Books of Reference.--Life of Right Reverend Reginald Heber, by Dr. George Smith; Heber's Indian Journal; Christianity in India, by J. W. Kaye.
MORE than a year had elapsed before Bishop Middle-ton's successor, Reginald Heber, arrived in India in October 1823. If it was perhaps best for the Church that Heber was not her first Bishop, it was certainly fortunate that he was her second. Poet and saint, full of imagination, courtesy, and sympathy, Heber could hardly have faced the endless and vexatious opposition which fell to the lot of the first Bishop of Calcutta. Once foundations had been laid, essential problems fairly grasped, and initial mistakes rectified, no one could have been more suited for the task than was he. There was a charm about his gracious and beautiful presence which made one who knew him well write after his death: "In weariness and weakness he had ever about him the brightness of the angels--of those little ones whose faces always behold the Father in Heaven." Fortunately for us, we have not only a well-written Life of Heber, but we have his own Indian Diary, which well repays the reading.
Born in 1783 at Malpas, in Yorkshire, in due course he passed through school to Christ Church, Oxford, where amongst other distinctions he won the Newdigate Prize for Poetry. When listening to a preliminary reading of his prize poem entitled "Palestine," Sir Walter Scott is reported to have made a suggestion about Heber's description of the building of the temple in Jerusalem. He noticed that no reference had been made to the fact that the temple had risen without the noise of axe or hammer. Heber immediately withdrew and a few minutes later returned, having in the mean time added the following lines to his poem:--
"No hammer fell, no ponderous axes rang:
Like some tall palm the mystic fabric sprang,
Heber was not a great scholar. He won his literary distinctions mainly as a poet, and in a minor degree as a theologian. He edited the works of Jeremy Taylor and was a Bampton Lecturer in 1815. The subject of his lectures were the Person and Office of the Christian Comforter. A man of quite definitely High Church views, he possessed the widest sympathy with all sincere believers, and was ever ready to see good in all.
After leaving Oxford, he spent the greater part of 1806 and 1807 in travelling on the Continent. Shortly after his return to England, he married Miss Shipley, daughter of the Dean of St. Asaph. He was ordained in 1809, in his twenty-sixth year, and presented to the living of Hodnet, in Shropshire. The next few years were spent quietly in his living, where, in addition to his parochial work, he wrote various hymns and theological treatises. It was during this period he wrote his best known hymns, such as:--
"Holy, holy, holy";
"From Greenland's icy mountains ";
"The Son of God goes forth to war "; and
"Brightest and best of the sons of the morning."
When Heber was first offered the Bishopric of Calcutta he refused it. He had strong reasons for so doing. The future health of his wife and child, and the fact that his own home prospects were exceptionally bright, made the offer by no means entirely attractive to him. He had, however, strong missionary longings, as is evident in his hymns, and after long and anxious deliberation and much prayer, he consented to sacrifice home comforts and brilliant prospects in England for a toilsome life in a distant land and an unhealthy climate.
He was consecrated at Lambeth Palace on June 1, 1823, sailed for India on June 16, and arrived in Calcutta on October 11.
During the vacancy in the See, Mr. Corrie, assisted by a brother Chaplain, Mr. Parsons, had, under orders of the Governor-General, administered the Diocese. Corrie was for many years to be its Archdeacon. About this time, under an Act of Parliament, Australia was connected with the Diocese of Calcutta, and an Archdeacon appointed who was under the Bishop of Calcutta.
The first five months in Calcutta were months of incessant toil. There were schools, especially the famous Free School for Anglo-Indians, as well as Missions to be inspected. The Bishop did all in his power to speed up the building and work of Bishop's College. He generally preached three times a week and spent much time in getting to know the European and Indian gentlemen of Calcutta.
On Ascension Day, March 27, the Bishop delivered his primary Charge in the Cathedral of St. John, "at six o'clock in the morning, to avoid the heat of the day," to the missionaries as well as the Chaplains. He spoke of the peculiar nature of the great enterprise which they had undertaken. On the Chaplains he urged the duty laid down in the old charter of the attentive and grammatical study of some of the native languages, so as to endeavour the conversion of their heathen neighbours.
"It is with no common thankfulness to God that I see the Episcopal Chair of Calcutta now first surrounded by those who are missionaries themselves, as well as by those who are engaged in the important office of educating youth for the future service of missions." [He had at once granted licenses to our missionaries, about which Bishop Middleton was doubtful.]
The Bishop's Charge was full of optimism. He spoke severely of the letters which had been written by the Abbé Dubois, in which that well-known Roman Catholic missionary had spoken in despair about the conversion of India.
On June 15 Bishop Heber left Calcutta on a long Visitation tour of his Diocese. His predecessor, Bishop Middleton, had more than once visited the work in Southern and Western India: Bishop Heber decided to commence his grand tour by visiting the work in Northern India. The boat, in which he journeyed from Calcutta to Dacca and thence up the Ganges to Allahabad, was a sixteen-oared boat with a covered-in portion for bedroom, sitting-room, and dining-room in the centre. It was attended by two boats for servants and cooking. Shortly after reaching Dacca the Bishop had the great misfortune to lose his Chaplain, the Rev. Martin Stowe. His journey up the Ganges to Allahabad was broken by visits to Bhagalpore, Dinapore, Buxar, Chunar, and Benares. At every place he visited there was work to be done. As a result of his visit to Bhagalpore, the Rev. Thomas Christian, an S.P.G. Missionary, was sent there. Christian was a man of great devotion, who quickly mastered the language, and was at the commencement of a most useful career when, in his third year, he and his wife were carried off by jungle fever. At Dinapore the Bishop found "that everything was on a liberal scale except what belongs to the Church and the spiritual interest of the inhabitants." A Church, or rather the place so called, was a small inconvenient room in the barracks, which seemed as if it had been designed for a hospital ward. "The Chaplain of the station, whom I found extremely desirous of contributing to the welfare of the people, lamented in a natural and unaffected manner the gross neglect of Sunday, the extraordinary inattention of the lower classes to all religious concerns, and indifference shown by the Company's military officers to everything like religious improvement."
At Benares, where the Bishop halted for a week, amongst many duties he consecrated the burial-ground and carefully examined the school endowed by Jay Narayan. It is interesting to note that after a lapse of a hundred years this school is still continuing its useful career.
At Allahabad, which at that time had no Chaplain, we read of the Bishop confirming twenty candidates, and administering the Lord's Supper to eighty communicants. From Allahabad he journeyed with Archdeacon Corrie by road to Cawnpore. Here he found a Chaplain, but no Church. Divine Service was performed regularly in a thatched bungalow. On Sunday morning the Bishop confirmed over eighty candidates, and afterwards administered the Holy Communion to a similar number. From Cawnpore he journeyed to Lucknow, where he was received by Mr. Ricketts, the British Resident to the Court of the King of Oudh. At this time Lucknow had neither Church nor Chaplain. The Resident read Public Service regularly every Sunday in his house. Amongst other duties in Lucknow, the Bishop officiated at the marriage of the Resident. From Lucknow he journeyed onwards to Bareilly, and further on to Almorah in the Himalayas. He had heard that the Christians in Almorah had never had a Clergyman amongst them. "I was very anxious not only to give a Sunday to its secluded flock, but to ascertain what facilities existed ... for eventually spreading the Gospel among these mountaineers, and beyond them into Tibet and Tartary. ... If God spare me life and opportunities, I hope to see Christianity revived, through this channel, in countries where, under a corrupted form indeed, it is said to have once flourished widely through the labours of the Nestorians."
The Bishop was deeply impressed by the beauty of the Himalayas. He writes of Kumaon in the following terms: "It is a very interesting country; some of its views exceed in sublimity anything which I have seen in Norway, and more than equal all which I have heard or read of in Switzerland."
From Almorah he returned to the plains and visited Meerut. At Meerut he was delighted to find a large and handsome Church capable of accommodating over two thousand hearers. On it he writes: "It is remarkable that one of the earliest, the largest, and handsomest Churches in India, having in it one of the best organs, should be found in so remote a situation and in sight of the Himalaya Mountains." The Sunday services were well attended, and the Bishop was delighted with the work of Mr. Fisher the Chaplain. During his time in Meerut, he consecrated the Church, and a few days afterwards held a Confirmation, when two hundred and fifty-five Christians, Europeans and natives, were confirmed. Of Mr. Fisher's work the Bishop remarks: "Surely this is a greater work than could have been expected in so remote a part of India, and where no Englishman had set his foot till the conquest made by Lord Lake and Sir Arthur Wellesley."
From Meerut he visited Delhi, where he was met by Mr. Elliott, the Resident, and escorted through the city with Oriental pomp. He described the Mughal Emperor as "a poor old descendant of Tamerlane."
"The 31st December was fixed for my presentation to the Emperor, which was appointed for half-past eight in the morning. Lushington and a Captain Wade also chose to take the same opportunity. At eight I went, accompanied by Mr. Elliott, with nearly the same formalities as at Lucknow, except that we were on elephants instead of in palanquins, and that the procession was, perhaps, less splendid, and the beggars both less numerous and far less vociferous and importunate. We were received with presented arms by the troops of the palace drawn up within the barbican, and proceeded, still on our elephants, through the noblest gateway and vestibule which I ever saw. It consists not merely of a splendid Gothic arch in the centre of the great gate-tower, but, after that, of a long vaulted aisle, like that of a Gothic cathedral, with a small open octagonal court in its centre, all of granite, and all finely carved with inscriptions from the Koran, and with flowers. This ended in a ruinous and exceedingly dirty stable-yard! where we were received by Captain Grant, as the Mogul's officer on guard, and by a number of elderly men with large gold-headed canes, the usual ensign of office here, and one of which Mr. Elliott also carried. We were now told to dismount and proceed on foot, a task which the late rain made inconvenient to my gown and cassock and thin shoes, and during which we were pestered by a fresh swarm of miserable beggars, the wives and children of the stable servants. After this we passed another richly-carved but ruinous and dirty gate-way, where our guides, withdrawing a canvas screen, called out, in a sort of harsh chant, 'Lo, the Ornament of the World! Lo, the Asylum of the Nations! King of kings! The Emperor Akbar Shah! Just, fortunate, victorious! 'We saw, in front, a very handsome and striking court, about as big as that at All Souls', with low, but richly ornamented buildings. Opposite to us was a beautiful open pavilion of white marble, richly carved, flanked by rose-bushes and fountains, and some tapestry and striped curtains hanging in festoons about it, within which was a crowd of people, and the poor old descendant of Tamerlane seated in the midst of them.
"Mr. Elliott here bowed three times very low, in which we followed his example. This ceremony was repeated twice as we advanced up the steps of the pavilion, the heralds each time repeating the same expressions about their master's greatness. We then stood in a row on the right-hand side of the throne, which is a sort of marble bedstead richly ornamented with gilding, and raised on two or three steps. Mr. Elliott then walked forwards, and, with joined hands in the usual Eastern way, announced, in a low voice, to the Emperor who I was. I then advanced, bowed three times again, and offered a Nuzzur of fifty-one gold mohurs in an embroidered purse, laid on my handkerchief, in the way practised by the Baboos in Calcutta. This was received and laid on one side, and I remained standing for a few minutes, while the usual Court questions about my health, my travels, when I left Calcutta, etc., were asked. I had thus an opportunity of seeing the old gentleman more plainly. He has a pale, thin, but handsome face, with an aquiline nose, and long white beard. His complexion is little, if at all, darker than that of a European. His hands are very fair and delicate, and he had some valuable-looking rings on them. His hands and face were all I saw of him, for, the morning being cold, he was so wrapped up in shawls that he reminded me extremely of the Druid's head on a Welsh half-penny. I then stepped back to my former place, and returned again with five more mohurs to make my offering to the heir-apparent, who stood at his father's left hand, the right being occupied by the Resident. Next, my two companions were introduced with nearly the same forms, except that their offerings were less, and that the Emperor did not speak to them.
"The Emperor then beckoned to me to come forward, and Mr. Elliott told me to take off my hat, which had till now remained on my head, on which the Emperor tied a flimsy turban of brocade round my head with his own hands, for which, however, I paid four gold mohurs more. We were then directed to retire to receive the khelats (honorary dresses) which the bounty of 'the Asylum of the World' had provided for us. I was accordingly taken into a small private room, adjoining the zenana, where I found a handsome flowered caftan edged with fur, and a pair of common-looking shawls which my servants, who had the delight of witnessing all this fine show, put on instead of my gown, my cassock remaining as before. In this strange dress I had to walk back again, having my name announced by the criers (something in the same way that Lord Marmion's was) as 'Bahadur, Boozoony, Dowlut-mund,' etc., to the presence, where I found my two companions, who had not been honoured by a private dressing-room, but had their khelats put on them in the gateway of the court. They were, I apprehend, still queerer figures than I was, having their hats wrapped with scarfs of flowered gauze, and a strange garment of gauze, tinsel, and faded ribands flung over their shoulders above their coats. I now again came forward and offered my third present to the Emperor, being a copy of the Arabic Bible and the Hindostani Common Prayer, handsomely bound in blue velvet laced with gold, and wrapped up in a piece of brocade. He then motioned to me to stoop, and put a string of pearls round my neck and two glittering but not costly ornaments in the front of my turban, for which I again offered five gold mohurs. It was lastly announced that a horse was waiting for my acceptance, at which fresh instance of Imperial munificence the heralds again made a proclamation of largesse, and I again paid five gold mohurs. It ended by my taking leave with three times three salaams, making up, I think, the sum of about threescore, and I retired with Mr. Elliott to my dressing-room, whence I sent to her Majesty the Queen, as she is generally called, though Empress would be the ancient and more proper title, a present of five mohurs more, and the Emperor's chobdars came eagerly up to know when they should attend to receive their bachshish.
"It must not, however, be supposed that this interchange of civilities was very expensive either to his Majesty or to me. All the presents which he gave, the horse included, though really the handsomest which had been seen at the Court of Delhi for many years, and though the old gentleman evidently intended to be extremely civil, were not worth much more than three hundred sicca rupees; so that he and his family gained at least 800 sicca rupees by the morning's work, besides what he received from my two companions which was all clear gain, since the khelats which they got in return were only fit for May Day, and made up, I fancy, from the cast-off finery of the Begum. On the other hand, since the Company have wisely ordered that all the presents given by native Princes to Europeans should be disposed of on the Government account, they have liberally, at the same time, taken on themselves the expense of paying the usual money nuzzurs made by public men on these occasions. In consequence, none of my offerings were at my own charge, except the professional and private one of the two books, with which, as they were unexpected, the Emperor, as I was told, was very much pleased. I had, of course, several bachshishes to give afterwards to his servants, but these fell considerably short of my expenses at Lucknow."
From Delhi the Bishop journeyed onwards to Muttra and Agra. At Muttra, the scene of Krishna-worship, he was deeply impressed by the darkness of heathenism, while at Agra he was full of admiration of the Taj. Leaving Agra, the Bishop next entered Rajputana. At Jaipur he baptised the child of the Resident, and at Nasirabad confirmed thirty candidates and administered the Lord's Supper to a large number of people in the ball-room of the Club: needless to say, there was no Church at Nasirabad in those days. The road now led him through a wild country, where he came across the Bhil aborigines. Shortly before reaching Baroda he met his old College friend, Archdeacon Barnes. He reached Bombay in the early morning of March 29, where he was received with due honour. The Governor of Bombay had provided a convenient residence for him near the sea. Almost at once he was joined by his wife and family, whom he had not seen for ten months. During this period he had travelled fully three thousand miles, sometimes by boat, sometimes by palanquin, and generally by horse. He had visited almost every important station in the Province of Bengal. Though many of his Sundays were spent in the jungles, he had found opportunities of preaching more than fifty times, of frequently administering Holy Communion, and of holding Confirmations and consecrating new Churches. He seldom slept under any other cover than that of his cabin on the boat or of bis tent when journeying on land.
After a few days' rest in Bombay, he resumed his work, and on April 25 confirmed one hundred and fifty candidates. A few days later he held a Visitation of the Clergy. From Bombay he paid a flying visit to Poona, where he met for the first time the Rev. Thomas Robinson, a Chaplain of exceptional ability, whom he appointed as his private Chaplain. Later on Mr. Robinson was appointed Archdeacon of Madras.
After four months in Bombay, during which time the Bishop had attacks of malaria and dysentery, he started on the return journey to Calcutta by sea, accompanied by his wife and children. He seems to have enjoyed greatly his stay in Bombay with its proximity to the sea, and admired greatly Mr. Mount-Stuart Elphinstone the Governor, whom he considered the cleverest man in India. There too he met an old friend, Sir Edward West, the Chief Judge, whose wife has written a charming book on Bombay, in which she mentions the great pleasure the Bishop's visit brought to them. Some time was spent in the Visitation of Ceylon, where he received a cordial welcome. To Archdeacon Barnes he writes: "I have spent a very interesting month in Ceylon, but never in my life, to the best of my recollections, passed so laborious a one."
Writing to his mother at the same period, he speaks of the spiritual condition of Ceylon in the following language: "Christianity has made, perhaps, a greater progress in this island than in all India besides. The Dutch, while they governed the country, took great pains to spread it; and the black preachers whom they left behind, and who are still paid by the English Government, show a very great reverence for our Common Prayer, which is translated into their language, and a strong desire to be admitted members of the Church of England. One excellent man, named Christian David, I ordained last year in Calcutta, and there are several more in training. There are also some very meritorious missionaries in the island: one of them is the son of our neighbour, Mr. Mayor of Shrewsbury, who, together with another Shropshire man, Mr. Ward, has got together a very respectable congregation of natives, as well as a large school, and built a pretty Church, which I consecrated last Sunday, in one of the wildest and most beautiful situations that I ever saw. The effects of these exertions have been very happy, both among the Roman Catholic descendants of the Portuguese and the heathen. I have confirmed, since I came into the island, three hundred and sixty persons of whom only sixty were English; and, in the great Church at Colombo, I pronounced the blessing in four different languages--English, Portuguese, Cingalese, and Tamil.
"Those who are still heathen are professedly worshippers of Buddha; but by far the greater part reverence nothing except the devil, to whom they offer sacrifices by night, that he may do them no harm. Many of the nominal Christians are infected with the same superstition; and are, therefore, not acknowledged by our missionaries; otherwise, instead of three hundred to be confirmed, I might have had several thousand candidates.
"On the whole, I rejoice to believe that, in very many parts of this great country, the fields are white already to harvest; and it is a circumstance of great comfort to me that, in all the good which is done, the Church of England seems to take the lead--that our Liturgy has been translated into the five languages most used in these parts of the world--and that all Christian sects in the East seem more and more disposed to hold it in reverence. Still little, very little is done, in comparison of all which there is to do."
The Bishop arrived in Calcutta on October 21, after an absence of fourteen months. On November 30 he held an Ordination in his Cathedral, when three missionaries of the Church Missionary Society were ordained by him. One of those ordained, the Rev. Theophilus Reichardt, had received Lutheran Orders while at Basle. Another of those ordained was the Rev. Abdool Masih. All three candidates were men of great personal devotion, and the Bishop was much cheered by this Ordination. After three months in Calcutta, the Bishop started, on January 30, for Madras to complete his Visitation of South India.
It gives one some idea of the nature and extent of his work when one realises that on March 8 the Bishop confirmed five hundred and seventy-eight candidates in Madras, and on the following day one hundred and twenty at Poonamaly, a military station in the neighbourhood. He was much pleased with the schools in Madras, and felt that Dr. Bell, a former Chaplain, had rendered conspicuous service by the system he had introduced into them. Leaving Madras he journeyed on to Cuddalore, and thence to Tanjore. On Easter Day, 1826, he preached at the Mission Church in the Fort of Tanjore. The fact of his being on the spot where the apostolic Schwartz had laboured, inspired him with unusual animation and considerably increased the interest of the Service. A Chaplain who was present at the Service speaks of it in the following language: "The Bishop's heart was full; and never shall I forget the energy of his manner, and the heavenly expression of his countenance, when he exclaimed, as I assisted him to take off his robes, 'Gladly would I exchange years of common life for one such day as this.'"
While at Tanjore the Bishop, hearing that the Rajah had never been prayed for in the Public Services by his native Christian subjects, immediately composed the following prayer, which he ordered from henceforth to be used in all their Churches:--
"O Lord God Almighty, Giver of all good things, we beseech Thee to receive into Thy bountiful protection Thy servant his Highness the Maharajah Sarabojee, his family and descendants. Remember him, O Lord, for good, for the kindness which he hath shown to Thy Church. Grant him in health and wealth long to live; preserve him from all evil and danger; grant that his son and his son's son may inherit honour, peace, and happiness; and grant, above all, both to him and to them, that peace which this world cannot give--a knowledge of Thy truth here, and everlasting happiness hereafter; through Thy Son Jesus Christ, our Saviour. Amen."
During his time in Tanjore the Bishop visited the Rajah, the visit being returned the following day. From Tanjore he went on to Trichinopoly. Instead of resting after the fatigues of his journeys, he spent the whole morning in receiving information of the schools and the mission. On Sunday morning, April 2, he preached in the Government Church, and held a Confirmation in the evening, when he confirmed forty-two persons. In his Confirmation address there occurred the following:--
"I dare not doubt the last words of our Lord upon earth, when He sent forth His ministers with a like commission to that which He had Himself received of His Father; and when though foreseeing--as what did He not foresee?--the lamentable degeneracy of those who should bear His name, He promised, nevertheless, to His Church His invisible protection and presence.
"O Master! O Saviour! O Judge and King! O God, faithful and true! Thy word is sure, though our sinful eyes may not witness its fulfilment! Surely Thou art in this place and every place where Thine ordinances are reverenced and Thy Name is duly called on! Thy treasures are in earthen vessels, but they are Thy treasures still. Though prophecies may fail and tongues may cease, Thy truth remains the same; and though prophecies have failed and tongues have ceased, and though the heaven and the earth have grown old, and are ready to vanish away, yet it is impossible but that when two or three gather together in Thy Name, Thou also shouldst not be in the midst of them. So continue with us, Lord, evermore, and let the Spirit, the Angel of Thy presence, be with us all our days, even as He hath this day been at hand to help, to deliver, and to sanctify all who came to receive Him.
"... Let me entreat you to remember sometimes in your prayers those ministers of Christ who now have laboured for your instruction, that we who have preached to you may not ourselves be cast away, but that it may be given to us also to walk in this life present according to the words of the Gospel which we have received of our Lord, and to rejoice hereafter with you, the children of our care, in that land where the weary shall find repose and the wicked cease from troubling; "where we shall behold God as He is, and be ourselves made like unto God in innocence and happiness, and immortality!"
No one then realised that this was indeed the Bishop's farewell sermon. On Monday morning at six o'clock he visited the Indian congregation in the Fort, and confirmed a dozen candidates. After the Confirmation was over he returned to the house of Mr. Bird, where he was staying.
Still in his robes, he visited his sick Chaplain, and stood talking by his bedside for half an hour, with more than his usual animation, about the mission. He said it broke his heart to witness the poverty of the congregation. He lamented that he had previously had so little information of the details of the different stations, and declared his intention to require in future periodical reports from all in every part of his Diocese. After some particular arrangements for the morning, he retired to prepare for the bath previous to the late breakfast of an Anglo-Indian station. Having written on his Confirmation address the place and date of delivery, "he sat a few minutes apparently absorbed in thought." He had been at work of the most exhausting and exciting nature for at least four hours, under cover, but robed, and in the heat of a Madras April.
As is usual in the great official bungalows of an Indian station, a plunge and swimming bath is provided in an outbuilding, covered from the heat, and supplied from a spring or tank. The bath adjoining Mr. Bird's house held seven feet of water. The Bishop had enjoyed its refreshment on the two previous mornings. Now, after resting for a few minutes, as if to cool himself, he went into the building. Half an hour passed without a sound, when his servant, alarmed, opened the door and saw the body of his master under the water. Running to Mr. Robinson's room with a bitter cry, he declared that the Bishop was dead. Robinson rushed to the bath, plunged in, and, along with a bearer, lifted the body from the water, when he and Mr. Doran carried it to the nearest room. Their immediate efforts to restore animation, followed up by those of the garrison and superintending surgeons, who arrived at once, were in vain: "the blessed spirit was already before the throne of God." The venerable Kohlhoff, who had said of him only the day before, "If St. Paul had visited the Missions he could not have done more," wept aloud, exclaiming, "We have lost our second Schwartz, who loved our Mission and laboured for it; he had all the energy and benevolence of Schwartz, and more than his condescension. Why has God bereaved us thus?"
Thus passed away with tragic suddenness one of the most attractive personalities our Church has ever had at home or abroad. In St. Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta, there is a beautiful statue of this great Prelate and Missionary, kneeling in prayer and facing the Altar.
"Why does the Church make so much of Bishop Heber?" was the remark of a former Viceroy, when visiting the Cathedral, accompanied by the late Archdeacon Luckman. "What did he do to justify it?" "Your Excellency, it was not so much what he did as what he was that makes the Church hold him in such honour." "True," said the Viceroy, "true."