Project Canterbury

S. Augustine's, Canterbury: Its Rise, Ruin, and Restoration.

By G. F. Maclear.

London: Wells Gardner, Darton & Co., 1888.



(i.) The Era of the Roman Empire.--A.D. 33-325.--This covers the Missions of the Apostolic, Sub-Apostolic, and the succeeding age down to the conversion of Constantine. The territorial field of the Church's triumphs mainly includes the countries round the Mediterranean Sea, the very centre of the old world and its heathen culture.

(ii.) The Era of the Irruption of the New Nations.--A.D. 300-550.--The Church finds now herself confronted with numberless hordes, that had long been gathering afar off in their native wilds, and are to be precipitated over the entire face of Europe. But even at this critical epoch the names of the great S. Chrysostom, of S. Martin and Honoratus in Gaul, of Ulfilas the Apostle of the Goths, of Severinus the Apostle of Austria, are conspicuous for missionary zeal.

(iii.) The Era of the Early Middle Ages.--But this lasts only for a time. The Continental Churches do not really prove responsive to the call. Three bands of labourers now become conspicuous: (a), Celtic Christianity--A.D. 430-650--flings itself into fiery zeal. on the conversion of the nations. Won over by S. Patrick to the Christian faith, his numerous disciples 'take the world by storm.' S. Columba labours [75/76] amongst the Picts and Scots, Columbanus and his pupil Gallus in Switzerland, and 'armies of Scots' penetrate into Cornwall, Strathclyde, the Hebrides, the Orkney Isles. (b), The Italian Missionaries--A.D. 596-700--sent by Gregory the Great, rescue Britain from the pagan English and recall the new England into the Commonwealth of nations, but not without the help of the Celtic Mission leaders. The sincerity of the faith of the new converts is proved by, (c), The Teutonic Missionaries.--A.D. 620-800.--The sons of the English Church, 'Teutons themselves, become the Apostles of Teutons.' Amongst many others, Winfrid sets out from his home in Devonshire and covers central and western Germany with monasteries and schools, and lives to behold, before his martyrdom on the shores of the Zuyder Zee, the creation of many episcopal sees in Bavaria and Thuringia, in Hessia and Franconia.

(iv.) The Era of Charlemagne and the Norsemen.-A.D. 800-1030.--The numerous disciples of S. Boniface carry on his work. But all seems in vain. The Scandinavian Vikings prowl round every coast, and carry desolation to many a Christian household and many a Christian Church. But this is the very time that S. Anskar, the intrepid Apostle of Denmark and Sweden, commences his work. In spite of obstacles inconceivable he perseveres, and gradually, when he has passed away, the Northern Viking begins to lay aside his habits of piracy and to respect civilised institutions, while the well-meant though misguided efforts of Harold Haarfagar, Olaf Tryggvason, Olaf the Saint, and 'Canute the Mighty,' tell of the change that is slowly coming.

[77] (v.) The Era of the Sclavonic Missions.--A.D. 900-1400.--Meanwhile amongst the Sclavonian nations the beacon flame kindled in Bulgaria is extended to Moravia by Cyril and Methodius, thence to Bohemia, Russia, Pomerania, and by the questionable zeal of the Teutonic Knights to Wendland, Prussia, and Lithuania.

(vi.) The Era of the Discovery of the New World.--A.D. 1400-1600.--As soon as Europe is slowly evangelised a new world is opened up to Missionary enterprise. Bartolomé Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope in 1484, Alfonso Albuquerque lays, in 1508, the foundations of the Portuguese Indian Empire, and Columbus, in 1498, reveals the hidden Continent of America. The story of Francis Xavier stands out in strong relief against the crusading spirit that characterises the conquests by Cortez of Mexico and Peru, and the way is prepared, by the prowess of English navigators, for the formation of a 'greater Britain,' when the opportunities once given to 'Greater Portugal and Greater Spain' are not improved. But the fire of Missionary enthusiasm is not quenched. Its ardour is not extinguished. It may seem to be overlaid now with worldliness, now with the fanaticism of the Inquisition. But it exists. The line of the continuity of the heralds of the Cross is not broken.

(vii.) The Modern Era.--A.D. 1600-1888.--If previous eras have been conspicuous for the activity of individuals and of the Church, this is characterised by the energy of Societies. After long years of conflict and distress the English Church wakes up once more to a sense of her responsibilities. The gift of Sir W. Raleigh to the Virginia Company of 100l. for 'the [77/78] propagation of the Christian Faith' is one amongst many indications of a recognition of higher duties than those of mere commerce. Nicholas Ferrar and John Ferrar, Dr. Donne, and Sir John Sandys, are honoured names in the letters patent granted by James for the occupation of Virginia. In 1649 the zeal of Cromwell is quickened to rival the Roman Propaganda, and in 1696 letters patent are obtained from William III., and five years later the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel is formally founded. The movements that have taken place since are sufficiently illustrated in the Chronological tables which follow; and it is made clear, (i), that the history of the Church of Christ is not the history of corruption but of 'recoveries,' and of these recoveries Missionary zeal is in a great measure the parent, and, (ii), that in the successes achieved by Missionary zeal the sons of the English Church have twice borne a very conspicuous part.


THE following Dates may be found useful in connexion with the continuity of Missionary enterprise in America:--

1497. On St. John's Day, in the ship Matthew of Bristol, John Cabot discovers the mainland of America.

1501. An entry in the Privy Purse of King Henry VII. shows that two pounds were paid to 'a priest that goeth to the new island.'

1527. On one of the ships of Henry VIII. a Canon of St. Paul's, London, addresses a letter to Cardinal Wolsey, from the harbour of Newfound-land.

1578. In one of Frobisher's ships, 'Maister Wolfall, minister and preacher, is charged to serve God twice a-day with the ordinary service of the Church of England.' [(1) De Costa's Memoirs of Bishop White.]

This Wolfall celebrated the first English Communion recorded in the history of the New
World. [(2) See Hakluyt's Voyages, iii. 345]

1587. The first native baptism recorded to have taken place August 13, in this year.

[80] 1588. Defeat of the Spanish Armada. Sir Walter Raleigh presents a donation to the Virginian Company 'for the propagation of the Christian religion in that settlement.' [(1) Oldys' Life of Raleigh, p. 118.]

1606. James I, in his letters patent for the occupation of Virginia [(2) 'The vine propagated in Virginia by cuttings from the Bishop of London's garden at Fulham.'-See Dr. Hawks' History of the Church in Virginia.] directs that 'the word and service of God be preached, planted, and used not only in the said colonies, but also, as much as might be, among the savages bordering upon them.'

1607. The first sermon known to have been delivered in New England is preached by the Rev. Richard Seymour, a minister of the Church of England.

1608. Robert Hunt [(3) See next paragraph] lands at Jamestown. 'His first church, where he holds daily service, is an old sail suspended from four trees; and his second is a wooden building set up on four forked posts, the roof of which is covered with rafts, sedge, and earth.'

[Footnote (3) above: 'Recall that scene in Philadelphia in last October (1882), and ask
what Hunt and Whittaker would have said could any one have foretold that such a council, however remotely, should have been the product of their faith and sufferings. Yet it was they who founded Virginia. It was they who reared the mothers of Virginia, whose institutions created the possibility of such a character as Washington, and so they founded the nation.'--The Missionary Episcopate, a Sermon preached December 2, 1883, at Calvary Church, New York, by Bishop Cleveland Coxe.]

[81] 1611. Sir Thomas Dale sent out to Virginia accompanied by the Rev. Alexander Whitaker, son of Dr. Whitaker, Master of St. John's College, Cambridge.

1636. Archbishop Laud develops a plan for an episcopate in North America.

1649. Ordinance of Cromwell for 'the promoting and propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England.'

1662. Cromwell's charter renewed and its powers enlarged. The corporation is styled, 'The Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America.' The first name on the list, that of the Earl of Clarendon; the president is the Hon. Robert Boyle.

1664. John Eliot brings out the Bible in the Indian language.

1696. Dr. Thomas Bray [(1) See Life and Designs of Dr. Bray, 2nd Edition, 1808.] appointed Commissary of the Bishop of London for Maryland.

1699. Dr. Bray sails for Maryland.

1700. Committee appointed by Convocation to 'onsider the best means of promoting the Christian religion in the Colonies.'

1701. June 16. Return of Dr. Bray. Letters patent issued for the creation of A Corporate Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.

[82] 1702. April 24, The first Missionaries of the Society, the Rev. George Keith [(1) 'Within one mile of the spot where the Rev. George Keith held his first service my cathedral is now being erected.'--Address of Bishop Littlejohn of Long Island, at St. James's Hall, June 28, 1878.] and the Rev. Patrick Gordon, sail from England and land at Boston, North America, June 11.

1710. The Society appoints a Catechist for the Indians, of whom there are 1500 within the limits of New York.

1736. The Rev. John Wesley, a Missionary of the S.P.G. for two years in Georgia.

1738. Barclay, the Missionary of the Society, reports of a Church amongst the Mohawks, numbering 500 Christian Indians, with fifty communicants.

1740. S.P.G. establishes Trinity School in New York as a Missionary School for the Mohawks.

1755. S.P.G. Missionaries report that some of the Mohawks travelled sixty miles to attend a celebration of the Holy Eucharist.

1775. Outbreak of the War of Independence.

1783. Election of Dr. Samuel Seabury, one of the S.P.G. Missionaries, as Bishop of Connecticut.

1784. November 14. Consecration of Bishop Seahury at Aberdeen by Bishops of the Church of Scotland.



1. Connecticut 1784
2. Pennsylvania 1787
3. New York 1787
4. Virginia 1790
5. Maryland 1792
6. South Carolina 1795
7, Massachusetts 1797
8. New Jersey 1815
9. Ohio 1819
10. North Carolina 1823
11. Vermont 1832
12. Kentucky 1832
13. Tennessee 1834
14. Missouri 1835
15. Illinois 1835
16. Michigan 1836
17. Arkansas 1838
18. Western New York 1839
19. Georgia 1841
20. Delaware 1841
21. Louisiana 1841
22. Rhode Island 1843
73. New Hampshire 1844
24. Alabama 1844
25. China (Shanghai) 1844
26. Constantinople 1844 (Existed only from 1844 to 1850.)
27. Maine 1847
28. Indiana 1849
29. Mississippi 1850
30. Western Africa (now Cape Palmas) 1851
31. Florida 1851
32. California 1853
33. Oregon 1854 (Formerly 'Oregon and Washington.')
34. Iowa 1854
35. Wisconsin 1854
36. Texas 1859
[84] 37. Minnesota 1859
38. Kansas 1864
39. Nebraska 1865
40. Colorado and Wyoming 1865
41. Pittsburgh 1866
42. Utah and Idaho 1867 (Formerly 'Montana, Utah, and Idaho.')
43. Easton 1868
44. Long Island 1869
45. Albany 1869
46. Central New York 1868
47. Nevada 1869
48. Central Pennsylvania 1871
49. Niobrara 1873
50. Japan 1874
51. Northern New Jersey 1874
52. Western Texas 1874
53. Haiti 1874
54. Northern Texas 1874
55. Northern California 1874
56. New Mexico and Arizona 1875
57. Western Michigan 1875
58. Southern Ohio 1875
59. Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin 1875
6o. Quincy 1878
61. West Virginia 1878
62. Springfield 1878
63. Valley of Mexico 1879
64. Montana 1880
65. Washington 1880
66. East Carolina 1884
67. Wyoming and Idayo 1886

NOTE.--From 1811 to 1842 there existed a Diocese under the name of 'The Eastern Diocese,' consisting of the territory now included in the Dioceses of Massachusetts, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Maine. By similar subdivision the Diocese of the 'North West,' founded 1860, has also ceased to exist under its original designation.



1. Nova Scotia 1787
2. Quebec 1793
3. Calcutta 1814
4. Jamaica 1824
5. Barbados 1824 (and Windward Islands, 1878)
6. Madras 1835
7. Australia (now Sydney) 1836
8. Bombay 1837
9. Toronto 1839
I0. Newfoundland 1839
11. New Zealand (now Auckland) 1841
12. Jerusalem 1841
13. Tasmania 1842
14. Antigua 1842
15. Guiana 1842
16. Gibraltar 1892
17. Fredericton 1845
18. Colombo 1845
19. Capetown 1847
20. Newcastle 1847
21. Melbourne 1847
22. Adelaide 1847
23. Victoria (China) 1849
24. Rupertsland 1849
25. Montreal 1850
26. Sierra Leone 1852
27. Grahamstown 1853
28. Mauritius 1854
29. Labuan (now Singapore, Labuan, and Sarawak) 1855
30. Christchurch, N.Z. 1856
31. Perth 1857
32. Huron 1857
33. Wellington 1858
[86] 34. Nelson 1858
35. Waiapu 1858
36. Brisbane 1859
37. St. Helena 1859
38. Columbia 1859
39. Nassau 1861
40. Zambesi (now Central Africa) 1861
41. Honolulu 1861
42. Melanesia 1861
43. Ontario 1862
44. Orange River (now Bloemfontein) 1863
45. Goulburn 1863
46. Niger 1864
47. Dunedin 1866
48. Grafton and Armidale 1867
49. Maritzburg 1869
50. Bathurst 1869
51. Falkland Islands 1869
52, Zululand 1870
53. Moosonee 1872
54. Trinidad 1872
55. Mid China 1872 (Previously to the formation of No. 70. in 1880, known as 'North China,' and, wrongly, 'Ningpo.')
56. Algoma 1873
57. Independent Kaffraria (now St. John's) 1873
58. Athabasca 1874
59. Saskatchewan 1874
6o. Madagascar 1874
61. Ballaarat 1875
62. Niagara 1875
63. Lahore 1877
64. Rangoon 1877
65. Pretoria 1878
66. North Queensland 1878
67. Caledonia 1879
68. New Westminster 1879
69. Travancore and Cochin 1879
70. North China 1880
71. Japan 1883
72. Riverina 1884
73. Qu'Appelle 1884 (Formerly Assiniboia.)
74. Mombasa (Eastern Equatorial Africa) 1884
75. Athabasca 1884

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