it is, what is the good of a revolver not loaded?" He then asked if he might examine it in his own hands, as it was such a beauty! I said, "Certainly not", and told him to clear off at once, holding the revolver threateningly in my hand. We galloped off, and soon left him far behind, and so ended the attention of a probable enemy. I was never more glad than I was that day to be [103/104] armed. It was our first long joint ride of 40 miles in an enemy's country. My wife showed excellent horsemanship.

On the return journey I took care to apply for a cavalry escort, as I was on Government Service.


The Brahmin enquirer, Duni Chand, whom I had left at Abbottabad, joined me once more, for special instruction before receiving Holy Baptism. During my absence at home, Colonel Rice had very kindly interested himself in the young man.


In August 1882 the Govt. of India decided to hold an Educational Commission at Simla; a few Missionaries amongst others were invited to give the President of the Commission, Sir W. W. Hunter, their views about the Education of the natives. I was invited to give my evidence, so I went up with my wife and we were hospitably entertained by Major and Mrs. Colvin Hutchinson of the Guides. From all the evidence that was given at the Commission, it was almost necessary that the Government should make some alterations in their Educational Code, be more neutral and fair towards Mission Schools, and stop the overlapping that takes place in Higher Education.


The next day a big Bazaar took place in Simla in behalf of our New Church, but before I describe it, I must explain the necessity for it.

The little temporary Church within the School precincts, which I have previously described, had been of much service for many years. In course of time it became too small for the [104/105] number of worshippers, and it was resolved that a more dignified Church should be built, which would command more respect, in the midst of a big city, in which there were so many fine Mosques.

The chief difficulty was in finding a suitable site. The only possible one in a quiet corner of the city was just outside the School compound, where there were several small houses, and it was determined to buy up these as opportunity offered, and before long Mr. Hughes had completed the purchase of them.

The site proved large enough to build not only a Church, but a Pastor's house as well.

Appeals for donations had been issued in April 1877, in order to build a Memorial Church of those who died in connexion with the Mission.

It was decided that the Church should be Oriental in aspect, cruciform in shape, with a dome in the centre, Minarets flanking the front and each transept.

General Pollard R. E. very kindly helped with working plans, dimensions &c, but he thought that a Dome would swallow up far too much of the money we had collected.

A very great impetus was most kindly given to the Building Fund by Lady Aitchison, Wife of Sir Charles Aitchison, the Lieutenant Governor of the Panjab, in July 1882 at Simla, by allowing a big Bazaar to be held at their Residence, Barnes Court.

She had it advertised in the local papers, and sent out special circulars to all Simla Elite, the Viceroy and all his Staff, Members of Council, Commander-in-Chief, Judges of the Chief Court, Surgeons General, Sanitary Commissioners, Engineers, all of whom had their Offices in Simla, as well as all Civil and Military [105/106] Officers of India, who were visiting Simla at the time. I had sent up a large consignment of goods from Peshawar, in the shape of Central Asian and Peshawar Pottery, Arms and weapons of every kind and place, Persian and Central Asian Rugs, Curtains &c, in fact everything which could command a sale.

I must not forget to mention Door Curtains ornamented with Peshawari wax and paint of every colour, in fact it was the sale of these curtains which were the first to begin the enormous sales in after years.

Many more articles were also provided by Lady Aitchison and other kind friends in England and India.

The following were some of the Stall Holders:
Lady Bright and her daughters, Mrs. Dallas, Mrs. J. B. and Mrs. Colvin Hutchinson, Mrs. Coldstream &c &c.

Lady Aitchison picked all the flowers in her beautiful garden, and made them up into bouquets for sale. Words fail to express all that she did for us on that occasion. The sales came to Rs 2300, with a net result of about L160 for the Church.


I was not able to do much Missionary work there, but I had the opportunity of helping an Eurasian, Mr. Thomas Edwards, in a small way, in his preparation for Holy Orders, as he was to be put in charge of the Native Congregation there. Through his energy the Mission Church was erected there.


[107] After the Bazaar at Simla I had to return to Peshawar, leaving my Wife there a little longer, as both Mr. Hughes and the Chaplain were soon leaving for England, and I was asked once more to be responsible for the Chaplain's duties.

On the way through Lahore, I had the great pleasure of spending the Sunday with my dear Bishop French.

On my arrival at Peshawar I found that Mr. Hughes had secured the services of an able Muhammadan builder, who had already erected some Mosques, and knew much of his business.

Foundations were duly laid in August 1882, and by the time contracts were signed for the building in December, the foundation had solidified, ready for immediate building.

In the Autumn of 1882 my Wife returned from Simla, and Mr. Clark paid us another of his welcome visits. Whilst he was with us in November my first child was born. My Wife was seriously ill, and suffered much from fever for a few weeks.

Dr. Johnston who kindly attended her, told the nurse that he did not think she would survive. Mercifully the lives of both Mother and Child were preserved, and he was baptized in December with the name of Cyril Worthington.

At the end of January 1883 we all went down to Hoti Mardan, and stayed with our kind friends Major and Mrs. Hutchinson. The change was most beneficial to my Wife, and I spent some time itinerating in the district, returning to Peshawar in March to receive the Bishop. On my wife's return she was strong enough to continue her classes for the Afghan boys which she loved.

Colonel and Mrs. Bunbury then became our very great friends so much so that my Wife called Mrs. Bunbury, her Indian Mother.

In the middle of March, we both went down to Amritsar for [107/108] the Missionary Conference, leaving the little one in the care of our great friend Mrs. Graves.

In May I left my Wife and babe at Thandiani, and went to Kohat to meet the Bishop and Mr. Mayer, on the Revision Committee of the Pakhto Bible.

Early in June God called our little one to Himself, and we laid him to rest in the Abbottabad Cemetery. The blow to us both was very great.


That summer of 1883 saw the Memorial Church roofed in, and the plaster work pushed on.


In August I returned to Abbottabad, met my Wife there and started for Kashmir via Dungla Gully and Murree, my Wife riding my nice Waziri mare Khyber, kindly given me by Colonel Elton, who had been Commanding at Michni Fort, on his leaving for England in bad health.

Miss Anderson, the sister-in-law of Dr. Johnston accompanying us. At Manisbal our camp was pitched at a most beautiful spot under the fine spreading Plane trees, growing in great luxuriance on the terraces overlooking the lovely lake.

One day the only other Lady then in camp (whose husband was away shooting), came to me in great excitement, asking if I was a Doctor, as one of her boatman had met with an accident, splitting his nose from top to bottom, by the rebound of an axe whilst chopping wood. We were then a considerable distance from the Doctor at Srinagar. I had never undertaken an operation before, but having seen an operation with my brother at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, I did not mind attempting it, as it only required half a dozen stitches. I had no surgical needle, but the good Lady [108/109] produced an hypodermic syringe, the lancet of which enabled me to make incisions for the needle and silk. I finished up with a plentiful supply of oil and plaster. The man was then sent into Srinagar, and I heard that no little kudos was meted out to me!

We also visited Colonel and Mrs. Watson at Nagmarg, and after exploring Martland with Dr. Neve, we returned to India by the Pir Panjal Pass, which we all enjoyed immensely, my Wife was never better in her life.

[Handwritten note inserted here: Syad Shah' conversion not recorded in Clark's or Hughes life, should here be given from my typed c/c Clark or p. 20]


It was about this year that Mr. Hughes was anxious to continue the good influence that Fazl-i-Haqq had begun, some years earlier in Kafiristan. He sent off our Catechist Sayd Shah, with instructions to make himself friendly with the inhabitants, to use every opportunity of evangelizing them, and to bring back all useful information about the country.

He was very warmly received, and in evidence of it, they gave him a little Kafir boy, named Ati about eight years old, with other mementoes of their good feeling.

The question was, should Ati be baptized as an infant or minor, or wait till he grew up and decide for himself. We decided on the former course. Mr. Hughes baptized him by his own name Ati, and I stood as Sponsor. The boy was brought up as a Christian, sent to a Christian School, and was eventually educated for the Medical Profession, in the hope that he would have sufficient grace to return to his own country, and evangelize his own country men. He always bore a good Character, and I have heard since [109/110] my retirement that he has adopted the name Nazir Ullah, and has been most active in giving every help in Mission Hospitals.

I sincerely hope that he will rise to the occasion, and should he receive a call, to pass on the good News of Salvation to his own people. He could not have a higher ideal. (see opposite)


Much about this time there was much talk among Muhammadans about the "Imam Mahdy", I wrote a paper on the subject, entitled "Imam Mahdy, and Dajjal, the Muhammadan Antichrist", who was expected to bring the world to a close at the end of the 13th Cent. of the Muhammadan era, and that it was to be synchronous with the return of Jesus Christ, which the Muhammadans professed to look forward to. It was published in the October number of the Church Missionary Intelligencer 1883.


It was on St. John's Day, 27th Dec. 1883, that the Memorial Church, dedicated to All Saints was opened.

It was made the occasion of much rejoicing. Delegates of the Panjab and Sindh C. M. S. Native Church Council were invited to be present. The Bishop found it impossible to be present.

The following Clergy took part in the opening ceremony: The Revs. R. Clark, T. R. Wade, T. P. Hughes, Maulvie Imad-ud-din, W. Jukes, H. Lewis, Miyan Sadiq, Imam Shah, A. Bridge, H. Rountree, C. Merk, Yaqub Ali, T. Howell, and T. Holden.

A large number of Indian Christian Laity were present. The Church was filled with Christian worshippers, and Muhammadans [110/111], who had come to look on.

[Handwritten note inserted in the page facing pg. 111 as follows]

Archdeacon Matthew
On Saturday morning I visited the new Mission Church of All Saints now approaching completion. Its erection in an Oriental style of Architecture has my fullest sympathy and the design appears to be admirably suited to (sic) needs and surroundings. It is a worthy Memorial of the Saintly labourers in this Mission Field who sacrificed their lives in the service of the Gospel & it (sic) also be a monument of the zeal of those now living, who have with so much zealous effort & careful supervision carried the work through. That there is no superfluous or extravagant ornamentation, the Church is both within & without dignified in its architecture & the texts who adorn it. (sic) exhibit the people of Peshawar the spirit of our belief and worship.
Dec. 5th, 1883

________ ________ ________ ________

I cannot give a better description of the Church than that published by the Rev. Robert Clark in the Lahore Church Gazette of 5th January 1884.

"On the 19th December 1853, it was my privilege, as the first English Missionary who ever visited Peshawar, to be present at the celebrated Missionary Meeting, which took place on the establishment of the Afghan Mission, it was then that Sir Herbert Edwardes uttered his memorable speech, which, in the History of the Indian Missions has since become historical. It was spoken almost immediately after the death of his predecessor (Colonel Mackeson) by assassination: and it was under circumstances like these that he, and Major Hugh James, and Colonel Martin, and Sir James Brind, and Sir Henry Norman, and Colonel Urmston, and Colonel Bamfield, and Dr. Baddeley, and Mr. Maltby the Chaplain with other men and many Ladies also, met together, to seek by prayer and effort, by God's grace, to commence Missionary work amongst the Afghans at Peshawar.

The collection which was made for the Mission soon amounted to Rs 30,000; of which Rs 10,000 were given to the Parent Society by an anonymous friend; Rs 5000 were given at the meeting through Mr. Urmston also anonymously; Rs 1000 were collected after the Sunday Service at the Offertory, and the remainder was given by many friends in many places.

Thirty years have passed; and I am again invited, this time by the Peshawar Missionaries to visit Peshawar; and [111/112] to take part in an event, the like of which has never yet taken place in Peshawar, since it was a city, although Peshawar is said to be one of the oldest cities in this part of Asia. I allude to the opening of a beautiful and perhaps almost unique Christian Church, in the midst of this great city of the Afghans.

Well may we now repeat the inspired words of the Psalmist, "Not unto us O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy Name be the praise."

Thirty years! And what changes have taken place in them in Peshawar! It was considered then to be unsafe for a European to be seen outside the limits of Cantonments; and I remember when walking one day a few hundred yards beyond them, how I was met by Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Commissioner of the Panjab, and Sir Herbert Edwardes the Commissioner of Peshawar, who were driving past with a large escort; and who with many rebukes for my thoughtlessness, ordered me to enter their carriage, and to desist in the future from such dangerous practices.

And now the whole country is so open and safe, that the Missionaries can go alone and unarmed to any village they will; a fact which shows not only the goodwill which the people bear to the Missionaries, but shows also the effect of thirty years of English good Government amongst head-strong and turbulent tribes.

A school of more than 400 scholars, many of whom belong to the highest classes of the Sirdars and Raieses, [112/113] is being carried on by the Mission, in which God's word is daily taught. A Christian congregation has been gathered; and now on the anniversary of the very Christmas week in which the first meeting was held on the 19th Dec. 1853, after thirty years of steady persevering prayerful work of faith and labour of love, a beautiful Church has been set apart to the Service of God, in the midst of the Afghan people.

It will be difficult to give a description of the Church, or to do justice to it. We can only say, that it is the most beautiful Church, although of course, it is very far from being the largest, that we have seen in India. It is situated in a public thoroughfare, very near the Edwardes' Memorial School, and close to one of the Gates of the city.

Instead of facing East, it exactly faces Jerusalem, as the point to which all believers look for the Second Coming of the Lord. Its plan is cruciform, and its architecture is a successful adaptation of Mosque architecture to the purposes of Christian worship. The symmetry and proportions of the columns and arches are almost perfect.

At the end of the Chancel is an exquisite painted window, the gift of Lady Herbert Edwardes, in memory of her late Husband. Above the Chancel arch is another small painted window, erected by Mr. and Mrs. Worthington Jukes to the memory of their child (Cyril). On either side of it are the words in Hebrew, JEHOVAH, ELOHIM.

The Transepts are separated from the Nave by two carved screens, one of which is the gift of the Rev. C. M. Saunders, and the other of the Rev. A. Bridge, both Chaplains of Peshawar. [113/114] One Transept is set apart for Purdah Women; and in the other is the Baptistery, the gift of Mr. Hughes, which is adapted for the administration of Holy Baptism by immersion.

The carved Pulpit (of teak wood), is the gift of Mr. Jukes. The handsome brass Lectern is the gift of Miss Milman, sister of the late Bishop of Calcutta, and bears the following inscription:

"In loving memory of Robert Milman, Bishop of Calcutta, who died 15th March 1876. He preached his last Urdu Sermon to the Native Christian Congregation in the city of Peshawar. His last English Sermon was on behalf of the Peshawar Mission. His last public act was an address to the pupils of the Peshawar Mission School. "I will very gladly spend and be spent for you," "

The Communion Table is of Peshawar carved wood-work, the brass Desk on the Holy Table is the gift of Mrs. Graves, who laid the Foundation Stone of the Church in 1882. The floor of the Chancel is of Peshawar pottery in different patterns. The kneeling cushion before the Communion rails was worked by Mrs. Freeman who, together with her husband was a large contributor to the Church.

The following text in Persian(?) stands out in bold relief over the arch of the entrance door on the front of the Church outside from Rev. vii. 12:

"Amen, blessing and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour and power and might, be unto our God for ever and ever, Amen."

Over the Chancel arch inside appear the words in large letters:

"I will make them joyful in My House of Prayer."

[115] These words from Isaiah lvi. 7 were chosen by Bishop French, who afterwards told me that he was sorry I had not put them up in Persian.

Many other texts (to attract the attention of Muhammadans) adorn the building, and especially the two following, at the Chancel end of the Church (in Persian):

"Jesus the same yesterday, today, and for ever", Heb. 5: 3,8.

But the chief feature of the Church is the Screen, beautifully carved in cedar wood, of different native Peshawar patterns, which divides the Chancel from the Ambulatory behind it. In this Ambulatory are placed the mural tablets to the memory of the deceased Peshawar Missionaries, on account of which the Church is called the All Saints Memorial Church.

The tablets are as follows:

The Rev. C. G. Pfander D. D. 1825-1865, died 1st Dec. 1865, Aged 62.
The Rev. T. Tuting B. A. 1857-1862, died 27th Oct. 1862, Aged 33.
The Rev. Robert E. Clark B. A. 1859-1863, died 14th January 1863, Aged 28.
The Rev. Isidor Loewenthal M. A. 1856-1864, died 27th April 1864, Aged 38.
The Rev. J. Stephenson 1864-1868, died 23rd December 1868, Aged 26.
The Rev. J. W. Knott M. A. 1869-1870, died 28th July 1870, Aged 40. [115/116]
Alice Mary, Wife of the Rev. T. R. Wade, died 8th October 1871, Aged 21.
Minnie and Alice, infant children of the Rev. T. P. Hughes.
The following names were added later:
Cyril and Eileen, infant children of the Rev. W. Jukes.
Annie Forde Norman, C. E. Z. M. S. 1883-1884, died 22nd May 1884, Aged 27.

"The dome covered cupola of the Tower is seen from a great distance, and contains a fine-toned bell, which is heard all over the city and neighbourhood, the gift, in or about 1858, of the Rev. George Lea, and other friends in Birmingham, to the Peshawar Mission, through Colonel Martin. It is the first bell of the kind that has ever been seen in Peshawar, and it attracted great attention when given to the School in 1858. Being a campanologist, it gave me great pleasure in designing the cage in which to hang the bell.

The Cupola (the cross was added a year or two later) is surmounted by a large gilt Cross showing the Christian character of the building, and distinguishing it from other public edifices in the city.

Connected with the Church, is the Parsonage House, built in Native fashion, in the form of a square (with an open court yard inside), and near to it the large Vestry Room and native Library, two Guest Rooms on an upper story, below which are dwelling places for servants.

Everything is thus provided, in connexion with the Church, for all purposes required.

The cost of the whole of the buildings has been about Rs 25,000 of which that of the Church has been Rs 22,000; Rs 3,000 are still required to pay off the debt, which has been necessarily incurred. (This debt was soon wiped out).

[Handwritten note beneath a picture of the Church on the opposite page reads as follows: It was always the custom of the Mission, that when any of us approached the Church, either riding or driving, always to dismount some little distance from the Church, and to walk in humility to the Church, as was always done by Muhammadans on their approach to a Tisjarat (sic).]

[117] " At noon on the 27th December 1883, the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, the day of the Dedication, the Church was filled from end to end, by a very large and attentive audience. The two Transepts were then filled with English Officers, amongst whom we noticed the Deputy Commissioner; one side of the Nave was occupied by native women, and by Native and English Ladies; and the other side by the men and boys of the Congregation, and by the Members of the Panjab Native Church Council, who had received a hearty invitation from Mr. Hughes and Mr. Jukes, to be present at the opening of the Church, and to hold the eighth meeting of the Panjab Native Church Council in Peshawar.

The completion of the Indus Bridge at Attock, and of the Northern State Railway to Peshawar, enabled them to accept the invitation; and many Native friends from different parts of the Province availed themselves of the true Afghan hospitality, which our Peshawar Hosts so bountifully bestowed on us all.

Fourteen Clergymen, five of whom were natives were present, and took part in the Services, and in the absence of our beloved Bishop at home, it devolved on us, as the Senior Missionary of the Church Missionary Society in the Panjab, by the invitation of the Missionaries, to say such Prayers at the opening Service as could be taken by an ordinary Clergyman.

The Lessons were read by the Rev. W. Jukes, and by the Pastor of the Church, the Rev. Imam Shah.

[Handwritten letter: The Holy Communion Service -- The Communion Service was the gift of a Roman noble lady to the Bade (sic) Mission at Shuska (sic) in N. W. Persia (Caucasus). When the last of Trans-Caucasus was occupied by Russia, the missionaries were expelled (1835) and Dr. Pfander brought this with him, leaving it by deed of gift to the Peshawar Mission Nov. 1865 (note letter in file). It has been in the Mission ever since and has been used in Jalalabad during the 1878-1879 war. (This is not true to my knowledge - Jukes). Signed H. J. Hoare April 30, 1913.]

[Handwritten note reads as follows: Peshawar, N. W. F. Province 28.7.26 Dear Mr. Jukes, Very many thanks for your kind letter of July 5, enclosing cheque for 10s/ for the Rev. Imam Shah & his wife & daughter's gravestones. I will let you know when all is finished. My brother Edmund who came out with my Father 1886 joined the Panjab Mission in 1891 & was most of his service at St. John's College, Lahore. He was for a time Secretary of the Mission till he left at the end of 1914. From 1915 he has been Indian Secretary at the C. M. House Salisbury Square. He has been at Exeter for deputation work. He is sadly crippled with arthritis, but sticks to his work wonderfully. The communion set given to Dr. Pfander in 1857 by Sir Herbert Edwardes & friends was a personal gift & presumably he always kept it. The other set is the one Cox refers to in his letter as being now used at the Hospital, it was originally given by a Russian lady to the Bade Mission, in Shuska, Persia & was brought away by Dr. Pfander when they were expelled in 1835; & he left it by deed of gift to Peshawar Mission in 1857. My enigmatical statement is I hope cleared. As Dr. P. was presented by friends with a set for his own use, he left the one he brought from Persia to the Peshawar Mission. I will make the corrections you mention in the Log Book & Reminiscences. I must write more another time. I have several more letters to get written & you know what the heat is at the end of July here. With our best wishes; yours sincerely, Mr. E. Wigram]

A brief statement of the object of the Service was [117/118] made by the Rev. T. P. Hughes, who presented the Pastor with a copy of the Holy Scriptures, in the original languages, and with the Sacramental Vessels of the Church, which were then reverently placed by him on the Lord's table.

The Sermon was then preached by the Rev. Maulvie Imad-ud-din, Chaplain to the Bishop of Lahore, from the words of our Lord:--"If I with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt the Kingdom of God is come unto you."

The sound of the Psalms and Hymns swelled loudly and harmoniously through the Church; and the Service was concluded with praise and thanksgiving and prayer.

The proceedings were very solemn, and verily God Himself was present with His people, and He made His presence felt, even as He had manifested His presence in an unmistakable manner at the first Missionary Meeting which had been held at Peshawar thirty years before.

But some of our Church Missionary Society supporters in India may perhaps ask, why this apparent departure from some of the cherished traditions of the Church Missionary Society by the erection of this beautiful Church in a Church Missionary Society's station.

The answer is very clear. It is no departure at all. The object of the Church Mission Society is, to build in every heathen land living Temples to the Lord; whatever means will conduce to this end should be made use of.

We wish to bring the people of this and of every land to the Cross of Christ. For nearly thirty years has the Gospel been preached in the bazaars and streets and the villages of [118/119] Peshawar city and district, and it has been met with scorn and derision and insult. For the last few years, the policy of our Peshawar Missionaries has been changed. The effects which are now made are those of conciliation, and friendship within the Church, in the School, in the Hujra and the Anjuman.

On Thursday last, were seen, perhaps for the first time in Peshawar, many leading Native Chiefs, who reverently sat behind the red chord which separated the unbaptized from believers in the Faith of Christ, and who listened attentively to a Christian Maulvie, as he preached to them boldly and very plainly the Gospel of Christ. There was no opposition at all; a leading Khan of Eusafzai was there, with members of some royal families. A Rajah from the Frontier afterwards took his place as a listener if not a worshipper in a Christian Church.

Expressions of approbation and congratulation were heard from Mahomedans (sic) and Hindus in Peshawar. "We serve God in our way" said they "and it is right that you should serve Him in yours." Services of Song and Preaching have since then been daily held, (Mr. Clark was wrong, for the daily Services of the Church had long been held), and for the first time in the history of the Peshawar Mission has a Christian Church been thronged by people, who are not Christians, and who are not yet willing to listen quietly to Christian preaching when delivered outside.

We believe that it has been given to our friends Mr. Hughes and Mr. Jukes, to devise one more way to gain Afghans. The [119/120] Hujra is another. The school is another. The Anjuman is another. If religious Services can be carried on and religious instruction can be given without controversy, or noisy opposition and disputation to Afghans in a beautiful Church, then let us have the Church.

We have seen in some other places, rooms in Schools, in houses, or room-like so called Churches, where Services have been unattended except by a few paid agents of a Mission. If the fault in a Church is merely that it is beautiful, then let us accept the fault, if its consequences are the bringing in of souls to Christ, or even if it is only the inducing heathen and Mahomedan (sic) men and veiled women to listen to the Gospel.

In this case the Church is not an expensive one. Rs 22,000 is not a large sum for a well finished suitable, and commodious Church, and even this sum has been in a great measure given by private friends, who have presented most of what is ornamental, as a free gift.

We believe that a new era in the history of the Afghan Mission, has been entered on by the erection of this Church in the Peshawar city. An outward movement has been made, and although we know that a mere building is nothing without God's presence and blessing in it, yet if the Cloud of Glory fill this House, even as it filled the Tabernacle and Temple of old, this building will not be without its special service in the Evangelization of the Afghans. Our earnest prayer is, that this new era may now be signalized by the coming in of many Afghans into Christ's own Fold, "unto Him shall the gathering of the [120/121] people be", and He himself has said, "I will draw all men unto Me."

________ ________ ________ ________

This rather long paper of Mr. Clark on the All Saints Memorial Church is a most valuable one, for it brings out one aspect of Missionary work which is often lost sight of.

I thoroughly endorse all he wrote about the various means used by us in the Mission, for winning the Afghans, and hope that, if any of them have been dropped, they may be at once resuscitated.


There were at this time three Ladies belonging to the Ch. of E. Zenana Missionary Society living in their own quarters in the Peshawar Cantonment, and doing most excellent work.

Miss Mitcheson, was the Lady Doctor, and was indefatigable in visiting no end of patients in their Zenanas, and performing many operations. In course of time she obtained permission to live in the Gorkhatri, in the house built by Mr. Robert Clark in the early years of the Mission.

Some parts of the building were altered and made into a Hospital for women. The Duchess of Connaught in 1883 kindly allowed it to be called after her and I conducted a special Service, dedicating it to God's Service.

Most excellent work was carried on there for several years by Miss Mitcheson and her successors.

Miss Mitcheson was able to talk fluently in Urdu, and also [121/122] in Pakhto. She also itinerated in the villages.

Miss Phillips was engaged in schools for girls, and teaching in the Zananas, where she was much appreciated. She was an accomplished Musician, and held herself responsible all the time she was in Peshawar, for the music in Church and training the Choir.

She was also in great requisition at Concerts, during her spare hours, which were got up in the Cantonment's Club for Officers and their Wives. She was of a very quiet and humble disposition, and left her mark on her Mission, but she was not strong and had to go to England on one or two occasions, till she was obliged to resign.

Miss Annie Forde Norman, daughter of General Sir Henry Norman, K. C. S. I. of Indian fame, joined the Zanana Mission in March 1883. She had been very much appreciated as an Honorary worker in the Parish of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, under the Hon. and Rev. Carr Glynn, the Vicar, afterwards Bishop of Peterborough.

As a child she took the greatest interest in Missionary work, and the following story about her will not come amiss, and is not generally known, she told it to me herself.

When she was a little girl, about her 12th Birthday, her Grandmother wanted to know what she would like for her Birthday present, after a little thought she said, "Please Grannie, I should like two Bibles," but the Grannie said, "Would not one nicely bound Bible be better?" She said, "No Grannie I should like to have two, please; one for myself, and the other for a little Indian girl." [122/123] In due course both Bibles arrived. Having obtained the name of a little Indian girl recommended by some Lady Missionary, Annie wrote the name of the Indian girl in it, stating that it was from Annie Norman.

The Bible went on its way to India, with many prayers. After the lapse of about 12 years, Miss Norman arrived in Peshawar as a Missionary, and naturally went round to see the converts, and their respective wives, one of these visits was to the house of Mr. Datta, a Bengali convert, the Head Master of the Mission School, and whilst waiting for Mrs. Datta to come in, Miss Norman looked at the various books lying on a nice table, and to her astonishment, she opened the Bible she herself had sent out. More can be imagined than can be described here, when the giver and the recipient met face to face, in the Gorkhatri where Mrs. Datta lived.

Bishop French fortunately was in Peshawar on her arrival there; and at the close of his sermon in St. John's Church on 4th March 1883, he commended her to the prayers of the English Congregation, and in asking for a blessing on Miss Norman's work he offered up this prayer, which he afterwards gave her, and as it is so beautiful, I give a copy as it has never before been published:--

"O Christ, our Great and Glorious High Priest, exalted far above all Heavens, be with Thy hand-maid (we pray Thee) who has offered herself to Thee, to carry the bright lamp of Thy Truth which Thou puttest into her hand, into many a dark home, and many a heart full of sin, ignorance and sorrow.

[124] "Strengthen her with Thine Arm, enlighten her with Thy Wisdom, and make her gracious with Thy love, that through her patient teaching and godly example many may be led to humble themselves in willing love at the feet of Thy Cross, and be drawn by the meekness and gentleness of the Lord Jesus, so as to find redemption through His Blood and receive the Promise of the Spirit through Faith.

"Endue her plenteously with these special Gifts of the Holy Ghost which her work most of all stands in need of, that by His Holy Inspiration she may think those things which be good, and by Thy merciful guiding may perform the same.

"Suffer her not to be discouraged and disheartened by the slow growth and delays of Thy work, nor deterred by contradictions of those who are the enemies of the Cross of Christ, and deny the Lord Who bought them.

"May the power of Thine endless Life be in and with her, to revive, support and establish her, that watching for Thee and gathering with Thee, and occupying the gifts she has been put in trust with, till the day of Thy glorious appearing, she with all Thy chosen fellow-workers, may open to Thee immediately, and with the crown of her rejoicing, may enter in to the joy of her Lord, to whom, with the Father &c &c."

She valued very deeply this dedication of her to the Lord's Service, and I am sure it strengthened her very much in all she attempted both amongst Europeans and Natives.

She and my Wife became very fast friends.


In March 1884 my dear Wife, who had been suffering much from fever was told by her Doctor that she ought not to spend the hot weather in India, but should go home.

It was with great reluctance that she left, not only on my account, but on the Mission in general.

She had thrown herself heart and soul into the work; she frequently accompanied the Ladies of the C. E. Z. M. S. to the Zananas in the city, had interested Officer's Wives in the same good work, and the Afghan lads of the Hostel found in her a great friend. They always used to come into our Drawing Room of a Sunday evening, for they loved her society and enjoyed singing hymns, finishing up with many cups of tea!!

They frequently reminded me of it afterwards, for they found in her a friend and sympathizer. The one who missed her most after myself, was Miss Norman, who was anything but well at the time, but soon after an urgent call came to her to go down to Agra, on a mission of mercy; when she came back in May, she was very ill, and her Doctor told her that her only chance of recovery was by going at once to Murree.

I at once engaged an invalid carriage in the train, in which Miss Mitcheson and I accompanied her to Rawal Pindi, where she was met by another Doctor, who told me it would be impossible for her to reach Murree alive, so we took her to an Hotel.

There it was I made known to her, that God had something in store for her, far better than reaching Murree, that God was silently planning for her in His Love (Zeph. iii.17), which made her happy immediately, and that was, He was taking her to Himself.

I administered the Blessed Sacrament to her, at her special [125/126] request, and in the early hours of Ascension day, 22nd May 1884 her happy spirit took its flight, after giving me many special messages to her relations and friends.

We returned the same evening to Peshawar, and buried her in the Mission Cemetery at her own request, outside the Kohat gate of the city. Christians, Muhammadans and Hindus to whom she had endeared herself within a few months followed her to her last resting place, grieving for the loss they had all sustained.

Hers was a particularly cheerful and breezy nature. European and Natives were always happy in her presence. She was at home with the one as well as the other.

Frequently she went up with some Lady to the Club in the Cantonments, to join in the tennis or concert, and she never lost an opportunity of witnessing for the Master, she loved to serve.

One Officer, who had become very careless about his religious duties said to me once:--"There is only one person who would ever make me into a religious man, and that is Miss Norman."

Little did she think, or possibly know, that that Cemetery in which she was laid to rest, was very dear to her Father, then Governor of Jamaica, for when I wrote and told him all that had happened to his daughter , he wrote me a most broken-hearted letter, dated 7th July 1884 which I must not make public, but simply say how very dear she was and always had been to him, and what comfort he had in knowing that she spent her life in the Saviour's work, and then he said: It is touching to me to think of her as laid in that distant Cemetery, in which when I first reached Peshawar, on our occupying it in 1849, those comrades who died in that year were buried."

[ Handwritten note on page facing p. 127: Miss Norman was laid to rest in the Waziribad Cemetery, outside the Kohate Gate. This cemetery was first brought into Christian occupation in 1849, the year that Peshawar was annexed to British Dominions, as may be seen from General Sir Henry Norman's letter on p. 126. I remember seeing one or two other Christian cemeteries, probably still older, and possibly used in 1842 when Kabul was in the hands of the English.]

[127] He chose the Inscription that we put on her tombstone:--

Annie Forde Norman
(Third daughter of General Sir Henry Norman)
Missionary to the Women of India
Born 15th September 1857
Died 22nd May 1884
"Of such are the Kingdom of Heaven."
(And at her own request we also added)
"Until the day break and the shadows flee away"

He also added in his letter to me, "I shall be glad also if you will have the tablet you propose, put up in the new Memorial Church. I should like a monthly sum to be given to the custodian of the Cemetery, to keep the grave in order, and if possible plant some flowers round it."

Perhaps I made no such provision, as there was no custodian, but whilst I was there, flowers were placed round her grave, and I trust that the Missionary Staff in Peshawar, will always take care of the grave, as her Father desired, for his sake, and that of her who lies buried there.

"Who in a short time fulfilled a long time."

He closed his letter with the words, "I trust that as in life my daughter served the Saviour, so in her death there may be abundant fruit. My warm prayers have gone up for Peshawar for very many years, and they are not likely to be discontinued now."

Father and daughter have since been re-united
"Requiescant in Pace"


As Mr. Hughes went to England in the Spring of 1884 with the intention apparently of not returning, this will be a good place of recording his work in the Mission.

He had joined the Mission in 1864 the year after the Rev. T. R. Wade who was then in charge.

When I arrived in 1873 I found that he had mastered the Pakhto language, and by his frequent itinerations in the District had made friends amongst the Afghans, and as they had shown him the greatest hospitality, he determined to reciprocate it by building a Hujra or Guest House, and making all Afghans welcome, by keeping an Afghan servant to offer the pipe of peace, and to cater for them in their Afghan simplicity, whenever it was convenient for them to come. He was always glad to see them, and they soon found that they were very welcome.

He was always very cheery with them, and he soon obtained the reputation of Pakhtunwali.

With the assistance of Maulvie Ahmad of Tangi, he compiled a series of Afghan stories in colloquial Pakhto, full of humour; and extracts from the leading Pakhto Authors, and entitled it Kalid-i-Afghani, i. e. The Afghan Key.

He dedicated it, with permission, to the Hon. Robert Henry Davies C. S. I. Lieutenant Governor of the Panjab, who at once gave orders, that it should be the Text Book for those Officers Civil and Military, who wished to qualify for Service on the Afghan Frontier. He published it in 1872.

It was very much to the credit of Mr. Hughes that the sum of L300 which he received from the Government, for the publication of this book, was entirely spent for the good of the Mission, [128/129] in fixing the massive shelves into the Mission Library, and buying a great many standard Authors, which have proved so helpful to me and all successive Missionaries, and many Officers of the Garrison. Another valuable book which he was engaged upon, with the assistance of the same Maulvie Ahmad, was "Notes on Muhammadanism", being Outlines of the Religious System of Islam, which reached a second edition in 1877. It is a most helpful book to all students of Muhammadanism in connexion with all tenets of that religion.

It became the basis for a much larger work, the "Dictionary of Islam," a most helpful book for all Missionaries to Muhammadans. To him also is due the credit, to a very great extent, of the success of the Edwardes Mission School, in making it very popular throughout the District, by starting the Annual Educational Durbars, which were held either in the School, or more generally in the Mission compound, in large Shamianas, very kindly lent by the Deputy Commissioner. The Commissioner generally presided, and his speeches were always very much to the point.

English Officers and their Wives being seated on one side, and the leading Arabs and Chiefs on the other. Muhammadan and Hindu Masters were requested beforehand to escort from their homes the more important guests, to their seats, in true Eastern manner. Recitations in various languages were made by the senior boys, prizes were given to the scholars, and speeches were made by the more important people.

He also edited the "Church Supplement of the Civil and Military Gazette (Lahore)" with the kind permission of the Editor, it proved of the greatest value to all Church readers in the Panjab.

[130] It was subsequent to the Afghan War, and about 1882 that Mr. Hughes suggested and carried out a most excellent improvement of the Mission House, by altering two rooms facing the front, and on the right hand side of the entrance to the Library, and making them into an Oratory, where the Mission Clergy could say their Office together, and where all the Members of the Mission, including the Ladies of the Zanana Mission, could assemble for Quiet Days and Retreats. It proved of the utmost value, and it should have been done long before.

He also wrote many important and interesting papers which he published in the English and India papers of the day, amongst others one on the "Afghans being part of the Lost Ten Tribes'" another on "The Akhund of Swat, a Muhammadan Saint," and "Dilawar Khan, the converted Afghan Brigand," the last two being published together in the Calcutta Christian Intelligencer in 1876, and afterwards issued as a separate publication.

He also established the Book Shop in the Kissi Khani, the chief street in Peshawar, which was originally very narrow, till Avitabile the Italian General of the Sikh Army about 1847 had both sides of it beaten down by his elephants, and ordered the inhabitants to build it up again at two or three times its original width. In all Afghanistan there is now no street to be compared with it. No end of Afghans from Central Asia have thus had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with Christian Literature.

There is no doubt that he was a very able man, and very much [130/131] respected by all Afghans who came into contact with him.

The greatest credit is due to him for the genius he displayed, in all his ideas for All Saints Church, and in raising most of the Building Fund, whilst on leave in England.

A Tablet in the Church ought to be erected to his memory, as well as to that of the Rev. Imam Shah, who for so very many years, acted as its First Pastor.



It was during the year 1884 that some Anonymous friend in England, desired that copies in various Indian languages should be sown broadcast, of our Lord's Sermon on the Mount, and I was requested to have 500 copies printed in Pakhto.

This was immediately put in hand. I had it written out in a good bold hand by our Khushnavis Ghulam Jilani.

It was published by the Press of the New Imperial Police of Lahore, and all the copies were immediately distributed, and we wished that we had had a few hundred more.


I must now once more refer back to the Mission School, and the great influence that the Hostel had upon some of the Afghan lads through God's goodness.

One lad, Aziz-ud-din, from Hashtnagar, to who I had granted a Scholarship, always seemed much annoyed when I asked him one day [131/132] what he thought about his Scripture lesson; in fact he used to look very angry. So I said to him, "you must not be angry at my asking you this question. We both believe in the same God, so it must be true. But if you think that the teaching of the Quran is right, and that Salvation comes through it, you must do your best to make me a Muhammadan, but if Salvation comes through Jesus Christ, as has been revealed to us in God's Word, then it is my duty to let every one know about it. My advice to you is to read the Quran, its commentaries, and the Traditions of Muhammad, and to understand them well; and then I should advise you to read the Bible and all that God has revealed to us in it, and in the meantime pray that God would reveal Himself to you. You will then be in a position to know which is the best religion. I shall then be only too glad to give you a Bible for your own."

He left me in a much better frame of mind, and so far as I could tell, wished to act on my advice. I felt sure that what I said about reading the Quran, would make him much less satisfied with it.

After this he became much more friendly, for he saw that I did not wish to ram Christianity down his throat.

In a few months time he came to me with a smile, and told me he had been studying his own religion, and that he was anxious to study the Bible, would I give him one? At once I responded to his wish, and gave him further advice.

It was not very long after this that he expressed a desire [132/133] to become a Christian, for he had become filled with an enquiring spirit; his study of the Bible was such, that I had never seen in an enquirer before, and I felt sure, that if his life was preserved, he would prove one of God's favoured instruments in the Afghan Church.

He was in a state of unrest, and had his ups and downs as all converts had.

He was just finishing his course at the Mission School, and he thought he would like to obtain his living in the Land Settlement Department, and I got him the appointment of Assistant Patwari. He was sent to a village on the other side of the Indus, and there his troubles began. It was soon known that he wished to live as a Christian, the consequence was, he was not allowed by the villagers to buy food or to drink water from the village well, and was abused by all.

I soon had a letter telling me of all his troubles. It was the hot weather, so I arranged for him to meet me by the night train at his station, 60 miles away. I had a long talk with him in the fields on a starlight night, giving him my advice and sympathy. This happened more than once, and as I saw the persecution was almost too much for so young an enquirer, with not a single soul in the village to help him, I told him it would be better for him to resign his appointment, and to go where he would be strengthened in his faith; his espoused wife was denied him, and given to another man, which quite upset him.

He had quite made up his mind to be baptized. It was therefore arranged that the baptism should take place on [133/134] 20th March 1885 in the Memorial Church at the Morning Service.

The Service was about to commence, when I thought it advisable to see if he was in his place. As I could not see him in Church, I was afraid his heart had failed him at the last moment. I took off my surplice, went into the road, and there I saw him surrounded by his former school fellows, who were trying their best to dissuade him, but as soon as he saw me, he pushed them all aside, and came running to me, with a smile on his face, saying how hard they were trying to prevent his Baptism.

A number of Muhammadans were at the end of the Church, where they were allowed to sit, to hear the Service.

At the end of the Second Lesson, he was immersed publickly in the Font, and then he retired into the Belfry, which is just outside the Baptistery, to change his wet clothes for clean white ones, whilst the Congregation sang a translation of the beautiful Baptismal Hymn "In token that shalt not fear, Christ Crucified to own &c &c."

After re-entering the Church, he was led to the front of the Chancel, where all in the Church could see him; was signed with the sign of the Cross, in token that hereafter he would not be ashamed to confess the Faith of Christ Crucified, but manfully to fight under his Banner, against sin, the world and the devil, and to continue Christ's faithful soldier and servant unto his life's end."

No sooner had he been baptized, than he asked to be allowed to go to his village, and make public his change of religion, [134/135] a sure sign of the faith that was in him; he felt he could no longer keep to himself the Good News of Salvation, he must pass it on to others of his own family.

I told him how glad I was that he was anxious to do so, but warned him of what he must expect, open hostility, and possible murder. But even that did not damp his ardour.

I told him not to be away more than three or four days, as I should be anxious about him.

On his arrival at home, he was abused and cursed by all, and was virtually made a prisoner. Wherever he went, he was followed by a man fully armed; and at night, another man stood over him equally armed. After the lapse of a day or two, he felt he was rejected by those to whom he had gone, his own kith and kin. Finding his captors asleep one night, he quietly took his departure, came back and told me with tears in his eyes, that his efforts had been of no good.

A month or two before his Baptism, he had been down to Batala, and I have not the slightest doubt, that he had derived much benefit and strengthening of faith, from A. L. O. E. and others.

I was anxious that he should be thoroughly trained as a Catechist, so sent him down to the Lahore Divinity College, where he received much spiritual help from Mr. Shireff, as well as some knowledge of Hebrew and Greek.

Of his subsequent work as a Catechist, I cannot speak too highly, for he was invaluable to me in my itinerations and discussions with Mullahs in their Mosques.

Eventually he was ordained as a Deacon, the first of our [135/136] Afghan Converts to be solemnly dedicated to the Sacred Ministry, but of his Diaconate and of his subsequent Ordination to the Priesthood, I cannot write, as I had been obliged to leave that very happy sphere of work. It thrilled my heart to hear that he had been considered worthy of such high honour.

I have just heard that he has been very lately called to a much Higher Service in the presence of his Lord.


Another of the Hostel boys who had been much influenced for good was Muhammad Akbar. He too had been much strengthened by A. L. O. E. and called by her the "Bird of Paradise."

His father heard of his being at Batala, so went down and brought him to his home. He was such a nice handsome lad, and of good family.

Somehow or other I do not remember so much about him, I am very sorry to say, but he is remembered in my prayers.

I hope someone will kindly give me good news of him.


Mr. Hughes had established a Book-shop in the Kissi Khani, and stocked it with Bibles and Christian Literature, likely to be useful to all Pakhto, Persian and Arabic readers.

He put Sayd Shah in charge of it, with instructions that he should use his own discretion in selling, or giving away portions.

Soon after being settled in his shop, Qazi Khair Ullah, a young Talib-ul-ilm, was attracted by the many books openly spread on the shop counter, and began examining them, first one and then another, chatting all the time with Syad Shah, some Muhammadans then came up and began abusing Khair Ullah for reading the Christian books, and told him to get along; so thinking that discretion was the better part of valour, he passed on, crossed over the street, and came around once more to the shop, and again began to read. More Afghans coming along, saw him very intent upon the books, warned him that it was not proper for any Muslim to read Christian books, and hustled him away.

But again he came round fascinated with such an intellectual treat; this happened two or three times. Sayd Shah seeing what was up, said to him at once, "Come to my house, have dinner with me, and then you will be able to examine all the books to your hearts content."

He came and listened to all that Syad Shah had to tell him and was impressed. This it was which led to his conversion. A more cheerful, bright, keen, and earnest young fellow, I never saw before among Talib-ul-ilms.

He proved a great acquisition to the Christian forces of our Church, and loved going about with me itinerating in the villages. In course of time he too was considered worthy of [137/138] ordination into the Christian ministry after I had left for England.

Azizzuddin and Qazi Khair Ullah, were the first two from among the Afghans to be ordained, may there be many more like them. It is to such as these that we must look for a far greater spread of Christianity in the future, with Gods help.

With such earnest and faithful brethren, we had no difficulty in "launching out into the deep."


Much about the same time, another Muhammadan came under the influence of Christianity. What his real name was, I never found out, but he called himself Ashiq Ullah, i.e. Lover of God.

I had been looking out for a Christian man who could help us by his singing, in the Evangelistic services which we held in the Anjuman, but failed to find one.

Ashiq Ullah was introduced to me as a man who was a great poet, as well as a musician on the rabab or violin; he had been paid to sing at some of the Sikh services, and thought he could better himself, by singing at some of our Services as well!!! I reminded him that he was not a Christian, and that his services would not be acceptable; in reply he said that he looked upon all the Prophets as sent by God, that Jesus Christ was a very great Prophet, that praise was acceptable to God, and that he would sing all our Hymns in praise of Jesus Christ and God.

I allowed him to come and help with his violin, and he proved very acceptable, both in his singing and playing.

After a time he begged to be allowed to help in the preaching!! but I told him he reminded me of Noah's carpenters who [138/139] helped to build the Ark, and then perished in the Flood, because they would not accept the preaching of Noah.

This argument had a wonderful affect upon him, at once he became an enquirer, and after a time of probation was baptized, helping us very much by his natural talents.

I persuaded him to put some of the Psalms of David, and the teaching of our Lord into verse, and to sing them at our impromptu Services. He proved of very great help, not only in the Anjuman Services, but with me in the villages.

At one time he got very ill whilst itinerating with me, I brought him home at once and put him in the Hujra, where his friends could visit him. My friend Dr. Courtney, the Civil Surgeon, kindly attended him.

His brother came to see him whilst he was ill, and in his presence told me that he would rather see him lying dead as a Muhammadan, than alive and well as a Christian!

He was baptized some little time before I left Peshawar.


After Mr. Hughes left the Mission, I wished to increase the usefulness of that hut in the Mission Compound, which we reserved for the Chiefs, as part of the Hujra.

It was at that time only one story high, and not dignified enough for Chiefs, so I had another story added to it, which made a nice bala khana, or reception Room. I had a nice [139/140] Oriel lattice window made to the room, and put down some carpets and large pillows, which made it very comfortable in the opinion of the Afghans. It was much appreciated by the Chiefs, and proved of much value to the Hujra.

I frequently sent some of my snap-shots to the Church Missionary Intelligencer, and amongst them were photos of this part of the Hujra, both before and after the enlargement.


In March 1885 we once more had the pleasure of welcoming Bishop French amongst us, and on the 22nd March, he formally dedicated All Saints Church as Bishop.

The Revs. Imam Shah and T. C. Coverdale, who had recently joined the Mission, and myself preceded the Bishop in procession up the Church, whilst we all sang, "The Church's One Foundation."

We were all glad to have that veteran Missionary amongst us once more, and to listen to his words of advice and encouragement from the Pulpit and in the home.

In May he invited Mr. Mayer and myself to stay with him in Kohat, and to go through parts of the Old Testament, and St. Luke's Gospel in the Pakhto language. We found his scholarship a very great help to us in our translations.

In a letter the Bishop wrote on 16th May he says:--

"We work seven hours a day. It is delightful to see Messrs. Mayer and Jukes' enthusiasm."

and again in June he wrote:--

[141] The Pushto reminds me of what Luther said of the Germans, when he was translating the Old and New Testament, that it made him sweat blood to try and adapt the crabbed and barbarous language of the Teutons to the deep spiritual truths of the Semitic Scriptures." (Birk's Life of Bp. French ii.136)


In my itinerations in the district, I sometimes went to see Colonel and Mrs. Fisher in Shabkadr Fort, they were both very kind, and the latter often sent little delicacies which were very acceptable whilst in camp.

I also used to visit Colonel Elton at Michni Fort, and frequently he used to come and stay with me at the Mission House. The last time he came, he was very ill, and could not get off his horse without my assistance. I immediately put him to bed, and asked a Doctor to come and see him. He soon got sufficiently well to warrant his leaving for England, but before his departure, realizing that he would never return, he asked my acceptance of his beautiful charger, a Waziri mare, called Khyber, whose movements were perfect.

My Wife was born a horse woman, from the easy way she sat her horse, found her invaluable, as well as myself.


A delightful man, the Rev. Sidney Pelham, son of the Bp. of Norwich, in his tour of India, came and stayed with us for a time. He was particularly pleasant, and very appreciative of all that [141/142] he saw.

There was at Peshawar at the same time, a son-in-law of the new Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Bickersteth, Captain Rundell, whom we saw much of. He told us that the "Hymnal Companion" brought in a regular income of L500 to his Father-in-law.


At the invitation of the new Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, the Amir Abdul Rahman came down from Kabul to Rawal Pindi.

On his way through Peshawar, he was met at Jamrud by many Civil and Military Officers, who accompanied him to Peshawar, the Wives of many of these Officers, foolishly went out to see the sight at the entrance to Cantonments, the Amir scanned them minutely, and then said to one of the English Officers:

"I suppose you keep all your pretty women at home"!!!

Lady Aitchison very kindly invited my Wife and myself to stay in the Lieut. Governor's Camp, which we accepted, for my Wife had just arrived from England, as it happened, in the same steamer as Lord Dufferin, and his suite, with Lady Dufferin.

That evening after dinner, we with others were invited to an Evening Reception in the Viceroy's Camp. On that occasion we saw all the Elite of India, the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, all the Panjab Rajahs, and leading Officers and Chiefs from every where, last but by no means least, Lord and Lady Dufferin, who greeted my Wife very warmly.

The Reception Tent was very large and grand, 25 feet high.

[143] The following will give some idea of the plan of the Camp of the Lieut. Governor of the Panjab, Sir Charles Aitchison.

The L.G.s Camel Carriage, holding about a dozen, drove us to and from the Viceroy's Camp, which was larger still, than that of the Lieutenant Governor of the Panjab.

It was very nice to get some idea of what went on at a Viceroy's Reception. At 10:30 p.m. the Band played the National Anthem, and all retired.

Our tent in the L.G.s Camp comprised one sitting room and two bedrooms.

When an important Officer moves about the Country in Camp for several weeks or months, he has double sets of all these tents, so that when he leaves one camp in the morning, the next camp will be ready for him on arrival. Of course he takes his office and establishment with him, where ever he goes.

[144] He has a large Office, and the amount of his staff is necessarily considerable. He can hardly move without having some 1500 people of all classes and servants, each Officer having his own servants, horses, trap, &c.

The next morning after Prayers in the L.G.s Office, to which all who liked might come, we had breakfast. I sat by Lady Aitchison and my Wife by Sir Charles. At 11 a.m. we all started for the Grand Review which was held a few miles off.

My Wife drove with Sir Charles and Lady Aitchison, Captain Dunlop Smith, the Private Secretary, Captain Dennys and the A. D. C. rode as outriders. I rode on Captain Dunlop Smith's Arab with the Misses Aitchison and other A. D. C.s.

The Review was very grand, 20,000 troops all told. The Amir was present with the Viceroy and his Staff.

In the afternoon unfortunately I had Fever, and could not attend the Viceroy's Garden Party.

The next day was the Grand Durbar at which I was able to be present, we formed part of the L.G.s party, and drove down a long avenue lined with English and Native Cavalry.

At the Durbar, the Viceroy and Amir sat side by side, and on either side sat, Europeans on the left of the Viceroy, and Rajahs with the Amir's Officers on the right. The Amir and Rajahs glistened with diamonds and precious stones.

The Viceroy presented to the Amir a great number of valuable gifts brought in on trays by liveried servants, he received them with stolid indifference, chatting away with the Viceroy all the time. The presents culminating in a beautiful sword and a Battery of Artillery.

[145] In the afternoon, as the Doctor was going out to see the Amir, he allowed me to drive the two Miss Aitchisons in his phaeton and pair. Miss Aitchison drove my Wife in their pony carriage, the General driving Sir Charles and Lady Aitchison.

That evening all the Aitchison family dined with the Viceroy, and we had a quiet dinner with the Staff. Dunlop Smith is a capital fellow, a son of the celebrated Dr. George Adam Smith, Professor of Hebrew, Glasgow.

We both left the same evening for Peshawar, having much enjoyed our short but exciting visit. Lady Aitchison pressed my Wife to stay with them in Simla during the summer, but circumstances prevented her accepting this kind invitation.

On the Amir's return to Peshawar, on his way back to Kabul, I sent him a Persian letter asking his acceptance of the accompanying New Testament in Pakhto, which he received just after he had left Peshawar. In reply he said:--

"I have received your letter, and regret that I had no opportunity of seeing you. I am exceedingly sorry that during my visit to the Panjab, I was unable to see more of British thought and learning, but everything has its allotted time.

"The Copy of the Gospel which you kindly sent, I receive with great reverence. Although I do not consider myself bound by all that is written therein, I shall nevertheless treat it with that respect which is its due, as a book sent to us by God. I shall take great interest in its perusal. I shall moreover, make extracts of all those passages, as may be interesting and striking, that correspond with [145/146] the Quran, and shall try to act up to them. It is with great pleasure that I receive this the best of all my presents!!"

When one realizes the greatness of all the presents which I saw given to him at Rawal Pindi by the great Government of India, at that magnificent Durbar, I wonder how much he really meant by those last words of his! or whether he ever looked at the Book again!


Immediately after this I went up with my Wife to Thandiani in the Spring of 1885, as she was far from strong, and often got attacks of fever.

Captain and Mrs. Graves were up there at the time, my Wife and Mrs. Graves were much attached to each other, and were fond of painting, so I felt I could leave her with them, whilst I went back to Peshawar for work.

I joined them again in September. Mr. Tuck, a Devonshire man, a civil Engineer on the Sibi Railway, joined us in our sketching tours, to a beautiful gorge, three miles down from Thandiani, which we called The Fairy Glen. The banks were most precipitous and covered with Cedar trees and Pinus Longifolia. Mrs. Graves painted a very pretty picture of these Cedars and Gorge. My Wife that summer painted in oils, some pretty scenes and large forest flowers. Mr. Tuck and I tried our hands at Cedar trees and the Valley beyond.

On our way home we stayed the night at Kala Pani Bangalow. [146/147] Boxer, our fox terrier amused himself by killing tarantulas which abound there. At Abbottabad I gave a lecture at the Hazara Debating Society on Unity, and next day another to the boys of the Govt. School on the Fear of the Lord.

We stayed with Major and Mrs. Molloy of the Panjab Frontier Force, who had been in Thandiani for the season.


On our return to Peshawar, Abdulla Khan who had been an enquirer for some time was baptized. At that time I was much interested in two of our boys of the Hujra, Abdul Ghafur Khan and Abdul Qayum, the latter had become a Master in the School.

After I left India, he became engaged in Political work on the Frontier, and then an Attache to the Govt. of India in the Foreign Office, he was afterwards Knighted, and became known as Akhundzada Sir Abdul Qayum. I saw him in London about 1923 and had a most interesting conversation with him. He thought I would not like to see him dressed as an Englishman, so he kept me waiting a little time in his Hotel, whilst he adopted the more becoming Afghan dress. I could not get him to come and stay with us in Shobrooke.

Abdul Ghafur Khan has also risen high in the Civil Service. I heartily congratulate them both in their success, and hope they will never forget that they owe their education to the Peshawar Mission School.

During that and the following year, I was invited by the Staff of the Panjab University, to be an Examiner in English Literature, History and Geography. It was no slight task as [147/148] I had to look through over 2000 Examination papers each time.

My Wife returned to Peshawar in October 1885, and during the next month, our second child Eileen was born.

The Spring of 1886 was happily spent by us both, amidst many activities, but on the 25th May, we were called to face another sorrow, in giving up our second child.

She was a strong and healthy babe, and daily took her rides in her perambulator, by the side of another little Eileen of the same age, the daughter of Colonel and Mrs. Harvey, great friends of ours, but the babes sickened at the same time, died and were eventually buried side by side in the cemetery on the Taikal road.

May I hope that some kind member of the Mission will take a kindly interest in those two graves?

Immediately after this I took my Wife up to Thandiani, and after a few weeks left her with some kind friends.


In August we once more left for Kashmir, the sister of the Chaplain, Miss Adele Gillmore being with us. We spent much of our time in Gulmarg. As soon as Dr. Arthur Neve, our old friend could come up from Srinagar, I had a splendid walk with him of some 15 miles, up a distant mountain, over glaciers and treeless expanse, 14,200 ft. high, we took no tents, only a waterproof rug, drying our clothes, when need be, by the side of a camp fire.

We tried a glissade down one of the slopes, on which he saved my life, by throwing himself onto my path and seizing hold of me, as I could not stop myself on the ice.

[149] We stayed for a time in Srinagar with Mr. and Mrs. Knowles who had previously been in Peshawar as Missionaries.

Later on Dr. Arthur Neve and I went for another walk to Harimuk 10 to 12,000 ft., where we bathed in a high lake, in which blocks of ice were floating about; on this occasion we had a small tent.

But notwithstanding these frequent changes from Peshawar, my wife did not get stronger.


In the Autumn the Afghan Boundary Commission took its departure, for delimiting the Frontier and with it many of our friends. In November 1886 the Duke and Duchess of Connaught came up to Peshawar. They were much interested in the All Saints' Memorial Church.

Miss Mitcheson took the Duchess over the Women's Hospital which had recently been completed in the Ghorkhatri, and graciously consented to allow it to be called, the Duchess of Connaught's Hospital.


In February 1887 the Rev. Mr. Wigram, Hon. Sec. C. M. S., and his son Marcus visited us in Peshawar. We enjoyed his visit very much but the wear and tear of constant traveling and speaking in public, told upon his health, and he could not sleep well whilst with us. On 22nd Feb. I took him through the city, up to the Ghorkhatri, from which he could get a good view of the city and district, then to the Church with which he was very much pleased.

[150] In the Library and Guest House close by, the Christians presented him with an address in English and Pakhto, to which he replied, saying that the Church far exceeded all his expectations.

Later on in the evening, the Literary Institute was crammed with citizens, both he and his son and Mr. Clark gave addresses, after which there was much conversation, and he saw some of the difficulties we have in dealing with the Natives. He was much impressed with the whole gathering.

Next day, being Ash Wednesday, he gave an address in the Church on Isaiah lviii, and I interpreted for him.

In the evening there was a meeting in the Mission House Chapel for Workers, at which he spoke again.

The following day I took him and his son to the village of Taikal Bala, where I had made previous arrangement that he should be feted by the Arbab, who received him with the greatest hospitality. I took a photograph of him and his son amidst the Arbab and his armed retainers, with horsemen behind in chain armour, which appeared subsequently in the C. M. S. Gleaner.

I also took another photograph of him, his son, Mr. Clark, and my Wife in front of our Hujra amidst Christians and Afghans, which was also published in the same paper.

In the evening we had our Educational Durbar, in large open tents. Many Civil and Military Officers and the leading Natives of the District were present. Recitations were made by the Scholars, and prizes were distributed. I think he was more impressed with this, than anything else, except the Church. I know Mr. Clark was, for nothing of the sort is known in other [150/151] Mission Stations.

On the following Friday they visited the School, at which he and his son gave addresses. Three hundred lads were arranged on the gallery, in front of them, dressed in every colour of the rainbow, with the School motto, blazoned above them "Honour and Truth," which I had given to the School a few years before, which have been, we hope, the inceptives of high ideals, to the many hundreds who have listened to words addressed to them on those virtues, which, if acted upon, must have made many of them, true and noble men.

On leaving, Mr. Wigram remarked in the Log Book:--

"My son and I had the great privilege of visiting the Peshawar Mission and spending three days there. It was much too brief a visit, but thanks to the kind arrangements made by the Rev. Worthington Jukes, we were able to see much of deep interest, and what appear to be signs of great encouragement.

"The Ladies of the C. E. Z. M. S. residing in the Ghorkhatri, have a very important work in hand, undertaken with courage and faith which will not lose its reward.

"The gathering of Native Gentlemen at a Conversazione at the Literary Institute indicated the importance of that Institute, and the happy terms which exist between the Missionaries and many of the non-Christian residents. We were privileged to say a few words bearing on the Christian faith to those assembled.

[152] "On Ash Wednesday I was permitted to address the Native Christian Congregation in the Morning on Isaiah lviii. 10, 11 and in the Evening the Workers assembled in the Mission Chapel, in the Rev. Jukes' Bungalow, and I addressed them from ii Cor. iv. 3, 4.

"In the Afternoon we had visited the Native Christian Cemetery which was in excellent order, and where we saw the grave of Miss Annie Norman, who laid down her life in the Lord's work here, after a brief period of labour. "She being dead yet speaketh." May many respond to the call and offer for this very important sphere which demands the devoted labours of both men and women.

"On Thursday we visited two Afghan Gentlemen at Taikal and the welcome which we received, was further proof of the manner in which the faithful labours of the Missionaries have been owned of God to the breaking down of prejudices and opposition.

"But this was most strikingly indicated by the gathering of leading Native Gentlemen at the Educational Durbar in the Afternoon, when prizes were distributed to boys of the Mission School, whose bright intelligent appearance was very encouraging, and some of whom acquitted themselves well, in the recitation of passages from English, Persian, Arabic, Pakhto Authors.

"The great opportunities which Peshawar offers for leading representatives of Tribes coming in from Central Asia, demands that it should be strongly manned, and I should be thankful to see four men assigned to it, so that [152/153] at least three might ordinarily be in residence or be itinerating in the neighbourhood."

25th Feby. 1887, Fredk. E. Wigram, Hon. Sec. C. M. S.

The remarks he made on the Church of All Saints are recorded in the record book of the said Church, and unfortunately I did not take a copy of the same.


Very soon after this, my Wife, who had constantly been getting fever, was told by her Doctor that she should not risk the climate any more but go back to England, which she accordingly did, much to our united regret.

She was invited by Sir Charles and Lady Aitchison to accompany them to Bombay, thence to England. The kindness and help she received from them and Captain Dunlop Smith, his Private Secretary was invaluable. They went via Venice, St. Gothard and Lucerne.

Sir Charles had originally desired to leave by the P. & O. S. S. Tasmania, a week earlier, but he could not manage it in time. The Tasmania on that voyage was wrecked between Corsica and Sardinia. With heartfelt gratitude I reiterate once more my LAUS DEO.


That year (1887) we wished to keep in touch with the friends that had been made in Kafiristan, so we sent Sayd Shah, our Catechist, a second time, to that interesting country, whose inhabitants looked upon the English as their brothers.

He went via Kashmir and Chitral, taking with him from us friendly letters and small presents to the Chiefs he had stayed with before. He was hospitably entertained by the Khan of Chitral, and received a warm welcome from his old friends in Kafiristan. He did not return till after I had left for England. I looked upon this visit of his, as one in place of my own, as I had so often wished to make a Missionary tour there myself, and to take the Gospel to that benighted race, descendants probably of the Army of Alexander the Great.

Not only had I obtained possession of a prismatic compass and boiling thermometers from the Government to enable me to map out the country and to obtain the heights of mountains &c but I had learned the use of them from my old friend Lieut. (afterwards Major General) G. K. Scott Moncrieff R. E. and had put them into practical use during my holidays at Thandiani.

Just before Sayd Shah visited Kafiristan on the first of these two occasions, an Officer, I think it was Colonel Durand, went there on a Political Mission from the Indian Government and made some Treaty with the Chiefs, which both parties clinched with their blood, according to the custom of that country. Sayd Shah told me, that they had not realized the value of it, and gave the Treaty to him during his first visit. I was horrified at his accepting it, and promptly returned it to the Officer with explanations.


In 1887 Bishop French resolved to resign the Bishopric of Lahore at Christmas, after ten years of strenuous service.

He, as well as ourselves felt that he needed absolute rest for brain as well as body, but notwithstanding this, he wished to give effect to the one ambition of his life, to be engaged once more in Missionary work in Arabia, and to be able to talk colloquial Arabic in that country, in addition to his many other languages, with the sole object of helping to win Arabia to Christ.

His resignation took effect on 22nd December 1887, and it had been arranged that the Ven. Archdeacon Matthew of Lahore was to be his successor. The whole Diocese regretted his departure but welcomed his successor.

He went to England via Baghdad, Mosul, Aleppo and Beyrout. Whilst at this latter place, and in the midst of his studies in Arabic and Syriac, he wrote me a letter in June 1888 in reply to one of mine about the revision of the Pakhto Scriptures, saying he was still thinking of it in the midst of his studies.

After spending some little time in Jerusalem, he rejoined his Wife at Chislehurst in Holy Week 1889.

Whilst in England, he still hankered after Arabia and consulted the Archbishop about Muscat being taken up as a Mission Station, in the fulfillment of the wishes of Bishop Hannington of Uganda, and Bishops Steere and Smythies of the Universities Mission to Central Africa.

He left England early in November 1890, spent much of his time in North Africa, preaching in as many Mosques as were open to him, and ultimately reached Muscat 8th Feb. 1891.

[156] Here it was that this veritable Saint of God laid down his life on 14th May 1891, and on his tombstone there are inscribed the words which exemplified his whole life, in Arabic and English characters:--

"Verily, verily I say unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone, but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit."

"Even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many."


In September 1887 I too left for England, hoping that I might be able to return with my Wife in the Spring of 1888.

I left Mr. Day in charge of the Mission, and left Bombay by the Rubattino Line, and reached home via Naples, Genoa, and the St. Gotthard. After spending a little time with friends and relations, I accepted the Locum Tenency of Muncaster in Cumberland. My Wife and her dear Mother accompanying me.

My Wife's brother the Rev. O. T. L. Crossley, afterwards Bishop of Auckland, New Zealand, paid us a long visit, after a severe illness. We had a most enjoyable time.

There it was our third child Gladys was born on 20th Dec. 1888. As the Doctors forbad my Wife's return to India in the Spring, I told the C. M. S. Committee that I would see what effect another year in England would have on my Wife, and if she were no stronger by that time, I should feel compelled to resign.

The Committee offered me the choice of the most healthy [156/157] place in India in their power, if Mrs. Jukes could only accompany me, but I felt it must be either Peshawar or England.

I therefore returned alone to Peshawar during the Spring of 1889, and resumed my happy work there.


Archdeacon Basil Wilderforce came out to India to study the Opium question, and in the course of his tour, became our Guest for a few weeks. He was most appreciative of all the work of the Mission.


Once more Cholera broke out with the greatest virulence, carrying off large numbers of the population, English and Native. I have amongst my papers, one which I wrote at the time, describing the special prayers which the Mullahs used, during their perambulations of the streets, which show the intense excitement that prevailed at the time.


Later on during 1889 Peshawar was visited by the Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne. The Municipality of the city wanted to do him the honour of presenting to him their dutiful loyalty, and begged me to write out for them, a suitable address of welcome, which of course I did, remarking upon the meaning of [157/158] his title of Marquis, "The Lord of the Marches," in connexion with his visit to the extreme North Western boundaries of India.

Lord and Lady Lansdowne with many other Officials visited, amongst other places, the School in November, and in response to the address presented to him from the Staff of the School, he said in reply:--

"It gives me very great pleasure to receive this address at your hands and to become acquainted with the schools of which I have heard so much, and which have achieved for themselves so well-deserved a reputation.

"I am glad as head of the Government of India to express my appreciation of the good work which the Afghan Church Mission has performed in this connection.

"When we are on the frontier our minds naturally turn to questions connected with its defence, to the great lines of military railways which have been built, to the fortifications which have been constituted, and to the efficiency of the troops which garrison them.

"Now it is very satisfactory to me to know that the Afghan Church Mission is supplementing our efforts by turning out year after year a number of young men who will, I trust, receive here such a training as will make them hereafter good and true men, and worthy members of that garrison of loyal and patriotic citizens upon whom the Govt. of India will afterwards have to rely,

"You have mentioned, Sir, the names of two former pupils of the school both well and honourably known men, as having added to the credit and reputation of the Institution, [158/159] and I have no doubt that as time goes on many more such men will be found ready to contribute to the reputation of the Mission, and to keep alive the memory of that distinguished public servant after whom these schools are named.

"I do not think that a young native of this country could set before himself a brighter or worthier ideal than to follow in the footsteps of Sir Herbert Edwardes, to whom this Institution owes so much, and whose name will always be a household word in Peshawar.

"Before I leave this room I should like to say to the scholars whom I see before me, how glad I am to have met them here today. Most Englishmen look back with affection to their old school, and I hope that the scholars of this Institution will take a pride in it, and feel that they are each and every one of them able to contribute something towards maintaining its reputation.

"If I could venture to give you a word of advice, on an occasion like the present I should be inclined to ask you to remember that education in the true sense of the word means a good deal more than book-learning, and that your object should be to obtain while you are studying here, that larger kind of education which consists not merely in proficiency in your school work, but in the organization of those qualities which are indispensable in order to make a good school-boy or a good citizen.

"Loyalty, respect for authority, modesty and self-respect, truthfulness (I see the words "Honour and Truth" written upon the scroll which decorates the wall above your heads) and a keen sense of honour - these are lessons which no amount of reading [159/160] will teach effectually unless it be supplemented by other influences.

"And now I will conclude by saying that you have my heartiest wishes for your welfare, and I repeat that it has given me great pleasure to meet you on this occasion.

"I thank you, Mr. Jukes, very much for the address which you have read, and I wish these Schools all success and prosperity."

The proceedings were closed with three cheers for their Excellencies.

I have heard many splendid speeches from Viceroys and others, to the scholars of the Mission school, but this one from Lord Lansdowne was by far the best.


My dear Wife's continued illness prevented her from returning to Peshawar or even to India, so I was compelled to resign my post with the greatest sorrow, for I had hoped to remain long at this most important and advanced Mission of the Church.

"Man proposes, but God disposes."

So I returned Home, very unhappy at the thought that my work among the Afghans had come to a close.

Within a few months, the Lord Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Bickersteth, who had recently paid a visit to his son, the Head of the Cambridge Brotherhood at Delhi, had heard much of the Missions on the Frontier, kindly offered me the Incumbency of Shobrooke where I remained till the Spring of 1925, doing what I could to interest people in these parts, in God's Work Overseas.



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