Church in the Colonies.
London: The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, July, 1850.
ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, April 23, 1850.
MY DEAR HAWKINS,
I have kept my Journal of my last Voyage of Visitation thus long, with the hope and expectation of being able to revise and recast the whole.
This seems due to the Society under whose auspices my little work will issue from the press. It is, however, I find in vain to look for sufficient leisure for my purpose; and I therefore forward "The Journal," as written in my voyage, to be dealt with as the Committee may think most proper and profitable, and willingly leave to them the decision of that sometimes difficult question,—to print, or not to print. Of course I would not thereby expect, or intend to make, the Committee responsible for its faults and deficiencies—and no reasonable or charitable person would do so.
I may be permitted to observe that the Journal, as written, is a record of events intended rather to refresh my own memory, than to convey instruction and information to others; and further, that it is a record of facts rather than of feelings—and of first impressions, rather than well-digested views. Of facts and first impressions, the record will be more faithful in proportion to the want of study and consideration; and I humbly think they—the facts and first impressions—are of a character to awaken, or keep alive, the concern and sympathy of Christian people, and to prove the necessity of continued and increased exertions in the Missionary cause. Moreover, the labours and difficulties of a Missionary in, or rather off, Newfoundland, (if I may use a nautical term,) are quite sui generis, and can hardly be appreciated or understood without reference to the delays and dangers of a coasting voyage, and a coasting voyage on this particular, this foggy, stormy, ice-bound shore. This consideration will, I trust, be some excuse for the frequent allusion to the state of the wind and weather, and to the fogs and ice, which may appear forced and unnatural to "the gentlemen of England, who live at home at ease;" but all this is natural and almost necessary on board ship; while in such circumstances the progress and success of your work, with your personal comfort and safety, so materially, or rather, under God, so completely depend upon it.
The bad handwriting may, I hope, be excused by the consideration of having been all performed at sea, and very frequently rebus inclinatis, when it was difficult to keep book or paper on the table. I trust and believe there are some—may I not say many—Christian persons to whom this circumstance, coupled with the weariness and painfulness of such a life and service, will appear of sufficient weight to explain, if not atone for, more important faults and deficiencies; and to provoke prayers and blessings, instead of criticism and censure.
My Dear HAWKINS,
Your faithful brother and friend,
P.S. I hope by the next Mail to send a Supplement, containing my Visitation by land of the Deanery of Conception Bay, in the month of November.
THE Church ship was brought down from her winter place of rest on the 28th of May, for painting, and other repairs. On the 25th of June the crew were shipped. I then waited only for the arrival of the mail, hoping to receive at least some promise, or notice, of a Missionary for the Labrador.
The mail arrived early on Tuesday, June 26, but no Missionary—no promise or word of one.
Thursday, June 28th.—At the morning service in St. Thomas's Church, at half-past nine o'clock, I celebrated the Holy Communion, that my brethren and friends might receive once more from my hands the cup of blessing and the bread of life, and that I myself might be strengthened for my voyage of visitation, to commence, with God's leave, this day. I was assisted in the administration by the Rev. H. Tuckwell. All the Clergy in St. John's communicated, and twenty-five or twenty-six other persons, whom God bless and preserve for their love and duty to me their unworthy shepherd.
At half-past eleven o'clock I went on board the Church ship in a boat provided and manned by Captain Kennedy, R.N., himself at the helm.
The wind being light, with heavy rain, we did not sail till six o'clock P.M., and then with a boat's crew a-head to help us out of the Narrows.
My companions and co-mates on this occasion were the Rev. T. J. Jones, formerly Principal of the Theological Institution, the Rev. A. Gifford, the Rev. J. Moreton, and Mr. T. W. Blackman, a student of the Theological Institution.
The Rev. T. J. Jones accompanied me as my Chaplain. The Rev. A. Gifford proceeds as first Missionary to the Labrador, the Rev. J. Moreton to remain at some station on the coast of Newfoundland, or to return with me (if it please God) to St. John's, as I may deem best upon observation and inquiry. The two last named were but ordained Deacons on Trinity Sunday, and it may well be deemed an injustice, both to them and to the flocks to be gathered and tended on the mountains and shores of Newfoundland and Labrador, to put such an arduous and responsible ministry upon shepherds so young and inexperienced, far from succour and advice, far from all who might help and comfort them. But none others have, none other has, offered for this difficult and disheartening, but, on that account, more honourable service and I can only comfort myself and them by remembering that the youth who went forth "in the name of the Lord of Hosts" was instructed and enabled to slay the giant who had been a man of war from his youth.
We started with a fair wind. All my companions, except Moreton, were soon very sick. The wind came from the north-east, with rain, and was very cold. Several large icebergs were near us and the shore, and the prospect altogether was far from cheering.
But, better to begin in gloom, and end, if it please God, in comfort and peace. "They that sow in tears," &c.
I made up the berths for my friends, they and my servant being too sick to work, and otherwise but little prepared for such an occupation.
Friday, St. Peter's Day.—Three of my companions were hors de combat still; my servant also, and the cook, were very sick. However, with Mr. Moreton's assistance, and with the captain and some of our crew as congregation, I celebrated the service for St. Peter's Day, and preached, my sick friends answering from their berths.
The wind was ahead, and we made but little progress. The sea, however, was smooth, and the sailing easy. I employed myself in arranging my cabin, no light duty.
Saturday, June 30th.—The wind became fair about three o'clock A.M.
By ten o'clock P.M. we reached Burin, and entering the harbour by the eastern passage, came to anchor off the Court House about half-past ten o'clock, after a most pleasant and prosperous day's sail. God be thanked.
The moon shone brightly, the wind was hushed, the sea calm, and all was peaceful in nature. Alas, that it is too certain the peace of nature is no index of the state and condition of the inhabitants! Two or three boats came off, and by one of them I sent two of my friends to acquaint the Rev. J. C. A. Gathercole of our arrival, and I learnt with joy on their return that the faithful Missionary is at home and in good health.
Sunday, July 1st.—The Rev. J. C. A. Gathercole came off early; and having arranged with him for the services, I suffered him to depart about ten o'clock to make preparation. At half-past ten I followed with, my companions. Mr. Jones assisted me at the Holy Table, Mr. Gathercole said the prayers, and Messrs. Moreton and Gifford read the Lessons. I preached and celebrated the Communion.
In. the afternoon service Mr. Jones said the prayers, and Mr. Gathercole read the lessons. I preached from notes on the Epistle for the Sunday. The morning was fine, and the attendance at the service respectable. In the afternoon it rained heavily, but the numbers present at the service did not appear much fewer than in the morning, Probably, but for the rain, there would have been many more. In the evening, when the rain abated, I walked with Mr. Gathercole and my friends to inspect the work at the new Church, which, on the whole, is satisfactory. Two transepts have been added to the long school-room, by which a cross-church is formed, the first of that character in Newfoundland. A north aisle also has been added, so that the room, I trust, will be sufficient; but if not, it is easy to lengthen the Church at the western end.
The people are highly pleased, not to say astonished. Truly I ought to be pleased, but how much more, and how much more thankful that my friend and fellow-helper has been restored (in answer, we trust, to our prayers) to his former health and activity; or, as it seems, to an improved state in both respects. His chief anxiety now is (in which I participate), lest he should not have funds to finish the good and sacred work. Only the want of funds will prevent (God willing) the completion of the Church by November. God can provide.
Monday, July 2d.—After breakfast we had the full morning service on board. The weather was wet and foggy. I had much discourse with Mr. Gathercole on the state of his Mission; and again he represented his earnest desire (which he had so feelingly expressed last year) that another Clergyman, and, if possible, of higher degree, might be associated with him. The Rev. W. Rozier, whom I sent down to Burin (on hearing of Mr. G.'s illness at Lammeline) remained here during the long period of that illness, nearly four months, but has now taken his friend's place at Lammeline, which is too remote (forty miles off) and too populous to be served by the Missionary at Burin, who has to visit St. Lawrence, Rock Harbour, and various other settlements. And it is to provide pastoral superintendence for these, or that Burin may not be neglected and deserted while he visits them, that he so anxiously desires the help and comfort of some true yoke-fellow. Mr. G. continued nearly four months at Lammeline (from November till April) in a very precarious state. His complaint was inflammation of the lungs, but through God's mercy and blessing upon the means used for his recovery, and this invigorating climate, he is now perfectly restored and in better health and strength than before the attack. O that his pious and disinterested wishes could be accomplished; that he might have some one like-minded, who would "naturally care" for the state of his numerous flocks!
Tuesday, July 3d.—We left Burin with a fair wind at nine o'clock, and at three o'clock were anchored in Lammeline roads. The pilot who took us in, a Roman Catholic, refused to receive any thing when he found that it was the Bishop's vessel. Being anxious to depart as soon as possible, (both on account of the necessity of getting forward on my journey and of the unsuitableness of these roads for anchorage,) I went immediately on shore, and having circulated notice of my intention of having evening service in the school-room at half-past-six o'clock, I visited the Pitmans, who had so kindly entertained, and so tenderly nursed Mr. Gathercole in and through his long illness. I then went over to the site proposed for the new Church, very nearly the same which I had pitched on with worthy Mr. C——— three years ago, and having satisfied myself, and I think the different parties who accompanied me, of its eligibility, I requested Mr. P——— to make a survey of some few acres for a glebe. At seven o'clock we commenced evening service, and after the prayers I delivered an address, chiefly on the subject of the proposed Church, urging them to proceed on the ground, first, of their general prosperity as compared with most other settlements, and, secondly, of their special opportunity, at this time, through the sudden and unexpected acquisition of timber enough and more than enough for the purpose, by the wreck of a large vessel, which has brought balk and three-inch studs to their very doors. Almost the whole of the cargo has fallen into the hands of the members of the Church, and they profess themselves willing and desirous that it should be devoted to that purpose.
I further gave notice in my address that if there were any persons prepared and desirous to receive the Holy Communion, I would (D. v.) come on shore to administer to-morrow morning before my departure. We then returned to our Church ship with many presents of milk, butter, bread, &c.
Wednesday, July 4th.—Four persons having signified their wish to receive the Holy Communion, I went on shore with my friends before eight o'clock. The room was decently prepared—a small altar covered with my new bunting and sacred monogram, and a fair white linen cloth on the top. I used my beautiful chalice and paten given to the Church ship by the kind Misses Holder of Torquay. Six or seven people communicated with us. I preached on the occasion—the attendance was pretty good, and would have been larger, but for the impression that the service was intended only for persons about to communicate. After the service I visited old Mr. Pitman, who, in his eighty-eighth year, and a cripple, is unable to leave the house, though in full possession of his mental faculties. I found that he had once received the Holy Communion, and upon my proposing to administer it he gladly assented, "if I thought him fit for such a great thing." I left Mr. Rozier to read and converse with him, and promised to return in an hour. I returned accordingly, and with Mr. Jones and Mr. Rozier, and his two daughters living with him, had the great privilege and satisfaction of partaking of the Christian feast with one who in the course of years may soon be called to sit down in a higher place, and to eat bread in the kingdom of God. He seems to be preparing for that great, that greatest change, spending much time in the study of his Bible and Prayer Book and Nelson's Fasts and Festivals. His wife, now in her eightieth year, the mother of twenty-one children, is said to be still the most active person in the house, first up in the morning, last to bed at night. They are a very interesting pair, and their appearance speaks volumes for the climate of Newfoundland. He is an Englishman, but has not been home for sixty years. She is a native of Newfoundland. I presented them with a quarto Bible in grateful acknowledgment of their kind and dutiful attention to Mr. Gathercole during his long illness, for which they would receive no pay or reward. It was my privilege to be able to remind them of our Lord's promise in St. Matthew, (Chap. x. verses 41, 42.) After this interesting service I walked with Mr. Rozier, consulting with him on the affairs of the Mission, the best means of forwarding the Church, &c. It is clear that the chief thing wanted is a leader and guide, and this they all admit. All are ready to follow, but there is no person to lead; and to work, but none will direct. After much reflection, therefore, I determined that Mr. Rozier should make this his headquarters, and poor Mr. Gathercole must again encounter his labours and trials single-handed; again, it may be, to sink under them. When I returned to the Church ship, I wrote a letter to Mr. Rozier announcing my determination and directing him how to proceed—and to Mr. Hay, to ask for a plan, &c. for the Church.
As the wind did not serve for our departure, I had intended to go on shore for evening service, but I was very unwell, and, just at the time, our boat was wanted by the captain, and he with two of his friends were away, so that I could neither land myself nor send my friends, and we did not again leave the ship. There are many boats here from Fortune Bay, and by one of these I sent letters, &c. to Mr. Ellis and the Rev. J. G. Mountain. The good Church ship rolled greatly in the swell—the wind blowing heavily from the west and north-west. I should hardly, I think, have got through the services and duties of this day, if they had not been of a nature to inspire peace and thankfulness.
Thursday, July 5th.—At four o'clock A.M. I heard preparations for weighing anchor, and I called my servant to assist. The wind was fair, and we went very gently off. About nine o'clock we were off St. Peter's, and there we remained all day, making no progress, and sometimes actually going back, through the strength of the currents, though there was a light breeze in our favour. We saw distinctly all the houses in the town and vessels in the harbour. Five or six large vessels sailed for the Banks as we passed. The day was fine, but, for the season, very cold.
Friday, July 6th.—It was calm during the night, and we did not advance five miles. The wind was ahead the greater part of to-day, with fog. In the evening the wind came round fair, and the fog for some hours disappeared, but we saw no land. I read through Mr. Lowe's protest against the ministrations in Madeira of the Rev. T. K. Brown, with the Appendix. All Bishops, I think, and particularly Colonial Bishops, are much indebted to Mr. Lowe for the authorities he has brought together.
Saturday, July 7th.—The similarity of our state and place this day, to our state and place when off this shore a year ago, is very remarkable. Today, as then, we have been surrounded by fog, and drifted we hardly know whither—to-day, as then, the fog cleared off just at sunset, and discovered large islands before and behind us, but not soon enough to enable us to approach them or ascertain what they were. Indeed, this evening we had no wind, and being drifted by the strong tide within about two miles of these islands, we were fain to put out our boat with four hands to keep the good Church ship from getting entangled among them. Mercifully, the fog had been cleared away, and there was no rain, which was in our favour now as compared with last year: but the entire absence of wind is very distressing. We fired two guns: the last about a quarter past nine o'clock. My companions (except M———,) are no companions at all, "sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber."
I have earnestly prayed, if it be God's will, that we may spend our Sunday on shore; if not, may He graciously make the disappointment profitable to us for Christ's sake. Amen.
Sunday, July 8th.—Our guns last night brought no succour, and we continued at the mercy of the tide all night, for there was not a breath of wind. The tide set us so strongly towards the shore, that it was necessary to have our boat, with four hands, ahead, towing, or endeavouring to tow; and it was not till three o'clock in the morning, when a slight air began to stir, that this duty could be intermitted. It was a very anxious time, for the captain and his three best seamen were in the boat, and only the mate and cook on board. The night providentially was very fine, a bright moon and no fog; but the tide was so strong, that it was with the greatest difficulty we were kept from going to leeward, or towards the shore, and could make no advance against it. When the crew came on board at three o'clock, it was so bright and fine that I stayed up to see the sun rise, and a glorious Bight it was. It rose like an immense balloon of fire. No rays preceded or attended, but up the giant went, slowly and majestically, and the very sea appeared to rejoice and be thankful. The moon was still high above the horizon, but soon paled, was hidden, and forgotten; and the bright morning star, just over the sun, quickly disappeared. It was a sight which well compensated a night of watching and waking. How much more will the true Sun of Righteousness, the true Light, which coming into the world light-eth every man, reward those who look for His appearing! and when Christ, who is our "Light." shall appear, then shall we also appear with him in glory.
Soon after four o'clock I went below, but rose again a little after seven. There was a light breeze from the south-east, but unfortunately nobody knew our whereabouts, and finding that, contrary to our expectation, the tide was setting strongly to the eastward (as we had learnt by our drift last night), it was thought we were off Burgeo, and we stood for the eastern entrance, but found it not. Then, seeing some boats running along the shore, we stood towards them, but they took no notice. Hoping to reach a harbour, I did not have service till half-past eleven o'clock. The boats which we had watched about this time came to anchor, and the captain proposed to send our boat ashore to make inquiries. I objected, and the captain again stood to the eastward to look for Burgeo. This was when we went below, and consequently neither he nor any of his crew could attend the service. When we returned, he had ascertained that we were not near Burgeo, but more probably within a few leagues of La Poele, but in doing this he had got among some rocks and islands, and the wind had completely died away. It was fortunate we had not parted with our boat, for it was necessary again to put it out, with four hands, to keep us off the rocks, against which the tide set us strongly. This was hardly and barely accomplished, and at last it became necessary to drop the anchor, and at the same time we fired a gun. Our boat was then sent off with three hands to the shore, to search out those boats which we had seen in the morning, and which were still at anchor in a bay between the islands and shore. I had the satisfaction of seeing one of the boats come out to meet us, and they soon returned together to the Church ship. We then learnt that we were among the islands and shoals off the Bay of Rotte, within two leagues of La Poele. The men who came off were on their way to La Poele, but had stopped here in consequence of the wind failing them. They piloted us through the rocks, into the Bay, which is very commodious and safe, and there we came to anchor about five o'clock, the poor men almost worn out with towing so many hours last night and to-day. Some of them had been up and at work twenty-four hours. At six o'clock I had evening service, at which the captain and crew and our two "friends in need" attended. They are sons of the Patriarch of Upper Burgoo, spoken of in both my other Journals of Visitation.
I hope they all enjoyed the service, and were thankful, as I was. I preached an extempore discourse on these words in the last verse of the Second Lesson, "Remember my bonds." After the service, I went with my friends to a little green island, where we picked numbers of wild flowers, and made two respectable nosegays for the cabin table.
It was a very eventful, and, to me, a very trying day, for never was the Church ship nearer being on the rocks; and then there was the disappointment of missing the Sabbath on shore, which, had we been aware of our position in the morning, we might easily have accomplished at La Poele. We might have been in (with God's blessing) by ten o'clock. But it was otherwise ordered, I doubt not, for our good in some way. It was a trial. We remained quietly in the Bay of Rotte all night. God be thanked for our preservation and great comfort there.
Monday, July 9th.—We loosed off for La Poele, with a light breeze, about six o'clock, having on board one of the men who helped us last night. The wind came ahead, and blew pretty strong before we got to La Poele Bay; and we did not reach the well known and well appreciated buoy till nearly twelve o'clock. Mr. Appleby came to meet us in his boat. All well and comfortable, God be praised. Mr. Appleby, with Messrs. Renouf and Read, dined with us. Prayers in the Church at half-past six o'clock, when notice was given of Prayer, with the Holy Communion, to-morrow, at half-past nine o'clock. The first really summer day since we left St. John's. A vessel arrived direct from Oporto to-day.
Tuesday, July 10th.—According to notice, Divine Service, with the Sacrament, was celebrated this morning at half-past nine o'clock. It is a very busy time with both the merchants' house and the people; and I believe many persons who usually attend the Church did not know of my presence. The congregation, consequently, was very small; the communicants, about ten or twelve, besides the clergy. Old Mr. Strickland, with many of his children, partook of the Sacrament. The day was beautifully fine, and my friends, after service, took a ramble, and bathed in a pond. I stayed at home to write, and an hour before dinner took exercise in a boat. At the evening prayers there was a considerably larger attendance, and I was sorry I had not gone prepared to preach. Several of the men stopped after service to speak to me, and gave me some rough, hearty shakes of the hand. About nine o'clock came some excessively heavy rain, with lightning. Every drop as it fell in the water seemed a large bright star. The appearance was very beautiful.
I heartily thank God for having brought me here a fourth time in peace, and for having kept the hearts of the people true to their Church and me.
Wednesday, July 11th.—There was no wind in the morning till about ten o'clock, when an opportunity appeared to offer for Burgeo; and after much deliberation and doubt, I determined to visit (if it pleased God) Mr. Cunningham and his flock, »s some matters have arisen which appear to require my presence; among others, a churchyard prepared for consecration; and I may not have another opportunity for a very long time. On the other hand, I am most anxious to get forward, and the probability of being overtaken by fog between this and Burgeo, cither going-or returning, is very considerable, and great delay may ensue. The difficulty of determining in such cases is to me extreme, and extremely painful. We started about eleven o'clock with a fair wind, and made about half the distance, when the wind shifted, and came ahead just off Connoire Bay, and then my repentings began.
After sunset the wind died away, and my spirit with it.
I drew out a probable programme of my visits; though it seems absurd, if not presumptuous, even to guess at my progress so long before. May God prosper it according to His will!
Thursday, July 12th.—It was calm all last night, and we did not seem to have made any progress. By half-past ten o'clock, partly drifted, and partly moved by the light air, we reached the western entrance of the Burgeo, when we fortunately saw a boat standing out, which, on our hoisting colours, made towards us. We did not reach the anchorage till twelve o'clock; and if we had been obliged to go round to the eastern entrance (as we must have done without a pilot), might not have got in to-day. Mr. Cunningham came on board just as we anchored, in great joy at our arrival.
Prayers in the Church at half-past six o'clock, after which we drank tea with Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham, who, like their neighbours and friends at La Poele, seem to have been strengthened and improved in health by the severe winter. The kindness of the people has been unremitted.
Friday, July 13th.—Prayers in the Church at half-past nine o'clock. A large congregation.
After service, went in a whale-boat, with a crew of four lads, to Upper Burgeo. The chief object of our visit was to get the churchyard there fenced ready for consecration. I had the pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with the worthy Andersons, who are "tottering down the hill thegither" apace. We returned with our juvenile crew by four o'clock. Prayers at half-past six o'clock. The Church nearly full. Mr. Jones read the warning for the celebration of the Holy Communion on Sunday.
Saturday, July 14th.—This morning at seven o'clock Mrs. Cunningham was safely confined, and, to redress the inequality of the sexes in this place, of a daughter. There are four males to one female in the settlement. Mr. Gifford made surveys of the two graveyards to be consecrated, and in the evening went with Mr. Jones to Upper Burgeo to hold service in the church, and to give notice of the Holy Sacrament to be administered to-morrow. I preached in the church at Lower Burgeo to a full congregation. During the day I visited the graveyard to advise and encourage the people who were completing the fence and levelling the ground. I also went with Mr. Cunningham to an island called Hunts, to visit some expected new communicants. Their houses were clean and comfortable, and the inhabitants civil and intelligent. An old patriarch asked me if I could furnish him with a copy of the "Weekly Preparation," for one of his sons, (he had a copy for his own use), or Bishop Gibson's. I promised him a copy of Bishop Wilson's "Short and Plain Instruction." He appeared very earnest and sincere, and expressed himself most correctly and Christianly respecting an injury which had just deprived him of the use of his right hand, and probably disabled him for life.
Sunday, July 15th.—It rained heavily the greater part of last night, and till nearly eight o'clock this morning. However, we went on shore at nine o'clock, according to appointment, to consecrate the graveyard at Lower Burgeo. The service, commenced at half-past nine, and was conducted with the usual ceremonies. Happily, the rain held off during the service, but as soon as it was concluded there was a smart shower. I went to the Sunday-school, and delighted myself with the children. The number is considerably increased since Mr. Cuningham's arrival, and their behaviour improved.
Divine service commenced soon after eleven o'clock. Mr. Cunningham said the prayers, Moreton read the lessons, I preached and celebrated. Mr. Cunningham assisted in the distribution. There were upwards of forty communicants. After the Nicene Creed I delivered a manifesto which I had prepared in reference to removal of some crosses from the churchyard, and expressed my pleasure at the general state of the settlement.
Directly after the conclusion of the service in the church, I administered the Sacrament to Mrs. Cunningham in her chamber. I then started immediately with Mr. Cunningham, in a boat, for Upper Burgeo, having engaged to preach there in the afternoon. In consequence, however, of a strong wind from the eastward we were unable to land at the usual place, and went up a long reach for a quiet landing; from whence we had to walk, or rather climb, over a mountain path or track to the sand-bank. How the boys got my tin box along I can hardly guess, for in some places the ascent and descent were almost perpendicular. From the sand-bank we had to take another boat to the island, and did not reach the church till half-past four o'clock. The people, however, had waited patiently and still waited outside till I had put on my robes, as there is no vestry. After service we returned in boats to the sand-bank, where the graveyard is situated. I robed in the house of Edward Anderson, and not before a quarter-past seven o'clock had we commenced the service of consecration. Here again the rain mercifully kept off till we had finished. We took affectionate leave of each other, and our party returned by the rough and precipitous way we had come to our boat. Messrs. Jones and Clifford had joined us, having remained at Upper Burgeo after the morning service, at which Mr. Jones administered the Holy Sacrament. Mr. Moreton was left at Lower Burgeo to hold afternoon service there. Our cheerful lads again carried my box with some other things over the hill, and through the wood, to our boat, and then rowed us to our Church-ship, which we reached in safety, and one at least, and I think more, of the party full of thankfulness for the mercies of the day. We arrived about half-past eight o'clock, and it was now dark, and the wind blowing strong. Great was my consternation to find that Mr. Moreton had gone to meet us, and had by his own desire been put on shore and left at the sand-bank. Where could he be? If he had attempted to follow us, there would be every probability of his being lost in the wood, or sinking in a bog. If he had intended to join us at the graveyard, there was ample time. I was much alarmed. Cunningham immediately volunteered to proceed in quest of him, and I sent with him the captain of my vessel and three hands, in my own boat. Soon after they were gone it began to blow and rain heavily, with thunder and lightning. My faithless heart was full of fears; but in less than an hour I was in part relieved by the arrival of Moreton in a boat. He had not attempted to follow us, but had gone to the house of Anderson on the sand-bank, and he had most kindly sent him round with two of his sons in a boat, and a very troublesome, not to say hazardous, journey they had; one of their oars broke in the heavy sea, but they persevered with the usual courage and cheerfulness of fishermen, and brought the wanderer back sound and safe. My concern was now for Cunningham, lest he should be wandering about in the dark tempestuous night, and for Mrs. Cunningham, lest she should be full of fears and anxieties about her lord and master. However, in a very few minutes these fears also were rebuked and relieved, Mr. C. having in the first place gone to E. Anderson's cottage, and heard of Moreton's departure, returned immediately; and great, in proportion to my fears, were my joy and gratitude. It was a day full of mercies and blessings, made greater by the apprehension of disappointment and trouble. Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and God of all comfort! Cunningham returned before ten o'clock. It still rained very heavily, but I soon dismissed him, that Mrs. Cunningham might have her relief and joy.
The lads of the settlement appeared much attached to their Clergyman. Six boys especially are called his boys, and attend him continually. They (i.e. all the lads,) have brought 3,000 barrels of soil into his garden, and put a wall round his house, and made many other improvements.
Monday, July 16th.—The wind was very fair this morning, and soon after six o'clock Mr. Cunningham, with Picot, (the agent of Messrs. Nicolle), and four hands, and the worthy schoolmaster, (Jordan), came aboard to pilot and accompany us out. By eight o'clock we were well out of the bay, and our friends took their leave with three hearty cheers. I am deeply grateful that I have been permitted again to visit this interesting place and people. I have hardly ever met with a more pleasing race. The men and lads are gentle, I might even say gentlemanly in their manners, most kind and obliging, docile and morigerous, and yet manly and intelligent. Their devotion to Mr. Cunningham seems great and sincere, and I have reason to hope that I also have a place in their respect and affection. My exhortation to them at my last visit, whether needed or not, seems to have been duly observed and obeyed: "And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you," &c. (1 Thess. v. 12, 13.)
We reckoned, with our fine wind, upon reaching La Poele in four hours; but alas! a thick fog came on about ten o'clock, with the wind from the southeast, so that the captain, when we had run our distance, thought it necessary or expedient to stand out to sea, and this he did so effectually, that when the fog cleared about half-past one o'clock, no land could be seen. We stood in, but the impenetrable veil was soon spread again, and we gave up all hopes of making a harbour to-night. Such are the vicissitudes and disappointments of a sea visitation. We stood off for the night.
Tuesday, July 18th.—A calm nearly all last night, with fog and a heavy swell. The shifting and knocking of the rudder took away all sleep from my eyes. The morning broke with thick fog, and we heard the noise of the waves on the shore, and among the breakers, before we could see any land. This is always harsh music to my ears. But before eight o'clock the fog broke and let us see the coast. The captain most strangely determined that we were to the eastward of La Poele, and therefore stood westward with a nice breeze. When I went on deck I soon saw that he was mistaken, and believed that we were nearing Port aux Basques. As the fog further cleared, we saw snow on the high land, which confirmed my suspicions. We therefore put about. We spoke a schooner which like ourselves had gone astray in the fog last night. Soon after a boat came from the shore and informed us that we were off Burnt Islands, seven miles to the westward of Rose Blanche. There seemed then good prospect of our reaching Rose Blanche by two o'clock, as the wind had veered in our favour, and it was quite clear. Soon after, however, the wind came a-head, and we could make no way against it and the strong current. We fired a gun, as the wind was getting up with every appearance of thick weather. After making two more tacks, in which we lost rather than advanced, we saw a boat apparently making towards us. Two fishermen and a boy soon came alongside, and offered to take us into a neighbouring harbour, which they called Grundy's Passage. I gladly accepted, as I saw we could not make any progress to the eastward, and if it should blow strong we might be carried down to Cape Ray before morning, and miss Mr. Appleby altogether, who, I suppose, is waiting for us at Rose Blanche. The bay into which we entered is large and exceedingly picturesque, studded with islands, and surrounded by lofty cliffs. A considerable body of fresh water enters from various points. In one corner, E.N.E., is a very pretty cascade. Our pilot told us of four or five families living at the upper or eastern end of the bay, and we went in search, but found only one unfinished house, and no inhabitants. We rowed all round the eastern end of the bay.
A NEWFOUNDLAND SETTLER.
Our pilot, named Robert Eastman, had come from Yeovil twenty-seven years ago, first as a sailor; he then was in employ for six or seven years at Harbour Breton, when, having saved between 50l. and 60l., he was on the point of returning to England, but was persuaded to hire himself to one Gillam at Channel, whose daughter he married. He came to this place seven or eight years ago. He has five daughters and one son. The lad (only twelve years of age) fishes with his father, and together they caught last winter 140 quintals of fish. These he sells at an average of 10s. a quintal; and were it not for the enormous price of every article he buys of food and clothing, he would be able to pay for his children's schooling, and to assist in supporting a Clergyman. He kills a few seals in the winter; and many, he says, might be taken in nets if persons bad a little capital. He and his neighbours only kill them for immediate use—to eat them, and to make oil for their lamps.
He seems very industrious, and is certainly a man of good sense and feeling; but his modes of expression are, as might be expected, strange. He says that when Mr. Appleby heard of the ranters, he came along the shore to look after his flock, for he thought he should lose the whole "calabash." He has himself no love for dissenters, for before he left England he saw the "capers of a good many religions;" and he holds to none but the Church of England.
The weather was so severe last winter that he was frequently obliged to bring his boy home, exhausted by the cold, from the fishing-grounds. Till the end of November they fish with three lines, (sixty fathom), and after that nearer the shore, with one line, the rest of the winter.
The spring he says has been as fine and favourable as the winter was severe. He never remembers calmer weather or finer fish.—"As fine fish as ever you would wish to throw the line over to." He expresses the greatest delight at having us near him, never having had the pleasure of companying with ministers of his Church since he left England.
Wednesday, July 18, 1849.—It blew heavily last night, and the lop in consequence was too great to allow of our vessel or any boat going to sea this morning.
We went again, at eleven o'clock, to the eastern end of the bay, with more information about the localities; and at a place called Baker's Tickle found the houses. We held service in a decent house, and about nineteen or twenty adults were present, and half as many children. One poor woman resident in the house was just recovering from a severe illness, which had deprived her of the use of her legs. Her husband was attacked in the same way at the same time; and it appeared that the neighbours had taken the different members of the family into their respective houses. One had the man, another the wife, and others the three children, and had nursed and fed, and still nursed and fed them without fee or payment. Whether such charity would be shown in more civilized places, and among people to whom "the more excellent way" is continually shown, is a question my observation and experience do not qualify me to answer. I was happy to give a bottle of port wine with other physic to the poor woman, who seemed to have suffered patiently and to be very thankful to her kind neighbours.
In the evening we went to the Burnt Islands, about a mile and a half, to celebrate evening service. We mere met and welcomed by one Giles Hiscock, who with very short notice collected a congregation of about forty adults, besides twelve or thirteen children. Before the service I visited several of the families, and found that the Englishmen were generally from Dorsetshire, and the Newfoundlanders from Fortune Bay. The whole settlement has sprung up within ten years, and now there are nearly one hundred "livers" or settled inhabitants. They represented through G. Hiscock their great need and desire of a schoolmaster for their children, and a Clergyman for themselves, and seemed to think the two might be combined. I felt much for them, and so expressed myself, but durst make no promise but that Mr. Appleby should visit them twice a year, a degree of relief and comfort very inadequate. I rowed both in going and returning, and enjoyed the exercise greatly. It is equally pleasant and beneficial, though I may not add dignified. This was the first day of real "missionary" service in the visitation, and the pleasure which the people seemed to derive from it was very encouraging, and I partook of their satisfaction and of their disappointment, in that there is little hope of the regular return of these services and means of grace.
Thursday, July 19.—As the wind was still from the east, it was impossible for us to return to Rose Blanche. I therefore sent off the captain with three hands in the boat with a note to Mr. Appleby, requesting Mm to come on to" the Burnt Islands. After breakfast I went in R. Eastman's boat up the river as far as the receding tide would allow, and then with Mr. Gifford walked a considerable distance farther along the banks. The scenery is very lovely, and much reminded me of sylvan Wye without the "silvae;" though the trees are as numerous and varied as you will easily find in Newfoundland—mountain-ash, birch, beech, hemlock, in addition to the usual supply of fir and spruce. The banks are very lofty and precipitous, and green; with the characteristic bluffs and granulations which distinguish them from any other rocks or hills I have examined. The slope arid general tournure more resemble the Malvern hills than the banks of the Wye, though far more abrupt, precipitous and irregular. The corners and summits are almost invariably rounded, and do not present sharp points or perpendicular faces. They would seem to have boiled up and been suddenly cooled and fixed, and not to have been broken off or rent asunder from neighbouring cliffs. There were several beautiful little falls in the river, and then between them the quiet silver thread for a short distance. I heard and saw more birds than ever before in any uninhabited part of Newfoundland. We advanced till we came to a small brook some six feet wide running into the river, which I named Gifford's Brook. On our return we found the planter Hiscock from Burnt Islands, who brought us an offering of a smoked salmon, and wished to purchase some books. He bought two large Prayer Books, and one of our largest octavo Bibles. He attended our morning service in the cabin. He again represented the earnest desire he and his neighbours felt for a schoolmaster, and more frequent visits of a Clergyman. Eastman brought us a present of fish and spruce beer, and humbly requested that his mistress, of whom he seems very proud, might come on board. To this I gladly assented, and he brought her and the wife of his neighbour (Matthews) on board, and their delight was extreme. I showed them my portable font and vessels for the Holy Communion, &c. and they seemed to have the same effect as the exhibition of King Solomon's treasures had upon the Queen of the south. He was very anxious that his wife should understand that all these things belonged to the Church and Church service, and added, "what vanity it would be to turn from such a Church." I gave him a large Prayer Book, and Synge's excellent tract in answer to all excuses and pretences for not coming to the Holy Communion, as he expressed the usual dread of partaking unworthily, and for fear of doing so thought it best not to partake at all. He was much gratified at the sight of my large Bible and Prayer Book. He has a very tolerable acquaintance with the Scriptures and Prayer Book, and though "he lives in this wilderness he does not forget the old ways;" "but what," he said earnestly, "should I have done, if I had not attended to these things before I left England?" My boat returned from Rose Blanche at half-past five o'clock, but without Mr. Appleby, or any news of his whereabouts, which is a great disappointment. I know not how to shape my course, and the delay is very inconvenient: though the quiet and rest of today are exceedingly refreshing and agreeable.
Friday, July 20.—In my anxiety to escape from this harbour and proceed on my journey and work, I requested our good ally R. Eastman to pilot us by Burnt Islands, though the wind was very light. Then we again came to anchor, took leave of Eastman, and went on shore for morning service, which we celebrated in the same house as on Wednesday evening. I was very much pleased with the simplicity and apparent sincerity of the people. After the service, finding a light breeze springing up from the westward, I determined to endeavour to reach Hose Blanche in hopes of finding Mr. Appleby. We had not got away from the Burnt Islands an hour before the wind failed, and with great difficulty, by the help of our boat, we reached Rose Blanche by six o'clock. I had evening service in the house of one Sams—a brother of the person whom I visited here four years ago. The people here, as at the Burnt Islands, were loud and earnest in their expressions of their need and desire of a schoolmaster. There are upwards of a hundred inhabitants in the settlement, and numerous children, and it is a grievous thing that the old should fall into, and the young be brought up in, a state of heathenism and ignorance. I did not remark the same frankness and simplicity among these people as at Burnt Islands or Burgeo.
I was questioned by one Beck, (whom I visited and had much conversation with four years ago) as to my opinion of "the new religion at Sand Bank." I gave them such advice arid instruction as seemed to me suitable. How thankful should I be to do more for them and theirs! No news of Mr. Appleby. Saturday, July 21st.—We called on Mr. Quin, the Roman Catholic merchant, about noon, and on some others, and then walked together to Harbour le Cou, to visit the few families resident there, and particularly an old man named Shears, who had expressed a great desire to see a Bishop. We found in his house a young man lately (about one year and a half ago) come from London, who told us that his father is a piano-forte maker, and he himself a carpenter. He hired himself to one George Thomas, at Harbour le Cou, as fisherman. He is a very pleasant-speaking, active, intelligent young man, and I hope has some good feeling arid purpose, as he has undertaken to read the Church Service every Sunday to his neighbours. Old Mr. Shears was much pleased with our visit, though distressed at being found in such a "situation," i.e. with his house and self unprepared to receive us. As we returned down the hill we descried a boat standing into the Harbour, in which I soon recognised, to my great satisfaction, Mr. Appleby and Mr. Renouf.
At half-past six o'clock we had service in the house of one Rose, which was very much crowded. I addressed them with reference to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, intending to celebrate tomorrow, if God will.
Sunday, July 22d.—Mr. Quin, the merchant, was kind enough to lend and furnish a store for our service; and, bating the dreadful smell of fish and oil, nothing of the sort could be more comely and convenient. A canopy was suspended at the east end, intended, I believe, to be over my head: however, the altar was put under it. In front of the altar hung my piece of bunting, with the sacred monogram, and in front of a small table, used as a reading-desk, hung my bunting, with the mitre. Three new counterpanes were put under our feet, and a kind of chancel, or sacrarium, formed by linen or calico sheets, hung from the roof to the ground. We robed in Mr. Quin's office. I and Mr. Jones sat on either side of the altar, Mr. Appleby said the prayers, and Messrs. Moreton and Gifford read the lessons. I preached. The room was filled, but only five, (four women and one man,) communicated.
Messrs. Renouf and Quin dined with us on board. In the afternoon, Mr. Gifford said the prayers, Mr. Appleby baptized a child, Mr. Jones preached. We all drank tea with Mr. and Mrs. Quin, who entertained us very hospitably.
Monday, July 23d.—A thick fog, with the wind from the south-west, took away all hopes of making progress this morning. I therefore held service in the store at ten o'clock. About twenty people attended. Mr. Renouf left for La Poele. Messrs. Appleby and Gifford walked over to Harbour le Cou.
Tuesday, July 24tg.—We left Rose Blanche about half-past seven o'clock, A.M. The wind was very light, and we did not reach Port aux Basques till four o'clock in the afternoon.
I sent Mr. Appleby on shore to inquire about the people, and to propose a service this evening. He returned with the schoolmaster, who informed us it would be too late for service on shore this evening. We therefore celebrated the evening service on board, and after that Messrs. Appleby and Gralton drank tea with us. This Mr. Galton has maintained himself by his school since our last visit, (in 1845.) He has also a licence to celebrate marriages, and picks up a little by making wills and writing letters for the people. He is probably the only scribe in the place, and unless his written language is better than his speech, his performances must be curious specimens of caligraphy and orthography.
Wednesday, St. James the Apostle.—We went on shore at nine o'clock to celebrate Divine Service. Unfortunately, notice had not been sufficiently circulated of our intention of having Divine Service, and many men were gone fishing j some, it may be surmised, being indifferent or something more. A large proportion of the inhabitants came from Fortune Bay, and from that part, which is the stronghold of nothing strong or stable. Several of the principal persons (Mr. De Lisle, the merchant, and Mr. Brag, the chief planter) were at a distance from the place; the first at St. John's, the other in the Labrador. Very few persons, in consequence, attended the service, about thirty in all. The service was celebrated in the room built by the inhabitants for a church; which, however, they do not choose to have consecrated, but keep in their own hands for any "good man that comes along" to officiate or "hold forth" in. The chief opponent to the consecration is the chief subscriber, who has the greatest number of votes. The next largest subscriber would wish to have the building consecrated and made a church. It is substantially built, but arranged internally in the dissenting fashion, with the pulpit in the centre of the east wall, and the Holy Table in front; pews on either side close up to the eastern end; a gallery at the west, &c.
I was prepared to administer the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and in an address after the Nicene Creed, (in which I explained the nature and necessity of consecration, and the terms and conditions on which a minister might be placed among them,) I invited any who were prepared, and wished to receive, to present themselves, but none came forward. After the service I called on the "Doctor," alias a young apothecary from St. John's, who has settled here and lives by himself, performing all domestic service, &c., and probably not more than twenty years of age.
We got under way about three o'clock, with a nice breeze, which, however, soon died away, and we becalmed off Channel the rest of the evening. There was a brilliant gorgeous sunset, and the breeze again sprung up in our favour, and we got round Cape Emagee before ten o'clock, and stood with a light wind for Cape Ray.
Thursday, July 26th.—About eight o'clock we came to anchor in Codroy Road, in seven fathom. After breakfast my companions went on shore to offer to have morning service in one of their houses, and to baptize their children. This offer was thankfully accepted, with a request that we would have service in the evening also, to give an opportunity to some men then in the fishing ground to attend, and to bring their children for baptism, &c. No Clergyman has been among them since my visit, four years ago. I spoke to them of the nature of baptism, the advantage of sponsors, &c.; exhorting them to be prepared. The service was celebrated in the house of Mr. Parsons, in a very decent and commodious apartment, the same which we used at our last visit. The people were nicely dressed and well behaved. After the service I visited some sick folk, and then took my departure in a boat, intending to visit the Great Codroy River. We rowed about two miles to a cove, where we landed, and walked three miles, chiefly on the land-wash, till we reached the Great Codroy River, which is a fine broad stream, with fertile meadow land close to the banks. We saw many fine cattle feeding on the banks, and some wading through one of the arms of the river, a truly pastoral scene. Up the river is a settlement of Scotch Highlanders, who are Roman catholics. There are also several families of Irish Roman catholics. Our guide showed us where a cross had been set up last year to mark the site of an intended chapel. Some materials also had been collected; but the materials and cross had been removed farther up the river, and our guide thought it doubtful whether the building would be proceeded with. We crossed the river to reach the houses of two Protestant families. The heads of these families are old men, one of them blind, and both have some money in the English funds. I imagine their great object and ambition must have been to amass and save this money, for a more wretched set of people could hardly, I think, be found—the houses dirty and desolate, the inhabitants ignorant and careless to the last degree. The men were indeed strong, and the females robust and handsome, both evidently well fed; but it was with difficulty we could get any word from them, and they regarded us and our purpose with stupid indifference. I could not help supposing that the crime of covetousness had overtaken them, though much allowance must in charity and reason be made for people who were never visited by a Clergyman but once before, and that fifteen years ago! One of the sons was married to a Roman Catholic woman, and all their children (eight in number) were baptized by the Roman Catholic priest last year. The Protestant children were baptized by Archdeacon Wix fifteen years ago, and three, born since, by some poor man. Considering the great ignorance of the people, I thought it right to baptize these children hypothetically. and administered that sacrament myself. The woman produced a Prayer-Book, which had been sent to them by Archdeacon Wix. It is never used, as not. a person in the settlement can read. There are probably now from eighteen to twenty Protestants in this settlement. Finding that there are six or seven families of Protestants at the Little River, and several children not baptized, I sent forward Messrs. Gifford and Moreton, with a guide, to visit. The distance is six miles. After their departure I remained some time discoursing with the people, or rather discoursing to them, for they said little in reply. They had seen this morning a man-of-war (the Wellesley) go up the bay, and they could talk only of it. "A stout ship entirely," was often repeated, with wishes on the part of some that they could have gone on board. One of the men keeps a schooner and has been this summer to St. John's. I asked him if he had been to Church. He said, "No, for he was afraid of catching some sickness where there were so many people together." This is a very common fear of the Indians; and they will neither willingly go to or remain at any place where sickness is suspected to prevail. I returned with my guide to our boat, and got back to the Church ship about five o'clock. At six o'clock I went on shore to hold the promised service. Mr. Jones said the prayers. I baptized the children, and admitted them into the Church, and delivered an address. The service occupied nearly two hours. I then returned on board, hoping, though hardly expecting, that Messrs. Gifford and Moreton might return in time to allow of our sailing to-night for St. George's Bay, as the wind was quite fair. I got on board about nine o'clock; and in five minutes or little more, I was gratified by the arrival of Messrs. Gifford and Moreton in a fishing boat.
They had reached the Little River about four o'clock, collected the people for an afternoon service, and had baptized three children; and the people most properly and considerately resolved to send them back in a boat. They were much better pleased with these than with the inhabitants of the Great River. They are more civil and civilized, and more anxious about themselves and their children than their neighbours, though equally illiterate. They have many cattle, which they kill for their own use in the winter, but do not sell. They occasionally export butter. They weave their own cloth, and knit their stockings from their own wool.
They deal for other articles chiefly with Mr. Renouf, of La Poele, sending their fish to him, but occasionally buying also of the traders. They appear hearty, honest people, and say, if a teacher would come to them, they would do everything in their power for his comfort and satisfaction, and that he would not want scholars, for they all, old and young, wish to be taught. I showed them the Church ship and gave them some hooks on the chance of some of them learning to read. I also sent by them books and medicine to several of our friends whom we left at Codroy.
We got under way at ten o'clock, with a nice breeze from the south, and before eleven o'clock had passed Cape Anguille, and were well into Bay St. George.
Friday, July 27th.—The wind was very fair till three o'clock this morning, when it fell, but soon after four sprang up again. We saw the Admiral's ship at anchor in the Bay about eight o'clock. Soon after, she made sail, but came to anchor again within a couple of hours. We stood on, and anchored in the Harbour, opposite the Church, soon after twelve o'clock. Mr. Meek came on board soon after we had anchored. At five o'clock the Admiral's ship slowly and majestically entered the harbour, and anchored very near us. I went on shore at six o'clock for prayers in the Church, and to drink tea with Mr. and Mrs. Meek, who, happily, with their family, are quite well.
Saturday, July 28th.—This is the anniversary of my first visit to Sandy Point. The change in the interval of four years has been very little.
There seem to have been some very dishonest and wicked doings in the matter of a wreck in the year 1847, in which nearly all the inhabitants were implicated; and, as might be expected, nothing has prospered since. No advances have been made in enclosing or cultivating land, or increasing or improving the cattle. Everything seems unsettled. The proximity also of the Acadians, who have increased in numbers considerably, and are of the most idle, loose, and dishonest habits, makes property very insecure. During the last winter, many of these were in a state bordering on starvation, and subsisted by begging and thieving. The crews of three or four vessels wrecked in the ice were also thrown upon the people, and chiefly upon Mr. Meek and the merchant Mr. Alexander. These vessels were carried by the ice up the Bay without any power of extricating themselves, and two went down at sea. The last which was in this manner carried up (the Fingalton) happily succeeded in forcing through the ice into the harbour, and came to anchor, and was preserved, though with difficulty. She took away the other crews (nearly 100 in number) when the departure of the ice set her at liberty.
We went to Church at half-past nine o'clock. On our return, the Admiral (Lord Dundonald), with the captain of his ship, came on board the Church ship, and stayed with us half-an-hour. The Admiral is suffering from a cold, and seems less vigorous than when I met him in sunny Bermuda. This is the first time that an admiral has been on board the Church ship, and the visit is an instance of a really great man's kindness and condescension.
Captain Goldsmith and Mr. Parish (the Chaplain) dined with us on board the Church ship, and accompanied us to Church at half-past six o'clock, and afterwards drank tea with us at Mr. Meek's. I preached on the subject of Confirmation, and took care to remind the candidates that though the Confirmation would not take place till the evening, they were at liberty, and also were expected, to attend the Sacraments and partake of the Lord's Supper in the morning. Mr. Meek also warned them to the same effect, in giving notice of the time of Confirmation, &c.
I this day received an official letter from the Admiral in reply to one I had addressed to his Lordship in Bermuda. It is strange that he should have delivered his reply himself in St. George's Bay.
This is the first visit ever paid by an Admiral to Sandy Point. The juxtaposition of a seventy-four flag-ship, with an admiral, and that admiral Lord Dundonald, on board, and a tiny schooner, with a Missionary Bishop engaged in a Visitation, might afford matter for reflection.
Sunday, July 28th.—I went on shore at ten o'clock to examine the Sunday-school.
The Church pretty well attended, but only six communicants besides the Clergy.
In the afternoon I again preached and gave confirmation to twelve persons, three males and nine females. Most of the females were grown-up persons.
Between the services, Captain Goldsmith, with Mr. Jeques (the Admiral's secretary), came on board to convey the Admiral's wish to present me with a new flag: and they took my flag with them, that they might order a similar one, and leave it for me at St. John's.
In the afternoon a schooner came in from Halifax, bringing English and European news to the 8th instant.
The Gauls, it seems, have again entered Rome; but upon what pretext, or what errand, they would be more puzzled than Brennus himself to declare. O! where are the Scipios and Cincinnati? Truly she that had borne seven is waxed feeble. Wretched place, more wretched people! Unhappy Garibaldi, more unhappy Oudinot, most unhappy Pio Nono! Surely this, if not the last, must be the worst page of poor Rome.
Monday, July 29th.—I went on deck a little before four o'clock, to sec the flag-ship get under way. It was a noble spectacle; all was done so quietly, and easily, and quickly. Half-an-hour sufficed to set the mighty castle, with its 700 inmates, in motion; and no person on board not up at the time need have been conscious of any change of place and state. The morning was fine, and the wind light, and about four o'clock she proceeded slowly and majestically—and how far more beautifully than the puffing, noisy, smoky, steamer. God bless the gallant ship, with her kind-hearted captain, and noble commander-in-chief! I shall always remember with pleasure, and perhaps I ought in sincerity to add pride, that the Church ship has been in such company.
We went on snore as before to service at half-past nine o'clock. After the service, I examined carefully the school, and was so engaged upwards of two hours. Mr. Gifford and others I employed to measure and lay down a churchyard about the church, the present graveyard being inconveniently placed at the distance of half a mile from the church. I then called with Mr. Meek on some of the inhabitants. Mr. and Mrs. Meek, with two of their children, dined with us on board. In the evening service I preached, intending to depart on the morrow.
Tuesday, July 31st.—We got under way at six o'clock, with a light wind, but fair. It was calm for about au hour. We rounded Cape St. George at four o'clock, and then the breeze freshened, and we did eight and a half knots, and the sailing was exceedingly pleasant. The whole day was clear and fine. We were within seven or eight miles of the Bay of Islands by ten o'clock.
Wednesday, August 1st.—Entered the Bay of Islands about six A.M. with stiff breezes, which sung louder in the shrouds than I have heard before. The wind rushes down from the lofty hills with great violence. The morning was misty and the lofty hills, clothed at their summits with clouds, had a very majestic appearance. We made for Governor's Island, the captain intending to anchor under the island, in or near York Harbour; but seeing no settlements in that neighbourhood, I directed him to steer for Harbour Island, which is at the mouth of the river or Sound. We sailed close under some magnificent hills, rising perpendicularly from the water, probably to the height of 500 feet, clothed with wood, while the bare peaks or summits of the Blow-me-down Hills looked out from the mist at a still higher elevation. The scenery is the most bold and picturesque I have seen in my voyage. We sailed some time among the islands without discovering any sign of inhabitants, till we arrived off Frenchman's Cove, when one dwelling appeared, and soon after, in a cove on the south-east of the harbour, two other small cottages. I sent the boat with some of my friends on shore to make inquiries, about twelve o'clock. "While they were absent, a Frenchman came alongside, who informed me that he had been now living three years in this bay all by himself. He came here from St. Peter's, where he had lived seven or eight years. My friends returned with one Thomas Beverley, who informed us that the inhabitants are chiefly on the banks of the Sound, which runs some fifteen or seventeen miles navigable for vessels of any size. Then the river suddenly contracts to very small size and depth. As the wind was fair, I determined to proceed at once to River Head, or the head of the Sound, taking Thomas Beverley with me as pilot, but we had scarcely proceeded two miles when the wind failed. This was about four o'clock, P.M., and being anxious to accomplish the farthest distance with fine weather, I manned the boat with three of my friends, my man servant, and the pilot, and proceeded to row to the most distant settlement,—about nine or ten miles, as our pilot; informed us. This we accomplished in an hour and three-quarters. We found the owner, Edward Brake, at home, and placed in one of the loveliest and most fertile spots of nature's own work.
His house is situated at the head of the Sound, just where the river is contracted. If I had leisure and ability I could expatiate with pleasure, at least to myself, upon the beauties and other commodities of the place. One feature of this locality, and of the whole Bay of Islands, is the predominance and luxuriance of deciduous timber. Birch, beech, poplar, and ash in many places quite take the place of the spruce of fir, and lofty pines overtop the other trees. The hills are clothed from their bases at the water's brink, to the very summits of 400 feet in height. I never saw any scenery of the same character or nearly so picturesque in Newfoundland, or perhaps I might say, anywhere. Edward Brake has a house and well-stocked garden at the base of one of the noble timber-clad mountains. His father came from Dorsetshire (Yetminster, I think) many years ago, and lived in this locality some sixty years. He died in the year 1840, and left ten sons, of whom this Edward alone received any education, being sent to England for that purpose. He has a wife and four children, and one of his brothers, who appears weak, resides with them, unmarried. They were very glad of our arrival, when informed of our object and purpose. The father had baptized his own children, but expressed a wish that they should be baptized by a Clergyman, and they were baptized accordingly in the hypothetical form. The evening service was said, and the children baptized after the second lesson. Just before service began, the Church ship hove in sight, and I sent off our boat to meet and warn her of a bar. But when the service was concluded, Church ship and boat were both out of sight. After waiting half-an-hour, during which we rowed Mr. Brake's boat to the mouth of the river, under the light of a bright moon nearly full, the mighty cliffs flinging their shadows over the still unbroken mirror beneath them, our boat returned, and reported the Church ship carried back by the receding tide on the centre of the stream, where it was far too deep to come to anchor. There was no wind. We overtook her some three miles down, and then putting the boat a-head, we managed to get into a cove and anchored in seven fathoms about half-past ten o'clock. Laus Deo.
Thursday, August 2d,—We rowed on shore soon after breakfast, intending to proceed to Tucker's Cove, the residence of another Brake. On our way we landed at Corner B rook, (near which the Church ship lay,) to see the course of the stream, and the nature of the land. The stream, however, was too shallow, and the banks too thick with wood, to allow of our penetrating to any distance. We landed on the beach close to what might be called a natural garden—a thick border of beautiful rose trees, covered with flowers of two colours, and very fragrant; the bees were very busy among them. French willow was interspersed also in full flower, and within this border gooseberries, currants, and raspberries in abundance. The gooseberries were equal to garden fruit, smooth, thin skinned, and with a beautiful bloom. Enough of them was soon gathered for a substantial pudding. Leaving one of our party to fish in the brook, we proceeded to Tucker's Cove, where the children of J. Brake were baptized after the second lesson of the morning service, as those of his brother yesterday. His wife is an Indian from St. George's Bay. He showed us the skins of three wolves he had killed close to his own house last winter. A pack of six infested the neighbourhood, and "fairly cleared the point of deer." He was afraid to let his children go out of the house. They were of a large size, measuring six feet from the snout to the end of the tail; they are caught in traps, and then and there shot. "They are shocking fierce and dangerous entirely."
In returning, we saw the Hawk spread her wings, and expected to see her make towards us, but presently after, all was close and still; and we soon perceived, to my great mortification, that she was aground. We found her keeling over, or, as Mr. Jones said, "rebus inclinatis." Her keel had caught on a bank in going off. There was no remedy or relief till high water. After dinner we rowed down to Gillam's Cove, about nine miles, to visit a family named Blanchard. The wind and tide were against us, and the pulling was very laborious. We reached the place just before sun-down. It is a beautiful little farm, and has quite an imposing appearance from the water. The house is mean and dirty, and the old patriarch, who has lived here nearly seventy years, was in a state of great filth and discomfort. He is nearly ninety years of age. His mental faculties are good, but his bodily strength is nearly gone. He welcomed us kindly, and spoke with pleasure of Archdeacon Wix. A young man named Lorder was in the house, whom we had met coming towards us in a boat, intending to ask if we would take their dried fish, having concluded that we were traders. He had been shipped from Dorsetshire a few years ago as servant to Mr. Brake, and had married and settled here. He expressed great anxiety to have his two children baptized; they were absent with their mother at Cape Gregory, fishing, fifteen miles off; but he resolved to bring them back to-morrow if I would remain till the evening. This I promised. Two children were baptized, and the evening service was fully performed. I examined the poor old man as to his life, and heard him repeat the Lord's Prayer. He kissed my hand, and the hands of the other Clergymen, at our departure. This is, I believe, the second time only in nearly seventy years that he has seen a Clergyman, and in all probability this is the last time he will ever behold one. What will his "Nunc dimittis" be? I left him with feelings of sorrow and shame that I could do so little for his comfort or instruction. The return was much easier and quicker, in consequence of the wind having moderated, and we had the great satisfaction of finding the good Church ship afloat, and anchored at a greater distance from the neighbouring shoal. We got back soon after eleven o'clock. I pulled nearly the whole way.
Friday, August 3d.—We went on shore directly breakfast to visit a family who had returned from the fishery yesterday evening. The man is a Brake, brother to the Brakes mentioned before. The mother is a Micmac Indian from St. George's Bay. She appeared a notable, sensible woman, and she assured me she could repeat the Lord's Prayer and Creed in her own language, with other prayers. Her father, she said, was Captain Jock. Four of their children -were baptized with the conditional form. The mother assured me the baptism among her people was precisely the same.
We then rowed down the Sound to Deep Cove, another settlement of Brakes. Two families reside there. One only we found at home, and these just returned from the fishery. With them was an old roan named Crocker, who reported himself as resident at Trout River, a settlement on the coast, about twenty miles to the eastward of the Bay of Islands. He also comes from Dorsetshire, but has been many years settled in this country, and has brought some land into cultivation, and keeps many sheep and pigs. He was the first settler at Trout River, is married to a sister of the Brakes, and has nine children, whom, and his place, he was very desirous we should see. Several, also, of the inhabitants of the Bay of Islands are now fishing at his settlement. I determined, if possible, to pay them a visit. At Deep Cove three children were baptized, with the morning service.
We then joined the Church ship, which was beating down the Sound, but landed again at Halfway Point, where two families reside. Four children were baptized from each house. We next landed at Brooks' Cove, or "the Cove," which is nearly opposite to Gulana's Cove, and rivals it in beauty and fertility, and seems to surpass it in the squalor and misery of its owners and inhabitants. The evening prayers, &c. were said here, and an old Englishman appeared to join in them with pleasure. The household altogether was the most wretched and unsatisfactory possible; the inhabitants being sunk into a state of the lowest ignorance and brutality, yet surely far more deserving of pity than of condemnation, at least from us. They reported themselves as having nearly starved in the spring; and their appearance betokened it. And yet their fields and gardens looked fair and fertile. But there was no blessing from above; none of their good things were sanctified by the word of God and prayer. Even the dogs seemed more licentious and impudent than in other places, being under no kind of control. I gave the people, with a sad heart, such exhortations and instructions as I thought necessary and suitable, though how little, alas, adequate or sufficient!
Saturday, August 4th.—We stood in to Mae Ivor's Cove, and I visited the settler, one Park, whose two sons were baptized by Archdeacon Wix. His wife is an Indian from Burgeo. The man came from Burin. Our pilot, Thomas Beverley, resides with them in the summer, but in the -winter retires to Harbour Island with a younger brother, to make hoops, &c. There were no young children here to be baptized, and I therefore crossed over in my boat to Frenchman's Cove, leaving the Church ship to follow when they had filled the water-casks. We took none of the crew: I rowed, with my three younger friends, and Mr. Jones steered.
At Frenchman's Cove we found a Frenchman named Prosper Companion, with a wife and four children. He had just returned from two months' absence on the salmon fishery, and found his wife and younger children nearly starved. They were, and long had been, entirely without bread, tea, or molasses, which are the chief articles of food. She looked very wretched. To add to her pains and troubles, she was far advanced in the family way.
Prosper is, or was, a Roman Catholic, and he produced his "Le Petit Paroissien," which he had purchased a few years ago, and a little book or tract, "Le Jeune Colporteur," given him by the captain of a French fishing-vessel—a work directed against the proceedings of the Tract and Bible Societies' agents. The woman desired earnestly that her four children might be baptized, and the father concurred in the petition. The morning service was celebrated, and the children baptized after the second lesson. Mrs. Companion had been married or united before to a person named Dargan, and she hoped I should meet with her son by that marriage, who, she said, would be very sorry if his children lost the opportunity of being baptized by a Clergyman. After the service, I directed the husband to accompany me to the Church ship, that I might supply his wife and children with some necessary food and physic. Nothing can exceed the beauty of this cove, or its apparent fertility—roses and wild fruits of various kinds in profusion on the beach, and forest trees of luxuriant growth clothed the rear-hills to the very ridge. And amidst all this beauty and profusion, the people were in a state bordering on starvation. On returning to the Church ship, we discovered Mr. Crocker on board, who had offered to accompany us to Bonne Bay. He was somewhat disappointed to learn that I intended to visit Lark Harbour before leaving this bay, as he is in a hurry to proceed. While I was in some perplexity thereupon, the wind entirely failed us, and we were drifted by the current upon a bank off the south-east corner of Harbour Island, which effectually relieved me of all doubt as to my departure before night, though such a discomfiture is anything but agreeable in itself. I dismissed my first pilot, T. Beverley. He appears a simple-minded, honest creature, and he made many promises of a strict and upright life, according to his knowledge and opportunities. At 3 o'clock we took boat, with two of our crew and the son of our pilot, to row to Lark Harbour, nine miles. We started with a sail; but the wind soon came ahead, with a very heavy sea. When we had advanced half-way, we saw two boats which our young pilot knew to have come from Lark Harbour. We therefore turned aside to speak, and discovered in one boat John Bailey, and a grown-up daughter and young child, and in the other two Women (one of whom was Mrs. Wheller) all going from Lark Harbour to the Sound. They had, however, left children behind them. I was in very great doubt what course to take, as we had lost more than an hour by turning aside, and the wind was right ahead, with a great swell. After, however, asking counsel, I resolved to proceed, and at least make the attempt. It was difficult and disagreeable work, but, by the blessing of God, we reached the harbour at a quarter past 7 o'clock, just in time to witness a most splendid sunset in a most lovely and noble gorge. Three families hero inhabit during the summer months, in little temporary cabins, in which one bed, one box, one bench, and one kettle, seem all the furniture. In one of these, however, the evening service of the Church was duly and devoutly celebrated; and great was my surprise, and greater my delight, to hear the poor ragged fisherman who knelt by my side at the foot of his bed, join audibly and earnestly in the general confession, and afterwards in the Lord's Prayer, &c. On putting a prayer-book into his hands, I found he could read correctly; and he really seemed to devour the words. He had been taught to read by his uncle, Michael James; and this was the only instance I met with of any person who had been taught to read or taught to pray in this whole bay. Indeed, I did not find another person, born and brought up here, who could distinctly say the Lord's Prayer. I made him a present of the book he had used, and he really seemed to regard it as a treasure. Here we baptized four children, and departed soon after 8 o'clock. The sea, happily, had lulled, and the wind helped us a little occasionally, and, with the good hand of our God upon us, we joined the Church ship—released from her disagreeable and discreditable recumbency, and under sail—about 11 o'clock. The wind was light, but the night beautifully fine, arid soon after midnight we had taken leave of the Bay of Islands, and were creeping gently along the shore towards Bonne Bay. Mr. Gilford had not accompanied u?, in consequence of his hands being too sore to admit of his pulling any more; and it was providentially ordered that during his stay two families were brought on board the Church ship, that the children might be baptized. One was the younger Blancliard, who had come with his wife and children in an open boat, all the preceding day and night; and the other Lorder, whom we had seen at Blanchard's, senior, and who with his wife had rowed some fifteen miles, to bring his children for the baptism. I do not know how to be thankful enough for this and the many other mercies of this eventful week. The weather has been uninterruptedly fine; and our very hindrances and discomfitures seemed to have been ordered to promote and complete my desired ends. I should have had only reason to regret if I could have departed one hour sooner. O! that men would therefore praise the Lord for His goodness.
Sunday, August 5th.—I do not know that our pilot had contrived or would contrive it so, but it so that at 7 o'clock this morning we were just off his residence at Trout Cove, and it was suggested that we might go on shore. I sent him off to make preparations, and he returned with three others to row us to the land, the vessel standing on and off. At 9 o'clock the morning service commenced, the congregation consisting of Mr. Crocker's family, with some Blanchards and Brakes from the Bay of Islands—seventeen in all. The three Clergymen wore their surplices, and my little font was used, with the usual ornamental covering of the table. Baptisms in the hypothetical form were solemnized after the second lesson. Nine of Crocker's family were so baptized, and three of John Brake's, the widower. Crocker has a good deal of land under cultivation, and grows turnips, barley, &c. His garden is well cultivated, and apparently he is in very comfortable circumstances, but grumbles like an Englishman, and declares he has a hard matter to keep his family. He had himself baptized all his own children but one. His wife, however, was urgent that all might be now baptized, and he concurred, and therefore the hypothetical form was used.
We returned on board immediately after the service, leaving Crocker behind on his own petition. At eleven o'clock we celebrated divine service in the large cabin; the captain and two sailors, with my servant, attended. At two o'clock, P.M. we entered the Little (or Rocky) Harbour, just to the east of Bonne Bay, and close to the entrance. This is rather a roadstead than harbour, but it is protected, except from the north-west winds. At three o'clock my friends went on shore, and were kindly welcomed by an old Englishman named Paine. His wife is an Englishwoman, the only one, I believe, on the shore, and they were married in St. John's by parson Harris, forty years ago. Since then he has constantly resided at this place, and has seen two generations grow up around him. He can read, and produced his Prayer-Book and "New Manual," which appear to have been well used. He is very anxious to obtain a new copy of the "Manual," and I regretted that I could not supply him. On the return of my friends to the Church ship we celebrated the evening service—all the crew in attendance. At five o'clock we went on shore, and in Mr. Paine's house said again the evening service, and after the second lesson baptized the children which had never participated in that sacrament. I addressed the congregation after the service, and had much conversation with them, and was greatly pleased and thankful to find them apparently very earnest and serious. Great regret was expressed that more of their friends and relatives had not been able to attend, and that they could not all more frequently and regularly enjoy the benefits and blessings of the ministrations of the Church. With the children there were not fewer than thirty persons present at the service, besides my party. The whole number of inhabitants, (exclusive of a Roman-catholic family, the head of which rejoices in the Name of Xavier Jardinier,) must be nearly fifty, and alas! this is the first time that any minister of religion has visited them, or any of the holy offices of the Church been duly celebrated among them. After the service I examined the garden, and found fine peas and other vegetables in abundance. We then walked round the harbour. There seems to be good slate on the coast: the interior is thickly wooded, with beautiful streams of water. This has been a holy day, if not in every sense a sabbath. Two services on shore and two at sea on the same Sunday seldom fall to the lot of a Bishop or any Clergyman in these days, and I desire to be duly and truly thankful for such a privilege. Some of the people came on board in the evening, and were supplied with children's books and tracts.
Monday, August 6th.—We got under way about seven o'clock, after the men had replenished our water-casks at Mr. Paine's clear spring in his garden. Horace's wish appears to have been granted in this case—
"......modus agri non ita magnus;
Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fons."
Our men found the people assembled at five o'clock, and Mr. Paine reading to them the tracts I had sent yesterday.
The wind was light the whole day, and part of the day a-head, and we did not reach Cow Cove (twenty miles) till nearly seven o'clock in the evening. The cove is a roadstead to the south and west of Cow Head; to the north of the Head is a harbour, but it is not of easy access, in consequence of some rocks lying at the entrance. The neck of land which divides Shallow Harbour from Cow Cove is not more than a quarter of a mile across, and on this neck lie the houses, five or six in number. We found most of the inhabitants at home, and besides them two families from Daniel's Harbour, a place about twenty-one miles to the northward; and one family from St. Paul's Bay. We called on most of the people, and soon discovered that several of them are living in a most loose and licentious way; one woman, I fear, cohabiting with two men; others separated from a first husband and living with another man. We arranged to have a service and baptize the children to morrow (if it please God) at nine o'clock, in the house of one Vincent, who appears a respectable old man, and respected by all his neighbours.
Tuesday, August 7th.—The wind was fresh in the night, but happily off the land, and we felt no inconvenience; but it is a too much exposed place for any but the summer season. We went on shore at nine o'clock, with the usual furniture, and the small font, &c. While my friends were preparing the room, I talked to the men outside, and an old gentleman, who reported himself the "chief of the place" said to me seriously, "Please your majesty, I have a petition to request, if you will be so well-pleased as to grant it. Will you be pleased to give me a grant to have the prayers of the Church read in my house every Sunday?" I told him how far I could and would gladly comply with his request.
Then he said, "I have another petition to request; Will you give me a grant to have stocks put up to punish the unmannerly boys?" He then spoke of the grief and trouble which the misconduct of his own children had caused him. He appeared in earnest, and I felt for him.
The room was very full; some of the inhabitants had lived in St. George's Bay, and had there attended the service, but to most of the people it was a novelty. They were, however, provided in most cases with godparents for the children. Fully thirty adults were present, and as many children. Most of the children had been baptized by Mr. Vincent, who gave a clear and satisfactory account of what he had done. I instructed the people on the nature and necessity of baptism, the meaning and use of godparents, &c.; and after the service was concluded I addressed them generally on their state, and spoke particularly of the sin of men separating from their wives, or women from their husbands, though the marriage might have been only a promise before witnesses. One man had applied to me to be married to a woman who had been united to another man, but had left him, as it was said, before she had any children. By her present partner she had four children. The man, with a cousin of the same name, is from Haselbury-Bryan. They could read but very imperfectly, and seem to have led irregular lives. Well do I remember examining', as inspector the school in that parish, and Mr. W——— interposing to assure the children that they were not children of God except they were converted. When the service had concluded, many of the men assured me they would gladly pay towards the maintenance of a Clergyman if they could only be visited twice or thrice a-year. This was the first visit of a Clergyman to their settlement.
I departed with a heavy heart at the thought of leaving so much vice uncorrected, and of being able to hold out no hopes of amelioration.
We went on board at noon. Some young men came off for books. One, named Banfield, had been wrecked five years ago in St. George's Bay. lie had removed to this place as servant to one of the planters, and was doing, as he said, very well; but suffered a good deal from a disease in the gums, which affected his cheek. He has several times written to his friends, but had received no reply. His father is a wheelwright in Suffolk. I felt an interest in the lad, both on account of his misfortunes, and his modest and gentle manners, and in my mind I fixed him for a schoolmaster. I supplied him with a large Prayer-Book, to be used for the Sunday service, and some school books, &c. for the children, and physic for himself. We were under way soon after twelve o'clock with a fair wind, which, however, soon failed us and came ahead. In the evening we had two hours' fine run, but again, before ten o'clock, we were becalmed off Portland Creek. Unquestionably and urgently is a Missionary needed on this shore;—if, at least, ignorance and vice, with all attendant and consequent wretchedness, constitute such need. From Bay of Islands to Port au Choix, a distance of about sixty miles, are three hundred and twenty inhabitants, nearly all of English parentage, at least on the father's side. Where the means of subsistence are so abundant, the population may be expected to increase rapidly; and what a melancholy prospect! Their present state is indeed sad and sinful enough, but in the common course of things the "progenies vitiosior" must ensue. There is but one remedy, and that one I ought to apply, and will, if it please God to send the man and the means, or the man without the means, the Missionary.
Wednesday, August 8th.—I had intended that our next place of call should be St. John's Island, but in the night we considerably overshot it, and as the wind in the morning was fair for Forteau, and there seemed every probability of reaching it before dark, I thought it best to stand on. We were favoured as all along, and happily came to anchor in Forteau Bay by seven o'clock. Mr. Ellis came on board, and gave a good report of the fishery. From St. John's he had received no intelligence since his departure, eight weeks ago.
Thursday, August 9th.—Six weeks have now elapsed since we left St. John's, of almost uninterrupted fine weather, and without any hurt or accident. How can I be thankful enough, or how can I best show and prove that I am thankful, as I profess and desire to be?
We took our boats to L'Anse Amour soon after breakfast, and were kindly received and welcomed by Mr. Davies. I introduced my friend and disciple, Gifford, as the future Missionary of Forteau and the straits of Belle Isle. Mr. Davies promised all due reverence and esteem, and offered rooms in his house, with board, &c. These preliminaries being happily settled, we walked to L'Anse à Loup, where Mr. Crockwell received us in good agent style; supplying us with spruce beer (which we drank out of teacups) and biscuit. lie is himself, as are nearly all the English agents on this shore, a teetotaller, and his appearance does credit to the physical effects and results of the system. Here I received the first news from St. John's since our departure, in a letter from Mr. Bridge, dated so late as August 3d; and most thankful indeed I was that he was able to report, "All well." We got back to the Church ship soon after four o'clock; and in the evening I called at the rooms of the Jersey merchants and my friend Mr. Cribbs, who all are full of fish. The quantity is prodigious. Mr. Crockwell at L'Anse à Loup hauled yesterday 300 barrels of herrings in one seine, i.e. about 120,000. Sometimes they enclose twice and thrice as many as these; indeed, more than they can possibly dispose of otherwise than as manure.
Friday, August 10th.—This morning we again went over to L'Anse Amour to consecrate a graveyard, in which very lately Mr. Davies has buried his youngest child. I used the form which I had drawn up for the St. John's cemetery, though the circumstances were widely different; as different as the places are distant and dissimilar. Here Mr. Davies and his family were, with my party, all the congregation, and all for the present interested; but they appeared deeply so, and it was no small pleasure to me that I was able to afford them this comfort. We returned immediately after the service, hoping to get away to Blanc Sablon, but the wind and tide were both against us. I wrote to Mr. Bridge, and in the evening walked round the bay in quest of a site for a church; but did not succeed to our satisfaction. We had a most pleasant peaceful walk, and I said for poor Gifford, "O si sic omnia!"
Saturday, August 11th.—Sailed from Forteau for Blanc Sablon about seven o'clock. The wind was a-head and light, and though we had the help of the tide, we did not arrive at our destination till three o'clock. Here I saw for the first time the end, or one end, of my Diocese, Hero the government of Newfoundland is divided from that of Canada by a small stream, and that stream is the Rubicon, which I may not, and happily have no temptation to, pass. Brother Montreal has no reason to fear that I shall be forward to thrust my sickle into his harvest, or to "boast in another man's line, of things," &c. My friends went on shore and called on the agent of Messrs. De Quetteville,—a Mr. Le Selleur, who received them kindly, and promised to prepare a store for the service tomorrow. I afterwards went on shore, and walked along the banks of the Rubicon, which it would not be difficult to ford if there were occasion.
Sunday, August 12th.—My friend, as usual, went on shore about half an hour before me, to prepare the room for divine service. The place assigned for the purpose was the upper loft of a store, very commodious and convenient. We found boards nicely arranged for seats; and a vestry had been set off in a corner of the room with flags, which answered its intended purpose exceedingly well. The only objectionable feature or circumstance was the approach to the room on the outside, by a ladder; but Mr. Le Selleur had provided a new one, which was abundantly sufficient for persons accustomed to climb the sides of ships and vessels, as were the pastors and all the flock on this occasion. The store is yet in course of construction, and if there had been any rain we should have felt it through the roof; but the day was happily quite fair and fine.
The service commenced at 11 o'clock, and the store was well attended: two women only, and they not connected with the merchant's establishment. The senior chaplain gave notice of my intention of administering the Holy Sacrament. I afterwards explained to the people the purpose of my visit, and how it affected or concerned both the residents and visitors. Three young men came forward to communicate, connected with two of the vessels in the harbour, from Jersey. They appeared very earnest and devout. Two Englishmen, who reside some sixty or eighty miles to the westward, but have come here for some salt herrings, spoke to me on the subject, but excused themselves on the ground of not having been confirmed. But more, I saw plainly, was meant or contained in their excuse than met the ear.
The afternoon service commenced at half-past three o'clock, and the attendance was quite as large as in the morning, which I did not expect, as many of the Jerseymen I know cannot understand the service in the English language; and I feared that, after their curiosity had been gratified in the morning, they would have stayed away. I cannot, indeed, say that the persons were the same; but the number was as large, and the behaviour very decent, though I only saw one prayer-book in use. All the Jersey-men who attend church at home attend the French service, which alternates with the English each Sunday in (I believe) every church in Jersey; and they bring chiefly their French prayer-books and Bibles. I saw one French prayer-book, printed at Guernsey, verbatim, I think, the same as ours, I very much regret that G——— cannot speak and preach in the French language. It would be very desirable to have a service here in French. He must learn. I saw several head-stones in their graveyard or burying-place, on which the inscriptions were in French; and they always converse together in that language. On descending the ladder from the store, I found many of the people waiting below to take leave. Mr. Le Selleur and some others accompanied us on board, and several visitors afterwards presented themselves. I then went in a boat to visit two families who have settled here, and in each of which I understood some of the children were ill, and the mothers thereby prevented from attending the service. The men are from Jersey, and sons of a person who built a good house, and made some money by killing seals. The women are from Carbonear, together with a mother and two sisters of the Dumaresqs, and nine or ten nice little children. Their house is the best I have seen on the Labrador. The place is called L'Anse Cotard. The children would be an occasion of much interest and pleasure to the Clergyman, where such treasures are so rare, if properly brought up. We walked back to Blanc Sablon along the shore: the distance is under three miles, and the path is dry. One of our communicants, with the clerk, accompanied us. The clerk has been accustomed to baptize the few children born in the neighbourhood. D——— had been married by one of the Messrs. De Quetteville. Sometimes, I find, children are baptized with the full service, and godfathers, &c., by a clerk, or captain of a vessel, in a private house! So are the ministers and services of the Church degraded and brought into contempt through our neglect. No Clergyman has visited this settlement since the Rev. E. Cusack, nine years ago. He has given a very painful account of his reception. I am thankful to be able to record far better treatment,—nay, the best possible under the circumstances.
Monday, August 13.—The harbour of Blanc Sablon is formed by the Isle au J3ois, which' lies just before the river. There is a passage on either side of the island, between it and the main land, large and safe. Messrs. de Quetteville's chief establishment is on the main land, on the Newfoundland side of the Rubicon. They have also a smaller fishing establishment on the Isle au Bois, and Messrs. Boutellier have another. A Mr. Le Brocque comes also every year, on his own account, from Jersey, and manages a smaller concern on the Canada side of the Rubicon. Bradore is about four miles, or rather more, from Blanc Sablon. Messrs, de Quetteville's establishment is the only one for trading, on the Labrador coast, till you reach Battle Harbour.
I intended to leave as early as possible, either for the Newfoundland coast or Red Bay, as the wind might serve. About 11 o'clock the wind came up from the south-west, which seemed to determine our course onward, as I desired. The wind steadily increased, and, though the tide was against us, we made good progress, and reached our destination (Red Bay) by five o'clock. The harbour is very commodious and safe. We were boarded soon after our arrival by a Mr. Penny, from Carbonear, who fishes here every season, and has this year brought a good-sized brig to take away his catch. Several other visitors are from Carbonear, and many of the residents. Gifford went on shore. The inhabitants expressed considerable alarm at the prospect of having to contribute to a Clergyman's support, pleading poverty, &c. This might be expected among people whose only teaching, for many years, had come from Carbonear. The men, however, are chiefly from Dorsetshire, and profess themselves Churchmen, with no intention of turning or drawing back. Last year, when the man-of-war was in the harbour, many of them sought baptism for their children at the captain's hands, and several couples were married by him. This circumstance is an evidence of some remaining reverence for the ordinances of the Church; and I am far from presuming to blame them for attending to hear the only instructions and prayers which have been offered to and for them. God, I trust, will reward him who has furnished them with so much help and comfort in their destitution, as far as he has had regard to their benefit and edification, however little qualified or commissioned for the work.
Tuesday, August 14.—We went on shore for a service in a cottage of one Yeatman, of Dorsetshire. The room was very much crowded, and several persons were in the porch during the whole service. Before the service began, I explained to the people the nature and purpose of my visit. Two children were presented for baptism. One of them had been baptized by a midwife. It is the first case of the kind I ever met with. I desired the child might be baptized with the hypothetical form. I discoursed to the people on the meaning and use of god-parents or sponsors. Mr. Gifford said the prayers, and Mr. Jones baptized the children. I preached. In the congregation was an American M.D., a graduate of Harvard University, who is travelling about in a small cutter, with two pupils, collecting specimens, chiefly on zoology. His name is Wyman. Mr. Jones and Mr. Gifford called on him after the service, and he was invited to drink tea on board the Church ship. In the evening, at seven o'clock, we celebrated divine service in the house of one Pike, formerly a resident in St. John's, but now settled here. Mr. Jones read the prayers; Mr. Gifford read a sermon. After the service was concluded I spoke again on the object of my visit, and of Mr. Gifford's duties as a minister of the Gospel and of our Church. The room was crowded, as in the morning. A Mr. W———, from Carbonear, who reported himself a "barrister of the law," came on board the Church ship in the morning, and gave me much useful information about the inhabitants in general of this neighbourhood, and particularly about those who dwell on the French shore of Newfoundland, at Quirpon, St. Anthony, Griguet, &c., where, it appears, many English families have settled, whom I must endeavour to visit. Poor Mr. Watts went among them with the intention of keeping a school, but found the people too much scattered. He is now seeking employment. He has a son and two daughters living in this place, with whom, I believe, he now dwells, and, I presume, helps in the fishery.
The American naturalist, Dr. Wymnn, with one of his pupils and the captain of the vessel, drank tea with us. We found him well informed, modest and agreeable. The captain also seems a well-informed person. I sat up till nearly one o'clock, writing letters to Messrs. De Quetteville and Boutellier, to be ready for Gifford.
Wednesday, August 15th.—I had intended to depart this morning; but lo! a thick fog: and when in the middle of the day it cleared off, the little wind was a-head. It was, I think, a pleasing respite to poor Gifford. I went on hoard the American doctor's vessel to see some birds which he had shot to-day. Most of his other specimens are packed up. The captain turns the leisure time to account by manufacturing cod-liver oil. He grinds the livers in a small mill, and then boils them. He has now manufactured about 120 gallons, which he expects to sell for two dollars, or ten shillings, a gallon. I must confess that I felt ashamed of my comforts in my schooner when I saw the wretched accommodation of the man of science; crew, Mends, and self, all eating, and sleeping, and cooking, and experimentalizing in one cabin; preparing food and specimens at the same time. I did not go on shore till the evening, when I took a short walk with my friends, but the country is particularly uninviting. I called also at some of the cottages, and in one of them saw Bibles and Testaments which had been given to the people eleven years ago by the captain of the "Crocodile" man-of-war, when stopping in this bay. They are much prized by the owner (Perham), who spoke in great praise of the kindness of this captain. A vessel arrived from St. John's this evening, which left last Friday, and brings good reports of the fishery, and of the general state of things in St, John's, but no letters, and no papers of a later date than June the 30th! [I have since heard that this good captain is dead. "Non omnis moritur." "He rests from his labours, and his works do follow him." May we not believe that the remembrance of the charity he had shown to the poor neglected brethren on the Labrador, or rather the charity without the remembrance of it, was of more value and comfort to him in his dying hour, than any amount of success in the fishing and hunting, which are too commonly the only pursuits of the naval officers visiting this shore?]
Thursday, August 16th.—Another day of fog, with, head-wind, and of course no remedy but patience. It rained so heavily that none of us but Gifford went on shore in the morning. In the evening we had prayers in the house of Perham, a Dorsetshire man, who has found time to teach his children to read as they grew up—a rare case, I am sorry to say! Mr. Gifford examined some of the younger girls, and found them read nicely. The father bought of us three Prayer-Books, a Bible, and a Testament. They read the prayers, psalms, &c. every Sunday, arid it was very refreshing to witness the interest manifested by the boys about their new books. Mr. Gifford said the prayers, and Moreton read a sermon. I addressed them after the service. The Methodist reader with his father were present, but the congregation was small, partly from a defect in the notice, and partly from the unfavourable weather.
Friday, August 17th.—The morning being clear, I thought it right to start, though the wind was ahead. Poor Gilford was sent on shore with his supplementary carpet bag, about seven o'clock, now at length to taste the realities of missionary life and service; which I expect he will find very different from the "prelusive flourishes" on board the Church ship, with his spiritual father and brethren, and men like-minded, to help and encourage him. I feel deeply that it is hard, not to say unjust, to him, and I might add to his flock, to place him, young and without experience, in such a difficult post, without help or countenance; but I humbly trust the fault is not mine, that this is no matter of choice, but of necessity; and I still further hope and trust that God, "who looketh at the heart," sees that in my friend and brother which He will vouchsafe to bless and sanctify, and crown with good success to the edification of the flock and His own glory.
We stood out of harbour by the western entrance, and then hauled our wind. We were obliged to beat all day, and were beaten at last; I wished to have gone to Henley Harbour, but we only came off the island by sundown, and then the wind was blowing out, and a stiff breeze. It seemed best, therefore, to stand on during the night. There were several icebergs about, which makes a good look-out very necessary. Dieu nous en garde.
Saturday, August 18th.—We had a very disagreeable night; the most so—perhaps I should say the first so—since we left St. John's. In my fear and want of faith I, as usual, slept not at all. The wind was ahead, and sea heavy all night. In the morning it was thought we were off St. Peter's Island, and after standing on a couple of hours or more, the captain decided we were near Cape Charles, and that some vessels we saw were in Charles Harbour. I saw a flag-staff on a hill which reminded me much of one on Battle Island, and made me think that the captain was mistaken; but I was puzzled by a second flag-staff on the main land which I did not remember. After a few minutes, however, the Tickle opened, and Mr. Slade's establishment was plainly seen, and without doubt this was Battle Harbour. We got out therefore from among the islands, to go round to St. Lewis's Bay, by which only the harbour can be safely entered. We were a long time doubling the "Ribs," the wind failing us, and a heavy sea against us. There was a splendid ice-church just in the place where I noted an iceberg of similar appearance last year. There rose up in the centre a tower with a lofty spire; aisles and a chancel were built up, with some irregularity, but hardly more than would be allowed and admired in a spacious Gothic church. This mighty and fair structure was floating to the southward, and we tacked very near it. Another between us and the land reminded me much of Winchester cathedral; a low massive tower in the centre, with a very long nave. One of my friends was in the act of sketching it, when the nave and tower suddenly disappeared, and up came two towers at the east end. The longer mass appeared again about a quarter of a mile to the westward, but without the tower. It was an interesting example of the manner in which these masses of ice break up and change their faces and character.
We had some trouble in threading our way through or between the various rocks in the bay, to avoid running foul of them. Mr. Rendall kindly sent off a boat with a pilot to help us in; and soon after, five boats volunteered their services to tow us, and we entered the little Tickle in first-rate style, upwards of twenty hands helping us. I heard with pleasure and surprise that two Messrs. Slade, the father and son, (the latter one of the partners to whom this establishment belongs,) were at this time in the harbour.
My friends went on shore to ask for the store for service to-morrow, and returned with kind messages from Mr. Rervdall, and a large packet of letters—English letters! the produce of two mails. Soon after, Mr. Kendall and the younger Mr. Slade came on board the Church ship, and welcomed us to Battle Harbour. Old Mr. Allen also came on board with a greeting of respect arid good-will. Thus my disappointment in not getting into Henley Harbour yesterday has turned out the greatest possible advantage. So much better are matters ordered for us than we can order for ourselves. God be praised!
Sunday, August 19th.—I went on shore at ten o'clock, and was introduced to Mr. Slade, sen., who received us kindly. At half-past ten o'clock the service was celebrated in the same store as last year. As before, it was quite full. I preached. Mr. Jones gave notice, first, of baptism in the afternoon, and then said the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper would be administered directly after the sermon; but did not think it necessary to add, in the morning. We learnt afterwards that some poor persons in their ignorance of our rules understood that the sacrament was to be administered in the afternoon, and so it was that no one remained to receive. The afternoon service at half-past three o'clock. Several children were admitted into the Church. I preached.
After the service, I had some conversation with the Messrs. Slade respecting the objects of my visit. They have come in one of their own vessels from England, and have constantly lived on board since they left Poole, nearly three months.
Monday, August 20th,—I went on shore soon after nine o'clock to explain to the Messrs. Slade the way in which I hoped to carry out my object for the benefit of the place and neighbourhood; by establishing a Clergyman and schoolmaster in this harbour; the former to have his head-quarters here, and to visit from hence the whole shore from Henley Harbour to Seal Islands, the schoolmaster and schoolmistress to be fixtures. I propose that the Clergyman to be the Dean of Labrador should receive an income of 200l. a-year; and the schoolmaster and mistress together 125l. The monies to be raised thus:—
From the Society £100 0 0
From the merchants, £100 0 0
From the people £150 0 0,
total, £350 0 0
The surplus of 25l. a-year I would reserve for the Bishop's Visitations. With regard to the buildings, I proposed as follows:—
A church, on Battle Island £ 300 0 0
A parsonage ditto £ 200 0 0
School and teachers' house £ 200 0 0
[Total:] £700 0 0
Of this sum I promised to furnish half from monies placed at my disposal for the benefit of the Labrador. The merchants, I hope, will subscribe; and the people may do their part by finding materials, and by giving a day's fishing. These proposals appeared to meet Mr. Slade's views; and after prayers in the store at ten o'clock, I recounted them to the people, who seem equally satisfied and ready to do their part. When the service was concluded, I walked with Mr. Slade, jun. and Mr. Kendall to choose a site for the parsonage and church, which we fixed on within a quarter of a mile of the merchants' establishment, close to the Tickle, and near to the little burying-ground which I consecrated last year. The house to be on the south side of the church. A very small patch of ground in the rear seems capable of being turned into a garden; but there is nothing else to recommend the site, except, as to the church, its visibility and accessibility. In the afternoon I walked to the cemetery at Matthew's Cove, which I consecrated last year, which is in part surrounded by a new and neat fence; the old fence remains round the other portion. At five we said evening prayers in the store, and two children of a man named Reid, from Quirpon, were baptized, one of them seventeen years of age. They appeared very earnest, though simple-minded. The father entreated us to call at Quirpon (on the Newfoundland shore) to baptize his other children and those of his neighbours, who had never seen a Clergyman among them. He visits the harbour every summer to fish, and he volunteered to give a day's fishing every year for the Church. After evening service I walked on Carabour Island, and presented a Prayer-Book to one Sheppard, from Cupid's, in Conception Bay, who had kindly come to pilot us in. He has also been in the habit for many years of coming to this harbour, and his father before him, to fish; and he expressed his readiness to assist in forwarding my objects.
Before taking leave of Mr. Slade, senior, I found an opportunity of speaking privately to him respecting an endowment for Twillingate, which I had urged upon him in letters two years ago. He now, as formerly, recognised the duty, and declared his readiness to co-operate in that way, but spoke with great justice of the duty of the people themselves to do more for their Clergyman, and expressed the disappointment he had felt on occasion of his late visit at finding the parsonage-house so little advanced. He spoke also of the difficulty of fixing an endowment on or through any property in this country, and the inconvenience of placing money in the hands of trustees. He seemed, however, well and liberally disposed, and I took my leave of him very thankful for the reception he had given me.
It occurred to me afterwards that Mr. Slade and others might give money to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, for that particular purpose.
Tuesday, August 21st.—I had determined to leave my further progress this morning entirely to the state of the wind, as, although very anxious to begin my homeward journey, I was yet more than willing to proceed to St. Francis Harbour, should a favourable opportunity occur, both for the sake of holding a conference and consultation with Mr. Saunders, on general matters affecting the Mission, arid particularly to gratify him and his lady by baptizing their infant, the first child, I believe, of an English lady born on the Labrador. I had occasion to notice with admiration last year the cheerfulness with which she looked forward to her first winter on the Labrador, without any female friend or servant; and I was truly thankful to hear from Mr. Kendall that her cheerfulness had continued without diminution, and that the birth of her baby, even in that unprotected unbefriended state, without nurse or companion, had been a source of comfort in every way. Mr. Kendall had also reported the earnest desire of the parents to have their child baptized, and their determination, if they heard of my presence at Battle Harbour, to come there for that purpose. The distance is about twenty miles. It had not been possible, however, to send notice or information.
It was a cause, then, of rejoicing to me to find this morning that the wind was quite fair for St. Francis Harbour. We left Battle Harbour about seven o'clock, and before eleven had come to anchor and were welcomed most heartily and warmly by Mr. Saunders. The service was appointed at two o'clock, and was celebrated accordingly in the winter-house, when I baptized and admitted into the Church, Mary Prudence Saunders, and two Esquimaux boys. I also preached. After service I visited the house of one M——— at the earnest request of himself and wife, who were very desirous of denying an accusation which had been made against the woman of stealing feathers from a lodger's bed. She was ready, she said, to go before me and Mr. Saunders, and meet her accusers. I was particularly struck and pleased with this woman's manner and appearance last year, when she was one of those who partook of the Holy Communion, and I was grieved to see her appearance so much changed, as it seemed, by her trouble. I could only say I would speak of the matter to Mr. Saunders, and assure her that if her conscience was clear, the slanders or suspicions of unkind or mistaken men would in the end do her no real injury. Mr. and Mrs. Saunders dined with us on board, and seemed to enjoy our company and their own viands; for they furnished the best of our repast, curlew and venison. After dinner, I walked with Mr. Saunders to select a site for a chapel, and we all drank tea at Mr. Saunders' house. There were several persons present, as is usual at an agent's house; among others, an old planter, an Irishman and Roman Catholic, residing at a petty harbour in this neighbourhood; a very intelligent, well informed person. He treated us with much respect. He attended the service in the afternoon. A young woman (from Burgeo, or Carbonear), staying at present with Mrs. Saunders, was one of the guests, a modest well behaved girl. I was occupied after tea in drawing up memoranda of an agreement for the erection of a chapel, by which I bound myself to find half the necessary cost for building and fitting up, my part not to exceed 50l.
When I returned on board, I had some letters and other matters to write before I could lay me down to sleep. I was far from well all day, but the pleasure I received and appeared to give by my visit kept me up. God be praised for the blessings of this day! they were sufficient recompense not merely for a journey extended from Battle Harbour to this place, but for an entire and separate voyage from Newfoundland. So deems a Bishop refreshed in spirit.
Wednesday, August 22d.—I wished to have sailed at daybreak had the wind been fair; but it was ahead, and before I was dressed, Mr. Saunders came on board to report that a large family of Esquimaux, who had been persuaded (during their absence to the westward) by a Roman Catholic priest to receive baptism at his hands, were anxious to be admitted into the Church, to which all their brethren belong, and which they had no wish or intention to desert. I of course agreed, and divine service was appointed at ten o'clock. I sent notice of my intention of administering the Lord's Supper.
I admitted a very interesting set of Esquimaux to the Church; two full-grown men, two women, and four children. They behaved very well. The women and girls were nicely and neatly dressed, with no ornaments save a necklace. I preached and celebrated the Lord's Supper. Five communicated. We all dined with Mr. Saunders, who gave us a famous curlew pie. I took leave of Mrs. Saunders, whose gratitude for our visit seems to have no bounds. She loaded us with presents, besides the venison and curlew; a pig, a bearskin, Indian boots, &c., and an offering of 5l. to the Church Society, a pair of white gloves to each of our party, &c.
As the evening was fine, I thought it best to get away, though the wind was still ahead. Just as we were getting under weigh, a child of Newfoundland parents was brought on board for baptism. The parents had not heard of our arrival soon enough to bring their child to the service at the winter house, as their cottage was at some distance. I gladly delayed my departure to gratify their wishes. The service was performed in the large cabin. Several guns were fired as a parting salute, and a goodly party assembled on the wharf to give us three cheers—and I was cheered.
Thursday, August 23d—On this day last year I began my retrograde movement from Sandwich Bay. This morning, at daybreak, we were close—too close—to the north-west corner of Belle Isle. [About ten days after, a vessel was wrecked at this spot, having got too near the shore, when the wind failed and she fell upon the rocks.] We ran into Henley Harbour about twelve o'clock, through a narrow passage between Henley and Castle Islands. This passage can only be attempted when the wind is pretty free. It is evident that these two islands have been torn asunder and the passage made by some violent convulsion. Each of the islands is crowned by-a mighty structure of basalt, resembling a castle; or, I should rather say, covered, for the crown of the islands is a thick stratum of rock, from twenty to fifty feet deep, lying upon the basaltic columns. They have a very grand and imposing appearance, as they rise perpendicularly from or out of the ground, like the walls of a castle, probably on Castle Island to the height of 200 feet. I was surprised to find several large vessels, both American and English, some already loaded, others loading with fish. In Whale Gut, which lies between Henley Harbour and Chateau, or Temple Bay, there were two or three more. I went on shore to make inquiries about the residents. I found that four families reside here all the year, and three or four at Chateau, but that a very large number of persons assemble in the summer from Carbonear. These are chiefly Methodists, and a few Roman Catholics. Not one professed Churchman among the visitors. My friends were offered a house by a Roman Catholic (Kennedy) and a Methodist (Taylor) for an afternoon service. Another resident offered his also, but he bears such a bad character that I could not think him worthy, or believe that the son of peace could be there. Before deciding, my friends went in a boat to Chateau, about four miles, to visit the people there. Four resident families were discovered, one Roman Catholic, two Methodist, one communicant of the Church. They expressed great desire to have a service, and one of the Methodists had asked to be baptized. A Methodist visitor from Carbonear, who holds a service in his house every Sunday, offered his house.
I thought it best to have the services on board the Church ship, and on the return of my friends gave notice of afternoon service on board at half-past six o'clock, and to-morrow morning at ten o'clock. A good number, about sixteen or seventeen, attended the service, and some children were brought to be baptized. After the service I spoke of baptism and marriage. A captain of an American vessel applied to me for one of the Clergymen to marry him, informing me at the same time that he intended to be married again at Boston, as both he and his intended are Roman Catholics. She is the daughter of one Morar, from Carbonear. I refused to allow a Clergyman to be made a stop-gap, or put on a level with the fisherman who would have been employed if we had not been here.
Friday, St. Bartholomew.—I sent off our captain early, with three hands, to inform the people of Chateau of my intention to have the service on board at ten o'clock. Before the service several (three) men came to me to complain of a certain neighbour, who is so furious in his temper and violent in his behaviour that they are afraid to meet or be with him. He has twice fired at them, once with a ball, and a second time with shot. They said they did not wish to kill or be killed, and they knew no remedy but to leave the harbour, and they thought it very hard three families should be driven away by one violent wicked man. I could suggest no remedy but that of holy Scripture, to return good for evil, blessing for cursing, &c. I took their depositions, and promised to report the matter to the Governor, but could hold out no hope of interference from that quarter,
A large number of people from both harbours (upwards of thirty in all) attended the service. One child was brought to be baptized—the father a Methodist from Carbonear (Frederic Clarke), but resident here; the mother a daughter of a Roman Catholic (George) of Chateau. The would-be assassin also brought two children to be admitted into the Church. In my discourse I spoke very plainly of his sin, and of the necessity and means of correcting his conduct. He sat close to me, and could not have mistaken my address. After the service, Mr. Vatcher, the Methodist teacher at Chateau, requested, me to give him a book of sermons, which I was neither able nor willing to do, for I had none with me for that purpose. Moreton, however, offered to sell him a copy of Blencowe's sermons; but he, in his turn, was either unable or unwilling to buy. I gave him some tracts, for which be expressed himself grateful.
I intended to leave directly after morning service, but the captain deprecated the attempt—"the wind was scant, the tide running up the straits, we should not fetch Quirpon before night," &c. I was sadly disappointed, especially as the wind seemed to me sufficiently free ,- but I never set my judgment against the captain's, in his own province and business. I walked with him and Mr. Jones on Henley Island. After dinner I called at the cottages of the four Englishmen—M'Henney, Hodanotte, Child, and the furious I again spoke to the latter about his conduct, and the consequences hereafter, if no punishment should overtake him in this world. I gave him some little books for his children. I much fear his heart is represented by his name; but God can take away the heart of stone, and give him a heart of flesh. He and several others attended evening prayers on board, at half-past six o'clock. Several very pleasing girls (three) named Taylor, from Carbonear, attended, and informed me that their father intends to settle somewhere in the Straits on the Newfoundland shore.
Saturday, August 25th.—This day last year I was very nearly in the same latitude as to-day, and becalmed.
My anxiety to depart was of course not diminished, but much increased, this morning; but alas! there was no wind at all till eight o'clock, and then it was ahead. I waited till twelve o'clock, when, though there was no change in the wind, I thought it right to try what the tide might do for us, hoping also that the wind might veer as the day went on. "We got out soon after twelve o'clock; but the current did not help us, and, soon after three o'clock, the wind quite failed, and we were fain to return, and with difficulty got into Chateau, or Temple Bay, through Temple Pass. This bay is very large, and the water very deep. If the water were not so deep, it would be a magnificent harbour. The hills are high and steep, and in part clothed with spruce, but of stunted size. It is the prettiest place I have seen on the Labrador, except Sandwich Bay. We were obliged to have our boat out to tow for some time before we got to the entrance or pass. Just as we had got through, a boat from shore came to offer assistance, and show us the anchorage. We anchored in twelve and a half fathoms, not far from the stages on the south side of Temple Pass. Fog came on, and we had reason to he thankful we had not proceeded further. I have left the determination in each case -to the captain, not without prayer for his instruction and direction. I did indeed earnestly hope and pray that I might spend next Sunday (to-morrow) in Newfoundland, and with people to whom the Church services would have been of greater value, and who would have more valued them. I cannot help thinking also of the dangers and difficulties of last year's Visitation in the month of September. I heartily wish I could follow old Hesiod's advice, for of the reason annexed I well know the truth and importance:—
"Haste homeward! haste!
Nor the 'fall-fish" with Autumn's showers await:
For then does stormy blast
From all points of the compass circulate."
Sunday, August 26.—We found it necessary, in order to accommodate the congregation, to remove all the boxes from the cabin, and to bring down the hen-coops and one of the thwarts from the boat for seats. The washing-stand might have been removed also, if we had thought of it, and room obtained for another seat. The lectern was placed at the end of the table, near the door to the cooking- room, and a seat constructed for myself on one side, and Mr. Jones on the other side, of the lectern. These were covered with blue curtains. We robed in my cabin, and had some difficulty in making our way through the congregation to our places. Mr. Jones counted sixty-three persons, and nearly all were well grown up. As nearly all were Methodists, I thought it a good opportunity of teaching something about the constitution and requirements of a Church, and preached a discourse on apostolic doctrine and fellowship, from Acts ii. 41, 42. In the afternoon the congregation was not quite so large; rather over fifty., I believe. In the evening I went on shore with Mr. Moreton, and read and prayed with a sick woman, the wife of Moses Clarke, jun., from Carbonear, and therefore probably a Methodist; but 1 did not think it necessary or becoming to decline such a service, under such circumstances, upon the suspicion, or even on the certainty, of her being brought up in error and heresy. I walked on the hills, and saw remains or marks of an old battery, probably of French construction. The wind was blowing strong all day from north-west, and would have taken us over to Newfoundland in a few hours, if I had thought it right to sail on a Sunday. Mr. Vatcher, the Wesleyan teacher, and ——, (the reputed man of murderous purpose,) were at both services. Who knows that I may not have been detained here for the benefit of one or other of these, through the appointed services of the Church! Certain it is I was not here of my own choice, and I endeavoured to turn the occasion to profit, for the edification of the people and the glory of God, through Jesus Christ. Amen.
Monday, August 27th.—The wind was again, happily, fair this morning, and before nine o'clock we were under way, Moses Clarke and his crew having come to our aid in getting out of the Bight. We were prevented sailing at an earlier hour by violent showers of rain. We reached Quirpon about two o'clock, and entered the harbour on the western side of the island, having asked a French boat to show us in. The skipper instantly complied, crying, "Follow me," and dowsed his foresail. But, unfortunately, he could not speak another word of English, and all our directions were obtained by gestures and gesticulations, which were so earnest and emphatic that it was pretty certain we were in some difficulty or danger, as turned out the case, for we went close to a sunken rock. When I cried out, "Je vous remercie beaucoup" his countenance brightened, and he said, in reply, "Voulez-vous mouiller?" I said, "Old, out" on which he gave us another and parting direction, by hand and mouth. The former answered the purpose, but I could not understand his oral directions. We came to anchor near several large French vessels, and alongside an establishment on Grave Island. We were surprised to find no less than twelve large French vessels (barques and brigs) in the harbour, waiting to take away the fish. There are five considerable establishments, which seem to be conducted in a very orderly, systematic, and efficient way. The stages are much larger than those commonly erected by English rooms, and are closely covered with white sails; the sides of spruce boughs, neatly and substantially fixed. The heaps or stacks of fish are also closely covered with sails on the top, tied down with ropes. The boats are very strong and heavy, all of the same size and shape, with sharp stems, each numbered, and each furnished at the top of the mast with a small vane, some of which were tricolor, but generally blue and red. Their ships also are smarter than those in the English trade.
We saw a cottage near us on the shore, looking like that of a settler. Moreton went on shore to make inquiries, and obtained the necessary information as to the residences and other circumstances of the English inhabitants. There appeared to be eight families, nearly all emigrants from Harbour Grace, both men and women. One woman (a widow) has resided thirty-five years here: the Pynnes (the chief family) fourteen years. No Clergyman of out-Church ever visited the settlement. A French priest usually visits the place every year, but remains only a few days; and this year, it is said, only one day. I presume he comes from Crocque. Almost every French room (there are five in this harbour) is provided with a doctor or medical man. The men on each room probably average one hundred in number. Their catch of fish is said to be about five thousand quintals this year. Last year they were more successful.
The chief French fishing establishments:—
Quirpon: 9 rooms,—12 ships.
Griguet, 3, and Lunair, 3—6 rooms, 3 or 4 ships.
Braha (Little and Great) 6 or more ships
St. Antony—3 rooms 4 ships
Crocque I did not visit or see.
Quirpon is reputed the most successful. The same crews come there for five years and are then changed. I counted six large vessels as we passed Braha, and there probably were more. As we did not go into the harbour, I could not ascertain the number of rooms in the place. All the rooms I saw appeared on the same scale and system as at Quirpon. Most of their establishments had a flagstaff, with a tricolor flag, on some eminence.
The French at Quirpon fish with the bulto, and with enormous seines, one hundred and fifty yards long, and proportionably deep.
Mr. Moreton visited most of the English settlers, and arranged to have evening prayers, with baptisms, at the house of Mrs. Bartlett, alias her son-in-law, C. Tucker.
The service was celebrated accordingly, and nineteen sweet children were admitted into the Church. The room was full. Two or three of the French captains or agents were present. I was delighted to find a well-dressed and well-mannered people, and children as healthy in appearance, and clean and gentle, as any in the more southern settlements. The settlers seem to depend as much upon the seals as the fish, or perhaps more. They are paid (chiefly in bread) by the French for taking care of their rooms, boats, &c. in the winter. They depend for other supplies upon dealers from St. John's and Harbour Grace, who bring provisions and clothes, &c., and take in exchange their fish and oil. No more than two or three persons in the settlement can read; but one of them (Henry Tucker) reads some of the Church prayers every Sunday, and the inhabitants meet at the house of Mr. Pynne, sen., for the service. During last winter, the prayers were read by a young man who was wrecked in the neighbourhood. There was a good deal of sickness, and one young woman (a wife and mother) died; and her loss appears to have deeply affected the whole party. Her husband pointed out her grave to me, with many tears. It was very neatly fenced; the shipwrecked sailor had cut four stanzas of verse upon a head-board, and the husband had painted over the letters with his own hands. Several other graves were neatly fenced. I exhorted the people to enclose and fence a sufficient quantity of ground for a common burial-place, and dispense with private enclosures, and this they promised to attend to. .
I addressed the people after the evening prayers, as in other places, chiefly on the nature and necessity of baptism, and on the meaning and use of sponsors. We did not return to the Church ship till after ten o'clock. I promised, if we should be detained to-morrow, to have morning service in the same house.
Tuesday, August 28th.—The wind was ahead, and blowing very fresh. We therefore, according to promise, celebrated morning service in the same house as yesterday. All the people of the settlement were present, and very attentive. After the service I walked with my friends on Newfoundland, (we had held the services on Quirpon Island.) It is three weeks to-morrow since we were on Newfoundland. Our last place of call was Cow Head. In the evening we had service at the house of Mr. Pynne. Three or four children were brought from Noddy Harbour to be received into the Church. We had met the father (Mr. Reid) at Battle Harbour, and there baptized two of his children; and he earnestly hoped and requested we would inquire for his other children if we went to Quirpon; though he feared, on account of the distance of their residence (Noddy Harbour) from Quirpon, the mother might not be able to bring them before us. I was very thankful, for his sake and his children's, that his wishes could be gratified.
The children were nicely dressed and mannerly. I addressed the people after both services as I hoped might be most suitable and instructive in their circumstances. They expressed much desire to have a teacher for their children.
Wednesday, August 29th,—The wind was fair this morning, and though it was still foggy, we crossed the harbour with the assistance of young Mr. Pynne, which we could hardly have done even in clear weather without a pilot, as there are several dangerous shoals. At the south-east end of the harbour is a tickle, which divides Quirpon from Newfoundland, and in which vessels lie. By this tickle we made our exit from Quirpon, and found ourselves on the eastern coast of Newfoundland. The harbour of Griguet is not more than five or six miles from Quirpon, and we were at the entrance by seven o'clock, but were a long time beating in, as the wind nearly failed us, and the little that remained \vas ahead, and the entrance, very narrow of itself, was made more difficult by nets, which we were unwilling to injure. Our boat was towing, and two or three times the bows of the vessel all but touched the rocks.
Two families only reside in this place, and Mr. Pynne, who had accompanied us, went on shore to prepare the people for a service at eleven o'clock, as I hoped to get away in the afternoon. There are three French rooms here. It is a very pretty place; the harbour running up behind several islands, and the main land showing a good deal of wood and vegetation. We went on shore at the time appointed, but found the people so busy with their fish, that though they offered to put by their work for the service, I saw it would be a great accommodation and benefit to them to defer it till the evening. We had come too suddenly upon them to allow of their making preparations, We therefore returned on board for the morning service, and learning that in the next bay (St. Lunaire, or St. Leonard) there was a family, and the mother confined only yesterday, I determined to walk there, the distance not being more than two miles. This, with the help of a guide, we accomplished in half an hour; but we had then to row across the bay, which occupied us rather more time. Our guide amused us with an account of his shooting a large white bear in the woods. He and a companion followed the beast six miles in the woods, and then he turned upon them, and they had to run; but being able to move quicker round the trees, they managed to put the contents of four sealing guns in him, and stopped his journey. He was nine feet long, and the men obtained between eighty and ninety gallons of oil from his fat. and sold his skin for four pounds. "Scattered ones," our guide informed us, come down on the ice every spring, and as the season goes forward they come back overland to get northwards.
Lunaire is a large bay. Three French rooms and several vessels. The father of the family (one Peaty), was out hunting, and the mother in bed. We baptized her infant and six other children. We returned, by the way we had come, in about an hour. The walk was very pleasant; not so the boat, in consequence of the abominable stench. We dined at half-past four o'clock, and at half-past six I and Mr. Jones went on shore. We held service in the house of one S. Hill, an old Englishman. The room, furniture, and people were very neat and clean.
Two or three French captains attended the service, and I was much pleased to find several of our friends from Quirpon, who had walked over for the purpose. Eleven children were admitted into the Church. I addressed the people as at Quirpon. The service was not concluded till after nine o'clock.
Thursday, August 30th.—Weighed anchor with a fair wind at six o'clock; but it was necessary, or became necessary, to make a tack in going out, and the poor Church ship was so nearly on the rocks that the captain was glad to let go the anchor, and, with Mr. Thoraey's help, to warp the vessel off. We were out about eight o'clock, and between ten and eleven came into St. Mein Bay, on the left hand side of which is St. Anthony's Harbour. We came to anchor soon after eleven o'clock, near the first French room. There are three in this harbour, and four large vessels, one of them a barque. The tricolor was hoisted on the flag-staff when we came in. My friends landed and entered the first cottage, nearly opposite the French room, which turned out to be that of J. Macey. They were fortunate enough to meet several of the neighbours in the house, (the woman having been confined two or three days ago), who all expressed themselves glad and thankful for our arrival, and promised to inform their neighbours, far and near, of our intention of holding service in the evening.
We attempted in the mean time to walk to the next harbour, (Creniaillere), but having no guide we missed the path; and endeavouring to mount a hill to look for another, I got with Moreton into some tangled wood, through which we had great difficulty in forcing our way, and did not effect it without much hurt and damage to our clothes. We only succeeded in seeing the bay, but could not reach it. At six o'clock, Moreton went on shore to prepare the house and people for the service. Thirty-six children were brought to be admitted into the Church. The service commenced at seven o'clock, and, with my address, occupied nearly three hours. The woman lately confined then prayed to be churched; and after that a couple prayed to be married, and then a second couple; so that Mr. Jones, who stayed to celebrate the marriage service, was not released till nearly eleven o'clock. The people behaved exceedingly well, and I was pleased with them and their children. They are chiefly from Carbonear. One woman told me she had been confirmed by Bishop John (Bishop of Nova Scotia), another by Bishop Spencer. Thirty at least of the children were young enough to be at school; some, indeed, too young. There are probably twenty-five who ought now to be under instruction. Several of the men can read; some can write also. In the course of my address I recommended that some one should read part of the Church service every Sunday Some women put forward a request to have their graveyard consecrated; but finding they had only private family enclosures. I said they must fence a piece of ground sufficient for the whole settlement, which I would gladly consecrate, some future time. They all appeared hearty and earnest in the cause, and certainly do not seem to have deteriorated in Church feeling through their removal from Carbonear. I was sorry to leave them.
Friday, August 31st.—I greatly hoped, (if it should please God,) that I might get away early this morning, if I might be fortunate enough to reach Twillingate by to-morrow, but it was otherwise ordered. There was no wind till nine o'clock, and then ahead. The captain, however, seemed anxious to get out, thinking he might find a better wind outside. I allowed him, as in other cases, to follow his own judgment. I went, however, on shore to visit the proposed graveyard, according to promise. Many of the people met me. I explained what should be done in order to consecration. Several Frenchmen are buried alongside the people of the settlement. I then took leave of the people, somewhat more abruptly than I intended, for I thought they were following me to the water, and when I looked back, they were all standing near the graves. As soon as I returned on board, about ten o'clock, the captain went to sea; but no sooner were we outside than the wind entirely failed, and we kept drifting to the northward and eastward till six o'clock. It became rather hazy also, so that our prospect of reaching Twillingate to-morrow is a very poor one; worse than if we had remained in the harbour—more haste than good speed. I hope I have not been impatient; I certainly am very anxious to get forward, yet I can truly say that for my own pleasure I would very gladly remain here till next week. As this seems the last place I shall visit on this side Cape St. John, and the last place on what is called the French shore where there are any families of English people, members of the Church, it will be expedient to note down now what seems requisite and possible to be accomplished for the religious benefit of the settlers here and their children. There would be probably twenty children for a school at Quirpon, and twenty-five at St. Anthony, but several of these of an age that would not allow of their being boarders away from home. One school, therefore, for the two places would hardly suffice, and yet it seems difficult, if not impossible, to maintain a schoolmaster or schoolmistress in each. -"It would seem, then, that the only resource would be a teacher who might divide his time between the two places. A residence or lodging would be required in each place; and a school-room, which, having a small appendage as a chancel, might be used for divine service. It would be very desirable that the schoolmaster should be at least in deacon's orders, and perhaps, in his absence from either place, some female might be found to keep the little children together, though this is hardly probable. On the whole, I incline to think if any suitable person could be found to encounter the difficulties and disagreeables of such a life, he might do great good by dividing his time and labour between Quirpon and St. Anthony, visiting twice a-year the intermediate settlements at Griquet, St. Lunaire, and Braha. But where, oh! where does such a man reside; full of zeal, fuller of discretion, fullest of charity. There would he considerable difficulty, I fear, in providing and furnishing the necessary buildings. 100l. in each place, with the labour of the people, might suffice. But the man—gold cannot purchase the right one. Pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest, that He will send forth labourers into his harvest.
We continued the whole day, till nine o'clock at night, within five miles of the land. There was a strong smell of burning wood in the evening, and the moon rose apparently obscured with smoke. There is probably, therefore, some great fire on shore. So ends the month of August, which has been, I thank God, remarkably fine and favourable to my work.
Saturday, September 1st.-It was thick this morning till nine o'clock; when the fog broke, we discovered that we had passed close to Groais or Gray's Island, and had left it about six or seven miles behind. The wind was ahead, and the prospect of reaching Twillingate, by to-morrow morning, very small. The sea ran rather high, and the sailing in consequence was far from agreeable. It rained also frequently during the day. At sunset the sky suddenly cleared, and the clouds in the west were, in an instant, lighted up and burnished in the most glorious and dazzling style. The wind also came more fair, viz. from the westward, and the sea gradually settled down into a more contented and comfortable state. Should the wind continue through the night, we might yet reach Twillingate to-morrow morning. We have between forty and fifty miles, I suppose, to run; but the captain's "guesses at truth" are not to be depended on.
Sunday, September 2d.—The captain sent me word, at seven o'clock, that we might be in harbour at Twillingate within an hour: good news indeed, -ff it had been true. But when I came on deck, the mate informed me that he thought we were nearer to Fogo. It had been thick till that time; but shortly he also found that he was mistaken, and that, really, we had run to Fogo Rocks or Islets, still farther to the westward, and full twenty-five miles beyond Twillingate! The tide was setting still to the westward, and there was no wind: and, therefore, no chance of getting into Twillingate, or any other harbour, this morning, or probably to-day. This was a great and unexpected disappointment. A Sunday, as it were, lost, when Sundays and other days are getting very precious. I was exactly in a similar predicament on the corresponding Sunday last year, but with this great advantage on the present occasion, that the weather is remarkably fine; and I have not left any places not visited to get forward, and I have fixed no particular days or dates for the visits now before me. All these circumstances were different last year. God be praised for the improvement! We made no progress during the day. Fogo harbour was distinctly visible the whole time. The sea was delightfully still, and the two services were celebrated in outward peace. In the morning I addressed my little congregation on the parable of the good Samaritan, in the gospel of the day; and in the afternoon, read a sermon or lecture on the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, stating, as my reason for doing so, the concern I felt at not seeing any of the crew at the Lord's table.
Monday, September 3d.—To-day I had the pleasure of again seeing a church—and a stout one—and one which I had myself consecrated. God be praised for all! We turned into Twillingate Harbour about eleven o'clock. We went on shore at six o'clock, and to church to return public thanks for our preservation and other mercies hitherto. Afterwards we drank tea with Mr. and Mrs. Boone, and I kissed my godson, who is a fine boy "entirely." Mr. Coyle arrived from St. John's in the evening, and brought me a second supply of letters, with other sweetmeats.—I found the Rev. Mr. King well here. Mrs. Kingwell arrived from St. John's in the evening with Coyle.
The crew of a vessel arrived here yesterday, brought in a boat from Belle Isle, where they had been wrecked last Friday evening. She was the Fruiter, of Jersey, and had arrived at L'Anse-à-Loup the day before we reached Forteau, and brought me a letter from St. John's. She had taken a load of fish, and on returning by Belle Isle, was becalmed and could not get out of the swell, and went against the rocks, and soon became a total wreck. The men were taken off the island the next day by a boat bound to Twillingate. They were forwarded to-day to St. John's. Why had not we been in the same disaster? Not unto us, O Lord, but unto thy name give the praise!
Tuesday, September 4th.—I had intended to proceed to-day to Moreton's Harbour; but the wind was ahead. We therefore went to church at nine o'clock, and about noon started for Herring Neck. The wind failed us at the mouth of the harbour, and we were fain to return. Prayers in the church at half-past six o'clock, and tea with Mr. and Mrs. Boone. The day was beautifully fine, and the country looked exceedingly pretty and pleasant; civilization has its charms.
Wednesday, September 5th.—This morning, about eight o'clock, we started for Moreton's Harbour, with Mr. and Mrs. Kingwell on board; but a headwind. The wind died away about noon. About three o'clock Mr. and Mrs. Kingwell left us in a little boat, to row into the harbour. Two boats came to our help at sunset, but left us on our getting a little breeze; and in beating into the harbour, we were obliged to fire a gun to get them back. One, by God's mercy, came just in time to save us from going ashore, in a little bight on the northern side of the bay. We then got two boats, but did not anchor till nine o'clock, having been thirteen hours and a half in making eight miles, or little more. Such is a Visitation by wind, when there is no wind.
Thursday, September 6th.—I went on shore at nine o'clock to visit the parsonage, which is in a very unfinished state, both inside and outside. The roof leaks, particularly round the chimneys; the walls are unfinished, wanting clap-board, &c. There are no rooms upstairs, and no stairs. The boards over the sitting-room are too short, and not ploughed and tongued. When and how these things can be amended, in the poverty of the people, I know not. Unhappily, the two principal planters are Methodists. Service in the church at half-past nine o'clock. Five persons only (all females) confirmed. Fifteen or sixteen persons received the Holy Communion. We sailed immediately after the service for Herring Neck. I had intended to proceed as far back as Exploits Burnt Island, but finding that the church was not ready for consecration, and that there were only two candidates for confirmation, I did not think it right to spend the time which it would have taken, and incur the risk of further delay. We reached Herring Neck about five o'clock, and soon had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Crosse, accompanied by Mr. Boone, rowing towards us. They were followed by two or three boats, which took the good Church ship in tow. We left her in their hands, and went on shore to visit one of the many settlements of this capacious harbour, called Green's Cove, where a schoolroom has been erected, which the people have been ambitious of converting into a church, and for that purpose have lined it with an ill-favoured gallery. It seems desirable that the building should be brought back to its original purpose, and that a schoolmaster should read the service. The building is not sufficiently advanced to be consecrated, if it were otherwise right—and no application has been made. We found the Church ship at anchor near to Starve Harbour. There are numerous small harbours and coves, in which the families reside. Mr. Crosse resides at Starve Harbour, which has vindicated its right to that title in his case, for, whether through his own mismanagement, or the neglect of the people where he lodges, he has been nearly starved each winter. The snow used to be on the floor of his sleeping-room an inch thick, and the wind, coming through or between the boards of his sitting-room, was strong enough to blow out a candle. The latter evil is remedied by paper and strips of canvas over the seams: the other in some degree by putting up a sail. He tried a change of quarters last winter, but was obliged to return, not having mended his condition.
Friday, September 7th.—My friends went on shore early, to measure the church ground, &c. At eleven o'clock the service commenced. The church was consecrated by the name of St. Mary the Virgin. It is finished externally, except the porch and vestry, which are in progress. Internally, the ceiling is complete, but there are no fittings. There is a fair chancel, which sets off the church as to appearance, and yet more as to use. I celebrated the Holy Communion. Afternoon service commenced at half-past three o'clock. The confirmation after the prayers, and then my usual address. Then the petition for the consecration of the graveyard was presented by Mr. Boone, and read by Mr. Jones.
We proceeded to the ground, which was consecrated in the customary way. We had some difficulty in walking the bounds, on account of the brushwood, which was not sufficiently cut away, and I was in some alarm about my robes, but I believe no injury was done. Three sides of the ground are already protected by a substantial and sightly fence. The service was not concluded till after six o'clock; but the day was so beautifully fine, and the people seem so much interested, that I could not even think of being fatigued. We visited Mr. Crosse's little cabin. He occupies a very small study, a sitting place, with one bed-room, in a planter's house. We drank tea on board.
Saturday, September 8th.—We started from Herring Neck with a fair wind about six o'clock. I was not a little disturbed and alarmed by hearing, soon after we loosed off, several bumps, as I supposed, against the rocks, and then a great thump, which I concluded had settled us on shore. On going up, I discovered that the first bumps had been caused by the anchor striking against and dragging over some rocks; and the last and greatest by a sudden wrench which parted the chain, and deprived us of our anchor. In short, the good Church ship's anchor was lost. It seemed useless to remain for the purpose of looking for it, as some of the people of the place, who happened to be on board, volunteered their services, and promised to bring the anchor when found to Twillingate, and made no doubt of being able. We had a fair run to Twillingate Harbour, but beat in. We came to anchor soon after ten o'clock. At eleven o'clock we went to prayers in the church. I walked with Mr. Boone to a very beautiful spot called the Park, the property of a fisherman named Roberts, and we called on a worthy old couple named Colbourn, whose daughter cannot be persuaded to go to England, being more than satisfied with home and Twillingate.
At six o'clock we had service in the Church, when I addressed the candidates for Confirmation. The day was beautifully fine and warm. No news of the lost anchor.
Sunday, September 9th.—The day happily was fine. I preached, and, assisted by Messrs. Jones, Boone, and Moreton, administered the Holy Sacrament to over seventy communicants. Mr. and Mrs. Boone dined with us on board. The afternoon service commenced at half-past three o'clock. Thirty-five candidates were presented for Confirmation; a small number for so large a settlement. The congregation also in the morning seemed thin. In the afternoon there were more; but, I fear, several of these as spectators only.
There was evening service, both in the church and in the school-room on the opposite side of the harbour. Mr. Jones preached in the church, and Mr. Moreton took the whole service in the schoolroom. We all drank tea with Mr. Boone. It is sad to see what mischief dissent has wrought in this place—the old people are become cold and conceited; the young, rude and careless.
Monday, September 10th.—The wind being fair for Fogo, we started, with Mr. Boone on board, about a quarter before eight o'clock. We reached the harbour at eleven o'clock. The wind was happily favourable for the Western Tickle, and the sea smooth. It is a perilous place in heavy weather, or with a rough sea; in short, must not be attempted under such circumstances. As we passed by Herring Neck, a man, who had undertaken to search for our anchor, met us in his boat, with the unpleasant tidings, that his search had been in vain. He supposes that it has fallen into deep water, near to a ridge or rib of rocks; and, consequently, no rope or grapple can touch it. Mr. Sail soon came on board. As he did not wish the Confirmation at Fogo to take place before Wednesday, I agreed to proceed to-morrow (D. V.) to Change Islands, and this evening to pay a visit to the Barrd Islands and Joe Batt's Arm, two settlements on either side of an island or peninsula on the north of Fogo Island. We sailed for the Barrd Islands in Mr. Sail's boat at half-past four o'clock, and reached the settlement of Barrd Island, at six o'clock. A church is in progress about halfway between this settlement and Joe Batt's Arm, and three-quarters of a mile from each place. We visited this church, which is of a cruciform shape; all the arms or members being of equal size. It is intended, and preparations are made, to place galleries in the west end and north and south arms, which will completely cover all that part, or those parts of the church, and crowd it most inconveniently. I hope to alter this design, and instead of galleries, to get the western end lengthened. We left the Barrd Islands at a quarter before seven o'clock, and reached Fogo at half-past eight o'clock. The passage has several sunken rocks, and requires a good pilot, especially in the dark. We drank tea with Mr. and Mrs. Sail.
Tuesday, September 11th.—This morning brought a heavy north-east wind, and the north-east wind brought a heavy sea; so that it was not thought prudent to leave the harbour. It rained also, which would have prevented our proceedings at the Change Islands. We had prayers on board the Church ship in the morning, as the weather was unfavourable. At six o'clock we went to service in the church, and I preached to a very respectable congregation.
Wednesday, September 12th.—The Confirmation at Fogo church. Service commenced at eleven o'clock. The number of candidates was large, and their behaviour satisfactory. Sixty-eight were confirmed on this occasion. Some I thought too young. Mr. and Mrs. Sail, with Mr. Ridout, dined on board at half-past two o'clock. At six o'clock we had evening service, and the church was well filled. I preached.
Thursday, September 13th.—We were to have proceeded to-day in the Church ship to Change Islands; but again, as on Tuesday, a strong northeast wind prevented the vessel's egress. Nothing but a boat or small schooner could venture through the Tickles. We, therefore, determined to proceed in a boat; though Mr. Boone demurred, chiefly on account of the difficulty of returning in the evening, as the wind, if it continued, would be right ahead. However, as we could easily go, I thought it not right to disappoint the people a second-time, through fear of a difficulty which would not interfere with our proceedings at the place.
We had a fair run to Change Islands, and were anchored in the main Tickle at half-past ten o'clock. From thence we had to walk a mile through the woods to the church, and on arriving there, we found the carpenters at work, laying the floor, and no preparations made for our service, none of the people expecting us. We had to dismiss the carpenter and remove his bench, and get a woman to sweep out the shavings. Then the benches had to be brought in, &c. While these preparations were in progress, we measured the church and churchyard, that I might insert the dimensions in the sentences of consecration, as both church and churchyard were to be consecrated. The Church flag was hoisted on our arrival, and messages sent to such persons in the neighbourhood as would not be likely to see the flag; and before twelve o'clock nearly all had assembled, though, to add to their inconvenience, it began to rain. The petition for the consecration was read at the altar by Mr. Jones. The rest of the service proceeded in the usual way. Mr. Sail said the prayers. Messrs. Boone and Moreton read the lessons. I preached, and, assisted by Mr. Jones, administered the Holy Communion to nine or ten communicants besides the Clergy. Service was not concluded till after two o'clock. We retired to a fisherman's house to eat some viands we had brought, and soon after three o'clock the afternoon service began. Twenty-seven were confirmed. I was much pleased with the appearance and behaviour of the females; and not only of those confirmed, but generally of all. The graveyard was consecrated after the evening service, and happily the evening was fine. We set off as soon as possible after the service to return to our boat, that we might get off before sunset. I had left orders with my captain to bring over the schooner if possible, and I was delighted to find her safely anchored in the Tickle. She had got out of Fogo Harbour, not without some difficulty and danger, about three o'clock. We of course took up our abode in her, and Mr. Sail was advised not to venture back, as the swell was heavy and the wind ahead. He took Mr. Boone's berth, and the latter found a resting-place on shore, intending to start early for Herring Neck, en route for Twillingate. We passed a pleasant evening together in the Church ship.
Friday, September 14iA.—I was very anxious to proceed to Greenspond to-day—but lo! no wind, and a very heavy lop outside. A light breeze sprung up about noon, of which Mr. Sail took advantage to leave for Fogo, We got under way about three o'clock, and were nearly off Cape Fogo by six o'clock. Then the wind began to blow very strongly, and we had the coarsest night by far of our whole voyage. Saturday I did not sleep a wink till daylight, (which does not come before five o'clock,) and scarcely at all afterwards. I remembered those terrors, Wad-ham Rocks, and the anxiety they caused us in a somewhat similar night three years ago. However, by God's mercy, we again passed them in safety. In the morning we were, as usual, a long way off the land, and a very strong S. W. wind. We did not discover land till about ten or half-past ten o'clock, and did not positively make out our position till two o'clock, when we plainly saw one of the Wadhams; and as the wind was right ahead, and still blowing very strong, it was a question whether we ought not run back to the harbour of "Seldom-come-by," in Fogo Island. The captain chose to keep on, and by six o'clock we were just off Cape Freels, and passed close to Gull Island. Just at this moment the wind suddenly shifted to the north, but too late to allow of our venturing to make Greenspond. There is, therefore, nothing left but to stand on and off till the morning—a very disagreeable necessity in such a locality, and with the wind still blowing violently in gusts. I commend my Church ship, my companions, and my unworthy self, to the same powerful and merciful Providence which has so wonderfully and graciously protected and preserved us.
The similarity of our position and condition now with what I experienced here three years ago is very remarkable. May the result be as happy, if it please God, and if it be for His glory and the good of His Church.
Sunday, September 16th.—We passed a very uncomfortable night, now tossed about on a heavy cross sea without wind, and then driven by squalls. In order not to pass our destination, the captain carried so little sail that the vessel appeared to me under no command, and I hardly ever felt so much jerked and twisted about. The result was that at eight o'clock this (Sunday) morning, instead of being off Greenspond, as I had fondly hoped, we were nearly half across Bonavista Bay. I know too well that I have deserved these disappointments, and worse, and I hope this knowledge will keep me from feeling displeased at those who are but instruments of correction in God's hand, however they may appear in the wrong. We had nothing to do but to endeavour to retrace our steps, and, by God's mercy, we reached Greenspond, after three or four tacks, by four o'clock. Mr. Gilchrist, with his churchwardens, were soon on board, and proposed that we should have the afternoon service with the Confirmation at five o'clock. I went on shore accordingly, and confirmed upwards of seventy candidates, and, of course, it was nearly dark before the service was concluded. When I pronounced the blessing at the end of the Confirmation Service, the congregation concluded that I had intended to dismiss them, and rose up, in unseemly haste, to depart. Mr. Gilchrist endeavoured to call them back, and I addressed those who returned, from the altar. The candidates here I make me think of olden times, when, as I remember, the Confirmation used to be regarded as a bit of amusement, or pleasant performance, to be witnessed and joined in once in three years; in which the Bishop was the chief actor, and they who came to be confirmed were entertained and honoured by the laying on of his hands. Duty and responsibility on their part were little dreamt of. I observed too many coming forward with a smile on their faces, or looking with sly glances at each other as they knelt at the rails, and awaiting my approach, certainly, with any feeling but that of awe, though I would be loth to charge them with levity and irreverence. It was partly rusticity, partly ignorance, and, poor things, they may be very rustic and ignorant without any blame to themselves. I fear, however, their ignorance makes them incapable, not only of understanding and appreciating the service of Confirmation, and their own duty and responsibility in reference thereto, but extends to their other religious duties and services.
Monday, September 11th.—We had service in the church at eleven o'clock, and I had intended to consecrate the new graveyard immediately after the service, but it rained heavily, and we therefore deferred the consecration till the evening. At five o'clock we went to prayers, and, at the conclusion, the petition was read, and though it still rained and blew considerably, I proceeded up the hill to the new graveyard, and walked the bounds, followed by the Clergy and congregation. A tent had been happily erected on the ground, by the churchwarden, and under its shelter the rest of the service wag performed in comfort, and a great part of the congregation covered. I addressed them respecting the service. The ground is very commodious, and the portion of the fence which is completed, handsome. We again drank tea at the parsonage. It rained and blew heavily the greater part of the day. I believe it is the first time, during this visitation, that any service has been delayed by bad or unseasonable weather, that is, when we had arrived at the settlement in which the service was appointed to be done. Thanks be to God!
Tuesday, September 18th.—We started at eight o'clock, in a large decked boat, kindly furnished by Mr. Ducter, taking my little boat in tow. We were soon obliged to take to the boat, the wind failing us. I had the pleasure of rowing for two hours. We reached Pinchard's Island by twelve o'clock, and immediately proceeded to the church, where some fourteen or fifteen candidates were presented for Confirmation. The majority came from Cape Preels, and their decent behaviour, and apparent concern in the service, I apprehend are due to the Board schoolmaster, who also reads the service on Sundays. He was once in the employ of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, as a lay-reader. He was present with the candidates, and I had an opportunity of conversing with him at the house of Mr. Blackmore, a planter, which I visited after the service. Mr. Blackmore was loud in his complaints because their settlement (Pinchard's Island) had been left without a schoolmaster. The Board of Education have erected here, as in several other settlements, a school-house, containing rooms for the teacher, with a school-room; but they have not been yet able to appoint a teacher, and, very properly, decline to appoint one who is a candidate, on account of his immoral life. The little schooner had arrived before our service had concluded, and after hearing Mr. Blackmore's complaints, and giving my blessing to my flock from Cape Freels, we started directly for Swain's Island. As soon as we had taken some refreshment, we again had recourse to our small boat and oars, the wind being still light. We reached Swain's Island soon after four o'clock, and immediately proceeded to the service and Confirmation. The young people are of the same free and fine stature and bearing as in Pinchard's Island, and fully justify the application of Ithaca's praise to Newfoundland:
Rugged she is, but fruitful nurse of sons Magnanimous.
We left Swain's Island soon after six o'clock, in the row-boat, and arrived safely at Greenspond by ten minutes before eight o'clock: very rejoiced and thankful at having been permitted to perform these services at this season of the year in such comfort, journeying so far in a small open boat.
Wednesday, September 19th.—-We had arranged to proceed early to Fool's Island, to consecrate the church; and during the service, I was to confirm. It blew a stiff breeze, and contrary; but we beat up in good style, and landed about eleven o'clock. The distance is little more than three miles. The church was duly consecrated; and at the conclusion of the prayers, the candidates for Confirmation were presented.
I celebrated the Holy Communion, and five or six partook besides my own party. We returned to Greenspond by three o'clock, hoping to proceed to Fair Islands; but though the wind was fair, it was thought that, with the delay of warping out, we should not reach the harbour before dark, and I therefore determined to remain till to-morrow. We had prayers in the church at five o'clock, and I preached. I did not forget my painful and perilous situation on this day three years ago; nor, I trust, forget to be truly thankful for my very different and comfortable state at the present time.
Thursday, September 20th.—Again, as at my last visit, we had a head-wind to the Fair Islands; but on the present occasion we were enabled to take to the boat, and though there was a good deal of lop, we succeeded in reaching our destination before noon. I gave Confirmation with the morning service, and we immediately departed to join the Church ship, which was standing on and off outside the harbour. We proceeded to Gooseberry Island, and happily reached it before sundown. There are many rocks and shoals in the harbour; but we were provided with a good pilot. This settlement is in Mr. Smith's Mission, but unhappily at so great a distance from King's Cove (twenty-four miles), that he only visits it once in a year. Hearing that several persons had received tickets for Confirmation, I determined to gratify them by confirming in their settlement; knowing that there was a decent schoolroom and a resident teacher. Moreover, Mr. Gilchrist and Mr. Dyer are tolerably well acquainted with the people, from visits paid and business done there lay the Greenspond Board of Education, of which Messrs. Gilchrist and Dyer are members. Messrs. Gilchrist and Dyer went on shore to prepare the room and people for an evening service, at half-past six o'clock. When I went on shore, I found that the people were expecting Confirmation this evening; but I thought it more decent to defer that service till to-morrow, though very anxious to get off as early and quickly as possible. We, therefore, had the evening prayers, and I addressed the people on the subject of Baptism and Confirmation. Several men who had not been able to meet Mr. Smith expressed a great desire to be confirmed; and I directed Mr. Gilchrist to examine and prepare them. He remained on shore for that purpose; the rest of my party returned on board the Church ship.
Friday, St. Matthew's Day.—We went on shore at eight o'clock; and, with the proper service for the festival, I gave Confirmation to thirty-three very respectably dressed and well-behaved candidates. Most of them were married men and women; this being the first opportunity they had enjoyed of receiving Confirmation, Immediately after the service, we returned on board, and, the wind being fair for King's Cove, got under way, and just at eleven o'clock passed through the Tickle. The wind continued fair, and we reached King's Cove at a quarter before five o'clock. The wind was blowing out of the harbour, and we should have been a long time beating in; but two boats well manned came to our assistance, and we were safely anchored by half-past five o'clock. The Rev. Missionary, Mr. Smith, came on board; and we proceeded immediately to church, and returned public thanks for our safe arrival. I had the pleasure of finding Mr. and Mrs. Smith and their children all well, and all things outwardly wearing a vastly improved appearance since my last visit; I allude particularly to the church and parsonage, and all the church precincts and premises.
Saturday, September 22d.—The wind had completely shifted since we entered the harbour; but all winds this autumn seem to bring fine weather. I cannot tell how sufficiently to admire and be thankful for the difference between the weather this season, and that of the corresponding time last year. I walked with Mr. Smith round his projected glebe after morning prayers in the church. Evening prayers at four o'clock; when I addressed the candidates for Confirmation.
Sunday, September 23d.—Morning service at ten o'clock, which is the usual hour in this settlement, and surely a far more reasonable and religious one than eleven o'clock j surely it is contrary both to reason and 'religion to defer our morning hymns and prayers till the morning is all but past and gone. I hardly know anything which offends me more in our manner of public service, than this practice of suffering the Sunday morning to pass, partly in bed, partly at breakfast, and when all has been arranged and ordered for our personal and domestic comfort, then, just before noon, to save as it were our distance, to meet together for the work of prayer and praise. Mr. Smith has the second service at four o'clock, and the interval (from one to four o'clock) is given to the Sunday-school; a more sensible arrangement.
Mr. Smith said the prayers, and Mr. Moreton read the lessons. I preached and celebrated, assisted by Mr. Jones. About twenty persons communicated.
Mr. Smith with Mr. Stewart dined on board. At the evening service thirty-three persons were confirmed; about half the number, of or belonging to King's Cove, the remainder from neighbouring settlements, particularly Open Hall. I took a pleasant walk with Mr. Smith and Mr. Moreton to Western Head. The wind is come round to the south, and the weather is warm and fine.
Monday, September 24th.—We went on shore at twenty minutes past seven o'clock to breakfast with Mr. and Mrs. Smith. About half-past eight we started to walk to Keels, which we reached before half-past ten. Several (many) of the inhabitants came out to meet and conduct us into the settlement, but not, as on a former occasion, with their sealing guns. Their demonstrations, however, at this time, though less noisy, were equally respectful and more agreeable. The little church was crowded, and many attended for Confirmation from other Coves, particularly Red Cliff Island. The schooner Hawk stood in as the service concluded, and about one o'clock we got on board, and stood for Salvage (Mr. Smith accompanying us). The entrance to the harbour of Salvage is narrow, and the flaws from the hills make the entrance difficult and somewhat dangerous. At my last visit it was not thought prudent to enter, and the Church ship remained at Barrow Harbour. We had, however, on this occasion an excellent pilot with us, and by God's good hand assisting us, we entered the outer harbour safely soon after three o'clock.
Mr. Smith went on shore to arrange for a service either with or without the Confirmation: but he found that the church had just been washed and was wet, the people not expecting us so soon. He therefore appointed the service with the Confirmation for nine o'clock to-morrow morning. Evening service on board the Church ship. It came on to blow very heavily, with violent storms of rain, and I was truly thankful to be in a harbour.
Tuesday, September 25th.—The night was very tempestuous, and was the first that resembled and reminded me of the troubled season last year. There was much rubbing and creaking of the chains, and the wind sung stoutly but not sweetly in the shrouds.
All, however, was safe and sound this morning. We went on shore at the time appointed for divine service, and robed in the deserted school-house, which presented a very melancholy contrast to the cheerful and animated scene at my last visit. The little church was well filled, particularly the western gallery. The Confirmation proceeded as usual. A great, indeed the greater number of male candidates were absent, some gone to St. John's, others into the bays for their winter fuel. Some, it was said, would return to-morrow or Thursday, but I could not think it right to tarry for them in the uncertainty.
After some conversation with the churchwarden, we returned on board, and by twelve o'clock were under weigh, going easily through the narrow passage after one tack in the harbour. We had a beautiful time, and reached Flat Islands, some eight miles, in less than an hour, and after slipping round a little island, we found ourselves in a snug harbour almost land-locked. The school-room stood just before us on an eminence. Mr. Smith went on shore to fix service at four or half-past four o'clock, and I was pleased and thankful to find that the people were at home and prepared, as I was desirous if possible to depart early to-morrow. The service was held at the time and place appointed; and I have not met with a more pleasing or apparently a better pleased congregation. I addressed them with more freedom and at greater length than usual. Several grey heads were presented for the laying on of hands, and most of the candidates were adults. After the service, I went at the request of the people to select a burying-place for the settlement, and a man very freely offered any portion of a garden he had enclosed. I marked off as much as I thought necessary, and the people promised to have it enclosed and fenced before my next visit, as they easily may. When will it ever be?
Wednesday, September 26th.—It blew very fiercely last night, but we were in a snug and quiet harbour. This morning, with the help of a crew from shore, and a kedge anchor, we slipped out before the wind through a long tickle to sea. The wind was fair, and Mr. Smith prophesied that we should anchor in Catalina Harbour before dinner, but I believed him not. My want of faith was rebuked, for after a most pleasant sail with a large wind, we got inside the north head of Catalina before one o'clock. It took nearly an hour to beat into the harbour, but we were safely at anchor by two o'clock, and Mr. Netten, the worthy missionary, on board. I was pleased to see a comely parsonage-house rising near the church. At five o'clock we went to prayers. Mr. T. S. Jones walked away to Bonavista.
Thursday, September 27th.—Prayers in the church at eleven o'clock. After which we called at Mr. Bremner's (Messrs Slade's agent), and then walked about four miles on the Catalina Road. Mr. Netten with Mr. Bremner dined on board.
Friday, September 28th.—A very stormy day. After the morning service I went into the house of one Coleridge, and found there Messrs. Carter and Mooney, arrived from St. John's to join the Court at Bonavista. Prayers in the evening at five o'clock, when I addressed the candidates for Confirmation, intending, God willing, to confirm to-morrow.
Saturday, Michaelmas-day.—Messrs. T. S. & B. Jones arrived from Bonavista about ten o'clock. At half-past ten o'clock, divine service commenced. I confirmed after the prayers, and then preached on the subject of the festival. Messrs. Jones with Mr. Netten dined on board. At five o'clock we had evening service, when I again preached. The congregation was large in the morning, but thin in the afternoon. Directly after the service, we started for Bonavista. The Messrs. Jones had horses, and Mr. Bremner kindly provided one for me, but I preferred to walk. The distance is ten miles, or, to Mr. Jones's parsonage, nearly eleven. The night was fine and the road dry, and I had the pleasure of a solitary walk, as the Messrs. Jones, at my desire, rode on before. I reached the parsonage at half-past nine o'clock, having occupied just three hours in the journey.
Sunday, September 31st.—Went to the Sunday-school with Messrs. Jones at ten o'clock. I preached and administered the Lord's Supper to thirty-one communicants. Confirmation in the afternoon. Twenty-one confirmed. We spent the evening chiefly in hymnis et canticis.
Monday, October 1st.—Morning service at nine o'clock: a fair congregation, though the day was stormy. I called on Dr. S——— and his worthy family, who seemed as warm-hearted and well disposed as three years ago. They have in the interval been tried in the furnace of affliction, having lost two children. Mr. S———, the magistrate, called on me, and informed me of the loss of his married son, with a wife and child, in the hurricane of September 19, 1846. They were coming from England to visit their parents and friends in this country, and were supposed to have reached very near to Newfoundland, but the vessel was never heard of.
Directly after evening service at half-past three o'clock, (when I again preached,) we started to return to Catalina. We reached Catalina by nine o'clock. I gladly resumed my berth on my chest of drawers, which I had deserted the two last nights only, during more than three months.
Tuesday, October 2d.—With some difficulty we beat out of Catalina Harbour against a very heavy swell about ten o'clock, and reached Trinity by one o'clock. We had evening service in the church, and drank tea at the parsonage.
Wednesday, October 3d.—It blew a gale last night from the north-east, which banished sleep. After prayers in the church at eleven o'clock I made some calls.
Thursday, October 4th.—Another night of greater tempest than we have hitherto experienced. We had intended to go to English Harbour and Salmon Cove, but it was next to impossible to cross the harbour, and difficult even to go on shore, though we lay within ten fathoms. However, we went to church at eleven o'clock. It rained and blew very heavily the whole day. Lord help poor mariners and fishermen at sea!
Friday, October 5th.—The sea was too rough to allow of our visiting any of the out-harbours.
Saturday, October 6th.—Started between eight and nine o'clock in a large boat for English Harbour, but the wind came ahead, and after beating out of the harbour, which occupied nearly an hour, we fell to leeward, and were fain to take to my boat, which we had in tow. We reached English Harbour a little before twelve o'clock, and immediately had morning service. The attendance was pretty good, though it rained heavily. Mr. Wood had come over last night, and remained till this morning. A few of each sex were confirmed, and I delivered an address as usual. After refreshment, proceeded to Salmon Cove, I in the boat, the rest on foot.
Service with Confirmation at four o'clock. I was greatly pleased with the appearance and behaviour of the candidates. It rained very heavily all the afternoon, and continued during our whole walk to Trinity (about four miles). The road was very wet, and we walked through water far over the shoes. It blew hard, and the night was dark. We passed over from the north side in my boat, and arrived save and well, only drenched to the skin, soon after eight o'clock.
Sunday, October 7th.—I visited the Sunday-school, in which Mr. Baggs appears to preside and teach, assisted by three or four respectable females.
About fifty children, boys and girls in nearly equal proportions, generally very young. Mr. Wood said the prayers. I preached and administered the Holy Communion, assisted by Messrs. Jones, Wood, and Moreton. About sixty communicants. The church not well attended. Afternoon service at three o'clock. One hundred and twenty-one persons confirmed. The church was nearly full—a rare occurence, I fear. The day was happily very fine. The service did not conclude till nearly six o'clock.
Monday, October 8th.—We sailed this morning about eight o'clock for Bonaventure. The wind was very light, and we did not arrive until after eleven o'clock. Morning service on board. We made our harbour at Old Bonaventure, which is very snug and safe. Mr. Wood walked over to New Bonaventure, where the church is, about a mile, to prepare the people for our approach. We went in a boat, as the road was wet. The distance round the heads is about two miles.
The church is very small, and arranged in a most extraordinary way. A pulpit in the centre against the east wall—a small table pushed under the stairs, no platform, no rails, nothing whatever to represent or serve for a chancel, or place for celebrating or receiving the Holy Communion. The reading-desk is immediately under the pulpit. It is the worst development we have hitherto seen; which is a great deal to say. The floor of the gallery and the stairs were dreadfully dirty. The floor of the church had been just washed. It rained smartly, but the people soon assembled, and the little church was well filled—the men predominated considerably. The candidates for Confirmation knelt down the length, of the centre passage from the reading-desk to the door of the church, first the females, and the males after, separately. Most of the males were adults and fine sturdy fellows, serious and reverent withal. The females were equally fine specimens of humanity, and though somewhat shy, not awkward nor irreverent—very different all from what the appearance of their church would lead you to expect. I was more than pleased, for all, I knew, was native and natural, or at least not due to direction and discipline. We returned as we came, in the boat. Mr. Wood and Mr. Baggs remained behind, there being an expectation of several candidates from Ireland's Eye and British Harbour, for whom I promised to hold a service to-morrow.
Tuesday, October 9th.—Happily the morning was fine. Mr. Moreton, directly after breakfast, went on shore to measure a graveyard at Old Bonaventure, which is prepared for consecration. At ten o'clock we started in our boat for New Bonaventure. We made the distance in little more than half an hour. We found a larger number assembled for Confirmation than yesterday. The little temple was crowded; an amazing store of stout blue jackets, stowed in the gallery, showed great attention and devotion. About thirty persons confirmed. I addressed them. Mr. Wood gave notice of my intention to consecrate the graveyard at Old Bonaventure in the evening.
After the service, I called at the houses of the two principal planters, who have each reared up large families, and are living in comfort and respectability, by merely pursuing industriously the old-fashioned method of fishing with hook and line at home. One of these provides a lodging for the clergyman, and the other his board at every visit. One has twelve children living, and all but one at home; the other as many, or more, but scattered; a daughter is married to a stout and stout-hearted planter, living at Ireland's Eye, who lamented in most feeling terms the "pitiful" state in which they and their neighbours at British Harbour were left without a pastor or teacher (a population, with the Bonaventurcs, of four hundred Church members). "'Tis true, 'tis pity; pity 'tis, 'tis true." No Mission seems more to require an additional Missionary. I walked with Messrs. Wood and Jones to Old Bonaventure, the rest of our party went round in the boat. I examined the graveyard, which is decently-fenced, and in the corner is the shell of a building intended for a church. The frame is boarded, and about half the roof; a few loose boards cover half the floor. No windows or door; but as the evening was warm and still, I determined to have prayers there before consecrating the ground. I sent my lectern on shore, with a covering for a table. Three chairs were provided, and a plank along one side for some of the congregation. There was a good store of Millars and Ivamys from New Bonaventure, and the rest of the congregation were of this place, but there are many adversaries. The evening was so warm, that we felt no want of roof or windows. The half floor gave sufficient space for the congregation. After the prayers, I explained the nature and purpose of the service of Consecration, and we then proceeded as elsewhere. I again addressed the people on the ground, and expressed a hope that I might be spared to consecrate their church, though, as they are within a mile of the new Bonaventure church, I could not perceive that the need was great of any additional place of worship. It seemed strange that this finale, or last service of my visitation, should be performed in an unfinished church, falling to decay before it had reached maturity or completion. It is capable of being made a sufficient and handsome church, (as wooden churches be,) and on that account, that there might be one decent church, decently arranged and furnished, in the Mission, I should be very thankful to see it finished. But where are the means, and who will direct and superintend, and above all, who will serve God and the people therein, and offer up the spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ?
I found the captain, ready to depart, and we weighed anchor about half-past five o'clock.
Wednesday, October 10th.—We were becalmed nearly the whole night, to the great content, I believe, of my passengers. About six o'clock a light breeze came ahead, but before ten o'clock it veered and was quite fair; and we came to anchor again in Trinity Harbour soon after eleven o'clock. Prayers in the church immediately. I proposed to preach in the evening, and notice was given of service at half-past six o'clock. I then went with Mr. Wood and Moreton in a boat (kindly furnished with four hands by Mr. Slade) to Trouty, a long five miles. Here, as in Old Bonaventure, the shell of a building has been set up, intended for a school-room and place of worship. The dwelling-place of the teacher was to have been over the whole school-room. The building is rather more advanced—and advanced to decay—than that at Bonaventure, having been much racked by the wind.
An old man, named Brown, accompanied us, and made a very agreeable cicerone. We walked back through some of the most lovely scenery I have ever seen in Newfoundland or elsewhere. Went to evening service at half-past six; when I preached. A tolerable congregation.
Thursday, October 11th.—The wind was dead ahead, and there was no choice. Several persons applied to Mr. Wood this morning, expressing their regret that they had not been enabled to attend for Confirmation on Sunday; and I, therefore, promised that if I remained to-morrow, I would hold a Confirmation in the morning.
Friday, October 12th.—The wind still ahead. The Confirmation was deferred till the afternoon.
The afternoon service commenced at three o'clock. Four females and twenty-six males were presented, chiefly adults. I congratulated myself and them on my journey having been delayed, and that I was thereby enabled to perform this service for their edification (as I trust) and the glory of God. I greatly fear the preparation by and for them has been but brief and perfunctory.
Saturday, October 13th.—To sail, or not to sail? that was the question this morning, on which, unfortunately, I had to come to a resolution. After long consideration, I determined to remain, as the wind was not sufficiently fair to afford a good prospect of our reaching St. John's to-day; and knowing that Mr. Wood had given notice of the Holy Communion at Salmon Cove to-morrow, and that he both desired and needed help, I thought it would be barbarous to leave him and his under such circumstances, and probably to spend the Sunday at sea. I therefore countermanded the order which bad been given to sail. After prayers I visited with Mr. Wood several of the respectable planters, and took a pleasant walk with him and Moreton to Sot's Cove, which is one of the many beautiful arms of this wonderful harbour.
Sunday, October 14th.—I walked with Mr. More-ton to Salmon Cove', sending my robes, &c. round in the boat: the distance about five miles. We arrived a quarter before eleven o'clock. Service commenced about a quarter after eleven. I celebrated the Lord's Supper, assisted by Mr. Moreton in the distribution. About twenty communicated. Directly after the service, I proceeded with Mr. Moreton to English Harbour, where, after taking the refreshment we had brought, at the house of Mr. J. Penny, we went robed to the church, which was very crowded: people sitting on the steps of the gallery, and in the passage. We had a pleasant walk back to Trinity, and drank tea with Mr. Wood. After tea I examined his children in the Catechism, and was well pleased with their answers.
Monday, October 15th.—The wind being this morning tolerably fair, and the day fine, the Church ship spread her wings for her last flight, if it please God, this season; with good prospect of reaching St. John's by night. We passed between Baccalieu and the main land about two o'clock, and put into the Bay de Verde, where, while the Church ship stood on and off, I went on shore in my boat to arrange with Mr. House about my visit, a month hence, to his Mission. I was welcomed by the men with a discharge of sealing guns. I did not stay to sit down, but after making the necessary inquiries, returned at once to the Church ship, and proceeded, with no intention of making any after call or landing, till I should reach, if it please God, my, or at least the Church, ship's, resting place. Off Conception Bay the wind failed, and so my hope of reaching our destination by night was defeated.
Tuesday, October 16th.—Abreeze sprang up about six o'clock this morning, and by seven o'clock we were off the Narrows, and the pilot on board. On reaching the Battery, I descried Mr. and Mrs. Grey on the rocks, looking out for us, and at us. Before we had made our last tack, Mr. Bridge was on board; and soon after, Mr. Johnson, with Mr. and Mrs. Grey. The whole party joined with us in prayer and thanksgiving, and then partook of our ship's breakfast, which was in good keeping, having neither soft bread, nor milk, nor fresh butter,—nothing but tea and sugar, pork, biscuit, and salt butter; but I trow none complained or thought of the viands—we were satisfied for the nonce with each other's company and discourse. Soon after nine o'clock, we went on shore straight to St. Thomas's Church, where, with my companions, I returned humble and hearty thanks for our safe return. My greetings to the children of the schools were conveyed in the way of a holiday—and, altogether, it seemed a day of rejoicing and praise. Thus ends my fourth Missionary trip, in the Church ship, of sixteen weeks, save two days. Praise be to God.
The following is a list of the Bishop's peculiar services during the Visitation:—
Churches Consecrated at—
Herring Neck Sept. 7
Change Islands Sept.13
Fool's Island Sept.19
Grave Yards Consecrated at—
Lower Burgeo, July 15
Upper Burgeo, July 15
L'Anse Amour, Aug. 10
Herring Neck, Sept. 7
Change Islands, Sept. 13
Greenspond, Sept. 17
Old Bonaventure, Oct. 9
Sandy Point......... July 29
Moreton's Harbour...... Sept. 6
Herring Neck, Sept. 7
Twillingate, Sept. 9
Fogo, Sept. 12
Change Islands, Sept. 13
Greenspond, Sept. 16
Pinchard's Island, Sept. 18
Swain's Island Sept. 18
Fool's Island, Sept. 19
Fair Island, Sept. 20
Gooseberry Island, Sept. 21
King's Cove, Sept. 23
Keels, Sept. 24
Salvage, Sept. 25
Flat Islands, Sept. 25
Catalina, Sept. 29
Bonavista, Sept. 30
English Harbour, Oct. 6
Salmon Cove, Oct. 6
Trinity, Oct. 7 & 12
Sew Bonaventure, Oct. 8 & 9
SEVERAL of my friends having expressed a wish to know the expense entailed upon me by my Voyages of Visitation, I did this year keep a regular account of every item of expenditure; and I believe the total amount exhibits a fair average. E. N.
1. Repairs. Considerable repairs are required every year; and, of course, more and more extensive, as time brings on decay. A new deck and new copper are now much required, or rather quite necessary; which it ill occasion a heavy outlay.
2. Gear, or ship-furniture, requires renewal in some parts every year. These two items constitute the "wear and tear" of a vessel, and always are taken into account in estimating the expenses.
3. Fitting-out. When a vessel has been stripped, and laid up in dock, some expense must, of course, be incurred in again setting up the rigging, bending the sails, and otherwise fitting for sea; which should be done under the captain's eye.
The other items need no explanation.
The Church-Ship was brought from the dock the last week in May; and nearly a month was occupied in repairing, painting, and fitting out.
The Bishop embarked with his friends, and sailed from St. John's, on the 28th of June. Mr. Gifford left on the 16th of August. The rest remained on board the whole voyage—nearly four months. With the exception of the loss of an anchor, the vessel received no damage.
The crew consisted of a captain, mate, and four seamen, with a steward and cabin-boy: in the cabin were the Bishop and his four companions,—thirteen persons in all. Visitors were frequently entertained on board, but always with simplicity and frugality.
1. Repairs—Sail-maker, Carpenter, Painter, &c £44 12s 9d
2. Gear—Ship Furniture £31 9s 5 1/2d
Cabin ditto £8 10s 6d
£39 19s 11 1/2d
3. Fitting-out—Captain £8 0s 0d
Seamen & Labourers. £15 0s 0d
£23 0s 0d
4. Provisions, including Wine, Spirits, &c £117 10s 0
5. Wages—Captain, Seamen & Servants £116 8s 8
6. Insurance £26 8s 9d
7. Light dues and Clearance £0 14s 8d
8. Pilotage at various places £9 2s 0d
5. A new Anchor £9 7s 0d
10. Stripping and Laying-up £2 11 11 1/2d
Total: £389 15s 9d