Project Canterbury


The General Synod of the Church of
England in Canada


Committee on Statistics and State
of the Church


SEPTEMBER 7th, 1949


Transcribed by Wayne Kempton
Archivist and Historiographer of the Diocese of New York, 2014


Since your Committee's last report five years ago many events affecting greatly the life of the Church have taken place. The aftermath of War with its difficulty of securing peace, coupled with active anti-religious propaganda, moral lapse following on hasty marriages, and general weariness and disillusionment have brought many problems.

Not all returning Chaplains have found it easy to settle down to parochial duties; the forced migration from rural districts to the towns to undertake war work has not returned to the country side; in consequence in most cities of over 100,000 huge new centres of population have become permanent and needing new churches and additional workers; the normal number of newly ordained deacons has not yet been reached and none of the loss of personnel incurred during the war years has been met. The total number of clergy in active parochial service is some 140 below the average of the years 1927-1941.

There have been great changes in the ranks of higher Church officials; not only have we a new Primate but also four new Metropolitans; and with impending retirements nearly half of the Bishops will have been consecrated within the last seven years.

The Church as a whole has not been inactive and substantial developments have taken place. The determination to increase the annual regular budget and the special Anglican Advance Appeal have shown that our Church people are realising better their financial responsibilities. Other phases of parochial gains and losses are given later in the report.

We record with gratitude some events in which our church had a small share; The achieving of a World Federation of Christian Churches: the benefit of a short visit from the Archbishop of Canterbury; the holding of an inspiring Lambeth Conference; the opportunity of brotherly discussions with the United Church of Canada with a view to some closer rapprochement; and last and by no means least the strengthening of our Church by full association and inclusion with the Church of Newfoundland.

During the period of this review Prayer Book Revision has gone forward and substantial steps have been taken to secure the regular publication of a Church Newspaper.

Your committee is aware that there is some strain being felt at the increased cost of our central organization which now includes contacts with and expenses for Interchurch activities and considerable increased assessment for General Synod and Executive Council meetings. It is of the opinion that time and money would be saved if the detail work of the General Synod Boards and Committees was dealt with Provincially, while policy was fully considered and settled by less frequent full committees. It is aware that the Boards themselves are opposed to such a plan but would urge that some simplified plan of operation without loss of efficiency should be adopted, something on the lines of the working of our Federal and Provincial Governments.

Your committee would again point out that the recommendation of the Anglican National Commission (IV.2) concerning the number of Theological Colleges has not yet been even considered by General Synod. Eighteen precious years have passed and the expensive overlapping continues. The wording of their resolution is "the existing Theological [2/3] Colleges are more than is needed to keep a staff of approximately fifteen hundred clergy up to strength and call for an expenditure beyond our means--" "A coordination of the resources of ten colleges into five should be sufficient for our need." Your committee feels that the problem is not merely a financial one. Ten colleges need a staff of between 40 and 50 expert theological scholars. Can we in sanity maintain that we have in our church that number of learned men competent to prepare candidates suitably for ordination and inspire them with the ability and zeal to continue their studies and reading throughout their whole ministry? The present system involves the use, in the case of the smaller colleges, of parish clergymen who happen to have cures nearby, many of whom have not proceeded to their B.D. Your committee humbly but strongly suggests that the Primate be requested to appoint a committee to report how reform can be achieved.

Your Committee would endorse the action of the Commission on Marriage and Divorce in recommending that full efforts be made with other bodies to secure the opportunity of civil marriage in provinces where it does not at present obtain, whereby clergy could be relieved from officiating at weddings which are patently casual and undesirable and possibly even experimental. It would point out that the Council of Social Service makes the same recommendation.

Your committee notes that the Anglican National Commission deprecated the division of the home mission work of the Church into separate groups such as distinction between self-maintaining and aided dioceses or regarding Indian or Esquimaux work as different from so-called White work; it might have also added the Jewish and Oriental groups. The family of God is one and there should be no race or colour distinction in our midst. All the nationals which make up Canada are, outside Quebec, quickly becoming English speaking. Absorption into the general congregation is the ideal for which we should aim and work. The Japanese, now mostly of Canadian birth, are settling in many parts of the country and numbers are to be found in the towns of Ontario and elsewhere. They are anxious to be allowed to join with ordinary congregations instead of being still forced to segregation in their religious worship. It is reported from British Columbia that in many parishes Japanese are on the regular parish roll, many in the Sunday School, some in the choir and a few on the church committee. This plan, where possible, should be extended to all parts and the principle applies equally to Jewish, Chinese, Negro, Indian and Esquimaux groups.

Some alarm is being felt at the increase in numbers of the Pentecostal and other holiness sects, including Jehovah's Witnesses and Seventh Day Adventists. This may be more imaginary than real owing to their perambulatory methods of visiting in large groups various places in succession, staying a short time and passing on. Analysis of the census of 1941 shows that their numbers did undoubtedly double during the period 1931-1941. What has happened since is not yet known. Their main strength is in Ontario (97,000) and the four Western provinces conjointly (93,000). In Ontario there is a slight preponderance in the towns; in the west a marked superiority in the rural areas. They comprise about 1.75% of the total population. Their chief leaders seem to have come from U.S.A. Of their zeal and devotion there can be no question; their use of radio and other propaganda appears not untainted with "business". One and all however have an intense yearning for the spiritual life but they need to be shown "the more excellent way". Our Church with its balance of emphasis on emotional reawakening and progressive sanctification coupled with a discipline of thought, worship and action should not with pharasaic indifference ignore but rather woo and welcome these struggling souls. Bishop and priest alike have promised "with all faithful diligence to banish and drive away all erroneous and strange doctrine". It is recommended that ruri-decanal conferences throughout our whole area review the situation and find out what steps can be taken to remedy the omissions in their faith and practice.


[4] The appended Bishops' reports sound a note of good optimism.

"Vigorous Church life has been maintained (N.S.) A magnificent response of 18 young men in training (N'f'land). Steady increase in support from nucleus of Church Members (Mont.) The pulse of Church life in rural areas beats vigorously (Tor.). We look to the future with renewed confidence (Ont.) Steady progress . . . due to faithful response of laity (Ott.). There is the assurance of a great future for the Church (Qu'App.). Work in isolated and extensive Indian Missions continues to provide much encouragement (Keew.). In the towns our position is becoming stronger (Edm.). This is the season of opportunity (N.W.)."

Diocesan life is in many parts obviously strong; it remains to make our corporate Church life equally vigorous and effective. The problem of the fullest use to make of our manpower and other resources, if faced in the co-operative spirit of "Lambeth", should not be insoluble. There has been marked increase in interchange for the filling of the more important posts. Reciprocity as regards the more average and country parishes would be helpful. It should be remembered that the urban population of Canada is only slightly in excess of the rural. In all dioceses county parishes form an appreciable bulk of our population. Is not some "five year" plan of interchange between East and West possible?

The statistical figures and tables speak for themselves. [Note: The transcriber of this piece has omitted scanning these tables which followed this report.] It is possible this year to give four quinennial averages and the actual figures for 1948. Ebb and flow during a period of over 20 years can be easily noted.

We are glad to report increase during 1948 in almost every section. The number of Church members is 100,000 more than ever before reported. There was an increase of 50,000 in each of the years 1947 and 1948. The Anglican Advance Appeal has produced other than financial results. The number of Honorary Lay Readers steadily climbs. The numbers of baptisms, of men and women in our University Colleges, and of children in our Indian Day Schools are the largest ever recorded. Confirmations however are stationary at a much lower level than twenty years ago. The decline on Sunday School attendance has been checked. The numbers of deacons ordained and of students in our Theological Colleges is improving though still behind those of the late twenties and early thirties.

Turning to finances, the total given for Parish Maintenance is a million and a half dollars above the amount given in the depression years, and the totals of all contributions, swollen of course by A.A.A. payments has reached a total of more than eight millions. The total capital now held by General Synod, Dioceses, and parishes well exceeds 26 1/2 millions of dollars. All this advance calls for real and full gratitude to God, and to continued rededication of one and all in personal, home and parish life, with due watchfulness against relapse. Your Committee submits this report in the hope that it may be repeated in the same strain at our next ensuing Synod.

On behalf of the Committee,


[5] Vigorous Church life has been maintained. The number of Baptisms and Confirmations has increased gradually. The number of persons from Church Bodies other than Anglican who have become full fledged members of the Church in Confirmation is significant.

The contributions to Parochial and Missionary work have increased steadily during the past five years.

We have been short of Clergy and still are in 1949. The number of Candidates for the Ministry showed an encouraging rise for a few years; but in 1949 there has been a falling off again. We hope and pray that this falling off is only temporary as we need the men so badly.

Women's work through the W. A. has continued on a high level, both in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The contributions through W. A. channels continue to increase in a most laudable manner.

Laymen's work is well maintained. The Diocesan organization is full of life and Deanery organizations in some cases are active and ready to undertake useful projects to assist the parishes and to help Divinity students by Bursaries.

Youth work is improving through the efforts of the Youth Commission, a body which has been full of ideas in stimulating all forms of work among young people.

There has been much discussion in the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada about Education and Christian Education. It is gratifying to know that at King's University, as well as at King's College School for Boys and Edgehill School for Girls, true religion is kept in right relation to sound learning.



It is a fearsome task to report on the State of the Church objectively. A Bishop is subjected to so many crises and demands that objective assay is most difficult.

Perhaps the most honest opinion is the purely personal one. I do not feel any envy of any other Bishop. Now to justify this hopelessly optimistic viewpoint: Our clergy and laity back us up in every project we lay before them. In the "great matters" in which we have been occupied, the Union of the Church in British North America, nearly all are agreed and active in working for real union, though disturbed by the simultaneous issue of Confederation which is regarded as a very different question. In the constant need for more clergy, there has been a magnificent response with 18 young men in training in Queen's College this Fall. The practical rebuilding of Queen's again calls forth an even more generous response.

Or the great matter of our Church Schools. After years of depression there was need for a very large plan of reconstruction and extension. One parish had to double its school rooms; many had almost as much to do. Yet in 5 years our people have put up $700,000 for School building, met by an equal government grant. Seven dollars a head of Church population is a great effort.

Or to come to every day matters, shortage of clergy should lead to despair when added to illness and retirements. Yet the extra work shouldered by lay readers, wardens and neighbouring clergy calls forth the highest admiration and leaves no doubt that God knows our plight and provides abundant means.

Nor is it only His Grace in emergencies: there is the steady movement towards lay pastors and lay evangelists. A Commission on Women's Work, sitting for two years, reports decisively on our need for [5/6] trained and devoted women in the Church: at long last our Synod will be asked to give such women an official recognition, and I have no doubt it will do so.

Church teachers, working hand in hand with parents and clergy are, in a growing number, really teaching religion to their children and enjoying it as no other lesson. They also act as Lay readers and take pastoral care of their congregations. Without them the Church would have died long ago in many small places.

And our clergy: How proud I am to be linked with real priests who day in and day out tend their flocks. We have only 10 parishes that could be called "towns". All the rest are really Travelling Missions whatever their official status: they are extremely rural and scattered, with often more than 20 settlements to a priest.

The only time I feel at all ashamed of the Church is when such rural work is regarded as less important than Town or City work. Our clergy still care for the villages, which are the backbone, as well as the majority, of our land. The plain lesson is: look after the rural populations, albeit at infinite cost and pains, in weariness often, in cold and nakedness (which is Biblical for loneliness) and the Towns will be well fed with devoted Churchmen. And if a different tradition should ever arise--goodbye to Town and Country.

And what of the debit side? With such assets there is no debit side: if God be for us who can be against us? There are various undeveloped assets, particularly in the use of our Schools, but I am sure the Angel Accountant has not yet scored these in red ink.

We look forward to 1949 in partnership with many friends in the Church in Canada, not a few of them from this Island, to help us develop our "natural resources", a bad misnomer for God's bounty in spiritual gifts.



The life of the Church in the Diocese of Montreal is strongly affected by the small proportion of English-speaking people in relation to the predominant section in the Province of Quebec. In the rural areas especially it means that we have many small groups of church people, grouped together under one ministry. This condition aggravated by the universal movement towards the city makes our rural church life more discouraging to clergy and people, more costly in necessary support than in many other Dioceses. Montreal's stipend grants to its own Mission Parishes amount to $40,000 above that contributed by those parishes.

The same English-French relationship in the City of Montreal increases those difficulties which confront the Church in any large growing city with its movement of population and developing areas. In any new district the proportion to whom we may expect to minister is so much smaller than in English-speaking communities that the investment in men and buildings is both costly and uncertain.

Recent years have seen a steady increase in support of the Church's work from the spiritual nucleus of devoted members. Our progress is blocked by our failure to reach and touch that large number of unconverted church people whose names are on our parish lists. Without them we can hardly hope to win that still greater number content with the idols of materialism.



[7] The principal problem confronting the Church in this Diocese at present is that of Church Extension. During the past four years twenty-two sites have been purchased for new Churches, most of them in the Toronto area. We have not only to provide sites but to assist in building projects. This is involving the Diocese in a very large capital expenditure.

The difficulty of providing clergymen to take charge of new Parishes is great. This difficulty is accentuated by the shortage of clergy for the older Parishes. We need at the present time at least fifteen additional clergymen.

Ever since the launching of the Anglican Advance Appeal there has been throughout the Diocese a quickened interest in the work of the Church. This is noticeable in city, town and country. The pulse of Church life in rural areas beats vigorously, although the rural population has declined in recent years.



The Diocese of Ontario is largely a missionary area and rural in character. It has but two cities, one with a population of approximately 20,000 and the other 40,000. In addition to these two cities, there are seven average sized towns, varying in population from 2,500 to 10,000, otherwise the Diocese, 6,841 square miles in area, is entirely rural. Since our last report the population in this latter area shows a slight decrease. The towns and cities, however, have absorbed some of this loss and indicate on the whole an increase in church population of not less than seven per cent. The increase in population in our cities in particular raises a fresh problem common to a more or less degree in all urban centres--that of Church extension; the building of Churches and Halls to provide spiritual ministrations for the newcomers. This is no easy undertaking in a Diocese such as Ontario.

The financial picture has shown decided improvement. The one time staggering overdrafts have vanished. Our one weak Fund, the Episcopal Fund, is undercapitalized to the extent of one hundred thousand dollars.

The Diocese, we are thankful to note, year by year in recent years, has displayed a marked growth in missionary interest and support. There is one important feature of our missionary undertaking that needs to be stressed, and which too often is overlooked. It is this--that our financial support to extra-Diocesan Missionary obligations, in recent years paid in full or over paid, is only the smaller part of the Missionary Budget of the Diocese. The larger portion necessarily goes to satisfy local requirements. Some times we are inclined to think too many of our Canadian Church people do not realize what a substantial load we bear in the old central Dioceses in maintaining the missionary work peculiar to each Diocese.

We have our problems, but thank God, we have our compensations. We look to the future with renewed confidence.



This Diocese is situated in the Province of Ontario, has an area of 14,000 square miles and lies south of the Ottawa River, extending from the Quebec boundary to the City limits of North Bay, a distance of 300 miles and varies in breadth from 25 to 75 miles. It consists of the counties of Glengarry, Prescott, Stormount, Russell, Dundas, Carleton, Lanark, Renfrew, and the district of Nipissing. The Church population is about 45,000 souls. The Diocese is largely rural. The City of Ottawa [7/8] has a population of about 160,000 of whom about 17 1/2 per cent are Anglicans. There are few towns of any size, except Cornwall which now ranks as a city and has a population of about 15,000 people. There are large missionary districts, especially in the Western part of the Diocese. In all there are forty-three missionary centres.

At present there is a Clergy list of 78. This includes the pensioned Clergy. There are two vacant Parishes (one mission). In addition a number of the larger Churches are without Curates, due to the shortage of men.

The Spiritual needs of the people are being ministered to by a splendid band of Clergy. Their faithful work is being reflected in the Diocesan returns. While finance is not a measure of Spiritual power we may state that where there is little financial response to Missionary and other Church work we must conclude that Spiritual life is weak.

With regard to population the eastern parts of the Diocese are gradually losing in Church membership due to the influx of the French speaking people and the drift to cities. The growth, apart from Cornwall. is mostly in the suburbs of Ottawa and west of that City.

With the advent of regular bus services from cities to outside points there is a growth of residences scattered along these routes. This is going to be a problem for the Church of the future.

Outside the City in the suburbs there are groups of homes being built. We have not been able to meet this challenge as we should due to the shortage of Clergy and the diversion of our Funds to objects outside the Diocese. The appeals (including the Anglican Advance Appeal) have caused a delay in this effort. We hope to be able to correct this when the response to these appeals has been met. We hope that there will be a breathing space to enable us to do so. We must support to the full the Missionary claims of the Church outside the Diocese but it is not generally known that we have a big financial responsibility to our own Missions. The average stipend of our Clergy in the Deanery of Ottawa is $2100. In Missions we have paid a stipend of $1200 plus $300 for transportation. We are now endeavouring to increase this to $1500 Plus $300. Our people raised $20,512 for Diocesan Missionary Work in 1948. In the same period we sent out of the Diocese $36,832 (excluding the Anglican Advance Appeal).

On the whole we can report steady progress due not only to the labours of the Clergy as stated above but also to the faithful response of the laity to their ministrations.



Our report to the General Synod of 1946 (Journal page 123) showed our condition after the second Great War. In it was revealed that through the improvement of crop conditions and prices and the return of many of our Anglican men and women from overseas our parishes had made a wonderful recovery after the conditions of the years 1930 to 1939, and that parishes which had been unable to maintain the status of self-supporting parishes were again becoming rectories. This condition has been further advanced in the past three years.

In 1943, the stipends of our married missionary clergy were only assured up to $1,000.00 per annum out of which heavy travelling expenses were paid. In 1944-5-6 this sum was increased to $1,200.00. As a result of the great interest taken by M.S.C.C. in the financial condition of our clergy the parishes have themselves become more self-conscious of their duty to their clergy with the result that stipends increased to a minimum of $1,400.00. The further action of M.S.C.C. in this most pressing matter has now resulted in our married clergy this year receiving a minimum of $1,600.00.

Stress has also been laid upon the fact that stipend is for living expenses, and that we can no longer, in these times of the high cost of living expect our clergy to pay from stipend the cost of thousands of [8/9] miles of travelling incident to their labours as missionary clergy over large areas. The result is that our parishes are assisting the diocese and M.S.C.C. in the provision of travelling allowances. While these sums are still inadequate, progress is being made, with the hope that it may not be long before, through combined effort on the part of the clergy, the parishes, the diocese and M.S.C.C. a travelling allowance of say $400.00 per annum may be achieved.

The strengthening of parochial finance is being aided by the establishment of Parish Councils represented by officers of the various congregations in each parish, and whose duties are to share up the stipends, travelling allowances, and missionary apportionment between their congregations. Good results are being achieved. One result has been that some of our Parish Councils have appointed a treasurer of the parish in the centre, to whom stipend, travelling allowance, and missionary apportionment are being paid. Splendid results are the outcome of this arrangement, and it is being urged upon many other of our parishes.

In 1948, Qu'Appelle accepted a General Synod apportionment of $5,000.00 and paid $5,463.89. We have accepted an apportionment of $5,450.00 for 1949.

In a diocese of 450 miles east and west, and an average of 200 miles north and south, there are bound to be varying crop conditions in every season. Such was our experience in 1948 for in one-half of the whole area of 90,000 sq. miles the average yield was far below normal whereas in the other portion the yield was above the average.

Our missionary opportunities for extension are very great; but, alas, the labourers are all too few, with the result that we still have important missionary areas which have no resident clergyman and we know not when they will, unless and until the supply of men changes. The number of students in our College of St. Chad under the leadership of our new Warden, the Rev. G. C. C. Scovil, is increasing and we hope will soon be doubled. Nine students will be at work in our missions in the summer months, and this is a great help. Knowing our sister missionary dioceses are all in the same plight, we do our best and carry on. Lay readers in some of our missions are doing splendid work and are keeping the parochial organization together. We have the people to minister to and must call men to minister to them. To men with the right spirit, and who are strong in physique, the ministry of the prairies of Canada offer as worthy a life's work as in any part of the world.

The following up of the work of the Anglican Advance Appeal led to the founding of our Diocesan "Workshop Plan" in the city of Regina last week. Some seventy persons gathered for a three day preparation in Regina. From thence, it extends to our Rural Deaneries, and from there to each parish and congregation under a plan which means for us five years of steady labour. We are expecting very much from our Workshop Plan. The work amongst our young people has a very large place in this Plan.

Sunday School by Post work under our D.B.R.E. and Van Work under the able and generous leadership of Miss Eva Hasell continues to be a main-stay of over twenty years of progressive work in this prairie diocese. Again we hope to have three caravans travelling into the wide areas of missionary endeavour open to us where we still have settlers who are far distant from the nearest organized parish.

The Bishop's Messengers in the Pelly area continue their great work under the direction of Miss M. D. Fowler of Swan River in our sister diocese of Brandon, and supported by the Fellowship, of the Maple Leaf in England.

The Sisters of St. John continue a work of over twenty years in our Qu'Appelle Diocesan Girls' School with some 70 pupils of whom about 44 are boarders. Recent reports of the Superintendent of Education, and the results of Departmental and Music examinations bear testimony to the excellent work being done in our school.

[10] The re-opening of Gordon's Indian Residential School we hope will take place in September 1949 after extensive repairs to the building made by the Indian Department. This school is now under our Indian Administration at Ottawa. Our three Indian Day Schools with their Mission churches show a gratifying increase in the number of pupils, and it may not be long before more than one class room will be required in them.

Our Maple Leaf Hostel, Regina, now under the able management of our Diocesan W. A. is flourishing and is a good home for our Anglican girls either engaged in or preparing for their vocations.

We can say that much progress has been made since the General Synod of 1946, and that given the men and the women workers we need there is the assurance of a great future for the Church in our midst.

We thank the Departments of the General Synod for all they are doing for us and for the encouragement we receive from them in missionary, educational, and social service work.



There are three particular problems facing the Diocese of Calgary, and these are probably similar to those of other dioceses.

(1) Manpower, (2) new housing areas, and (3) inadequacy of the minimum stipend of Missionary Clergy in these days of ever-increasing cost of living.

(1 and 2). The Diocese has been fortunate in that several vacant parishes and missions have been filled in the last two years, some of these had been vacant since the early days of the War; but there are still two missions without resident priests, two rural parishes which should be divided, and three linked-up missions, so linked during the War on account of shortage of clergy, which should be separated into their original areas, and for these seven clergy would be required. There is an urgent need for at least three priests in new housing areas; this would mean that in order to minister to the people of the Diocese in an efficient manner ten additional clergy are required.

(3). I believe the time has come when the Church in Canada should realize that its primary business is the Evangelization of this Dominion, and the providing of pastoral and sacramental ministrations to her people everywhere throughout this vast land. The people in outlying areas are certainly not in less need of the spiritual comfort and strength which the Church and her Clergy bring than are those in the most thickly populated districts, for they are not only isolated from their Church but also from each other, and the great loneliness which this involves has to be experienced to be understood.

I feel that every effort should be made to use the money raised by the Church for the Church's primary purpose and that any means which can be taken to eliminate unnecessary overhead expenses should be initiated.

Whilst it is true that the Church is raising more money, it is questionable whether it is doing more work, and whether the men who are doing this work in the Missionary areas are being supported, considering the high cost of living, as well as they were when the Church was raising far less money.

The Rural Mission Clergy, as a general rule, are given far too large a territory in which to minister; often in the West, and the same may be true of the North but of this I have no experience, one Anglican priest may be in charge of an area in which there are resident two or three, and sometimes as many as five, ministers of another Church: and there is a grave danger that our Canadian Church may completely lose the rural districts of the West to some other Church, or, and more probably, to the Perfectionist sects. If the Church wishes to prove herself worthy [10/11] of her heritage, and of the heroism of her pioneer missionaries, she must see to it that the Missionary Dioceses have a greater number of clergy, and that larger grants are given to these Dioceses to enable them to pay an adequate stipend to these clergy, and let us realize once and for all, that the present minimum stipend as set by the Church is totally inadequate.

I am not forgetful of the need for clergy and the Church's ministrations in the large urban centres, but that is not the question at the moment; my point is that if the Church is to survive in many large rural areas of the West this question must be given more than a cursory consideration by General Synod, and that this should be done at the Session of September 1949.



Our first word as we report to General Synod must be one of appreciation for the continued support of the missionary work of our Diocese, provided by the Church through the M.S.C.C. Since the inception of the Diocese of Keewatin in the year 1902 it has been our policy to encourage and stimulate our parishes and missions to such measure of financial self-support as is possible. While progress has been made in this direction, we are required to provide either stipends in full or grants in aid to all, except three parishes, hence we are deeply grateful to the Board of Management of the M.S.C.C. for their grants toward the stipends of clergy, and for their cooperation in the effort to provide such stipends at a reasonable minimum.

Our most urgent need is still for more clergy. For many months we have laboured under increasing difficulty on account of vacant parishes and missions, which condition has placed great strain upon the Bishop and those clergy who have been willing and able to undertake extended duties. We have students in training, but it will be a few years before they are ready to assume full parochial responsibility. The widely separated geographical position of our parishes, and the isolation of many of our workers, makes it most difficult, and in some cases impossible, for clergy to undertake to supply additional areas. Hence as we have no non-parochial clergy, the Bishop, in addition to official and heavy administrative duties, must often act as a travelling missionary to provide the ministrations of the Church in vacant parishes and missions, and to supplement the efforts of lay workers.

In some parts of the Diocese new work has been undertaken as mining and other industries have developed. There are however opportunities for expansion into which we have not been able to enter owing to lack of workers. In one growing parish of many years standing we have recently dedicated a commodious and well-ordered church which replaces a small building erected by devoted workers in the pioneer days of the town. The new church has been made possible by the systematic contributions of the parishioners both in money and much voluntary labour, and has greatly stimulated interest and support.

At one rapidly developing railway and mining town, a further well designed church is under construction, and should be completed this year. A further church has been in measure reconstructed, enlarged and repaired.

The work in our isolated and extensive Indian missions continues to provide much encouragement, but in the vast areas of the north we need additional clergy and more difficulties for the education of our Indian children.

In north-western Ontario, the real northern Ontario, and in eastern and northern Manitoba to within a hundred miles of the city of Winnipeg, and from the southern boundary of Canada to the far reaches of Hudson Bay, along its western coast and far inland, there are widely scattered [11/12] missions with devoted missionaries, all too few, who richly deserve the appreciation and the support of the Church. They seek not the reward of men, but only that they may serve and bring to the people to whom they minister a saving knowledge of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, ministering to the mind and soul and body of the native peoples committed to their charge, assisted most ably by a band of devoted native catechists, to whom the Church also owes much, and without whom many scattered bands would be unshepherded except at rare and long intervals.

In this work we have a "goodly heritage" and a sacred trust, which we must maintain and expand.



Since General Synod 1946 the conditions in the Diocese have changed radically. The chief feature is a greatly increased population in the city of Edmonton, following the discovery and development of an extensive oil field surrounding the city. There is every likelihood that Edmonton will continue to develop and will become a big city. To keep pace with this development is the main problem confronting the Church. Since the end of the war it has been necessary to add five full time parish priests to the city staff of clergy, in order to provide the minimum ministrations which the changed conditions require. The necessary building programme involved is very great. The appointment of full time clergy, the provision of churches and rectories and halls in completely new housing areas has put a heavy initial strain upon the resources of the Diocese and the parishes concerned. In the very nature of the case it will be several years before these parishes will be standing on their own feet and able to help substantially in the further development which is expected to take place. Already the need for the creation of more new parishes is quite evident. The next few years will be critical. Unless we are able to seize the opportunities when they are presented they may never recur. Foremost among the problems now before us is the provision of suitable sites for future building. In this there is bound to be an element of speculation, and the cost is great.

The rural areas present a quite different picture. Here we face a steady decline in church population. The farmers of British origin are everywhere taking advantage of high prices to sell their farms and to retire. The rural areas are becoming predominately non-Anglo-Saxon. Our people are now scattered thinly over a large area, making the ministrations of the church both difficult and costly. In the towns, however, our position is becoming stronger. The shift of population away from the farms has resulted in a general strengthening of our town parishes. In the past, when this movement occurred, it usually meant removal to British Columbia or some other more moderate climate. But now, with the provision of all modern conveniences in many of the towns the people are more content to make their homes there. But, of course, we cannot build a strong church on retired people.

The crucial problem for us in our rural areas is the creation of a rural ministry and a suitable technique. It is far too expensive to do the work on the ordinary parochial basis. The need is for a ministry which can freely and systematically move about in an extended territory, bringing the full ministry of the church to these scattered people. Something like a caravan mission in operation all the year round, manned by clergy, is indicated.

The situation confronting Edmonton is paralleled in other dioceses. It is therefore reasonable to suppose that the whole church will be concerned to help to meet such emergencies as they arise.



[13] This is a season of opportunity. Vancouver is now the third city of Canada as regards population. The surrounding village and towns are increasing their population very rapidly.

The Church is not keeping up with the growth. Many areas in greater Vancouver are without Church ministrations. Since the last General Synod five new places of worship have been built and are in use, and besides this St. John's Shaughnessy will be ready for use before Christmas at the cost of $160,000.00. The A.A.A. and General Synod Apportionments make a serious demand on the finances of our people, and leave little for Diocesan expansion. In the three year period since the last Synod about $350,000.00 have been raised for Church development and expansion.

There are 67 active clergy; 6 on leave as chaplains or other services; 13 superannuated; 5 have a general license to officiate in the Diocese. The work amongst the young is healthy. The work amongst the boys is stimulated by the appointment of the Youth Secretary. A similar appointment for work amongst girls is badly needed.

Camp Artaban continues its service as a training centre in the summer months. Nine hundred went through the camp in 1948. There were five children's camps; two camps for the Borstal School; one camp for the blind; and one adult summer school. At the present time one views with alarm the fact that Church children are being trained to attend Sunday School in the morning and thereby are encouraged to stay away from the usual Church worship.

During 1948 St. Jude's Home was established in which some twenty-two elderly ladies at a comparatively mild cost to themselves are able to enjoy congenial surroundings.

The W. A. with its large and enthusiastic membership continues to do a great deal for the extension of the Kingdom.

In common with every Diocese we have the problem of providing cars for the mission parishes.



The Diocese of Caledonia which extends over the Northern part of British Columbia offers a varied field of labour in the agricultural, mining, logging, paper-making and fishing industries. With the exception of the towns along the line of the C.N.R. railway and on the coast the area is sparsely settled involving a considerable amount of travelling on the part of our missionaries to carry the ministrations of the Church to the scattered congregations. It is one of the most completely missionary dioceses in the whole Canadian Church having only one self-supporting parish.

The Church work has suffered severely in recent years through the lack of clergymen. It would seem that the problems of men and means cannot be solved at the same time. A few years ago it was the finances that were the cause of anxiety. The Canadian Church through the M.S.C.C. has generously helped to solve that problem so that we are able to pay the stipends of the clergy regularly. We are now faced with the problem of how to find the clergy for our vacant missions, at least six additional priests are needed.

The native missions in particular have suffered through lack of ordained men. It is imperative that these missions should have a resident priest if we are to resist successfully the encroachment of the sects and the agents of Communism who are active along the Coast.

A new day is dawning for our native people. This year they will vote for the first time in the Provincial elections. To a man they belong [13/14] to a strong organization known as the Native Brotherhood. Although of recent origin it is making itself felt in the affairs of the Province both commercially and politically. We are responsible for the spiritual welfare of these people and should be giving them leadership and guidance. Unfortunately it is impossible to do this effectively with our present staff of clergy.

After many trials and vicissitudes the congregation at Aiyansh have made a start on the building of a church to replace the one destroyed by fire some years ago. During the winter months they have been getting out logs to be sawn into lumber and have almost completed a full concrete basement. As the work is being done on a voluntary basis and their time is only available between the fishing and trapping season it has the tendency of prolonging their effort.

The church at Lak-al-zap (Greenville) has been completed and now awaits the addition of seating accommodation before being opened for services.

There has been considerable activity in the lumber industry during the past three years along the line of the C.N. Railway, chiefly on the part of small portable saw mills. This has added to the duties of the already overworked clergy who carry on without complaining.

The gold mines are having a rather difficult time. Those at Atlin closed during the war have not reopened. The Premier mine at Stewart which was one of our highest producers closed last year due to the demands of the miners for an increase in wages. The mine at Tulsequah has also closed owing to labour troubles. The population of Atlin and Stewart has been so depleted that we would not be justified in keeping a clergyman there even if one were available.

A silver mine is being developed at Alice Arm which gives great promise and may mean that a resident clergyman will have to be placed there in the near future. It is being served at present by the Skipper of the "Northern Cross" who conducts services once a month.

A large pulp-mill is being erected at Port Edward by the Columbia Cellulose Co. This will present another challenge to the Church, as the population is sure to increase making a Church building and resident clergyman a necessity.

In the district north of the Peace River the Government has opened a large tract of land for settlement and an influx of settlers is expected this year. The help of another missionary will be needed if we are to live up to our reputation of being a pioneer Church.

This district is at present being served by The Fellowship of the West, an organization in the Diocese of Montreal who have made themselves responsible for the supply and support of a priest. We are indeed grateful for the assistance given by the Fellowship.

The Bishop's Messengers (under the able leadership of Miss Monica Storrs) with headquarters at Fort St. John work along the Alaska Highway as far as Fort Nelson.

The Sunday School by Post is another important part of our work with a membership of almost 1400. This is carried on by a lady superintendent who freely gives of her time and talents.

There are two completely equipped Sunday School Vans, one in the Peace River District, the other in the Bulkley Valley, which operate during the summer months. These are (supplied and supported) by Miss Eva Hasell, M.B.E. The teacher and driver visit the isolated families and where there is an opportunity of gathering the children together conduct weekly summer schools.

The mission boats "Western Hope" and "Northern Cross" are responsible for carrying the Gospel Message to the lighthouses, small hand-logging camps, fishing hamlets and prospectors scattered along the North Pacific Coast and Queen Charlotte Islands. The "Western Hope" is stationed at Masset while the "Northern Cross" with Prince Rupert as [14/15] its home port operates on the coast of the mainland and adjacent islands. No part of our work is more highly appreciated than that which is done by the Prince Rupert Coast Mission.

The Ridley Home in Prince Rupert has ceased to function due to a number of causes, the chief being the Correspondence Course of Education which enables children far from any school to receive their education at home, and the policy of the Social Welfare Department which prefers to place orphaned and neglected children in foster homes rather than in an institution. As a result there were not sufficient children applying for admission to justify us keeping it open.

On behalf of the Diocese I wish to express our gratitude to the Canadian Church which through the M.S.C.C. has enabled us to keep the flag flying and to the best of our ability carry the ministrations of the Church to all who desire to receive them scattered throughout this far flung diocese.



Yukon is in a way unique. It is northland with the correspondent difficulties of isolation, climate and seasonal mining operations; but it has centres of semi-urban life. The wild rush of '98 to Dawson City was paralleled in the war years by an even bigger invasion of Whitehorse, as the Army base of operations for building the renowned Alcan Highway. In both cases the tide ebbed quickly but the structure of city life with its problems has remained. Most interesting groups are to be found in Yukon--the Government officials at Dawson, the Army and Air Force personnel and the Commercial Air-Pilots at Whitehorse, a regular succession of Transport Drivers in charge of huge 70 feet trucks from Cincinnatti to Fairbanks, the summer visitors, chiefly from the U.S.A., and the seasonal workers who come in May and leave in September. It is clear that our ministry to these folk is not easy; every single group is transitory, staying at most a year or two and always counting the days until their "relief" is due.

Possibly we are the most understaffed diocese in the whole Anglican communion. With the addition of a new priest from Vancouver this summer we are in number, four parish clergymen, one Indian School Principal, three layworkers in charge of Indian missions, and the staff of the St. Paul's Hostel--a home for 30-40 half-breed children with non-Indian fathers--at Dawson.

A few years ago the Roman Catholics "invaded" our areas, in some cases quite unjustifiably, but beyond the erection of buildings they do not seem to have made much advance. Our Indian folk are puzzled at being somewhat abandoned by the Church of Bishops Bompas and Stringer but in the main are remaining wonderfully loyal. Unfortunately three of our villages are on the Highway, to the detriment both of themselves and the passers by.

With the help this summer of three Students and Miss Hasell herself with a Van, ministrations are now being carried on regularly if infrequently at some twenty-five places, with two exceptions each 'place' having just a handful of people. It is refreshing to drop from a plane at places like Old Crow or Selkirk and within half an hour have a crowded church, or to visit the Dawson Hostel--one of the best pieces of social christianity in Canada--and see the happy faces of the children, their reverence at prayers and willing help in daily chores, and feel the delightful home life that there exists.

It is still a day of small things in Yukon and there is ground for hope and thankfulness in spite of much laxity. Our eyes sadden when youngish folk of both sexes come here for a time from Ottawa, Edmonton or Vancouver on Government Civil Service work and gradually lose their Church attachment because of prevailing indifference of the white population.

[16] We have no "cords to lengthen"--there are but 8,000 souls all told and they are known--but we need to "strengthen our stakes" in a more than Isaian sense for it was two full generations ago that heroes of the Church 'prospected' and 'staked the claim'.



The period since the ending of the War has been the beginning of a new day, bringing a new challenge and a new opportunity to the Christian Church here in Cariboo. As never before there is a restless striving after something which it is supposed or hoped will bring greater satisfaction to the needs of life, and although demands are being increasingly met, the restlessness of men instead of decreasing is growing steadily greater. This can only mean that in the satisfaction which material things can give there is a lack of something essential to real satisfaction. It surely points us again to the eternal truth emphasized in our Lord's words "Man shall not, live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God." Herein lies our opportunity and challenge, for unto u that word has been committed.

In the Diocese of Cariboo, which is a part of the frontier of the Dominion, many of the conventions of the Christian religion, which have prevailed in the older and more settled parts of the Dominion, have never or hardly ever been recognised outside the limits of the few little cities. On the large cattle ranches, with a necessary seven day week of caring for the stock; in the lumber camps usually remote from the towns, and in the mining districts scattered among the mountains, all with their rough and rugged individuals, few of the conventions of religion have ever been applied, now less than ever, so that now more than ever new methods of Missionary approach must be employed if the Gospel is to reach these who are engaged in those occupations. To think out and to work out these new methods of approach calls for the most devoted and the best trained men that the Church can send forth, and these are not yet being sent out in necessary number.

In the towns of the Diocese, the church is showing strong life among faithful few who are carrying on the work of God. Among the men, there is a growing sense of responsibility for the carrying on of the worship of God and witness of the church, and the number of those who are willing to assist the clergy in carrying on the services in the absences of the priest at other points is steady growing. Several new branches of the W.A. have been started and are showing good promise for the future. In some parishes there is a very pleasing increase of activity among the children and young people, where, by means of new Sunday Schools, new scholars and teachers, choirs, cubs, scouts, A.Y.P.A’s, real endeavours to meet and provide for the growing needs of the youngsters, are being made. Also in several of the parishes plans for the restoration and extension of old buildings and the provisions of new buildings have been made and most of this work is either in progress or has already been completed. There is also a healthy increase of financial responsibility and offerings for the provision of the buildings and equipment necessary for the parochial life are being more readily made.

Also for our Indians, the new day is dawning. Good work is still going on in the Schools and Missions. Work second to none in real value is being done among the 200 Indian pupils of St. George's School, and the faithful work being carried on in the Missions and through St. Bartholomew's Hospital is slowly but surely playing an important part in building up a Christian civilization among these original inhabitants of the Province, who for the first time this year, are being given the responsibility and privileges of the franchise. "The harvest truly is plenteous but the labourers are few" (far too few). We would pass on to our brethren the words of our Master "Pray ye therefore the Lord of the Harvest, that He will send forth labourers into His harvest". Maybe He will send you.


Project Canterbury