Project Canterbury

The Church of England in Nova Scotia and the Tory Clergy of the Revolution

By Arthur Wentworth Eaton

New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1891.

Chapter V. Four Early Missions

IN this chapter we must briefly trace the four earliest missions of the Church in Nova Scotia, after that of Halifax: the missions in Lunenburg, Hants and Kings, Annapolis, and Cumberland counties. Nova Scotia is a peninsula, together with the island of Cape Breton, about three hundred and seventy-five miles in extreme length, and about seventy miles in average width, the whole area being twenty thousand eight hundred and eighty-two square miles. The province contains in all eighteen counties and has a population of about four hundred and sixty thousand. Along the Bay of Fundy, from northeast to southwest for about eighty miles, runs the North Mountain, its eastern end terminating in a bold spur or headland at the entrance to Minas Basin, the famous Blomidon,

"Grim, sullen guardsman
Of the gate-way of the tide,"

and parallel with this the South mountain, between which, with Windsor at its eastern end and Annapolis Royal, the ancient Port Royal, at its western end, lies the fertile Annapolis valley, which includes hundreds of acres of rich alluvial dyke land, formed through long ages by the constant in-flowing of the tide. These dyke lands, which in the whole province comprise perhaps between two and three hundred thousand acres, were in great part reclaimed from the sea by the industrious Acadians, the fruits of whose gigantic toil, people from New England entered into a few years after the forcible removal of the rightful owners of the soil. It is in this fertile valley, some seventy-five miles in length and ten or twelve in width, that the scene of Evangeline is laid, and that much of the most interesting life of Nova Scotia is to be found. Here lie the fine old towns, Windsor, Kentville, Bridgetown and Annapolis, in and around which many a proud family of New England Puritan or New York loyalist descent has lived. In this valley the second and third of the four earliest missions were located, the first, Lunen-burg, being on the southwestern shore, the fourth, Cumberland, being farther north toward the isthmus connecting Nova Scotia with New Brunswick.

When the new settlement at Halifax was made, the British government caused proclamations to be issued in the Swiss and German, as well as the English newspapers, offering land to any who would emigrate to the New World. So great were the inducements offered that, as has been already stated, within three or four years from the founding of Halifax, nearly two thousand Germans came to the Province, and these were soon supplemented by a few hundred Swiss and Protestant French. These foreign people were part Calvinists, part Lutherans, and the latter brought with them a schoolmaster who led their worship and gave religious instruction to their children in the Augsburg Confession, to which they loyally held. The little church in Brunswick Street, which they built soon after their arrival, was used both for public worship and for school purposes until March, 1761, when it was consecrated as an Episcopal church, by the Reverend Dr. Breynton, and received the name of St, George's.

In the spring of 1753, it was decided to remove the German settlers from Halifax to Merliguesh, about sixty miles south-westward of Halifax, on the Atlantic sea-board. Block houses, materials and frames for magazines, storehouses, and private dwellings, were got together, and some Boston transports engaged to carry the people and their effects thither. The first settlers arrived early in June, and soon a new town was laid out to which the name of Lunenburg was given. With these settlers, whose number was soon swelled to sixteen hundred, was sent the Reverend Jean Baptiste Moreau, who had been a Roman Catholic priest and prior of the Abbey of St. Matthew, at Brest, but in 1749 had been received into the communion of the Church of England, and at once had been sent out to Halifax as the Society's missionary to the French and Swiss, to whom he first preached, September 9, 1749.

Early in his ministry at Lunenburg, Mr. Moreau, writing to Halifax, says that fifty-six families of Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians, and Anabaptists, had become worthy members of the Church. The mention of the two latter denominations is to be accounted for by the fact that even before the removal of the Germans to Lunenburg, a considerable number of New England fishermen and traders had settled there, some of whom undoubtedly belonged to each of these two religious sects. Mr. Moreau at first held service in the open air, administering the Holy Communion to two hundred at a time under the blue sky. [Desbrisay's "History of Lunenburg."] In his mixed parish he ministered in three languages, acting also as missionary to the Indians, several of whose children he baptized. Soon, with the aid of the government, he made preparations for building a church, for the frame of which, as of St. Paul's, an order was sent to Boston, in the remote colony of Massachusetts Bay. Soon he writes the Society that there are more than two hundred regular communicants of French and Germans, who are entirely reconciled to the Church of England, and in a letter dated October r, 1755, he says that his French congregation increases every day, that they attend divine service regularly, and that there are seldom less than eighty or ninety communicants. In the preceding six months he had baptized thirty-nine children, married sixteen couples, and buried three grown persons and a few children. The Society's schoolmaster, working under his direction, was named Bailly. The same year the Reverend Thomas Wood, in his summer itinerancy, came to Lun-eriburg and performed the service in English, and with the assistance of Mr. Moreau, administered the Holy Communion to twenty-four Germans. At that time, it is said, in addition to the regular inhabitants, there were about a hundred and twenty English soldiers in the garrison at Lunenburg. Mr. Moreau's work there continued until early in 1770, when he died. His son, Cornwallis Moreau, was the first male child born in Halifax, and was named in the Lunenburg grant.

In 1761, the Society appointed Reverend Joseph Bennett itinerant missionary in Nova Scotia, with instructions to officiate chiefly at Lunenburg, "but occasionally also, as need shall require, in the several other townships which are or shall be erected in the Province, as the Governor shall direct, till the bounds of his mission are more fully settled." The new missionary was in the thirty-fourth year of his age, and was recommended to the Society as a man of good temper, prudence and learning, and of a sober and pious conversation, zealous for the Christian religion, thoroughly well affected to the government, and one who had always conformed to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England. Mr. Bennett was, therefore, born probably in 1728, and came from England to Nova Scotia in 1762. His appointment to Lunenburg was made by the S. P. G., but the lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, Jonathan Belcher, feeling the pressing need of an English missionary and choolmas-ter at Lunenburg, and not knowing of the Society's appointment, had engaged the Reverend Robert Vincent for this double service. Accordingly, on petition of Mr. Belcher, the Society cancelled its own appointment, and ratified the lieutenant-governor's choice, sending Mr. Bennett instead to Horton, Falmouth, Newport, and Cornwallis, with a salary of seventy pounds sterling for each place. In council, August 7, 1761, it was advised, that the Reverend Robert Vincent be appointed to minister at Lunenburg, at a salary of seventy pounds, and twenty pounds per annum as schoolmaster. August 13th, it was advised "that the Reverend Mr. Robert Vincent be admitted to celebrate Divine service in the Church at Lunenburg, and there perform all rites and ceremonies according to the usages of the Church of England, alternately with the Reverend Mr. Moreau; and that Colonel Sutherland be requested, accordingly, to adjust all matters relating to the Church between Mr. Moreau and Mr. Vincent." It is stated that Mr. Vincent was "remarkable for zealous application and moderate conduct in the course of his mission," and that in faithfulness to duty he went even beyond his strength. He died in 1766. [Murdoch's "History of Nova Scotia," Vol. II., p. 406.]

Two other early clergymen at Lunenburg were the Reverend Paulus Bryzelius, who had formerly been a Lutheran minister, and the Reverend Peter de la Roche. Mr. Bryzelius, before coming to Nova Scotia, had been ordained by the Bishop of London for the German mission at Lunenburg. He was for a time contemporary with Mr. Moreau, his work, especially among the young, being warmly eulogized by Lieutenant-Governor Francklin and Chief Justice Belcher. He is said to have held three services every Sunday, one in English, one in French, and one in German. For his use, the English authorities sent out a large number of German Prayer Books, and he himself translated a catechism. At Easter, 1768, forty-six young persons were brought by him to the Holy Communion, and in September, 1769, he reported the number of children in his mission under twelve years of age, as six hundred and eighty-four, of which number he himself had baptized a hundred and twenty-nine. At Easter, 1770, he admitted to the Holy Communion thirty persons, making the total number of communicants in the Lunenburg mission, English, French, and German, two hundred and one. Mr. Bryzelius was struck with apoplexy, while preaching, on Good Friday, 1773, and died in half an hour. He was buried exactly under the pulpit of the church in which he died. He was sixty years old.

The Reverend Peter de la Roche, a native of Geneva, was ordained to the cure of Lunenburg in 1771. About this time Reverend Mr. Muhlenburg, president of the Lutheran Synod in Philadelphia, was applied to by Calvinists and Lutherans for a missionary. He advised both to adhere to the English Church and for this advice was thanked by the Halifax committee, who requested "that no declaration, or measure should at any time be used to disturb or prevent Calvinists and Lutherans in the full exercise of their religious principles and mode of divine worship." In 1773, through the agency of Mr. de la Roche, a school-house was built for the French at Lunenburg. Mr. de la Roche also studied German, and by 1775, was able to officiate in the three languages. During the American war, his salary being very small, he suffered for provisions. While he lived in Lunenburg, he published several excellent sermons and a commentary on the four gospels. One of these sermons was entitled "The Gospel of Christ, Preached to the Poor, Repent ye, etc. St. Peter, in Acts iii. 19; printed at the author's expense, to be given, and not to be sold. 'Freely ye have received, freely give.' Jesus Christ, in Matt. x. 28." Francklin Bulkeley Gould, son of Reverend Peter de la Roche and Ann his wife, was baptized May 27, 1773. In the entry of this baptism, the fact is noticed, that this was the first child in the province inoculated for smallpox.

In 1776, Mr. de la Roche writes that he has over a hundred and ten communicants, that during the year he has baptized twenty-eight children, married five couples, and buried twenty persons, the greater part of them infants under a year, twelve of whom have died of small-pox. He writes that he celebrates the Lord's Supper seven times a year, three times in English, at the Great Festivals, twice in German, and twice in French. In 1778, he writes that he has been employed in repairing his church, which was ready to fall to the ground. In this he has been assisted by the lieutenant-governor, who, himself, has contributed fifty pounds. In 1780, he reports, that of the three nationalities included in his mission, there are about thirty families of French, and a hundred of Germans, while the English are chiefly people from New England, very few being from England or Ireland.

The Reverend Joseph Bennett, who was at first sent to the Lunenburg mission, was soon transferred to the interior of the province. His field of labor was the portion of country now comprised in the two counties, Hants and Kings, the latter of which embraces the chief part of what, from its great agricultural richness, has long been known as the "Garden of Nova Scotia." In 1750, the province was divided into five counties--Annapolis, Kings, Cumberland, Lunenburg, and Halifax. Later these were subdivided, so that there are now, as has been said, fourteen counties in Nova Scotia proper, besides the four which the island of Cape Breton comprises. The two townships of Newport and Falmouth, which were part of Mr. Bennett's mission, are now in Hants county; then, like Cornwallis and Horton, to the inhabitants of which he also ministered, they were in King's. It is this latter county that is chiefly known as "the Land of Evangeline." Here on the shores of Mines Basin, in Acadian times:

"Distant, secluded still, the little village of Grand Pré
Lay in the fruitful valley. Vast meadows stretched to the eastward,
Giving the village its name, and pasture to flocks without number.
Dikes that the hands of the farmers had raised with labor incessant,
Shut out the turbulent tides; but at stated seasons the flood gates
Opened, and welcomed the sea to wander at will o'er the meadows.
West and south there were fields of flax, and orchards and cornfields
Spreading afar and unfenced o'er the plain; and away to the northward
Blomidon rose, and the forests old, and aloft on the mountains
Sea fogs pitched their tents, and mists from the mighty Atlantic
Looked on the happy valley but ne'er from their station descended.
There, in the midst of its farms, reposed the Acadian village."

From this beautiful region, as well as from what are now Hants, Cumberland, and Annapolis counties, the Acadians, to the number of perhaps six thousand, were expelled with the sanction of the British Government, in 1755; and in 1760-62, in response to a proclamation offering their lands to New England settlers, many intelligent people, chiefly from Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, took up their residence in the depopulated districts. These new settlers were in many cases people of good family and of means, but they were, almost without exception, Congregationalists, whose ancestors for four generations had been alienated from the Church of England, and who themselves had little sympathy with the Church's worship. It was to these New Englanders, among whom there was no doubt, at least about Fort Edward, a sprinkling of English-born people, that Mr. Bennett was sent by the Society in 1762. In 1763, through Jonathan Belcher, Esq., then President of the Council, Mr. Bennett proposed to the Society the establishment of two schoolmasters, one in Horton and Cornwallis, the other in Falmouth and Newport. He reported that the inhabitants of Cornwallis proposed to build a church, that at Horton a subscription was already opened for purchasing a house to hold service in, and that the people were inclined to make some provision for a schoolmaster, who, with their subscriptions and the Society's allowance, together with a lot of land set apart in every township for a schoolmaster, might live very comfortably. Mr. Bennett's own letter to the Society, dated January 4, 1763, states that he has now been settled in Kings County six weeks, and that he finds in Horton six hundred and seventy persons, of whom three hundred and seventy-five are children, in Cornwallis five hundred and eighteen, of whom three hundred and nineteen are children, in Falmouth two hundred and seventy-eight, of whom a hundred and forty-six are children, and in Newport two hundred and fifty-one, of whom a hundred and eleven are children. In another letter, dated July of the same year, Mr. Bennett writes that his success in his mission has far exceeded his expectation; that he has baptized sixteen, buried three, and married three couples, and that he has in all eighteen communicants. September 18, 1764, he states that he now officiates at five places, "the Governor having ordered him to take Fort Edward in rotation, on account of a difficult and dangerous river, which renders it impossible, at least five months in the year, for the inhabitants near that fort to attend Divine Worship at the place appointed." To perform the regular duties of his mission on Sundays, he had, at this time, to ride nearly two hundred miles a month. In the preceding half-year he had baptized fifty-two children and one adult, and he reports that as the prejudices of the people against the Church wear off, the duties of his ministry greatly increase. During Mr. Bennett's incumbency of this mission, in 1771, a chapel was built by subscription at Windsor, which seems to have been used for other services than those of the Church, and for school purposes as well. It stood on the northwest corner of the old burying ground, on an inclosed plot sixty feet square. In 1772, or '73, a church was built at Cornwallis by Messrs. John Burbidge and William Best, which was not finished, however, until 1776; and November 10, 1783, the Assembly voted a hundred pounds for a church at Falmouth.

In 1774, the Reverend William Ellis was appointed by the Society an itinerant missionary to Nova Scotia, and reached the province, late in the same year, after a long and tedious voyage, and some delays on the New England coast. Arriving here, he and Mr. Bennett made an exchange, whereby Mr. Ellis was to take part of Mr. Bennett's mission, and the latter was to devote himself in great part to itinerant labor. This exchange did not please the Society, who assented to it only on condition that Mr. Ellis should take the whole of Mr. Bennett's mission, and that Mr. Bennett should give himself exclusively to itinerant work. The matter being thus settled, Mr. Bennett entered upon his wider field, and the only place with which his name is henceforth connected in the Society's reports is Cape Sable on the southwestern shore. In the report for 1780, it is stated that the Society have received the sad intelligence that the Reverend Mr. Bennett is confined at Windsor, greatly disordered both in body and mind, so that the physicians are of opinion that he will never again be serviceable. This is the last mention of him in the Society's reports, and it seems probable that he died soon after, and was buried at Windsor.

In 1776, Mr. Ellis writes to the Society rather discouragedly regarding his mission, the lack of church buildings especially seeming to give him much concern. He has no church at Newport, he says, though his congregation is largest there. At Falmouth he is trying to get an old building repaired for worship; at Windsor the building used as a church is "applied to various purposes, and occasionally to very improper ones." To this latter, Governor Legge has made a present of some handsome church furniture, but the building is unfit to receive it. He reports, however, in his whole mission ninety communicants. In 1779, ne writes more hopefully. At Windsor, where he resides, he says he has "a very regular little flock and takes much pleasure in them." In Cornwallis there are upwards of a thousand inhabitants, "most of them well affected to the Church, and very desirous of having a minister to themselves," while in Falmouth and Newport together, there are about the same number of inhabitants, many of whom attend service regularly, and behave well. In the previous year he has baptized fifty-six persons, buried nine, and married sixteen couples. In his mission he has now seventy-nine communicants. In 1782, he writes that the people of Falmouth have come to the determination to erect a church and he hopes their example will be followed by his Newport parishioners. In the same year his large mission was divided, Cornwallis and Horton, with Wilmot added, forming one mission, to which the Reverend John Wiswell, formerly at Falmouth, Maine, was appointed, the stations in Hants county remaining under his own charge. In this smaller mission Mr. Ellis labored until 1795, when he died, and was buried in the Windsor churchyard. His tombstone there bears the following inscription:

"Here lies the body of the REV. WILLIAM ELLIS, who departed this life, the 5th of June, 1795, in the 65th year of his age. He was rector of the church of Windsor 21 years."

The New England settlers on the lands of the exiled Acadians were not limited to the country about Minas Basin, but were found also in considerable numbers in the western part of the province. In June, 1760, at Port Rossignol, now Liverpool, they already numbered seventy heads of families, while at Annapolis, and several other places along the southwestern coast, there were perhaps quite as many. At Annapolis there were of this and other classes, enough Church people to make a mission necessary and to give a Church clergyman foothold, once more. In 1753,as we learn from the report of the S. P. G. of the following year, the Reverend Thomas Wood had spent some time at Annapolis where, in the words of the certificate of the chief officers of the garrison, "he had performed with great diligence all the duties of his function there, and behaved himself well in every respect."

Mr. Wood was probably a native of New Jersey, for in 1749, on petition of the inhabitants of New Brunswick, in that state, who declare him to be "a gentleman of a very good life and conversation, bred to Physick and Surgery," having gone to England for the purpose, he was ordained deacon and priest by the Bishop of London, and sent home to take charge of the churches of New Brunswick and Elizabeth Town. While he retained this cure he lived at New Brunswick and officiated at Elizabeth Town twice a month, but he soon left New Jersey for Nova Scotia, where, after his visit to Annapolis, he labored until 1764, either as an itinerant missionary, or as assistant to Dr. Breynton in Halifax.

In 1761, the Reverend Dr. Breynton of St. Paul's made three visits to the "new settlements "in Hants and Kings counties, and proceeded as far as Annapolis, for which extra labor the Society ordered him a gratuity. In 1762, Mr. Wood, who was assisting Dr. Breynton, went twice over the same ground, and in 1763 twice more, finding at Granville and Annapolis, as he writes the Society, more than eight hundred souls without either church or minister. In this year the Society requested Mr. Wood to undertake once more the charge of Annapolis, and when they knew that he had consented to do so, the people, he says, were full of joy at the prospect of having him again among them. At his last visit in 1763 he promised to be with them the next spring and in the mean time he engaged Mr. James Wilkie as lay reader and schoolmaster. In 1764, he entered on his charge and almost immediately began the study of Micmac, so that he might minister to the Indians in this part of the province, and accomplish his purpose of translating the Book of Common Prayer into the Micmac tongue. Sprague's "Annals of the American Pulpit," says: Mr. Wood "applied himself to a study of the Micmac language with no other assistance than he could derive from the papers of M. Maillard, and fully determined to persevere until he should be able to publish a grammar, a dictionary, and a translation of the Bible. In 1766, he sent home the first volume of his grammar with a translation of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, etc., and was now able to minister to the Indians in their own language. In 1769, by request of the governor, he made a missionary tour among the settlements on the St. John River, New Brunswick, and was received by the Indians with every expression of respect." [Sprague's "Annals," vol. v., p. 328.] Of the progress of Mr. Wood's work among the Micmacs, he himself writes in 1767, that he is now able to read prayers to the Indians in their own language. This he had done the previous July at St. Paul's, in Halifax, in presence of Lord William Campbell, the governor-in-chief, Colonel Dalrymple, and most of the officers of the army and navy, and the inhabitants. On this occasion, as was described in the last chapter, the Indians sang an anthem before and after service, and before service began an Indian chief came forward from the rest, and kneeling down prayed that Almighty God would bless His Majesty, King George III., their lawful king and governor, and that prosperity might rest upon His Majesty's province of Nova Scotia. He then rose up and Mr. Wood at his desire explained his prayer in English to the whole congregation. Upon this, says the S. P. G. report, His Excellency turned and bowed to all the Indians. When service was ended the Indians thanked God, the Governor, and Mr. Wood, for the opportunity they had had of hearing prayers in their own language. All this reminds one a little of modern denominational Sunday-school doings, and it may well be questioned how much real feeling it indicated on the part of the Micmacs, but it certainly argues a deep interest in his work on Mr. Wood's part, and shows that personally he had gained some influence over these simple-minded savages. On the 12th of August, 1767, it is further stated in the report, Mr. Wood married Pierre Jaques, an Indian, to Marie Joseph, eldest daughter of old King Thoma, who regarded himself as hereditary king of the Micmacs, the persons present at the wedding, besides the Indians, being Sir Thomas Rich, an English baronet, and several other gentlemen. Soon after the ceremony, we also learn, the clergyman entertained the Indians at his own house.

At Annapolis Mr. Wood labored faithfully, and with much success until his death which occurred there, December 14, 1778. His wife died some time in the same year. He was succeeded by the Reverend Joshua Wingate Weeks, one of the Loyalist clergymen who had lately taken refuge in the province from the revolting colonies.

The Annapolis Royal mission does not seem to have grown very rapidly, for in 1774 Mr. Wood writes that his communicants number only from twenty to thirty. He seems, however, not to have been unpopular with the Independents there, for he says that the greatest part of the Dissenters "occasionally attend him on Sundays." At what time S. P. G. churches were built at Annapolis and Granville, the Society's records do not show, but in 1775, it is said, so many new settlers had come that the churches could not hold the congregations. The Annapolis people therefore in that year "with great cheerfulness," subscribed one hundred and sixty pounds toward the building of a church, which should be sixty feet long by forty feet wide. A church was, likewise, begun at Granville; but in 1783, the Annapolis church, although inclosed and glazed, was still unfinished, although it was expected that it would soon be made ready for service. The school at this time was taught by Mr. Benjamin Snow, who had been educated at Dartmouth College. In 1783, fifty-two Church families are reported at Annapolis, and in 1784, over twenty communicants there, and between thirty and forty at Granville.

The fourth mission in Nova Scotia, after Halifax, was established in Cumberland county, in 1768. This county lies northeast of the Bay of Fundy on the border of New Brunswick, and contains the site of the historic Fort Cumberland, better known by its musical French name, Beau Séjour. Many of the inhabitants of this part of Nova Scotia were North of Ireland Presbyterians, who had first emigrated to New Hampshire, but after a few years had removed to Nova Scotia; some were New England people who had entered into possession of the French farms and dykes in that part of the Acadian land. The first missionary sent to Cumberland was the Reverend J. Eagleson, who had been a clergyman of the Established Church of Scotland, and for some time had been laboring in Nova Scotia, but in 1768 received ordination from the Bishop of London, being strongly recommended to his lordship by Mr. Francklin, the lieutenant-governor, Mr. Belcher, the chief-justice, Mr. Bulkeloy, the provincial secretary, and the Reverend Dr. Breynton, who states that Mr. Eagleson had left his former ministry from real conviction. June 27, 1768, Mr. Eagleson arrived from England, ordained, but instead of being sent at once to his appointed mission, the lieutenant-governor directed him to "repair during pleasure "to the island of St. John. After some little time spent in that island he went, however, to Cumberland, and in 1773, he reports to the Society, that since the departure of Mr. Gannett, the Dissenting minister, his congregation has gradually increased, the number of Dissenters who regularly attend the public service being nearly equal to his own people; that seventeen English families have settled in that and the adjacent townships, and many more are expected; and that he has found a schoolmaster for his mission if the Society will appoint him. In 1774 it is reported that Mr. Eagleson preaches also "to a full and decent congregation at Sackville or Trantamore, as often as the roads and the season will permit;" and that in the last year he has baptized thirty-seven children, married six couples, and buried three persons. During the summer of 1774, this clergyman visited the townships of Hills-borough and Monckton on the river Peticodiac, in New Brunswick, holding service among the English and Dutch settlers there and baptizing fourteen children. In Cumberland and the adjacent townships of Fort Lawrence, Amherst, and Sackville he baptized within a short time seventeen children, married nine couples, buried one child, and gathered sixteen communicants. During the Revolutionary war, the Cumberland people, almost alone of the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, showed great sympathy with the Whigs of the older colonies. Indeed their temper and their movements were such as to create considerable alarm in the minds of the Nova Scotia authorities, who soon found it necessary to send a large force to keep them in check. For a time it was rumored that Nova Scotia was to be invaded by people from New England; and in fact, Fort Cumberland, in 1776, was seized by about five hundred people from Machias, Maine, under the direction of four of the prominent Cumberland rebels. At the time of this disturbance a few private persons were molested, among them Mr. Eagle-son, who was taken prisoner and carried to Massachusetts Bay, where he remained in prison for sixteen months, at last escaping, and returning home to find his property completely destroyed. He then asked and obtained of the Society leave to go to England "to see an aged parent," his mission, however, to be supplied in his absence. It is said that during the Revolution, two hundred persons in Cumberland rose against the government, and that the people of Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry, with the exception of five persons, refused to take the oath of allegiance. The punishment proposed by the government for these rebels certainly sounds unique; it was determined to treat them as Popish recusants.

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