Project Canterbury

A Roman Diary
And Other Documents relating to the Papal Inquiry into English Ordinations

By T.A. Lacey

New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910.

II. A Roman Diary

1896. March 20. Letter from M. Portal. Mgr. Gasparri and Duchesne are nominated by the Pope to the Commission on Anglican Orders. Gasparri asks for information. Were any bishops, who had been consecrated according to the Ordinal, afterwards reconciled by Pole? Was Cranmer consecrated according to the old Pontifical or by the new Order? It would be well for me to go to Rome.

March 22. Letter from Lord Halifax in the same sense and inclosing more from Portal. Halifax wants Father Puller and me to go.

March 25. Up to town on Halifax's invitation to meet Father Puller, Portal, and the Archbishop of York. The Archbishop failed us. Knox Little, Riley, and Birkbeck also present. Father Puller and I agreed to go.

March 27. Saw the Bishop of Ely and got his consent verbally. [i.e. to a long absence from my parish. See Letters of March 27th and 30th, and of April 10th.] Letter from Halifax. The Archbishop of York has consented to write a letter about it to Portal, which he may show in the proper quarters.

Ap. 7. Left home 8 a.m. Met Puller at Holborn Viaduct Station. Started for Dover 1i a.m. Calais, Paris, Dijon.

Ap. 8. Through Mt. Cenis tunnel. Turin; fine view of Mt. Blanc. Genoa.

Ap. 9. Arrived Rome 6.15. Portal met us at station, and took us to our rooms at 36 Via del Tritone. A French pension au quatrième. Afterwards he took us to the Lazarist house in Via di San Nicola da Tolentino, when we were introduced to the Superior, a venerable old man with full white beard, Archbishop in partibus, and formerly Vicar Apostolic in Persia, Mgr. Thomas. After dejeuner we drove--still with Portal--to St. Peter's; thence to the Farnese Palace to see Duchesne, who lives there as head of the French School, [The "école de Rome," or Institute of Archaeology, maintained by the French Government, of which he had been appointed Director in 1895.] occupying with his school and library the upper story, the first floor being the embassy. He asked about the quotation from Daniele Barbaro in de Hierarchia, not being able to find it in the Archivio Veneto. I explained that I borrowed the reference from Dom Gasquet. He was much amused, and said he would challenge Gasquet on the subject. I explained to him about the book of Barlow's attacking the Protestants, which is in the Cambridge University Library. [Since published, with an Introduction by the Rev. J. R. Lunn under the title Bishop Barlowe's Dialoge.] He wished to have it sent at once, to arrive on Monday. Puller talked much with him about Pope Victor's action in the Paschal controversy. Telegraphed to Wood to send the copy of Barlow. Afterwards to see Gasparri. He is a very dark, youthful-looking man. Lives on the fourth story of a dingy house in the Via della Pace. Salon with brick floor; no carpet save a small rug by the sofa. He is full of Ferrar's case. The enemy are maintaining that Ferrar was consecrated according to the Ordinal, in order to adduce him as an instance of a bishop consecrated by the Ordinal, who might nevertheless have conferred minor orders--an instance such as is needed for their interpretation of the Breve Regimini of Paul IV.

The Commission consists of Cardinal Mazzella, president, Dom Gasquet, Moyes, and a certain Father David representing one side; Duchesne, Gasparri, and de Augustinis on the other side, specially appointed by the Pope, and last an unknown Spaniard. [He was sufficiently well known as a theologian, the Capuchin José Calasanzio de Llevaneras, afterwards Cardinal.] Father Scannell also has been summoned.

Ap. 10. Mgr. Gasparri came to see us in the morning, with two questions: (i) about Ferrar's Consecration, and (2) about certain Legatine acts of Pole's, supposed to involve the invalidity of the Edwardine Orders.

(i) Showed him the text of the Register, and Estcourt's discussion of it. He seized the point at once, that the Register points to no changes in the rite of consecration, but only in the Mass which followed. We found that according to Maskell an episcopal consecration was finished, as the Register suggests, antequam Missa celebraretur. The interest of this question is due to the fact that the Commission is discussing the meaning of the Brief of Paul IV, Regimini. The Pope spoke of men advanced "ad ordines tam sacros quam non sacros ab episcopo non in forma Ecclesiae ordinato." Gasparri asks what bishop consecrated by the new rite ever advanced clerks "ad ordines non sacros." The other side reply Ferrar, making him out to have been consecrated by the Ordinal.

(2) On the other question we discussed the deprivation of bishops, and degradation a solo presbyteratu. [In relation to the statement of Foxe and others that Ridley, Ferrar, and Hooper were degraded from the priesthood only, and not from the Episcopate. De Hierarchia, pp. 160, seqq.]

Discovered to-day that I was mistaken about the reference to Archivio Veneto. It should have been Venetian State Papers. Wrote to Duchesne explaining. [An extraordinary mistake in De Hierarchia, p. 81 n. I think one of us must have been burrowing in the Archivio to see if we could find anything to add to what Mr. Brown had calendared, and the one title was substituted for the other in our note.]

In the afternoon drove with Portal to S. Pietro in Montorio to see the panorama of Rome, and afterwards walked in the gardens of the Villa Pamphili Doria. A good deal of talk about the nature of Excommunication. [Others joined us. I remember one remark. A certain priest said, 'Il faut convenir que l'église de Rome ne retire jamais ce qu'elle a une fois dit." I replied, "Non, elle n'en change que le sens." "C'est ça," he answered eagerly, and then seemed to wish he had not been quite so prompt.]

Ap. 11. Called on Gasparri at 8.30 to take him a copy of the register of Ferrar's consecration, and some notes. The session of the Commission at 10 a.m. Afterwards I walked alone to Forum, Colosseum, Campidoglio, etc., and was strangely unimpressed. Everything seemed so very familiar.

Afternoon: Sir Walter Phillimore called on us. Then came Duchesne, bringing two Jesuit fathers, Lapôtre and another, who is a Bollandist. Finally came Portal, who carried off us and Phillimore to the Villa Medici and the Pincio. Duchesne reported that our information had been very useful at the morning session, and had fully established the fact that Ferrar was consecrated according to the Pontifical.

Rather over-tired to-day: too much walking.

Ap. 12. Low Sunday. Heard Mass sung at the German college. Beautiful plain-chant: Missa de Angelis: very dignified and reverent ceremonial. One of the young Lazarists accompanied us. Afterwards went with Portal to call on Father Scannell at the Collegio Inglese, he having left cards on us the previous day. Did not find him at home. Looked into the Pantheon and heard Mass at noon. At last a building which surpasses all expectation.

Afternoon. Duchesne and Gasparri came by appointment and we did three hours' hard work investigating the cases alleged by Moyes as showing that Pole rejected the Edwardine Orders. Duchesne is satisfied that Pole made no distinction between the men ordained by the two rites, but Gasparri is of the contrary opinion.

Afterwards we called on the Oxenhams in the Piazza del Popolo.

Ap. 13. I spent the morning at the Biblioteca Nazionale consulting Wilkins' Concilia: found that Pole in the second Legatine Constitution referred to the Decretum ad Armenos, without, however, quoting it in full. Hence probably the mistake made by Dixon in his History. [I cannot now make out what the mistake was. See Vol. IV, p. 462.] From this copy of Wilkins all the pages containing the Bull Regnans in excelsis, except the first, have been removed. Father Puller went to the Vatican Library and found the Venetian State Papers with Daniele Barbaro's report; also verified, in Gairdner, the letter of June 12, 1536, in which, according to Estcourt's copy, Barlow was called "elect of St. Davye's;" but in Gairdner's he is called "Bishop, then elect of St. Asaph, now of St. David's." [See below, April 17th, and Letters of April 14th, May 18th and 24th.]

Afternoon in the Biblioteca Casanatense, where I looked up Degradation in Reiffenstuel. Nothing much to the purpose.

Afterwards a long discussion with Portal on Unity, planning out an article for the Revue Anglo-Romaine.

The Secretary to the Commission, son of the Spanish Ambassador and of an English mother, is very fierce against us. Mgr. Merry del Val his name. [Now Cardinal Secretary of State.]

Calling on Gasparri we were introduced to Father Scannell, who promised to go with us to the Catacomb of St. Priscilla.

Ap. 14. Letter from E. G. W., enclosing bibliographical account of Barlow's Dialogue; characteristically complete. The first edition, published in 1531, rather too early to be of much service to us. Afterwards I went to the Biblioteca Nazionale, while Father Puller translated Wiseman's letter with Portal for the Revue. At the Biblioteca Nazionale I found a German-Latin translation of Pearson on the Creed, but no Hammond, Field, or Bilson, no Beveridge except the defence of the Apostolic Canons, and no Barrow except the Mathematical Treatises.

Afternoon to Catacomb of St. Priscilla; Duchesne, Portal, Canon Bright, Scannell, Father Puller, and I. [I must add something from memory. Dr. Bright, who lacked conversational French, leaned on Puller's interpretation of Duchesne's interesting disquisitions. When we reached the resting place of Pope Marcellinus, on whose difficult history he was a leading authority, he became excited, and burst into a disquisition of his own. The scene rises before me: the low vaulted passage, the smoking tapers, Bright's wonderful face thrust forward over Puller's shoulder, the pale little abbé standing silent in resentful astonishment, Scannell's burly form shaking with suppressed laughter. Duchesne presently whispered to me: "Qui est-ce done?" I thought he knew who our companion was, and answered simply, "Bright." "Et puis?" he asked, raising his eyebrows. I explained, with some astonishment, that he was Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford. "Ah! Briecht!" exclaimed Duchesne, and begged for an interpretation of the discourse. Suppose the name to be German, long drawn out, and my clumsy phonetics may serve their turn.] All came to tea with us afterwards.

Duchesne reports that out of forty cases alleged by Moyes, in which Pole or those acting under his authority had refused to recognise the Edwardine Orders, he has demolished thirty-eight and a half. This has much impressed de Augustinis.

Ap. 15. Gasparri has seen Cardinal Rampolla, spoken about us, and obtained permission to show us anything and consult us. Apparently some one had been objecting.

Worked most of the day at the article on Unity. Visited S. Ignazio and the Minerva.

At dinner a young Belgian next to me, M. de Bossierre, "cameriere segreto di spada e cappa" to the Pope. He was educated in England, and speaks English almost perfectly. Very friendly, and thought he could get permission for us to say Mass at the Tomb of the Apostles. After dinner we had him in to tea and explained our position and the object of our visit.

M. Chabot, a French priest and Lecturer on Oriental studies at the Sorbonne, called with Portal in the afternoon. Also Mr. Oxenham.

Ap. 16. Visited S. Maria Maggiore. Afterwards worked at my article. Dined with Sir Walter Phillimore at the Hôtel d'Italie. The Phillimores are occupying the rooms which the Marion Crawfords have just vacated.

Ap. 17. Worked at my article most of the day. Father Puller heard an Armenian Mass at S. Ignazio.

Telegram from Father Waggett saying that the copy of the letter of June 12, 1536, in the Harleian collection, which Gairdner refers to, agrees with Estcourt's copy in speaking of Barlow as elect of St. David's. [Supra, April 13.]

M. Portal saw Cardinal Rampolla to-day, and found him most friendly, but he avoided speaking of the Archbishop of York's letter.

Puller and I visited St. Peter's in the afternoon; prayed at the altar of St. Gregory the Great. Observed the extraordinary likeness of Alexander VII (Chigi) to Napoleon III. Afterwards we called with M. Portal on the Soeurs de Charité.

Ap. 18. Visited with Puller San Lorenzo Fuori. The stone on which he was martyred shown behind the Confession. The tomb of Pius IX beyond.

A. S. Barnes left his card. No address. Puller went to the Benedictines of S. Anselmo in their house in Bocca di Leone, with introduction from Birkbeck, and obtained permission for us to attend their Mass to-morrow.

Sir Walter Phillimore saw Cardinal Rampolla; half an hour's conversation, which he then came and reported to us. N.B.--The Cardinal receives at 6 p.m. The Cardinal was rather shy of speaking on the question of Orders, but called attention to the impartiality of the Commission. Phillimore spoke of the growing desire for union--of the English Church Union--of the Bishop of Lincoln and his good works and saintliness--of the Lincoln trial and the Bishop's refusal to plead before the Privy Council. Also of political matters. Dillon, etc. The Pope, said the Cardinal, had put pressure on Dillon to keep the peace.

Ap. 19. Sunday. Mass at the Benedictines in Bocca di Leone. A young English monk from Ampleforth looked after us and provided us with graduals; Dom Cuthbert Mercer by name. This is a house of the congregation of Beuron, and most of the monks are from Maredsous. [A Benedictine friend tells me that I was mistaken here. This house, now the Convent of Sant' Anselmo sull' Aventino, does not belong to any special congregation of the Benedictine Order, but is an international house of studies.] They sing the Solesmes chant, with much less precision than at the German College, where it seems the Ratisbon books are used. Terce immediately before Mass, Sext after, both said sine nota. Terce at nine o'clock.

After Mass we were invited to an interview with the Abbot Primate of the Benedictine Order, Dom Hemptinne, who arrived in Rome last night. He is Flemish, and speaks English well. [Dom Hildebrand de Hemptinne, formerly Abbot of Maredsous.] A long and pleasant conversation, with nothing of great importance. He remarked that in England we are in some respects bolder than they, e.g. in wearing the clerical habit.

At an early Mass at San Claudio, where the Blessed Sacrament is continually exposed, I saw a priest make the oblation per unum, and say the Canon after Consecration extensis brachiis in modum Crucis.

Afterwards to the English College, where Mass was just ending. Scannell showed us the refectory and library: found Hammond's Practical Catechism there. Discussed with Scannell the difference between a decision allowing Anglican priests to minister in the Roman Church, and one admitting the validity of our Sacraments, but not allowing ministrations on the ground of praxis. The latter would not in any way prove a barrier to re-union. Adversely it would affect converts only, with whom we have no concern. Scannell frankly says he does not believe in the validity, but he is working for no decision at all.

Afternoon, Portal came, and I discussed this same point with him. He pointed out that a decision confirming the status quo would be mischievous, but if no decision at all is given no harm is done, though the status quo is maintained in practice.

At three o'clock Duchesne, with his friend M. Fabre, an historian of merit, Gasparri, Sir W. Phillimore, and Scannell arrived. A long discussion on Barlow, detailing the facts about the absence of evidence and the arguments of Moyes thereon. We made the contention that of all the instruments which may have existed, some which must have existed are lost, as the Congé d'élire, [But see below, April 28th] Restitution, etc.; the disappearance of some is fully accounted for, e.g. Barlow's own Register and the Act book of the Convent of Canterbury; there remains unaccounted for only the memorandum of consecration in Cranmer's Register. Phillimore was very helpful in explaining the force of the Act regulating the election, etc. He holds that the same instrument must have ordered both confirmation and consecration; but Barlow was confirmed; ergo his consecration was ordered by the king. [See Letter of May;th. The Act provides as follows: "The king's Highness, by his letters patent under his great seal, shall signifie the said election, if it be to the dignity of a bishop, to the archbishop and metropolitane of the Province where the see of the said bishoprick was void, if the see of the said archbishop be full and not void: and if it be void, then to any other archbishop within this realm or in any other the king's dominions; requiring and commanding such archbishop, to whom any such signification shall be made, to confirm the said election, and to invest and consecrate the said person so elected to the office and dignity that he is elected unto, and to give and use to him all such benedictions, ceremonies, and other things requisite for the same" (25 Henry VIII, cap. 20). See below, May 12th, and pp. 157-68.]

Lent Scannell de Hierarchia, and Fr. Sydney Smith's pamphlet.

Ap. 20. With Portal we visited the Sulpicians, and had a long and interesting conversation with them, the whole community being present. M. Fabre was again there, and M. Fournier, professor of law in the Institut of Grenoble.

Ap. 21. In the morning Mgr. Gasparri came with questions about Barlow--precedence in Parliament and such like. Mr. Lunn's copy of Barlow's Dialogue arrived with many notes. He explains some of the answers of 1540 by supposing that "consecration" was spoken of in a restricted sense of the inunction. We looked into this, going through all the answers as given in Burnet. The theory seems very probable. Many of the doctors distinguish consecration and ordination cum impositione manuum. Others say that consecration is not mentioned in Scripture, but only appointment with imposition of hands.

A ridiculous book arrived, written by one Dr. MacDevitt, and published with imprimatur of the Archbishop of Dublin. He gives the Nag's Head fable with embellishments, and has some curious views on the theology of Orders, adopted apparently as telling heavily against Anglican Orders. The significance of the book is that while piling up arguments of the most grotesque kind for invalidity the author concludes for conditional re-ordination, and tries to make out that this is the existing practice.

Ap. 22. Heavy rain all day. I found that some of my information given to Gasparri was inexact, and drew up a memorandum showing that the king's mandate for confirmation and consecration of a simple bishop went to the Archbishop alone, who must then proceed according to jus commune, which moreover had just been confirmed by statute (Act of Submission of Clergy). Therefore Cranmer, having received the Mandate for Skyp and again for Bulkely, had to see that he was consecrated by three true bishops according to jus commune. Neglect of this would bring him and all concerned under the pains of praemunire.

Gasparri came in the morning, bringing notes of some things put forward by Moyes at the previous sitting of the Commission. Moyes alleged fourteen possible documents in Barlow's case, nine dealing with appointment, and five with consecration. All the former, he said, were extant; all the latter wanting. Moyes now gives references for the extant documents. Among them are the Congé d'élire, and the Literae certificatoriae de electione peracta. For these he gives a reference to the Patent Rolls. Referring to Moyes' own articles in the Tablet, we find that these are the documents relating to St. Asaph. Again for the inthronization he refers to the well-known private letter of John Barlow to Cromwell, alluding to the installation, as if it were an official instrument.

I drafted a memorandum showing that in point of fact the only documents extant are those entered in Cranmer's Register, [Inaccurate. See below, April 28th, and further developments.] and 2° the Concessio temporalium; and that in face of the disappearance of so many documents, which certainly existed, it is impossible to infer anything from the absence of some others.

Observed and showed Gasparri that in the Sarum Pontifical the Consecrator does not impose hands at the Oratio ad instar praefationis, but afterwards at the prayer Pater Sancte, omnipotens Deus.

Afternoon, we and Portal went to see Duchesne at the Farnese Palace. Told him of our discovery about Moyes' references. He was very amusing, full of stories about the Commission and other things. He had been arguing that the Bulls both of Julius III and of Paul IV were favourable to us. Moyes retorted that they must be read together and were then unfavourable. "Then," said Duchesne, "put them together and there is one Pope for you, take them apart and there are two Popes for me."

He entrusted to us the Memoirs of Moyes and Co. and of de Augustinis, and his own. [I regret this rudeness of style, here and elsewhere.]

Abstract of de Augustinis, written in Italian.

1. In the year 1684 no papal decision against Anglican Orders had been given, and in 1685 a case submitted to the Holy Office was "Dilata."

2. Gordon's case was purely personal, and the decision was not grounded on his Supplica.

3. The Bull and Brief of Paul IV do not refer to the Anglican rite.

4. Paul IV did not condemn Cranmer for changing the essential form of Orders. He had offended only sentiendo et docendo against the Sacrament of Order.

5. Men ordained according to the Anglican rite were received by Pole in suis ordinibus.

6. The Nag's Head Fable is rubbish and Parker's Register is genuine.

7. Hodgekyn validly consecrated Parker.

8. Barlow was unquestionably a true Bishop.

The Rite.

9. Traditio Instrumentorum is no essential part of Ordination, but only a declaratory ceremony.

10. Council of Mainz in 1549. "In collatione Ordinum, quae cum impositione manuum veluti visibili signo traditur, doceant rite ordinatis gratiam divinitus conferri, qua ad ecclesiastica munera rite et utiliter exercenda apti et idonei efficiantur."

11. Council of Trent, 1562, demonstrates the sacramental nature of Order by a reference to St. Paul's words, "Admoneo te ut resuscites gratiam Dei quae est in te per impositionem manuum mearum."

12. The form in the Anglican rite must not be considered to be the Accipe Spiritum Sanctum alone, "ma con esse si congiunga l'Orazione che le precede, e di cui esse sono quasi la conclusione. È nella Orazione che si ha propriamente la forma sacramentale dell' Ordine, secondo l'insegnamento della Scrittura e della Tradizione." ["But with these words is conjoined the Prayer which precedes them, and of which they are in a sense the conclusion. The sacramental form of Ordination consists properly of Prayer, according to the teaching of Scripture and of tradition."]

13. He analyses the rite for the consecration of a Bishop and determines that the Signum is massimamente determinate. The elect is presented to be consecrated Bishop, and then prayer is made that the heavenly grace may descend on him so that as Bishop in the Church, and according to God's institution, he may serve faithfully to the glory of God's name and the good of the same Church.

14. The concluding words about the spirit of soberness, etc., cannot be taken to destroy this determination.

15. If, juxta communem sententiam, the words Accipe Spiritum Sanctum alone are sufficient to make a Bishop, much more are they sufficient when determined as in the English rite.

16. He briefly analyses the rite for the ordination of Priests, and shows that it contains the necessary sign, namely, imposition of hands with a corresponding form, and this is determined by the concluding words, "Whosesoever sins, etc.," by the preceding prayer, and by the general drift of the rite.


17. "The rite was drawn up and introduced by heretics, with an heretical intention, therefore it cannot be valid." Answer: If it contains a sufficient matter and form the intention of the compilers is of no account; for the Arians baptized validly though they used the formula with heretical intention, and St. Thomas (3, 64, 9) says that faith is not necessary to the minister of a Sacrament.

18. "The Anglicans have corrupted the sacramental rite of the Church; therefore they confer no true sacrament." (Summa Th. 3, 60, 7, ad 3.) Answer: They have altered only accidentals, not essentials. By verba sacramentalia St. Thomas means the form of the Sacrament.

Intention of the Minister.

19. It is not required that the Minister should intend to produce the effect or end of the Sacrament. Thus a man who does not believe that a Sacrament confers grace or imprints character may nevertheless validly minister the Sacrament. Quotes Sum. Theol. 3, 64, 9, ad i, and 10, ad 3; also Bellarmine against Tilman and Kemnitz showing that the Council of Trent required not that a man should intend "quod ecclesia intendit, sed quod ecclesia facit."

20. He takes the case of a Bishop saying, "I do not intend to ordain you to be sacrificing priests," and shows that this declaration does not destroy the intention to do what the Church does. "He who simply wishes and intends to ordain a priest, in spite of such a declaration, does in fact ordain him as he is according to the divine power conferred on him--that is to say, with the power of offering the holy Sacrifice." This he defends by the decree of the Holy Office about Baptism conferred with a similar declaration, 18 December, 1872.

21. What is necessary? "To constitute ecclesiastical ministers by a sacred rite, and to do what has been done from the beginning of the Christian Society."

22. The expression of this intention is found in the Preface to the Ordinal, and is illustrated by various extracts from the rites.

23. "Conchiudiamo: Le Ordinazioni anglicane, su cui non ha ancora pronunziato giudizio dottrinale la Santa Sede, sono valide per esser fatte da Ministro idoneo, con rito valido, con la intenzione di fare quel che fa la Chiesa." ["We conclude: The English Ordinations, on which the Holy See has not yet given a doctrinal judgment, are valid by reason of their being effected by a competent Minister, with a valid rite, with the intention of doing what the Church does."]

In an appendix he argues that Julius III ordered Pole to receive those ordained by the Edwardine Ordinal "non servata forma Ecclesiae consueta."

We have also Duchesne's own memoir. He unkindly refers to Gasparri as holding to the Nag's Head Fable in his Tractatus de Sacra Ordinatione.

Here is a gem: "Barlow, pour conformer sa conduite aux idées de son prince, aurait du, non pas se refuser à l'ordination, mais se la faire conférer par Henri VIII.

"Je regrette que la frivolité des objections m'en-traine à des observations aussi peu graves."

Duchesne tells how he used with great effect in the Commission an argument which I supplied a few days ago. Pole, on the receipt of the Brief Regimini, must have verified the consecration of all bishops promoted during the Schism, to make sure they had been consecrated in forma ecclesiae, in order that the ordinations they had performed might stand good. In doing this he must have either verified Barlow's consecration, or found that he was not consecrated; and in the latter case it would certainly have been heard of. Moyes replied that there was no proof that Pole did so. "Then," said Duchesne, "he was a very unfaithful representative of the Pope."

I told Duchesne of Mr. Lunn's suggestion about the Answers of 1540. He was much struck by it, and at once noticed that the word consecrare is especially used in the Pontificals in connection with the anointing. "Consecrentur istae manus," etc.

Ap. 23. Visited the Soeurs de Charité in their house in the Trastevere maintained by Prince Doria Pamphili.

Ap. 24. Mgr. Gasparri came to us with questions. Still Barlow. He wished to establish definitely the fact that the bishops sit in the House of Lords according to the order of consecration.

To-day Gasparri saw the Pope, spoke to him of the help we were rendering and our attitude generally. The Pope spoke of us as being at the door, "et je vais l'ouvrir à deux battants." [Italian was presumably spoken, but the conversation was reported to us in French.] The question is, What does that really mean?

Barnes called. He is wearing the ecclesiastical habit, but has taken no further steps, and seems to be awaiting anxiously the result of our Commission. He had heard gossip about a speech of Lord Halifax, in which he said, "If an adverse decision be given, so much for Rome and the hopes of reunion." This he thought unfortunate language, as it would go straight to the Pope. It is a grotesque rendering of Halifax's words, and it is apparently being put in circulation here.

We visited with Portal two other houses of the Soeurs de Charité--the Ophthalmic Hospital below S. Onofrio maintained by Prince Torlonia, and the Children's Hospital, "i Bambini" in the old Convent of S. Onofrio. Also the church, with Tasso's tomb, and a beautiful St. Anne of Pinturicchio, and in the convent a Lionardo.

After dinner I went to the Farnese to restore Duchesne his copies of the Memoirs, and had a long talk with him about the possibilities of the Commission. It seems that the actual decision of the Holy Office in Gordon's case was based not on his own Supplica at all, but on the report of Genetti, or even on a direct examination of the rite. They took the forma essentialis to be exclusively the Accipe Spiritum Sanctum, and declared this insufficient, on the express ground of its not being a prayer. For this reason Duchesne thinks it is impossible in the Commission to argue in favour of the validity on the ground of this form. Only the prayer which precedes can be treated as the form. In the presbyteral ordination he is himself satisfied that this contains a prayer for the ordinand, but it is slight and obscure: that for the episcopate is beyond challenge. We spoke of the practical difficulty of an affirmative decision as affecting the internal practice of the Roman Church. Duchesne also pointed out the difficulty of deciding dogmatically on the matter and form when the Council of Trent had declined to do so. I suggested that this had been done to all intents and purposes by acknowledging the validity of the Greek rite. He thought a practical decision might be come to, saving the actual praxis by requiring conditional reordination, but expressly leaving open the theological question. ["I cannot understand," he said, "why you should object to this. It is no more than your own St. Chad endured, for the sake of peace."] I pressed the danger of any decision, short of an absolute affirmative, which could even be represented to English people as final, and as settling the terms of a future reconciliation. We cannot ever press for reunion if our people are made to think that it would involve even conditional reordination. The utmost that could be made tolerable to our people would be an arrangement by which Anglican priests, wishing to exercise their office within the Roman Church, should have to undergo some sort of sanatio.

MM. Fabre and Fournier then arrived, and we drifted into a most animated discussion about the origin and character of the "mouvement centralisateur" of the ninth century, a great deal of which I could not catch. Duchesne seems to think that it was forced on the Popes, Leo IV alone (or with Nicholas I) actually favouring it.

Ap. 25. A letter from Mr. Gladstone sent on from Lord Halifax. Writing wonderfully firm. He will write for the Revue an article on the Armenians. M. Portal has seen Cardinal Rampolla again to-day, speaking about Mr. Gladstone among other things.

A priest of the diocese of Lyon, opposite to us at table, who was amazed to see us eating "maigre" yesterday, came in after dinner and was still further astonished. [A Rogation Day, not observed with abstinence at Rome.] He gave us many particulars of the usages still prevailing at Lyon: e.g. recitation of the Te igitur with arms extended in modum crucis; the oblation per unum; concelebration by five priests, or by a bishop with six priests; position of the subdeacon at the gate of the choir until after the Epistle.

Ap. 26. We dined with the Lazarists at noon. Afterwards with M. Portal to San Teodoro, where was Quarant' ore. The "Sacconi," a noble confraternity attached to the church, were in attendance, covered from head to foot with a sack, having two holes for the eyes.

Mgr. Gasparri came, reporting that Moyes declared the Congé and Assent for Barlow at St. David's were in the Records. Telegraphed to E.G.W. to search.

Ap. 27. In the morning went to the Vatican Gardens with M. de Bossierre, the Bishop of Bayonne and his Grand Vicaire also in the company.

In the afternoon I worked in the Casanatense on Launoy's collection of definitions of the Church".

Afterwards we went to tea with Barnes. Talk quite colourless. After dinner to see the Pearkes at 57 Via Sistina.

In the sitting of the Commission on Saturday N. challenged A.'s statement about the Barlow documents. B. intervened, declaring that he had seen the documents. "You say so?" said N., "Yes." "I believe you," said N. with a little emphasis. [This petulance was quite unjustified, as the sequel shows. The documents were found, as noted below, and there was no cause for any reticence about them. I should like to expunge the story, as well as the names, but it would not be fair to suppress evidence of our own suspicious temper.]

Ap. 28. Father Puller went to a theological lecture at the Minerva with the young Lazarists. I to the Casanatense.

Afternoon. Duchesne and M. Fabre came. Duchesne afterwards took us to call on Cardinal Hohenlohe at Sta Maria Maggiore. A most pleasant old gentleman. The Revue was lying on his table.

Telegram from Wood explaining the mystery about the Barlow documents. The Patent Rolls contain nothing about Barlow's promotion to St. David's. The reference given by Moyes is for St. Asaph. But the Privy Seals records contain Conge and Assent for St. David's. [The significance of this last was not yet understood. See below, May 6th and I2th, and the letter of April 29th to W.H.F.]

Both of us to the Farnese to see Duchesne and report on telegram. Fabre and Fournier there. All agree that the discovery does not much help Moyes, since the actual instruments are missing, and his argument requires that they should actually be found, and not merely evidence of their existence. [This was unfair. Canon Moyes' argument required nothing of the kind. Moreover, the documents in the Privy Seals, though this we did not understand at the time, to all intents and purposes were the instruments in question. See below, pp. 153, seqq.]

N. stated and developed the thesis that the Council of Chalcedon "a fait beaucoup de mal à l'Eglise." What is called Monophysitism is, according to him, only an Oriental way of stating the truth.

Ap. 29. Visited the Lateran.

Ap. 30. In the morning Gasparri came. We could not get anything out of him about the effect of the telegram at the meeting of the Commission yesterday.

The question now was about the rite. Was it true, as recently stated in the Tablet by A. G. Clark, that the prayer, "Almighty God, giver of all good things, etc.," in the rite for the consecration of Bishops, was sometimes said by another than the Consecrator? I pointed out that the corresponding prayers in the rites for diaconal and presbyteral ordination since 1662 have been said as the Collect of the Mass, and so of course are said by the ordaining Bishop. Formerly they were said after the Litany, as is still the case in the consecration of a Bishop. In all cases the rubrick directs the Bishop or the Consecrator to say the Litany with this prayer. But is this rubrick adhered to in practice?

Our impression was that in the actual practice, though the Litany is commonly said by a priest, yet the special suffrage and the prayer in question are always said by the ordaining or consecrating Bishop.

It was agreed that we should write to the Archbishop of York, now at Florence, to ask for information as to the existing practice.

Gasparri contends that these prayers are unquestionably sufficient as forms, that there is sufficient moral union between them and the imposition of hands, on the ground of the unity of the whole rite as maintained by De Lugo and many others, and that, therefore, if it is certain that they are always said by the proper Minister, there can be no question as to the validity of the rite.

Father Puller wrote to the Archbishop. [See below, May 8.]

M. Portal came with an important letter from Lord Halifax about Mr. Gladstone. Mr. Gladstone is quite willing under certain conditions, e.g. if asked to do so, to write a letter either to the Pope or to any one else, for publication at an opportune moment. A draft of a letter to the Pope, on which Lord Halifax and Mr. Gladstone were agreed, was enclosed. [This, my impression at the time, was incorrect. Marginal note of June 12th, 1896.] We talked this over. M. Portal thought he must see Cardinal Rampolla and sound him. But he would put it that Mr. Gladstone would certainly do something: the only question was what?

He waited on the Cardinal after Ave Maria, and returned to us about half-past nine to report. The Cardinal was keenly interested. It would not do for Mr. Gladstone to write to the Holy Father a letter intended for publication, but it would have a good effect if he would write such a letter to some one else; Lord Halifax, for example. To the Abbess idea of Mr. Gladstone's coming to Rome he would not commit himself: he must think it over.

In the afternoon we went to the new Benedictine Convent of St. Anselmo on the Aventine, by appointment with Dom Janssens the Prior, who showed us all the buildings now nearly completed. A significant remark fell from him. Talking of the Abbate Tosti and the bad odour into which he fell through some injudicious remarks upon the Roman question, he said, "The relations between the Vatican and the Government make a very difficult question." It is plain that he at least regards it as not a very simple one.

May 1. Father Puller found at the Casanatense the Acts of the Council of Mainz in 1549, in which the matter and form of Order are treated exactly as in the English Ordinal: for a priest the matter being imposition of hands, and the form, "Accipe Spiritum Sanctum, quorum remiseris, etc." [It is a curious thing that at the time neither of us remembered reading of this in the Memoir of De Augustinis. See above, p. 43. We imagined it to be a new discovery. I am not sure that De Augustinis brought out all the points.] Moreover, this is spoken of as occurring at the beginning (principio) of the rite. [See below, pp. 187-92.]

This is interesting either as (i) having suggested the arrangement in the Ordinal of 1550, or as (2) evidence of contemporaneous opinion.

We went on to Gasparri with the information, and to ask where a copy of a Mainz Pontifical can be found. He could give no information.

In the evening we all went to Duchesne's. He was as amusing as usual. He, too, thinks this Council of Mainz important. He could only suggest the Vatican Library as a place in which to find the Pontifical.

He described the procedure in Commission. The Cardinal President puts questions. Gasparri, being a prelate, speaks first--and generally says all there is to be said. Then come the seculars, then the Jesuit, the Benedictine, and the Franciscans. N.'s mode of arguing, he says, is exactly like that of the Donatists in the great conference at Carthage, which Duchesne--alone probably--has read right through: the same wearisome insistence on trivial points, the same determination never to acknowledge a mistake.

Cardinal Mazzella speaks English perfectly, and Gasparri is the only member of the Commission who cannot read it.

May 2. Father Puller went to the Vatican Library but could not find a Mainz Pontifical. If there is one at all it is in the Palatine Library, which is all in confusion.

Mr. Crowe, correspondent of the Daily Telegraph and the Tablet, called and found me m with M. Portal, and tried hard to get some matter for an article on the Commission. We told him he might safely say that an entirely adverse decision is impossible, but we had no more information to give. [I do not know whether he used this valuable information. We honestly believed it to be true.]

Called with M. Portal in the afternoon on Mgr. N. Duchesne also appeared. Mgr. N. talked freely about the personnel of the Curia. He had a wild story about the Pope's brother, Cardinal Pecci, having been expelled from the Society of Jesus simply because he insisted on growing his beard. He described very vividly the condition of the Vatican on the night of the Giordano Bruno demonstration: cannon loaded in the Court of S. Damasus, every one in panic, the Pope going to exposition of the Blessed Sacrament in the Sistine Chapel, and saying "There is our artillery." He had much to say about the goodness of Cardinal Galimberti, though he detests his policy--naturally, as being a Frenchman. The Cardinal's health is mending to-day. [Our friends thought, I do not know on what ground, that Cardinal Galimberti would be a mainstay of their cause. He was Prefect of the Congregation for the Reunion of the Churches. Politically, he was understood to favour the triple alliance.]

May 3. Holy Cross day and Sunday. Went to the great function of Sta Croce in Gerusalemme. The Cardinal Vicar celebrating. The great altar standing in the middle of the transept of the Basilica, people thronging almost up to it; most difficult to find room to kneel down. Picturesque peasants and little children were skirmishing in front. Round the apse sat several Trappist monks mostly wearing chasubles over their habits, some with cotta also. [I think this must be wrong. There was once, and may be still, a Cistercian Convent attached to the Basilica, but probably not of the reform of La Trappe.] Two bishops who wore copes and white mitres. The Cardinal in the throne of the apse, a bishop in cope assisting at the throne, a prelate in violet cassock and cotta acting as ceremoniarius. At the Credence were four servants in livery and gowns, eight boys in cottas, looked after by two men also in cottas. The four chaplains--clerk of the crosier, of the book, of the mitre, and of the candle, were in red copes. Terce was sung by the clergy in the apse, the Cardinal wearing his scarlet cappa clausa and biretta. He was then vested, and the Mass proceeded. The choir was in a tribune beside the altar. The effect was most picturesque when during the Gloria and Credo the Cardinal sat in his throne, and the four chaplains sat on the steps below him wrapping their copes about them. At the offertory three members of some confraternity in strange blue habits offered a candle to the Cardinal on the throne. One of the small boys drank of the wine and water before it was offered. The hand-washings were all served by the livery servants. At the Sanctus the boys brought torches and knelt on the nave side of the altar, where the incense also was served. The choir sang the Benedictus actually during the elevation. The whole ceremony lasted over two hours, after which the Cardinal went up to a tribune high in the transept and made ostension of the relics. No attempt was made to fence the people in any way, and the thurifer and others had to push their way through to get to and from the Sacristy, while when the Cardinal and the Ministers retired a narrow lane was made for them to pass through.

Father Puller received a letter from Frere giving account of certain reordinations by Bonner, and King of Oxford, in Mary's reign, before the arrival of the Legate. [In reply to one written by him on April 27th about a report which had reached him from Mr. Birkbeck. He wrote: "If you have discovered facts which prove that Bonner did repudiate Edwardine Orders, we should feel bound to communicate such facts to our friends on the Commission. They have acted so very loyally towards us, that, besides the general obligation of perfect openness in such matters, we are specially bound to be open with them."] There is no indication in the registers that these are reordinations, but the conclusion is arrived at by noting that the same names appear in the registers as ordained between 1550 and 1553. On the other hand, there are men ordained during these years who retain benefices without any mention made of reordination. Frere is inclined to draw the inference that in some cases reordination was resorted to on the ground of private scruples, but that there was no settled policy.

We determined to place this evidence at once in the hands of Duchesne. M. Portal came with a letter from Lord Halifax, saying that the Bishop of Stepney was sending an account of these matters to the Times. We went to Duchesne's; found him not at home; then on to St. Peter's, where was a baptism. Back to Duchesne's, whom we now found at home, very tired and pining for some mountain or sea air. He took our information very seriously.

May 4. Neither Friday's nor Saturday's Times has the Bishop of Stepney's letter. But in the latter is confirmation of the report that the Bishop of Peterborough is to go to Moscow, appointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury with the consent of the Queen, to represent the Church of England at the Czar's Coronation.

We called on Mgr. Gasparri, and gave him a short paper which I have drawn up respecting Frere's information, (i) We have merely identity of names in the registers, nothing to show clearly identity of persons, (ii) Some ordained by the Edwardine rite are shown to have retained their benefices, no mention made of reordination; therefore either there were no reordinations, or else different cases were differently treated, (iii) All was done before the coming of the Legate, and by individual Bishops--especially Bonner. But Bonner rehabilitated Scory: therefore he either reordained none, or treated different cases differently.

M. Portal, finding that Gasparri knows Mgr. Agliardi, the special nuncio for the Moscow coronation (they were professors together at the Propaganda), told him about the Bishop of Peterborough's mission, and asked him to speak of it to Mgr. Agliardi; it would be a good thing to bring them together at Moscow.

Cardinal Galimberti in a very serious condition, with little or no prospect of recovery.

May 5. Morning, I went to the Vatican galleries with the two Pearkes. Afternoon, Father Puller and I to the Colosseum.

May 6. Went to Mass at St. John by the Latin Gate, sung by the Chapter of St. John Lateran, or rather for them by a small and very bad choir. Very few people there. The floor of the church was strewn with leaves of box.

After breakfast M. Portal came with important information. The Commission will probably finish its work to-morrow, meeting again only once next week to draw up the procès-verbal. They hardly touch at all on the question of intention, merely stating a few general truths. Apparently things have been hurried. All graver considerations are to be reserved for another Commission of Cardinals, either of the Holy Office, or that of the Reunion of the Churches, or a special one appointed ad hoc. Nothing is yet known. Mgr. Gasparri is inclined to raise the question of Baptism, some one having described a careless case of sprinkling to him as if typical. He will probably have no opportunity of doing this, and will immediately return to Paris. Duchesne, he added, wished to see us.

We went on to the Farnese. Duchesne had much to say. We must on no account leave Rome when the Commission is finished. The report will be submitted in about a fortnight to the Cardinals. Until we know what Cardinals, nothing can be done. He described various Cardinals. Rampolla, "très saint homme," bent on doing all he can to further the Pope's policy, but likely to be influenced theologically by Mazzella. About Mazzella his mouth is shut. He has learnt what he knows in the Commission, and so can say nothing. Galimberti, alas! is dying. Another--name I forget--might as well die for any good he can do.

They are nearly all of the old school. They will ask what is the intention of the English Ordinal? What was the meaning of its compilers? Either heretical opinions or the change of the rite alone would not present much difficulty, but the combination is awkward. We must be on the spot to meet it. After all, a majority of the Cardinals will not decide. It will be not maior pars, but sanior pars. Of that the Pope will judge himself.

He pressed us to go at once to see Cardinal Mazzella and Father de Augustinis. We stuck at the former, but went to call on the Jesuit. He received us kindly, and was very--Jesuit. He did not at all know why we were in Rome, and when we spoke of the Commission seemed doubtful as to what commission we meant. However we forced the subject, and he talked a little, but to little purpose. He could not understand why so much is made of a secondary question; the main question, after all, is that of the authority of the Pope. Yes, I said, but secondary questions often bar the way to the consideration of primary ones. Until the question of Orders is out of the way we can hardly get our people even to listen to talk about reunion.

M. Portal went to Cardinal Rampolla, got from him a definite expression of a wish for a letter from Mr. Gladstone, told him about the mission of the Bishop of Peterborough to Moscow and the probable mission of certain Russian Bishops to the Lambeth Conference next year. The Cardinal asked very kindly after us, and wanted to know if we had produced any documents, a question which enabled M. Portal to enlarge on our prompt production of some adverse evidence, with which he was much impressed.

After dinner a great surprise. A telegram from E. G. Wood, saying that he has found the mandate to consecrate Barlow. [See below, May I2th, and Letter of May 8th.] We all went straight off to Duchesne with the telegram for him to produce at the Commission to-morrow. The question is, Where has it been found? If in the Privy Seals, did Moyes know of it, and is that the reason why he was so unwilling to give the reference to the Privy Seals for the Congé and Assent? [I am sorry to put on record this imputation of bad faith, for which there was not the smallest foundation, but as a matter of fact some of us did talk so, and I must not falsify the record. See above, April 27.]

May 7. By the first post came a copy of the Bishop of Stepney's letter to the Times, under cover of one from Collins. The Bishop had written about it to Cardinal Vaughan, who at once asked for a copy, which was sent him.

I at once took it to N., whom I found at work since five o'clock preparing his votum. Parts of this he read to me. He also asked for particulars of what the Bishop of Peterborough had said about Elizabeth's reply concerning the Council of Trent, and I gave him them from memory. [See Letter from W. H. F., May 11th, and note.]

By the next post came a letter from Frere stating that the Literae certificatoriae about Consecrations are preserved in the Privy Seals and Signed Bills, and calendared in the Domestic State Papers; but they are very imperfect. E.g. Repps' consecration is thus recorded, but the letter about Sampson is wanting. Sent this on to Gasparri at the Vatican while the Commission was actually sitting.

In the afternoon we visited Sta Maria in Trastevere, Sta Cecilia and S. Bartolomeo in Insula. At S. Cecilia we saw the caldarium and the stone of the martyrdom, but could not look at the shrine of the high altar as Quarant' ore was going on.

The Commission has held its last meeting. At present we have to wait and see to what Cardinals the matter will be referred. Portal has seen Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli to-day, and arranged for us to go and call upon him.

Frere writes that he has a conviction, growing stronger as he works out the evidence, "that in the first blush of Marian revulsion they were inclined to dispute the orders of the English Ordinal," but he is coming to suspect more and more, and hopes to prove, "that this doubt was a steadily diminishing quantity: possibly even that the influence of Pole or even Rome was exerted against it, and that the reordinations which prevailed in the early months were afterwards discouraged." [See his final conclusions in his book, The Marian Reaction.]

May 8. Called on Mr. Oxenham, and met there Mr. Bliss, who is working for the English Government in the Archives of the Vatican.

Cardinal Galimberti dead.

Duchesne saw Cardinal Rampolla, who expressed a wish that we should stay in Rome for the present, and hold ourselves in readiness to give information to the Commission of Cardinals which is now appointed. He also wishes us to wait upon him, but before this to see some other Cardinals also. Duchesne suggests the two Vannutelli, Mazzella, and Segna.

Letter from the Archbishop of York, who is at Florence, giving assurance that the prayer after the Litany in the Consecration of Bishops is, by the unvarying use of both provinces, said by the Archbishop himself.

May 9. Finished my article de Unitate. [The first part of this appeared in the Revue Anglo-Romaine, Vol. II, p. 529. The second and much longer part should have followed, but was suppressed in consequence of the publication of the encyclical Satis cognitum. It was suggested to M. Portal from a high quarter that he could not decently publish it immediately after the utterance of the Pope on the same subject. The whole was afterwards translated into English, and appeared under the title The Unity of the Church as Taught by English Theologians, being published by S.P.C.K. for the Church History Society.] In the afternoon we called with Portal on Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli in Via Giulia. He received us rather effusively. Portal knew him when he was nuncio at Lisbon. He gesticulates extraordinarily in talking. He told us that he is on the Commission: that means that it is a special Commission, unless perhaps he has replaced Galimberti on the Commission for Reunion. He had not much to say except in laudation of the English people and the great part we have to play in the work of civilization. We talked a little about the relations of Anglicans and Romans at Zanzibar--Smythies consulting the Roman Bishop about his Swahili Catechism, and so on. He said we might certainly call on his brother Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli.

Telegraphed for copies of de Hierarchia to present to Cardinals.

May 10. Sunday. Went to High Mass at St. Peter's. Music good. Behaviour of crowd atrocious.

Sketched out with N. the plan of a Supplement to the de Hierarchia, dealing with the points in which the Cardinals are interested.

In the afternoon we called on Duchesne. The Abbé Daniel was there, Recteur of Dinant in Brittany. He was well acquainted with N. of P. before his fall, and we talked much about that. With Duchesne we had a long talk about the primitive arrangements of the Roman Church, as illustrated by the Canons of Hippolytus. He thinks that originally, when the Roman Church was the only Church for Italy, there probably was a Presbyterium consisting partly of bishops, partly of priests, or that possibly all the priests had episcopal powers; and that a similar arrangement prevailed at Alexandria, of which the well-known passage of St. Jerome expresses a tradition.

May 11. Began the Supplement and worked hard at it all day.

May 12. Letter from Wood enclosing documents. The Mandate to Consecrate is what is usually known as the Royal Assent: but a full explanation of the whole process of issuing Letters Patent shows that this is the original Sign Manual which set the whole thing in motion, and that the king gave this order only, which was afterwards expanded in the routine of the office to the usual form.

Father Puller and I called on Cardinal Segna, who was exceedingly pleasant, talking very frankly about our subject, and stating various objections which I noted for the Supplement. He lives in a very humble apartment, 102 Ripetta. He is just going to preside over the General Chapter of the Capuchins.

Worked hard at the Supplement. Also prepared a letter about the Mandate to be printed for Cardinal Mazzella.

May 13. Worked hard at the Supplement all day. The Abbé Zorn de Bulach came to dinner; he is brother to two ladies staying here; is attached to the Accademia Ecclesiastica, and works in the Congregation of the Council. A friend of Merry del Val. He seemed to know nothing about our question beyond the merest gossip. [He had very edifying views about Julius II; explained that he was converted after his election to the Papacy, and thenceforward said Mass every day. I asked whether he did so on the day of the storming of Mirandola, but of this event the abbé appeared to know nothing.] Went to the Archives.

May 14. Ascension Day. Father Puller and I called in the morning on Cardinal Mazzella at the German College, giving him the Archbishop of York's letter, and a passage from Pilkington received this morning from Mr. Ross-Lewin to the effect that the Edwardine priests were reconciled in Mary's time by unction only. [See below, Letter of May 15th.] He was stiff and grumpy, but speaking English seemed to express himself with great difficulty. He could not think why so much fuss was made about Orders. The Pope was the great question.

Worked all day, and much of the night, at the Supplement.

May 15. Father Puller called on Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli--one of the most papabili--and found him most pleasant. He has to do with the question, but confesses himself sadly ignorant of English affairs.

Finished the Supplement--about sixty hours' work since Sunday. [Dissertationis Apologeticae de Hierarchia Anglicana Supplementum, auctore T. A. Lacey. Romae, ex typographia Pacis, Philippi Cuggiani, 1896.]

Portal at once charged me with a new pamphlet--suggested by the ignorance of Cardinal Vannutelli--a brief outline of the present state of the Church of England, with a clear explanation of parties. This to be finished before Monday.

May 16. Worked hard all day at the new pamphlet.

May 17. Heard a prône for the first time in Rome; at the Church of the Holy Apostles, at eight o'clock. Very few people attending. [I had told Portal that I wanted to attend a parochial service. "Il n'y a pas d'offices paroissiales à Rome," he replied. A Roman gentleman explained that the one function of a parochus in Rome was to give faculties for other priests to celebrate marriages. This was probably morose.]

Dined with Mr. Nancrede at the Hotel d'Allemagne. Miss Patteson (sister of the Bishop of Melanesia) there. Miss Nancrede, a fixture in Rome, had much to say about identifications of Marion Crawford's characters generally recognized in society. E.g. Corona, a certain Vittoria Colonna (Duchessa di Sermoneta?), Astrardente, one of the Principi Orsini lately dead; Spicca, an attaché at the Russian Embassy; Ghisleri, Crawford himself!

Finished the new pamphlet, or rather memoir, de Re Anglicana, in the small hours--a week's work over the two, not much, if any, less than ninety hours.

May 18. At 8.20 left for Monte Cassino. Arrived Cassino 11.15. Dejeuner at albergo in town, which is a queer tangle of dirty houses, the streets all paved with flagstones. In church a seated figure of St. Germanus, robed in silk cope and mitre. Walked up to the Monastery, an hour and a quarter. The Prior, Dom Amelli, showed us the archives and several manuscripts, one having some writing by St. Thomas in the margin. The Convent, he explained, is suppressed, but the monks go on as Canons of the Church, which is regarded as Cathedral of the Abbot's diocese. The best of the printed books of the library have been taken away by the Government. The Archives and Manuscripts remain as national monuments, of which the monks are custodians. So also is the whole building. They can alter nothing, or even repair, without leave. They cannot take a book out of what remains of the library without a permission. For whatever land they have in hand they pay rent They are, however, forming a new private library--about 30,000 volumes so far--very casually made up, mostly by gifts. Here, too, they have their printing shop.

Supper in the refectory at 8--soup, eggs, cheese, fruit. Compline 8.45 in the Tower of St. Benedict, sc. in the chapel where he died, this being the anniversary of its dedication.

May 19. Mass in the same chapel, where all the offices are said this week. Coffee and roll afterwards in a room off the kitchen, where these are served every morning for those who desire it. Dinner in refectory at 12. Soup, two dishes of flesh meat, cheese, and raw beans. Dom Dunstan Sibley from Fort Augustus showed us everything, and was very attentive. They have a diocesan seminary, a general seminary, a petit séminaire, and a school for lay boys. Monks are at the head of all departments, but there are some twenty secular priests as well engaged in tuition.

In the evening we went to see the Abbate Tosti, who is very feeble and palsied. He has permission to say Mass in his cell seated. He talked enthusiastically of the Bishop of Brechin, and preached us quite a sermon on the duty of submission to the Pope.

Nightingale singing all night.

May 20. Up at half-past four to attend Mattins in the Tower--Nocturns and Lauds. Prime and Terce are said before Mass at 7.45. Between these two offices the monks all say their Mass. To-day, however, a Black Mass was sung in the Basilica at 8--the Office of the Dead preceding, and Prime and Terce followed, whether with another Mass I did not hear, in the Tower. The monks sang the Mass in their choir behind the high altar very devoutly. They can see practically nothing of the priest at the altar.

At 9 left the monastery, Dom Dunstan walking halfway down the hill with us. Train at 10.40, arriving in Rome 1.30.

Found proofs to correct.

May 21. Worked several hours with Portal revising for Revue.

May 22. Visited Sta Agnese in Piazza Navona, or Circo Agonale, and saw the vaults, formerly substructure of the Circus, where the child was exposed to shame.

Prepared statistical appendix to memoir, de Re Anglicana.

Visited Sta Agnese fuori le Mure. Part of the church was rebuilt by "Jul. Card. S.P. ad Vine. Sixti iiii Pont. Max. nepos "--one of his few good works. Baldaquin, built by Paul V, makes a curious narrow front to the altar. The throne is in the apse, but the altar is placed with back towards it. Visited also Sta Costanza, close by.

Evening, 8 o'clock, called on Cardinal Parocchi at the Palazzo del Vicariato. More than an hour in antechamber. Saw him in a room with a big table arranged as for committees. He was extraordinarily kind. Gave him a copy of de Hierarchia, which he apparently had not seen. He pressed us to come again. Expressed a great admiration for England, and acknowledged that such a country, with such a history, must have ecclesiastically a considerable provincial independence.

May 23. To the Lateran for the great function. The Offices were sung up to None in the Chapel of the Choir. Then the Canons and Singers went to the choir before the apse, where an altar was dressed before the throne. The Patriarch of Antioch, Mgr. Casetta, who is vicegerent of the Cardinal Vicar (odd arrangement) officiated. The assistants wore chasubles cut away just below the waist in front, full-length behind. The Prophecies were sung from a lectern in the middle, the Patriarch sitting on the Faldstool before the Altar and rising to say the Collects. He was then vested in cope, and all went in procession by the long corridor to the Baptistery, singing the psalm Quemadmodum. Then came the blessing of the font, all the clergy standing round the inner part of the Baptistery, i.e. the ancient piscina. The procession, singing the Litany, returned by the corridor on the other side of the Apse, and Mass was sung. Three hours altogether.

In the afternoon Scannell called, a priest of the English College accompanying him. He explained that he had been keeping out of our way because of the fashion he was spied upon. He spoke as if he were certain there would be a negative decision of the question. It was impossible, said Portal. "C'est l'impossible qui arrive," said Scannell. Still he was very friendly and pleasant, and appears to be much disgusted with the Tablet.

May 24. Whitsunday. I went to S. Nicola da Tolentino at eight o'clock and heard the Armenians sing their Office. [A College of Armenians in communion with Rome has for some time enjoyed the use of this church.] Two seniors in black, the juniors some in red gowns with blue yokes, others in blue with red yokes. At last one of the seniors was vested in a sort of cope, with red and white perpendicular stripes, and went to the lectern accompanied by two candles. At this point I had to leave.

Then to S. Clemente; where the Mass was exquisitely sung by seven or eight Dominican fathers: the priest behind the Altar, the Gospel sung from the Ambon. Benedictus immediately after Sanctus. Then perfect silence until the end of the Canon, the Fathers all in prostration. They bow from the waist on entering and leaving, and during all the Collects. The priest sat for the Epistle, reading from a book held before him; stood throughout Gloria and Credo. Oblation per unum, and Unde et memores said brachiis extensis in modum crucis. Afterwards a delightful Irish lad, a lay brother, showed us the lower church. [He told with perfect simplicity and humanity the story, depicted in a fresco of the tenth century, of the mother recovering her child from the chapel beneath the sea. "That is a beautiful story," I said. "There's not many believes it, sor," he replied sadly. I heard Puller murmuring something about "evidence," but I dug my elbow into his side to silence the historic conscience, and so we left the boy happy in our acceptance of the legend. After Mass, the sacred ministers came down from the altar and sat on a bench between the ambones, while Vent Creator was sung. One of us made some remark about this unusual ceremony, and the boy exclaimed enthusiastically, "Yes, just like the Apostles on the day of Pentecost!" O sancta simplicitas!]

Afternoon. Portal came full of news. Letter from Lord Halifax enclosing a copy of one he has written to Cardinal Rampolla respecting a memoir by Mr. Gladstone, which we are to translate into French and give to the Cardinal.

Duchesne has been offered an honorary Doctorate by Cambridge.

We went on to the Farnese. M. Fabre there and le père Lapôtre.

Father Puller drew them into a talk about vernacular services, and all were in favour of saying the Mass in the vulgar tongue, N. also in favour of saying the Canon aloud. He would also like to have the task of reforming the Breviary. He would do away with all the arrangements of hours, responses, etc., for private recitation, leaving them intact for common recitation. For private recitation he would appoint simply so many psalms each day, and lessons from the New Testament. He thought there was a great deal of the Old Testament not worth reading. He could undertake the task in one year if alone: if he had one colleague it would take three years; if ten colleagues, a century.

May 25. A good deal of work over Mr. Gladstone's letter. Complete holiday in the city. Crowds of peasants and others driving about in carriages. The holiday delays publication of our pamphlets.

May 26. Feast of St. Philip Neri: more complete holiday even than yesterday. Called on Nancrede in the afternoon. At night went to the Quarant' ore at St. Peter's. Wonderful effect of about a hundred candles on the high altar; no other lights in the church except an odd candle standing here and there on a high standard.

May 27. Mr. Gladstone's letter finished, and taken by Portal to Cardinal Rampolla, who was delighted with it. De Re Anglicana came from the printer finished. At night Mr. Turton (New Zealander) and I went to the Colosseum by moonlight.

May 28. Breakfast with M. Duchesne, who has decided to come to Cambridge. Pere Delehaye, the Bollandist, there: also Père Rivière, Jesuit--who is writing a history of the Society--M. Fabre, M. Portal, and two laymen.

Duchesne let out that the Description of the Rites by Pole was not before the Commission. He thinks the evidence of its having been before Julius III is of great importance. [See below. I do not seem to have noted in the Diary my work on this in the Archives, or the aid rendered by Mr. Bliss, which ought to be acknowledged here.]

Evening. I went to call on the Cardinal Vicar with copies of the pamphlets, but was too late.

May 29. Visited the Lateran Museum under Duchesne's guidance. [Duchesne stood rapt in admiration before one of the immense canvasses painted on commission for Pius IX. At last he gave forth his criticism: "C'est un beau cadre."] I was too tired to enjoy it much. Finished revising my article on Unity for the Revue--a tremendous task--and on Portal's advice substituted a new ending, glancing at the Vatican Council, and avowing that the Pastor Aeternus is no insuperable bar to union.

Evening. I called on the Cardinal Vicar. I spoke pretty fully of the state of things in England; he asked particularly if it were certain that we can get behind the prejudices of the people and bring them on gradually to Catholic truth. He did not actually make the comparison, but obviously meant to ask if we can do it more effectually than the Romanists. I illustrated the progress made by showing that it is easy now to speak in public about reunion and about the Holy See in a way which would have been impossible twenty years ago. Portal describes the Cardinal Vicar as very intelligent, very pious, but thoroughly suspicious of the reunion movement. He could not keep me long, as he had several people to see, and the Ordinations to-morrow; but he asked me to call on him again before leaving Rome.

May 30. Father Puller went to the Ordinations at St. John Lateran. Began at seven o'clock. Ended at 12.5.

I went round, leaving cards and pamphlets on all the Cardinals in Rome.

May 31. Trinity Sunday. Heard the Armenian Mass at S. Nicola da Tolentino. The clerks in red or blue, as last Sunday, stood in semicircle before the altar. Priest in white cope, with square standing collar and white silk embroidered cap, entered with deacon and subdeacon in red silk tunics, the deacon bearing the censer, preceded by two candles and two jangles, circles of little bells on the top of staves. Arrived at the altar, the priest censed the altar, and turning round censed also each clerk in the semicircle. The normal position of deacon and subdeacon was at the ends of the semicircle; the candle-bearers took their place in the semicircle, vested like the others, the jangle-bearers at each end of the altar, where they jangled incessantly. After the censing the priest blessed all with a crucifix, a ceremony incessantly repeated. Then a red curtain was drawn across, between the clerks and the ministers of the altar, for a short time. The singing went on without a break.

The curtain withdrawn, one clerk out of the semicircle read a lesson. Then the deacon took the book of the gospels from a table on the gospel side of the sanctuary, where were also the sacred vessels and four candles burning. With the book he passed behind the altar, candle-bearers and jangles preceding, and the subdeacon with the incense accompanying. They came round the altar, and the deacon mounted to it at the gospel corner, where he sang the gospel facing round the church, the priest standing by him and the sub-deacon serving the incense below, the candle-bearers standing by the book. [Sic. I suppose I must have meant down.]

After the Gospel much singing. Then the deacon took the sacred vessels, just as he had taken the Gospel book, round the altar. They were covered with a veil of gauze, jewelled. The priest received them, held them above his head, and then placed them on the altar; then rinsed his fingers. He then censed the oblations. Much singing followed, the deacon now standing behind the priest censing, and from time to time turning round and censing each of the clerks in the semicircle. The subdeacon sang all the time. Presently, as the canon proceeded, the subdeacon joined the deacon behind the priest, the candle-bearers stood on either side of them, and the jangle-bearers beyond, making a line of six. Then all knelt, singing the whole time, the priest's voice being occasionally heard. The actual consecration was sung by the priest. After the consecration of the host a long amen was sung by the deacon or subdeacon, repeated by the chorus. The priest genuflected. (N.B.--He said the first part of the canon brachiis extensis in modum crucis). After the consecration of the cup all rose at once, the priest genuflecting, and the singing was resumed: the deacon as before censing the altar and the choir incessantly. After some time the priest turned round holding chalice and host, and chanted several verses, the rest responding; during this all knelt. Then a white curtain was drawn across, some of the chorus being within it. Presently it was withdrawn, and the priest had now put on his cap again. (It was taken off and laid on the altar at the Offertory.) He blessed, and then turning round read a good deal from a book held by two clerks: and so all departed. Afterwards a person in lay clothes, who had been assisting at the Mass in the nave, went up to the altar and in a very unceremonious way bustled the sacred vessels off to the credence and put out the candles. The Sacrament is reserved on the high altar, but no one takes any notice of it.

June 1. Called on Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli (34 Via di Monte Giordano). He was just back from Frascati and had not yet read the pamphlets. He was keenly interested in Mr. Gladstone's letter; he had read about it in the Univers; was it true? I asked him directly whether he was seised of our question. He said, not yet, but he expected to be so shortly: meanwhile he thought it was in the hands of some consultors. My interview was shortened by the announcement of a lady who was starting for Bologna in the morning. I went on to Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli (147 Via Giulia). He had read the pamphlets and found them clear. I would rather have had a request for explanation than the compliment. I spoke about Mr. Gladstone's letter. It was pretty obvious from his manner that he had seen it, but he too asked for information about it. He thought we ought not to leave Rome yet. I tried to find out why, but without success. I asked him if he could tell me what is the actual state of affairs. He told me that so far as he knew Cardinal Mazzella had presented his report to the Holy Father, who since then had spoken not a word about it to any one; but he thought--emphasizing this as a mere personal impression--that the Pope might perhaps take occasion from Mr. Gladstone's letter to put something out of his own motion. My interview was shortened by the announcement of a lady who is leaving to-morrow for Bologna!

Afterwards I went to the Cardinal Vicar, who saw M. Portal before me. As soon as I got into the room be burst out about some new discovery to the effect that St. Pius V had withdrawn, or wished to withdraw, the Bull Regnans in excelsis, but it had passed too soon into promulgation. We ought to work at this in the Archives, where we should find evidence, he said, of the friendliness of the Roman authorities of that time for Elizabeth. It was the same with Sixtus V, who detested the ecclesiastical policy of Philip. [By the Cardinal's advice we called on the Jesuit, Padre Carini, who gave us a pamphlet which he had written on the subject: Monsignor Niccolo Ormaneto, Veronese, Vescovo di Padova, Nunzio Apostolico alia Carte di Filippo II Re di Spagna, 1572-1577. The revelation does not amount to much. Ormaneto, who had been in England with Pole, was so conscious of the difficulties hindering the proposed war against Elizabeth, so disgusted with the King of France for inviting her to be sponsor to his daughter in baptism, and with the Duke of Alva for making a treaty with her, that he was disposed to fall back upon the alternative plan of converting the Queen instead of deposing her. This seemed almost impossible, in view of her bad character and that of her principal minister, "sed apud Deum omnia possibilia." All this is detailed in his correspondence with the Cardinal Secretary of State, where he also explains that Pius V had been conscious of his mistake in publishing the Bull of Excommunication and Deposition. "Parlandone sua S** dopo il fatto, volendo che si rimediasse a certi disordini che erano stati per occasione di quella bolla privatoria, la quale non si doveva mai pubblicare se no quando andava l'esercito in Inghilterra per far quella impresa, talche in una mano si portassero le chiavi di S. Pietro, che era la privatione, et nel' altra la spada di S. Paolo, perche l'essersi pubblicata la bolla privatoria senza far la conquista del Regno ha causato gran male, et la morte di molti huomini catciet fatta quella Donna molto maggiore nimica della Sede Apca." That is to say, the Bull should not have been published until there was a Spanish army well placed in England. The most interesting part of the record is the admission that the sufferings of the English Papists were a consequence of the Bull, Elizabeth having turned upon them in self-defence.] This, he thought, when published, would deeply impress minds in England. He spoke warmly of the loyauté de soldat of the Archbishop of York.

He also asked with considerable emphasis whether we could get behind the prejudices of the English people, and so draw them on to the Catholic Faith. He did not actually draw a comparison with others, which was, however, pretty obvious. [His persistence in recurring to this theme was remarkable. See above, May 29th. I remember that he also talked much about the Life of Cardinal Manning, then recently published.] He blessed me most affectionately on dismissing me.

June 2. Visited the Palatine with Father Puller, also the Ara Coeli. Evening, dined with Oxenham.

June 3. Times of Monday arrived with Mr. Gladstone's memoir and short note by the Archbishop of York. We passed this on to the Voce della Verita.

June 4. Mgr. Guthlin (Lucius Lector), [Author of Le Conclave.] talking with Mgr. Thomas, reported a conversation with Cardinal Steinhiiber about the de Re Anglicana. "Look at these statistics," he said, "they are most remarkable. All these religious, and these retreats. Of course we cannot say at once that their orders are valid, but something will have to be done."

Later in the day we all called on Mgr. Guthlin. He is canonist to the French Embassy: he repeated his conversation with Cardinal Steinhüber in great detail.

We afterwards went to S. Maria in Capella to assist at the Procession of the Blessed Sacrament, which goes round the garden of the Convent, Benediction being given at two improvised altars.

In the late evening I called on M. Duchesne. Mgr. Guthlin had been talking to him also about the remarks of Cardinal Steinhüber, which he thinks very significant.

He asked about the mission of the Bishop of Peterborough to Moscow: was he attached to the extraordinary embassy? I explained the circumstances, including the unwillingness of the Queen to give her consent. He and M. Fabre consider that the most interesting feature of the proceeding is the action of the Church apart from, but in perfect good understanding with the civil power.

This has been a remarkable Fête Dieu. For the first time since 1870 there have been processions of the Blessed Sacrament in the streets. This morning Duchesne himself carried it from a little church near the Farnese into the Piazza Farnese. In the afternoon was another procession in the Piazza di Spagna. There was no difficulty at all with the authorities or with the people. Duchesne puts together this, and the Mass the other day at the Ara Coeli, and the speech made by the Marchese di Rudini in the Chamber on Tuesday in reference to the Pope's intervention with Menelik about the prisoners, as three serious indications of the approach of a better state of things. [A Mass of Requiem for those killed in the disastrous Abyssinian campaign, which was attended by the King, the members of the Legislature, and the Roman municipality.]

June 5. Called on Cardinal Segna, but got nothing out of him, except pious generalities. He seems to be very much at a loss to know why he was made Cardinal. When I tried to engage him more closely on the question of the day his French suddenly became very deficient. [I must have been in a very bad temper to make these slighting remarks on Cardinal Segna. His erudition, old-fashioned though it was, his kindliness, and his simplicity, ought to have made it impossible so to speak of him. I remember his words: "Le Saint Père m'a fait Cardinal, je ne sais pas pourquoi"; and I do not know how they could be taken for anything but an expression of genuine humility. Others could tell why he was made Cardinal. His repeated courtesy to friends whom I afterwards commended to him, and notably to the late Mr. David Greig, in whom he found a kindred spirit, shames me into making this most inadequate apology.]

Afternoon, called on Cardinal Steinhüber. Found him extremely pleasant, but in no way encouraging. He had read the pamphlets with great interest, and was of course interested in Mr. Gladstone; a confrere in the Society, Father Porter, Archbishop of Bombay, had often told him that he was sure Mr. Gladstone would die in the Catholic Church.

June 6. Father Puller called on Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli, who told him that a commission of Cardinals was forthwith to take up the question of the Ordinations. He would receive the dossier on Monday, and the first meeting would be on Wednesday or Thursday. Father Puller asked him directly whether it was a special Commission or the Holy Office. He replied, "I am on this Commission: I am also in the Holy Office." Father Puller concluded from his manner that it was not the Holy Office.

June 5. Forgot to mention that this morning we assisted at Mass in the crypt at St. Peter's, celebrated by M. Portal; seven Sisters of Charity from S. Onofrio also assisted.

June 7. Heard the Pope's Mass in the private chapel of the apartment at 8 o'clock. Afterwards two parties had private audience, but the Pope being very fatigued we did not manage to secure one. He came into the outer room and blessed us all, "For you and for your families."

Portal called on Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli, who told him that the instruction to the Commission was to study the documents for a month. He said among other things that we had made a good impression; we have made it evident that the question is a serious one. They are much struck by the absence of timidity or supplication in our manner. I suppose there is no "drop-down-dead-ativeness."

Afternoon, we called at the Farnese, and went on with Duchesne and M. Fabre to the Procession at Casa Torlonia, in which we joined.

June 8. Called in the morning on the Superior of the Sulpicians to say goodbye. Afterwards to the Vatican to see Cardinal Rampolla by appointment at one o'clock. Congregations were just breaking up. Cardinals Serafino Vannutelli, Segna, and Steinhüber met us in the antechamber and greeted us warmly. Father Puller and I went in first to the Cardinal. He was curiously nervous in manner, but most encouraging. He sent a message for Mr. Gladstone direct from the Holy Father, that he was much touched by the expressions used in the memoir. He said with great emphasis, "Le Saint Pere s'est occupé beaucoup lui-même de votre question, et vous pourrez vous assurer qu'il la traitera avec la plus parfaite impartialité. Il ne cherche que la vérité, mais avec le plus possible de la charité." He repeated this several times, and added, "Voila en deux mots notre politique." We got to the subject of Mr. Gladstone's work on Butler, and he then spoke in Mr. Gladstone's own words of the necessity of combination against unbelief.

Father Puller then left for Milan. Portal and I called at the Farnese, and afterwards at S. Maria in Capella.

Returning to the Pension we found Mgr. Marini, Substitute of the Rota, waiting for us. He is launching a review in connection with the movement for the reunion of the Eastern churches, of which he is going to print at once 10,000 copies; the inference is that he has very influential backing. He wants our co-operation.

We afterwards drove round the Villa Borghese, and after dining left Rome at 10.20 for Pisa and Genoa.

June 9. Soon after sunrise got a very good view of Pisa from the train; Duomo, Baptistery and Campanile, as well as of the river. It rained hard all day, and we got hardly any views of the Alps, but there was much fresh snow.

June 10. Arrived at Paris soon after seven and drove straight to the Lazarists. Afterwards called on M. Leve, the printer of the Monde and of the Revue Anglo-Romaine. He is terribly crippled with gout; a most pious and edifying man. Then to the Institut Catholique, which is installed in the old Carmelite Convent, where the massacres of September began. Saw Mgr. Gasparri, and with him called on Mgr. d'Hulst, the rector of the Institut. Talked with him of our doings in Rome, and of English affairs generally, presenting him with a copy of de Re Anglicana. He was much struck by the suggestion that the Irish are the great hindrance to the acceptance of Catholic teaching by the English, and turning to Gasparri, said, "Like the Poles in Russia." [He had gathered this from the Life of Manning, and asked me whether it was true.] We called also on M. Arthur Loth at the office of La Vtriti, and on M. Tavernier at the office of l'Univers. The latter had just received from his correspondent a telegram warning him not to be too keen in support of Portal. [Sic. I do not remember the particulars.] That means, they agreed, that some one is preparing a blow for Portal. We also called on l'Abbé Klein, but did not find him at home.

June 11. At the Community Mass at the Lazarists seven seminarists communicated, and also several lay folk. The normal thing on weekdays, I was assured. M. Boudinhon came up from the country to-day to see me--a most cheery, jovial man. We read my Supplementum together, and he was keenly interested in the Council of Mainz, and in the description of the Ordinal by Pole. We then talked about the coming Encyclical. [The Apostolic Letter Satis Cognitum, of which I had already heard something from Mgr. Gasparri in Rome.] Gasparri had a long interview with the Pope about it before leaving Rome, and had described what was coming to M. Boudinhon. The object of the Pope is to settle the question as to the difference of unicitas and unitas, showing that the Ecclesia una is not numerically the same as the Ecclesia unica. This is important, as it will justify M. Boudinhon's theory about schism, as not cutting off from the Church absolutely, but as depriving the schismatics of the legitimate exercise of their functions. [For which see his articles, Primauté, Schisme et Juridiction, in the Revue Anglo-Romaine, Tome II, pp. 97-107, and 160-71.]

The Abbé Klein also called to see me. He was very pleasant, avoiding delicate ground, and asked me to find him an "installation" at Cambridge for himself and a pupil at the summer meeting.

A. and B. also called to see me. Left Paris at 9 o'clock, evening.

Got the Monde for to-morrow, containing a very remarkable communication from the Roman correspondent. He speaks of our hearing the Pope's Mass last Sunday, with comments which could hardly have been inspired by any one but Cardinal Rampolla. He adds that the Pope will shortly have ready an utterance on the Anglican question, which will not be a reply to Mr. Gladstone, as it was begun before Mr. Gladstone's letter appeared.

June 12. Arrived Holborn Viaduct 6 a.m. Went up to High gate. Afterwards called on Lord Halifax, and stayed to dine with him.

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