Project Canterbury

The Church of England in Nova Scotia and the Tory Clergy of the Revolution

By Arthur Wentworth Eaton

New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1891.

Chapter XVI. Royal Governors of Nova Scotia

COLONEL SAMUEL VETCH was adjutant-general of the expedition against Port Royal in 1710, received the keys of the fort of Annapolis Royal, October 5, 1710, and October 22d, became governor of the fort and the country, his titles being "Adjutant-general of all her Majesty's of Great Britain's forces, General and Commander-in-chief of all her troops in these parts, and Governor of the Fort of Annapolis Royal and country of L'Accady and Nova Scotia." He held the office until the twentieth of October, 1712, when General Francis Nicholson, who had commanded the expedition against Port Royal, was appointed. Colonel Vetch was the son of "a godly minister and a glorifier of God in the Grass Market," Edinburgh. He was one of the seven councillors who constituted the local government of the colony of Caledonia, a Scotch settlement established in 1698 at Darien, a little south of the Isthmus of Panama, but soon abandoned "as an unjustifiable encroachment on Spanish territory." In 1699, Mr. Vetch, with several others of the Darien expedition, came to New York, where, on the twentieth of December, 1700, he married Margaret, daughter of Robert Livingston, of Albany.

GENERAL FRANCIS NICHOLSON was lieutenant-governor of New England in 1688, lieutenant-governor of New York in 1689, of Virginia in 1690, and of Maryland from 1692 to 1698. In the latter year he was appointed Governor-in-Chief of Virginia. In 1710 he was appointed to command the expedition which brought about the surrender of Port Royal, and after that he went to England to solicit the crown to adopt measures for the conquest of Canada, in the abortive expedition for which he actively engaged. His commissions as General and Commander-in-Chief of the forces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and as Governor of Nova Scotia and of the town and garrison of Annapolis Royal, are dated at Windsor Castle, October 20, 1712. The latter position he held until January 20, 1715, when Colonel Vetch was again appointed governor of Nova Scotia. During this time, however, General Nicholson made but one short visit to the province, Colonel Caulfield being his lieutenant. Queen Anne died August 1, 1714, and George I. became king. It is said that General Nicholson was governor of South Carolina from 1721 to 1725. No other person was ever governor of so many different provinces.

COLONEL SAMUEL VETCH was again governor from October 20, 1715, the date of his commission, to August 17, 1717.

COLONEL RICHARD PHILIPPS.--His commission as Governor of Nova Scotia and of Placentia, and Captain-General of the forces, bears date August 17, 1717. In Newfoundland he succeeded Moody, and in Nova Scotia Vetch. He received a second commission September n, 1728, and continued to be governor until 1749, though the lieutenant-governor and presidents of council actually administered the government a great part of the time. He was born in 1661, and as a young man is said to have been employed in distributing the manifestoes of the Prince of Orange among the troops encamped at Hounslow, for which service he was made captain. He served at the battle of the Boyne in 1690, became colonel of the Twelfth Regiment of foot, March 16,1712, and of the Fortieth Regiment, August 25, 1717. He belonged to a family in South Wales, of whom Sir John Philipps, Bart., was the founder. He died in 1751, aged ninety.

In April, 1720, Governor Philipps formed the first council of Nova Scotia. The following gentlemen were chosen councillors: John Dou-cett, lieutenant-governor of the fort; Lawrence Armstrong, Paul Mascarene, Cyprian Southack, Rev. John Harrison, chaplain; Arthur Savage, John Adams, Hibbert Newton, William Skene or Skeen, William Sheriff, and Peter Boudrie. In August Gillam Philipps was added. Few English families having removed to the province, this council was composed of the officers of the garrison and public departments, and Mr. Adams was the only inhabitant admitted to the board. "Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia," Vol. I., p. 94.

Governor Philipps left Annapolis, August 27, 1731, and Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence Armstrong administered the government. The latter committed suicide the night before the sixth of December, 1739, and Mr. John Adams, as senior councillor, began to act as lieutenant governor. Major Paul Mascarene was in reality senior councillor, but he was in Boston at the time of Lieutenant-Governor Armstrong's death. He hastened back, however, and claimed the position. His right being conceded by the council, he assumed the administration of the government, and continued to exercise this function until 1749, when the settlement of the province was begun anew. In that year the Honorable Edward (afterward Lord) Cornwallis was sent from England with a colony of English settlers, numbering in all, it is said, 2,576 persons. Early in July many of these settlers were landed on George's Island, in Halifax harbor, but more on the peninsula where the city of Halifax now stands. Before the twenty-third of July (old style) twelve acres of the site of the intended town had been cleared, and Governor Cornwallis "expected to begin to erect his own house in two days thence, having a small frame and planks ready." On the twelfth of July (old style) Colonel Mascarene arrived at Chebucto, accompanied, as Governor Cornwallis had requested, by five of the council (a quorum). The next day the governor exhibited his commission to them and took the oath of office. He appointed a new council, who, that day, met with him on board the "Beaufort," transport, in the harbor and took the oaths. They were, as has previously been said, Paul Mascarene, John Goreham, Benjamin Green, John Salisbury and Hugh Davidson (Edward Howe being absent). COLONEL, THE HONORABLE EDWARD CORN-WALLIS (afterward Lord Cornwallis), son of Charles, third Baron Cornwallis, was born in 1712. He was colonel of the Twenty-fourth Regiment of foot, was appointed governor of Nova Scotia with a salary of one thousand pounds a year (the customary salary for the governors of Nova Scotia at this period), was M.P. for Eye in 1749, and for Westminster in 1753; was made a governor of the bedchamber, and finally became governor of Gibraltar. His twin brother, Frederick, was Archbishop of Canterbury. He was gazetted Governor of Nova Scotia, May 9,1749, and sailed from England May I4th (old style). He was sworn in governor July 14, 1749.

COLONEL PEREGRINE THOMAS HOPSON, who had arrived from England July 26th, was sworn in governor on Monday, August 3, 1752. He was also commissioned Vice-Admiral. He sailed for England in the "Torrington," November i, 1753, and the command of the province devolved upon the lieutenant-governor, the Hon. Major Charles Lawrence. Colonel Hopson was commander-in-chief at Louisburg when that place was restored to the French under the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. He came up with the army to Chebucto in July, 1749, and was soon sworn in senior councillor. After leaving Nova Scotia he was in active military service until his death, which occurred January 27, 1759.

COLONEL CHARLES LAWRENCE, appointed lieutenant-governor July 17, 1750, was made governor of the province July 23, 1756. Governor Hopson sailed for England November 1, 1753, and Colonel Lawrence probably administered the government until he himself was appointed governor. He was major in Warburton's regiment of foot, under Governor Hopson, in the garrison of Louisburg. He died Saturday, October 11, 1760. He never married. His administration in Nova Scotia covers the important period of the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755, and the resettlement of their lands in 1760-62 by New England people.

HENRY ELLIS, ESQ., who had been governor of Georgia in 1756, was appointed governor of Nova Scotia in the spring of 1761. He was in England at the time, and arrangements were made by the council in Nova Scotia for his reception, but for some reason he never came out. Chief-Justice Jonathan Belcher took the oath as lieutenant-governor, November 9, 1761, and the Hon. Colonel Montague Wilmot, September 26, 1762.

THE HONORABLE COLONEL MONTAGUE WlLMOT, who took the oath of office as lieutenant-governor September 26, 1762, was appointed governor, October 8, 1763. By a proclamation dated at St. James, October 7, 1763, the islands of St. John and Cape Breton, or Ile Royale, "with the lesser islands adjacent thereto," were annexed to the government of Nova Scotia. Governor Wilmot died, May 23, 1766.

THE RIGHT HONORABLE LORD WILLIAM CAMPBELL, youngest son of the fourth Duke of Argyle, was sworn in governor, November 27, 1766. He had been appointed Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of South Carolina in the room of Lord Charles Greville Montague, in June, 1773. He married, in 1763, Sarah, daughter of Ralph Izard, of Charleston, S. C. In 1764 he was a member of the English House of Commons.

MAJOR FRANCIS LEGGE, a relation of the Earl of Dartmouth, was appointed Captain-General and Governor-in-chief of Nova Scotia in June, 1773. He was sworn in, October S, 1773. His administration was not successful. He left the province in 1776, but continued to hold the office for some years longer, during which its duties were administered successively by Lieutenant-Governors Mariot Arbuthnot, Richard Hughes, and Sir Andrew Snape Hamond.

JOHN PARR, ESQ., took the oaths of office October 19, 1782. He was commissioned Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief and also Vice-Admiral. Sir Andrew Snape Hamond, the lieutenant-governor, had expected the office, and feeling himself aggrieved, resigned his lieutenant-governorship, October 8, 1782. It was during Governor Parr's administration that the chief Loyalist emigration took place. He ceased to be governor in October, 1786, on the appointment of Lord Dorchester as Governor-General of all the British provinces in America. On the fifth of April, 1787, the king's commission was read in council appointing him lieutenant-governor. After the appointment of a Governor-General over all the provinces, the governors of the several provinces bore the title of lieutenant-governor, while they administered provincial affairs nearly as independently as before. The Governor-General on his appointment was obliged to take the oath of office for each separate province. Lieutenant-Governor Parr died after a short illness on Friday, November 25, 1791, in his sixty-sixth year.

JOHN WENTWORTH, ESQ., of New Hampshire, afterward Sir John Wentworth, Bart., a surveyor of his majesty's woods and forests in North America, who had been lieutenant-governor of New Hampshire, arrived at Halifax on Saturday, May 12, 1792, in H. M. frigate "Hussar," Rupert George, Esq., commander, after a five weeks' voyage from Falmouth, England. On Monday, May I4th, at one o'clock, he was sworn into office, [n 1795 he was created a baronet, and June 16, 1796, he was still further honored with the privilege of wearing in the chevron of his arms two keys as an emblem of his fidelity. In 1808 he resigned his office, and the thirteenth of April of that year Sir George Prevost was sworn in, his successor. From June r, 1808, until his death, he received a pension of five hundred pounds per annum. He was a son of Governor Mark Hunking and Elizabeth Rindge Wentworth, was baptized August 14, 1736-37, graduated at Harvard College in 1755, and received the degree of M.A. there in 1758. He married at Portsmouth, November 11, 1769, his cousin, Mrs. Frances (Wentworth) Atkinson, widow of Theodore Atkinson, jr. Their only son who lived was Sir Charles-Mary Wentworth, at whose death the baronetcy became extinct. Sir John died at Halifax, April 8, 1820; Lady Wentworth died at Sunning Hall, Berkshire, England, February 14, 1813, in her sixty-eighth year. Benning Wentworth, brother of Lady Wentworth, and Sir Charles-Mary were successively secretaries of the province.

The period of Governor Wentworth's incumbency of this office, owing to the residence in the province at this time of the Duke of Kent, Queen Victoria's father, is the most conspicuous of any in the history of Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotians were dazzled with the presence of royalty among them, and the Prince was personally very popular. At Government House, where great state was maintained, he was a frequent visitor, and it was during his residence that Governor Wentworth was created a baronet.

On Sunday, May 31, 1795, His Royal Highness and all the officers of the garrison went to the levee at Government House to congratulate Sir John and Lady Wentworth on the Governor's newly-acquired title. Prince Edward was in command of the forces in British North America in 1793, and was then resident at Quebec. He arrived at Halifax, from St. Kitts, May 10, 1794. He left Halifax finally August 3, 1800. During his residence here his brother, Prince William Henry, then a young naval officer, afterward King William IV., repeatedly visited the province. The presence for so long a time in Nova Scotia of the father of her majesty, Queen Victoria, has undoubtedly always given Nova Scotians a feeling of greater personal loyalty towards the Queen than they could otherwise have had. In later years at least three of her children and two of her grandchildren have visited the province. The "Prince's Lodge," about six miles from Halifax, was, as we have said, the property of Sir John Wentworth, who, in 1793, built a cottage on this beautiful spot, which he called "Friar Laurence's Cell." The Duke afterward enlarged and improved this cottage, which Sir John later occupied as his villa. The Prince of Wales visited the spot in 1860. The Duke of Kent was all his life particularly kind to Nova Scotians.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR GEORGE PREVOST, BART., was commissioned Lieutenant-General of Nova Scotia, January 15, 1808. He arrived at Halifax, April 7th of that year, and was sworn into office April 13th. In 1811, he was appointed Governor-in-Chief of Canada. On the twenty-fifth of August, 1811, he sailed for Quebec, and Alexander Croke, LL.D., Judge of Vice-Admiralty and a member of the council, was appointed to administer the government. Sir George was very popular in Nova Scotia.

GENERAL SIR JOHN COAPE SHERBROOK, K.B., was sworn in Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, October 16, 1811. He was appointed by the Prince Regent (King George IV.), June 18, 1816, Governor-in-Chief of all the British North American provinces, and on the twenty-eighth of June, Major-General George Stracey Smyth was sworn in as administrator of the government of Nova Scotia.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL GEORGE RAMSAY, ninth Earl of Dalhousie, arrived in Halifax, October 24, 1816, and was at once sworn in lieutenant-governor. He, too, in 1819, was made Governor-in-chief of the British provinces, succeeding the Duke of Richmond. As Governor-in-chief, he took the oath for this province November 24, 1819. He was born in 1770, succeeded his father in 1787, and later became Marquis Dalhousie. After he left America he became Governor-General of India.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR JAMES KEMPT, G.C.B., was appointed by the regent October 20, 1819. He arrived in Halifax with his suite June 1, 1820, and next day was sworn in lieutenant-governor. He was born in Edinburgh, in 1765, was captain of the 113th Foot, served in Ireland and Holland, and was made lieutenant-colonel in 1799. He was at one time in service in the Spanish Peninsula. In 1813 he was colonel-commandant of the 60th Foot, and was severely wounded at Waterloo. He was made Knight Grand Cross of the Bath and received several foreign orders. He was successively lieutenant-general (May 27, 1825), master-general of the Ordnance, and General (1841). He died in London, December 20,1855.

SIR PEREGRINE MAITLAND, appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada in 1818, his father-in-law, the Duke of Richmond, being Governor-General of Canada, was lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia from 1827 till 1833. He was born in Hampshire, England, in 1777, and died in London, May 30, 1854. He entered the army in 1792, served in Flanders and Spain, and was at Waterloo in command of the First British Brigade. For his services there he was made K.C.B., June 22, 1815. From December, 1843, until September, 1846, he was Governor and Commander-in-Chief at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1846 he was made a general, and in 1852 a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.

GENERAL SIR COLIN CAMPBELL, fifth son of John Campbell, of Melfort, and his wife Colina, daughter of John Campbell, of Auchalader, born in 1776, was lieutenant-governor, of Nova Scotia from 1833 till 1839. His army life began in 1795, when he became a lieutenant in the third battalion of the Breadalbane Fencibles, then commanded by his uncle. In 1801, he was gazetted a lieutenant in the 35th Regiment, and at once exchanged into the 78th, then in India. In Wellesley's advance guard against the Maharajah of Scindia, and the Rajah of Nagpore, he so distinguished himself that he was appointed brigade-major. After leaving India he received a company in the 75th Highlanders, and became aid-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington. From that time he steadily rose, until in 1814 he was made captain and lieutenant-colonel in the Coldstream Guards, appointed assistant quarter-master-general at the Horse Guards, and received a K.C.B. The next year he was attached to the staff of the Duke of Wellington as commander at head-quarters and was present at the battle of Waterloo. In 1818, he became lieutenant-colonel of the 65th Regiment, and in 1825, major-general. After he left Nova Scotia, he was Governor of Ceylon, from September, 1839, till June, 1847. H° died in England, June 13th of that year, and was buried in the Church of St. James, Piccadilly.

VISCOUNT FALKLAND, P.C., G.C.H. (Sir Lucius-Bentinck Cary), born November 5, 1803, was returned heir to his father, ninth Viscount Falkland, in the peerage of Scotland, March 2, 1809. He was lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia from 1840 to 1846. His first wife was Amelia Fitz Clarence, sister of the Earl of Munster, one of the natural children of King William IV., his second, Elizabeth Catherine, dowager duchess of St. Albans. He was created an English peer, May 15, 1832. He was governor of Bombay from 1848 to 1853.

SIR JOHN HARVEY, born in 1778, died in Halifax and was buried there March 22, 1852. He entered the army in the Eightieth Regiment, served in Holland, France, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Egypt. In 1812 he was appointed deputy adjutant-general to the army in Canada, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was aid-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington in his Waterloo campaign; from 1837 till 1841 was governor of New Brunswick, from 1841 to 1846, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Newfoundland, and in 1846 was appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. He held this office until his death in 1852. He attained the rank of K.C.B., in 1838.

SIR JOHN GASPARD LE MARCHANT, son of J. G. Le Marchant, Esq. (a major-general in the army and the first lieutenant-governor of the Royal Military College), was a lieutenant-colonel, Knight of the first and third classes of St. Ferdinand, and Knight Commander of St. Carlos of Spain. He was born in 1803 and married in 1839. He succeeded Sir John Harvey as lieutenant-governor of Newfoundland in 1847 and of Nova Scotia in 1852.

AUGUSTUS CONSTANTINE PHIPPS, second Marquis Normanby and Earl Mulgrave, born on the twenty-third of July, 1819, entered the Scots Fusilier Guards in 1838, was comptroller and subsequently treasurer of the queen's household, and from 1858 to 1864 lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. He retained this office until his succession to his father's title, July 28, 1863, when he resigned. He was appointed governor of Queensland in 1871, of New Zealand in 1874, and of Victoria in 1878.

SIR RICHARD GRAVES MACDONNELL, K.C. M.G., LL.D., was lieutenant-governor from April, 1864, until some time in 1866. He was the eldest son of the Rev. Richard Macdonnell, D.D., provost of Trinity College, Dublin, and was born in 1815. Pie was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the bar of Ireland in 1838, and of England in 1840. He was Chief Justice of the Gambia in 1843, governor of the British settlements on the Gambia in 1847, and was for a long time occupied in exploring the interior of Africa. In 185,' he was governor of St. Vincent and Captain-General, and in 1855, governor-in-Chief of South Australia, where he made valuable exploratons. From October 14, 1865, until 1872, he was governor of Hong Kong, He was made K.C.M.G., in 1871.

SIR WILLIAM FENVVICK WILLIAMS, BART., K.C.B., perhaps the most illustrious of Nova Scotia's sons, was born at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, December, 1800. At an early age, through the interest of the Duke of Kent, he was placed in the Royal Academy at Woolwich. Entering the army he attained the rank of captain in 1840. His most distinguished service was in the Crimea, where he earned for himself an undying name as "the Hero of Kars." One of the gallant defenders of that town, during its four months' siege by Mouravieff, General Williams, on the twenty-ninth of September, 1855, gave the besiegers battle, and after a fierce conflict of eight hours' duration, defeated a force much larger than his own on the heights above Kars. The town fell, however, and General Williams was taken a prisoner, first to Moscow, then to St. Petersburg. He was almost immediately after created a baronet. In 1858 he was Commander-in-Chief of the forces in British North America. He administered the government of Canada from October 12, 1860, until January 22, 1861. In 1866 and '67 he was lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, his native province. He was made D.C.L. by Oxford, in 1856.

SIR CHARLES HASTINGS DOYLE, K.C.M.G., was lieutenant-governor from 1867 to 1873. He was the eldest son of Sir Charles William Doyle, C.B., G.C.H., and Sophia, his wife, daughter of Sir John Coghill, and was born in 1805. He was educated at Sandhurst, and entered the army as an ensign in the Eighty-seventh, his great uncle, Sir John Doyle's regiment. He was in service in the East, the West Indies, Canada, and Ireland. During the American war he commanded the troops in Nova Scotia, and showed great tact in the Chesapeake affair. He was appointed colonel of the Seventieth Regiment in May, 1868, and was made K.C.M.G., in 1869. After other service he died in London, March 19, 1883.

THE HONORABLE JOSEPH HOWE, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, December 13, 1804, died there June 1, 1873. He was a son of John Howe, journalist, in 1775-76, editor with Mrs. Margeret Draper, of the Boston News Letter. His father, who was born in Boston in 1753, went as a Loyalist to Halifax, where he became King's printer, and died in 1835. Joseph Howe, himself, was an editor, a member of the council from 1848 to 1854, and provincial secretary. He superintended the construction of the first railways in Nova Scotia, and in 1863 was premier of the province. He was in the Dominion cabinet in 1869 as president of the council, and in 1870 secretary of state and superintendent-general of Indian affairs. May 10, 1873, he took the oath as lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, having been appointed May 1st. He died in July of that year, when his long-time political opponent, Judge James William Johnston, was appointed to the office. Mr. Howe was buried in Camp Hill Cemetery in Halifax.

THE HONORABLE JAMES WILLIAM JOHNSTON, Judge in Equity, M.L.C., attorney-general, solicitor-general, and representative in the legislature of Nova Scotia, was born in Jamaica, August 29, 1792. He was a son of Captain William Morcton Johnston and Elizabeth (Lightenstone), his wife, and grandson of Dr. Lewis Johnston, who emigrated from Scotland to Georgia, where he became a member of council. Judge Johnston was educated in Scotland, and admitted to the bar in 1813. He was in the south of France when, on the death of Lieutenant-Governor Howe, he received news of his appointment to the office. He accepted the appointment, but died on the way home.

SIR ADAMS GEORGE ARCHIBALD, K.C.M.G., son of Samuel, grandson of Judge James Archibald, of the court of common pleas, was born in Truro, Nova Scotia, May 3, 1814. He was called to the bar of Prince Edward Island in 1838, and of Nova Scotia in 1839. He was a member of the executive council, first as solicitor-general from August 14, 1856, to February 14, 1857, then as attorney-general from February 10, 1860, to June n, 1863. He was a delegate to England to arrange the terms of settlement with the British Government and the general mining association in respect to Nova Scotian mines, and also to obtain the views of Government relative to the projected union of the British-American provinces. He was sworn to the privy council July 1, 1867, but resigned in 1868. From May 20, 1870, to May, 1873, he was lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, and the north-western territories. From June 24 to July 4, 1873, he was Judge in Equity of Nova Scotia, and at the latter date was appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. In 1873 he was one of the directors of the Canadian Pacific railroad under Sir Hugh Allan. He was knighted in 1885. Sir Adams Archibald is now living quietly at his home in Truro.

MATTHEW HENRY RICKEY, born at Windsor, Nova Scotia, June 10, 1828, is the son of the late Rev. Matthew Richey, D.D., a Wesleyan clergyman, born in Ireland. He was educated at the collegiate school at Windsor, Upper Canada College, Toronto, and at Queen's College, Kingston. He was admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia in 1850, was made a Queen's Counsel in 1873, and received the degree of D.C.L. from Mount Allison Wesleyan College in 1884. He was a member of the Dominion parliament for Halifax from 1878 to July 4, 1883, when he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. He was mayor of Halifax from 1864 to 1867, and again from 1875 to 1878.

ARCHIBALD WOODBURY MCLELAN, born at Londonderry, Nova Scotia, December 24,1824, was a member of the house of assembly from 1858 until 'he confederation of the British provinces in 1867. From that date until he was called to the senate, June 21, 1869, he was a member of the Dominion parliament. May 20, 1881, he was elected to the Privy Council of Canada. July 10, 1822, he was appointed minister of marine and fisheries and, December 10, 1885, minister of finance. January 27, 1887, he was made postmaster-general, and in 1888 became lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. He died June 26, 1890.

MALACHY BOWES DALY is the son of Sir Dominick Daly, of an old Irish family of County Galway. Sir Dominick was for twenty-five years Colonial Secretary, and representative for Megantic in the Canadian legislature. He was lieutenant-governor of Tobago, and later of Prince Edward Island, and then Governor-in-Chief of South Australia. His wife was Maria, daughter of Colonel Gore, of Barrowmount, County Kilkenny. Malachy was born at Marchmount, near Quebec, February 6, 1836 was educated at St. Mary's College, Oscott, near Birmingham, England, and married at Halifax, July 4, 1859, Joanna, second daughter of Sir Edward Kenny, of Halifax, formerly a member of Sir John A. Macdonald's cabinet. He was called to the bar of Nova Scotia in 1864, and was private secretary successively to Sir Dominick Daly, governor of Prince Edward Island, and Sir R. G. Macdonnell and Sir Hastings Doyle, governors of Nova Scotia. He was also Provincial A.D.C. to Sir William Fenwick Williams.

He was sworn into office July 14, 1890.

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