THE first Primate of the Church of England in Canada had so many claims to true greatness, that it requires not a little courage to attempt even a brief survey of his brilliant career. Robert Machray stands alone amid a galaxy of leaders, of whom any church might well be proud. He has left behind him memories that will never fade, while there remain among us any of his confreres; and the influence of his wonderful life upon Western Canada will be felt long after the last of those who knew him has passed to his rest. He was in the truest sense of the word a great man; and, while all must recognize his wide and accurate scholarship, his outstanding leadership, and his wise statesmanship, the real source of his greatness lay in his strong and pure manhood. He was indeed--"un preux chevalier, sans peur et sans reproche."
I would wish that the task given to me had been entrusted to someone more competent to deal with it as it deserves. My only plea for my presumption is that I came from his county in Scotland,--that, in my young days I had conversed with not a few who knew him before he crossed the Atlantic,--and as I had been brought up among people of the same sturdy race as that to which he belonged, I think I can form a fair estimate of those racial traits that went towards the moulding of his temperament and character. The circumstances and environments of Mach-ray's early life laid a sound foundation, upon which life at a great university and the traditions and ideals of the historic church built a noble superstructure. Long before I came into his diocese I admired him from afar; and, when I received from him my license to officiate in Rupert's Land I was proud of the privilege accorded to me, and set myself to serve loyally under him, even when I dared to differ from his policy. No Highland chieftain ever inspired his clansmen with a warmer attachment to his person than did he. No one ever was more generous to those who served under him, even when they were unable to see eye to eye with him in matters where individual opinion could legitimately be held.
On both sides of the house he was of Highland descent. The Machrays came originally from the county of Ross, in the north of Scotland; but, for several generations his forbears had been settled in Aberdeenshire. Robert was born in the city of Aberdeen in 1831, and, excepting for a short period, the first twenty years of his life were spent in the country. His father, also named Robert, was a graduate of Marischal College, which in those days had a university charter,--and he was a member of the Aberdeen Society of Advocates. He died when his eldest son was only eight years of age; and, as Mrs. Mach-ray was not left in affluent circumstances, the education and upbringing of the younger Robert came to be undertaken by a relative of his father, by name Theodore Allan--a distinguished graduate of Marischal, and Master of an Academy at Nairn.
The maiden name of Robert's mother was Christina Macallum, and her family was closely allied to one of the many families of Macleans, who had in 1745 taken up arms for Prince Charles Edward.
I have very pleasant recollections of an evening spent at St. John's, Winnipeg, more than twenty years ago, when I had an opportunity of noting how the sedate Archbishop, whom very few suspected of romance, was moved by a memory of his Jacobite forbears. There was a social gathering in the schoolhouse, and His Grace was in the chair. My name was on the programme for a song, and, when my turn came, he bent over to where I was sitting, by the side of the platform, and said in a quiet tone, "Do you know the song --McLean's Welcome?" On my replying in the affirmative, he said--"Will you sing it for me? My mother was a McLean." I gave the old song with all the vim that was in me, while he sat in his chair, evidently much pleased, beating time with his foot.
Robert Machray was a very small boy when he went to live with Mr. Allan at Nairn. Two years afterwards the Academy at Nairn was closed, and uncle and nephew removed to Coull, in Aber-deenshire, a place of great natural beauty, and almost in sight of "Dark Lochnagar." Under the painstaking care of Mr. Allan, who had assumed the charge of the parish school, Robert obtained a more than ordinary good education, on very broad lines. Being fond of study, he made excellent use of the well-selected and really fine library at his disposal. Before he was sixteen he had read Gibbon's "Rome," and George Buchanan's "Scotland," and, he had also made acquaintance with Josephus, with Hill's lectures on Divinity, and other books which are not generally attractive to a boy of his age. He was head boy in his uncle's school, but, in spite of this fairly-won distinction he never seemed to show to any advantage in the examination-room. However, when we take into consideration what we know of him and the results of his work, we cannot regard this seeming weakness as an evidence of lack of ability. Even when but in his teens, he proved himself an excellent scholar and teacher, by his success in carrying on the work of the school during the protracted illness which immediately preceded the death of Mr. Allan.
To prepare him for the Scholarship competition at the University, Robert was sent to Aberdeen, to the Grammar School of which Dr. Mel-vin, the famous Latinist, was then the Rector. About this time also he received much valuable help from the Rev. W. Duncan, a Free Church minister and ripe scholar. On two occasions he entered the Bursary competition, and on both occasions failed; and yet, in his report of him, Dr. Melvin regarded him as one of his best pupils. He entered King's College as a student in Arts in 1847, with a very modest standing, but he left college as the foremost man of his year. His four years of college life in Aberdeen were very strenuous. He had to face many disadvantages--absent from those who strove with him for academic honours. I remember his telling me how hard he had to work for the final contest in mathematics, and how, for over six months of that time he was private tutor to the man who, in the following year, succeeded in attaining the same fine position he himself won in the finals.
In the competition for the Hutton Prize, given for general scholarship, he was successful against several stout opponents; he also won the Simpson mathematical prize of sixty pounds. Truly a wonderful achievement in four short years! His friends strongly advised him, after graduation at Aberdeen, to try for a scholarship at the English university of Cambridge. This he resolved to do. He arrived at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, on October 20th, 1851, and at once set to work in earnest. His undergraduate years were much the same as those of the rank and file of the students. On account of narrowness of means he was compelled to forgo many of the social privileges of college life, and I think it not unlikely that this self-denial may have had something to do with the shyness and reserve which never altogether left him. At the same time it must not be imagined that he was a hermit--by no manner of means; but he had the moral courage which enabled him to say no! when tempted to an expenditure which was beyond his means. As a scholar of his college he had to exercise a certain amount of discipline upon his juniors, but he did it with such grace and consideration that he became quite a favourite. Personal religion at this time was dominating his thoughts; from time to time he would speak of this to some of his college friends, who were like-minded; and, as a result of this intercourse came the founding of the "Dudleian Society," which for over twenty years continued to exercise a beneficent influence among the men of Sidney Sussex College.
Machray's outstanding personality and nobility of character won for him the friendship of the best men in the college, both from among the teaching staff and the students; and it was a noteworthy fact that the friends he made he retained.
In his second year at Cambridge, Machray ceased to be attached to the Presbyterian Church, and was confirmed by the Bishop of Ely. This was by no means an outcome of his college and university associations. His mother had at one time been a member of the Scottish Episcopal Church, although she had conformed to the Presbyterian Church about the time of her marriage. During his college days in Aberdeen, Robert sometimes attended St. Paul's Episcopalian Church, and he had often spoken to his mother of his desire to become an Anglican clergyman. In making the change he acted as he did in everything, with great deliberation, and after the most careful thought. During the academic year of 1853-4 he was present at a missionary meeting held in the rooms of Mr. Nicholson, a Fellow of Emmanuel College, when an address was delivered by Archdeacon Hunter, who was doing deputation work on behalf of the Diocese of Rupert's Land. Was the seed then sown which brought about his becoming the second Bishop of
that diocese--who can tell? When the Mathematical Tripos came off in January, 1855, he was thirty-fourth Wrangler in a very large year. Again, in spite of undoubted ability, he did not come up to the expectations of his friends in the examination room. Doubtless this result was due to the fact that he had to apply himself most vigorously to the college work, which would be the means of relieving him from financial anxiety. On the whole things turned out best just as they were, for, in doing what he felt to be a stern duty he was gaining a broader education than he might have had by adhering closely to mathematical work. He certainly was preparing himself for the work of his life, as the Archbishop of a great province, and the Chancellor of a young and ambitious university. A short time after he had "proceeded" to the B. A. degree, he won the vacant Foundation Fellowship at his own college, which he held to the close of his life. This Fellowship gave him a title to Holy Orders, and the examination for the Diaconate would have been a very formal one in his case; but, with the thoroughness and conscientiousness which ever characterized him, he prepared with great care for the regular examination, satisfied the examiners, and was duly ordained Deacon in Ely Cathedral on November 11, 1855. He was raised to the priesthood in the following year.
From 1855 to 1858, Machray was chiefly engaged in tutorial work in the family of Mr. Larking of Milton Place, in Surrey; but, that gentleman having been called to Egypt as the agent for Said Pasha, the Viceroy, his family were sent to Italy to reside during his absence, and Machray accompanied them. For some months they lived in Rome; thence they went for a time to Pisa and Florence. In October, 1857, Machray left the Larkings and went to be tutor in a family at Douglas, in the Isle of Man, where he remained till December, 1858, when he was recalled to Cambridge, to be Dean of Sidney Sussex College. Both during his stay in Italy and in the Isle of Man, he did a good deal of clerical work, being ever eager and ready to help his brother clergy when opportunity occurred.
In 1858 he took his M.A. degree at Cambridge; and from that year to 1865, he was engaged in college and clerical work.
The duties which fell to the lot of the Dean of the College were mainly administrative and disciplinary. Machray made an excellent Dean, and took a very real interest in the intellectual progress and, spiritual life of the students. One of his closest friends at this time was the Rev. Charles Clayton, Vicar of Holy Trinity Church, which had been the church of the famous evangelical leader, Charles Simeon. Machray and Clayton were of mutual benefit to each other; Clayton's intense earnestness could not fail to make a deep impression on his friend, while Machray's sanctified common sense did not a little to mollify the somewhat intolerant views of Clayton. College duties, which were to a great extent of the nature of routine, left time for other work, and the new Dean, very soon after his appointment, sought for definite parish work. With the consent of the Vicar of the united parishes of Newton and Hauxton, a few miles out of Cambridge, he undertook, as a labour of love, the care of Newton, which he carried on with much enthusiasm, till 1862. He not only conducted the regular Sunday services, but he also visited the parish on one day in every week, and carried on a night school twice a week, which last often involved a walk of fourteen miles. Mr. Williams-Ellis, a young Cambridge student, often accompanied him in these journeys. In a letter written many years afterwards he tells us that "the school was well attended. There were youths of all ages, and there would be old ploughmen with their heads almost on the desks, holding their pens like pitchforks, and admiring the huge pothooks that they laboriously and slowly formed. I need scarcely add that Machray was so greatly loved by rich and poor that his very name has ever since been held in the deepest reverence and affection."
His two most intimate friends at this period were Mr. Williams-Ellis, and Mr. J. R. Cornish, both Fellows of Sidney. Mr. Cornish afterwards became Suffragan-Bishop of St. Germans, in Truro diocese.
In the summer of 1862 Machray was appointed Vicar of Madingley, three and a half miles from Cambridge, where his desire for parochial work found full vent. A letter from Miss King, daughter of Lady King of Madingley Hall, gives us in a few words an estimate of his vicariate. "He was beloved by all, and who could help it? He exhibited, then as always, the same earnestness, singleness of purpose and kindness of heart, that made him later the great Archbishop whose loss all regret."
It was during his incumbency of Madingley that Dr. Machray began to be noted as somewhat of an enthusiast in the work of missions. If a missionary meeting was being held in Cambridge he was generally among the audience; but his modesty kept him back from taking any prominent part in the proceedings.
However, it was not long before his claim to preferment was recognized by those in power, and the Bishopric of Rupert's Land was offered to him. After consultation with friends in whom he had abundant confidence, he accepted the nomination of the Crown, and was consecrated to the Episcopate in the private chapel of Lambeth Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London, Ely and Aberdeen, and Bishop Anderson his predecessor in the See. It was most appropriate that the three last-named should take part in this important function. The Bishop of Ely was the ordinary of the diocese in which the University of Cambridge is situated, and he was Dr. Machray's ecclesiastical superior when he was vicar of the parish of Madingley. The Bishop of Aberdeen, Dr. Thomas George Suther, was the head of the diocese in which his boyhood and youth were spent --the diocese in whose university he had gained such a name for industry and scholarship that it was spoken of with respect and affection by more than one generation of Aberdeen students. Besides, Dr. Suther, as a Nova Scotian and a graduate of Canada's oldest university, was a link with the new world to which Dr. Machray was soon to go. It was also meet and right that Bishop An-derson should come, to hand over his mantle to the young Bishop, who was to take up and carry on the fine work he had begun.
There were many reasons why he should wish to remain in England. There is no doubt but that, had he done so, he would in time have risen to some very important position. Besides, he had so many friends in England whose wide learning and culture must have been a great source of pleasure to him. But, as I told you before, he was a great man--great in mind--and great in heart; and so, when the call came to him to go to the Red River settlement, he simply obeyed what he believed to be the voice of God. I can remember, as a boy, in Aberdeenshire, hearing people speak of Robert Machray's wonderful ability, and of all that he was giving up in becoming a missionary Bishop. I saw him once in 1865, along with his old college friend, the Rev. Nicholas Kenneth McLeod, and I never saw him again until I myself became one of his clergy in 1895--just thirty years afterwards.
Well, he set out for his distant diocese, after his consecration in Lambeth Palace Chapel, and duly arrived at Fort Carry, as Winnipeg was called in those days. There were no railways in Western Canada then, and so he came through the United States to St. Paul in Minnesota, whence he made his way to the settlement by road, attended by a small escort of horsemen, among them being Sheriff Inkster, who was to be his friend and helper for the rest of his life.
For the next ten years he was simply a diocesan Bishop, but his diocese was one of the largest in the world, extending, as it did, over the territory that now forms the Provinces of Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and part of Ontario. For a time his labours were mainly confined to the Red River settlement. There was no great city of Winnipeg then, but only a village with a population of 200. He soon began to revive St. John's College, for he could see far ahead, and he knew that in a few years many people would come from the old land and settle in Manitoba. The College was re-opened on All Saints' Day, 1866, not in its present building, but in the old squat wooden building which stood so long on the banks of the river, near Bishop's Court. During his first winter there he visited the Indian missions and held meetings three or four times a week, often in the open air, when it was quite a bit below zero. He succeeded in getting endowments for five professorships; and before long, St. John's College had a goodly number of students. The cathedral, with the college, became the centre of church work in the West. Missions were established in nearly all the new settlements, and these, as well as some of the older places, were served by the cathedral clergy, who taught in college during the week and went out on Sunday as missionaries. There are still many people in the diocese who can remember the strenuous and self-denying lives led by the college clergy in these old pioneer days.
The diocese of Rupert's Land, to which Archbishop Machray came, in 1865, may be best understood, when we remember that from his headquarters at Winnipeg he was 2,500 miles distant from Yukon, 2,000 from Mackenzie River, 1,200 from Albany and Moose, 800 from York Factory, and 700 from English River, the different missions of his jurisdiction.
Yet in that enormous region he was soon able to form a Synod, which met first in 1867, and again in 1869.
Its third meeting, owing to the North-West Rebellion and other causes, did not take place till 1873.
These were troublous times, but the Bishop pushed on, facing difficulties with the calm and insistent demeanour that was so characteristic of him. In 1873 the silver lining began to show itself through the clouds that for some years had hung over the province.
Winnipeg at this time had about 1,500 people, and small towns and villages were rising up everywhere in the West. The Bishop had visited England, and had obtained from the C. M. S. substantial aid towards the breaking up of his great diocese into missionary dioceses.
Moosonee was the first to be formed, in 1872, and its first Bishop was John Horden, who had been ordained by Bishop Anderson on one of his journeys into the far north. The new Bishop, who with his devoted wife had lived in the wild northern country around the shores of Hudson's Bay, for over twenty years, was a true missionary hero. He suffered much, and his denial of self for Christ's sake and the Gospel's was apostolic in its earnestness. After his consecration he went back to his work and there he ministered till 1893, when he was called to his rest.
The provision thus made for this vast territory, reduced the See of Rupert's Land by 600,000 square miles.
In 1874 Dr. Machray arranged for the new diocese of Athabasca. Dr. Bompas, who came out to Canada in 1865, was its first Bishop.
In the same year was formed the Diocese of Saskatchewan. The first Bishop was another Aberdonian, Dr. John McLean, who had been Machray's Archdeacon since 1866. Before McLean came out from Great Britain, after his consecration, he had collected in England the sum of $31,000 for work in his diocese; and, on his second visit to the old land in 1878, he collected $20,000 more. He was a rare educationist, and so firmly persuaded was he of the need for a college to train priests and mission workers, that he set to work and raised an endowment fund of $20,000 for his new Emmanuel College at Prince Albert. He was a man of most wonderful energy.
In 1884 Athabasca was subdivided, and the northern part--Mackenzie River and the Yukon--made a new diocese, that of Mackenzie River, Dr. Bompas taking the new diocese.
In 1884 also was formed the diocese of Qu'Appelle, of which Dr. A. J. R. Anson was the first Bishop.
Now, the real instigator and promoter of all this church activity was Dr. Machray. He made a province of seven dioceses out of the vast territory placed under his supervision in 1865.
By one move after another, his own diocese was narrowed down to about the area of the present civil province of Manitoba, with a small part in Ontario.
While one could hardly class the Archbishop as a great Indian missionary, his heart was always in the cause of Indian missions. Writing in a pastoral letter, in Epiphany, 1886, he said: "A grave duty lies upon us to do what we can for the evangelization of the natives of this land, many of whom still are worshipping they know not what. May we rise to feel that in giving to such a work we are not merely coldly meeting a duty, but laying hold of a privilege, and discharging not the least important part of our worship and service of God."
In the space allotted to me, it would be impossible to do more than sketch some of the salient features in his career in Canada.
When Dr. Machray came to Red River, in 1865, he came to one of the most extensive dioceses in the world; and, to carry on the work in this vast area, there were only eighteen clergy, of whom one was in the Yukon, two in Mackenzie River, three in Moosonee, three in Saskatchewan, one in Qu'Appelle, and eight in Rupert's Land. He himself has told us that there was not a baker, butcher, tailor, or shoemaker in the whole Red River valley. The census of 1871 tells that there were in all 70 houses and shacks, and 241 inhabitants. Most men would have staggered at the outlook; but he was no ordinary man. He was optimistic to a degree, and he had the most unbounded confidence in the Divine power that was behind him in his mission.
From 1865 to 1871, besides carrying on faithfully his ordinary diocesan work, he was engaged in preparing for the future by organizing the church for self-government and self-support, in building up a college for the education of clergy, and for supplying the means of higher education for his people.
During his first year in the country he was much encouraged and comforted by having with him at Bishop's Court his Chaplain and Registrar, the Rev. W. H. Taylor and his wife. Mr. Taylor was the incumbent of St. James', on the Assiniboine.
Systematic giving for the maintenance of church work was not practised in the district before his arrival; but he took a very early opportunity of inaugurating it.
As the first step towards a Synod, he held a conference of his clergy at Bishop's Court, on May 30th, 1866, when he announced that an old friend, a distinguished graduate of his own Scottish Alma Mater, had agreed to throw in his lot with the west. This was Dr. John McLean, who in a few months arrived at the Red River. He took over the wardenship of St. John's College, which was re-opened on All Saints' Day, 1866, and he also took charge of the regular cathedral services. Dr. Machray, himself, for several years was incumbent of St. Paul's, Middlechurch, situated six miles from Bishop's Court.
At this time the instructors in the college were three in number--Dr. McLean, Warden, who lectured in classics, systematic and pastoral theology; Dr. Machray, who had mathematics, church history and liturgiology; and the Rev. S. Pritchard, whose department was that of English, arithmetic and bookkeeping.
After the conference the young Bishop set out for York Factory, on Hudson's Bay, where he confirmed 51 Indians and four white people.
His next long journey was in 1868, when he went to Eastern Moosonee--where he had several confirmations, at Rupert's House, Albany and Moose Factory respectively.
In the following year he confirmed at Grand Rapids, Devon and Cumberland, on the Saskatchewan, and at Stanley on English River.
In 1871 he went to England, where he arranged with the Archbishop of Canterbury for the division of his vast territory into four dioceses, and for the inauguration of a Provincial Synod. All this was duly carried out.
The first Provincial Synod met at Bishop's Court, Red River, on August 3rd, 1873. Three Bishops were present--Dr. Machray of Rupert's Land, Dr. Horden of Moosonee, and Dr. Mc-Lean of Saskatchewan. The Bishop of Athabasca, Dr. Bompas, had left for his diocese on Mackenzie River. The sermon at the conference was preached by Bishop Whipple of Minnesota, the "Apostle of the Indians."
By 1873 the college endowment was $30,000.
It must not be imagined that he was neglecting the work of elementary education. In 1870 there were fourteen schools in the English-speaking half-breed parishes of the diocese, and the Bishop was forming plans which were in due time materialized for the further expansion and elaboration of a thorough elementary school system for the diocese and civil province. When a Provincial Board of Education was formed he was its chairman almost from the beginning; when the Advisory Board of Education came into being, he became its chairman, and remained so till his death. He was also Chancellor of the University of Manitoba from its foundation till the end of his own life.
Among the many honours conferred upon him were the D.D. of Cambridge and the LL.D. of Aberdeen, in 1865 ; the D.D. of Durham, in 1888; the D.C.L. of Trinity College, Toronto, in 1893 ; and the D.C.L. of Oxford, in 1897. In 1893, Queen Victoria made him Prelate of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
It may not be amiss in this brief and imperfect sketch of the first Primate of Canada, to speak of him as an empire builder, educationist and Bishop.
He was a great empire builder. His name was practically never quoted in regard to politics; and yet there was no man of his day in Canada whose wonderful vision of the future of the Dominion entitled him to be heard with greater respect and reverence when he gave his opinion on any subject worthy of being called statesmanship. Had he entered into the realm of politics he would have been a great power, simply because of his lofty ideals and the absolute purity of his character. With him there must be no compromise with truth and integrity. His optimism was so securely guarded by the sanctified common sense which he brought to bear on every question before him, that one could never imagine it leading him into anything that would be regarded as speculative or rash. He lived in Western Canada at a period when general principles were of more vital importance than mere details of administration. He was a master builder, who was more concerned with foundations than with actual building.
It was almost entirely due to the personal friendship between Dr. Machray and Dr. Isbister, principal of the College of Preceptors of London, and because of the esteem in which the former was held by the family of the latter, that the University of Manitoba received under the terms of Dr. Isbister's will the sum of $70,000 in 1883.
He was a great educationist. Future generations will have cause to be thankful that God sent such a man to help in engineering the educational system that has already done so much for the Province of Manitoba. History is replete with instances in which the dictatorship of one really great man was the salvation of a cause. In the Advisory Board of Manitoban Public Schools, of which Dr. Machray was for many years the chairman, he was really a dictator, not because he claimed to be such, but just because his wonderful grasp of the whole situation so impressed his fellow members of the board that his opinion on any great question was seldom or never questioned. When it came down to details his innate modesty made him at once defer to those whose daily business put them into a position in which they knew better than he what was required.
Those who have given the matter their most careful study must be of opinion that his chancellorship of Manitoba University was one of the most fortunate happenings in its pioneer days. While very conservative in regard to the general trend of university matters, he based his notions on the experience which he had of two great universities of the old land, those of Aberdeen and Cambridge. The Scotch university was wont to lay stress upon features that in the English university were viewed from an altogether different angle. Aberdeen was an institution which opened its doors wide to lads who had not had the fine training of great public schools, like Eton and Harrow and Rugby; and it was far more democratic in its methods and aims. Dr. Machray possessed a wisdom and a sanity of judgment which enabled him to take from each its best features, and to adapt them to the conditions of a land in its constructive stage. While deeply devoted to pure scholarship, as the phrase is generally understood, he was ever ready to seize and carefully consider any scheme which had for its object the furtherance of the requirements that were peculiar to the conditions of the West. He was by no means hide-bound in his educational notions, in spite of the fact that he held the very highest ideas of the tone and colour of the two universities at which he himself had studied.
He was a great Bishop. Like all other men, he had his limitations, and it may be that there were phases of the Episcopal office which did not obsess him as they have, done other great Bishops; but his ideals were of the highest and purest. There was a certain Scotch reserve and self-restraint, which caused him to be sometimes misunderstood. He did not wear his religion on his sleeve, and in consequence did not sometimes get credit for a devotion to spiritual things which was a very real and integral part of him. I never heard of his being asked to conduct a mission for the deepening of the spiritual life, and yet I am quite sure, if he had ever undertaken such work it would have astonished men who only knew him slightly, to find how well-ordered was his conception of the affairs of personal religion; and his counsel would have been of the most valuable kind. I have often lamented the fact that none of his ordinary sermons have ever been published. In his preparation of them he used such infinite care that they would have made good reading. They were sometimes inclined to be rather academic in style; but in every one that I ever heard him preach there was a great deal of food for thought.
His devotion to the work which sent him to Canada was so interwoven with his whole life that it was never absent from his thoughts. For many a long day he had to face the most serious difficulties, which called for much faith, much wisdom, much tact and judgment. These were never wanting. He believed in his mission, and hid unbounded trust in the God who had sent him to carry it out. In the administration of his vast diocese he took no step without earnest and prayerful consideration of it from every point of view. His fine logical mind, trained to accuracy by his favourite study of mathematics, gave him a wonderful outlook. Everything he did was the resultant of mathematical reasoning, and an almost overpowering sympathy.