Anglican Church in Corea:
Being Documents, original and translated, issued by Authority during the Episcopate of the First Bishop of the Church of England in Corea between 1889 and 1905
by C. J. Corfe, Bishop
The Diocesan Book of Preparation for Holy Communion with Devotions to be Used in Church Before, During and After the Sacrament. Instruction.
In Holy Baptism men are spiritually regenerated. In the Holy Communion, men are spiritually fed. After due preparation of the body and the heart Christians should go to Church every Sunday and appointed Holy Day to receive the Sacrament of the Holy Communion. Those who intend to receive the Sacrament must first carefully examine themselves whether they repent them truly of their former sins, steadfastly purposing to lead a new life; have a lively faith in God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of His death; and be in charity with all men.
The Ten Commandments.
The Duty towards God.
The Duty towards my neighbour.
If in their self-examination Christians are conscious of sins which keep them from receiving the Holy Communion they must carefully confess before a priest and after obtaining absolution receive the Sacrament.
Intending Communicants must abstain from all food and put aside their ordinary business until the time of receiving the Sacrament and after cleansing their bodies partake of the Holy Communion. If perchance Christians should be ill or infirm or for some other reason be unable to abstain altogether from food the Bishop will dispense them; but it is not the custom for the practice of fasting Communion to be lightly disregarded.
Christians may prepare to receive the Holy Communion at any time. On Saturdays, however, and on the Vigils of Feasts they must come to Church in the evening to take part in the office of preparation for receiving the Sacrament on the following morning.
Should a man live too far from the Church or for any reason be unable to attend this service he must always say the following prayers at home.
Those who intend receiving the Sacrament on the day following this preparation must inform the priest. If there has been no preparation at all they must receive instruction from him when to make their Communion.
OFFICE OF PREPARATION.
When all are assembled in Church they kneel and the Reader says the Invocation, the Lesser Litany and the Lords Prayer.
All stand and the Reader says,
Let us renew our Baptismal vow.
All together say,
I renounce the Devil and all his works etc (as in the Baptism of such as are of riper years).
I believe in God the Father Who hath made me and all the world, I believe in God the Son Who hath redeemed me and nil mankind, I believe in God the Holy Ghost Who sanctifieth me and all the elect people of God.
The Reader then says,
Let us thank God for the new life which has been given to us in Baptism All together say--Almighty and everlasting God, heavenly Father, we give Thee humble thanks for that Thou hast vouchsafed to call us etc (as in the office for Baptism).
Then all kneeling the Reader says,
Almighty God unto Whom all hearts be open etc (from the Communion Office).
Let us examine ourselves in the sins which we have committed in thought word and deed.
The Reader repeats the Ten Commandments aloud making a pause after each Commandment that the congregation may silently examine themselves. Then the Reader says.
Let us pray God to forgive us our sins.
All together say--Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ etc (the confession from the Communion Office).
If there is any grave sin which keeps a man from receiving the Holy Communion he must confess it to the priest and receive absolution after which he may partake of the Sacrament.
The Reader and congregation say Ps. 57
The Reader then repeats the Comfortable Words (from the Communion Office, the Prayer of Humble Access and the prayer following:--
Almighty and Merciful Father, relying on Thy favour we desire to offer and celebrate this Sacrifice for Thy Glory and the souls of ourselves and of all mankind.
We heartily pray Thee for the Catholic Church and all Christian men especially for Bishops and Priests that all may serve Thee with singleness of heart; for our Emperor and all who bear rule; for our parents, frknds and benefactors; our brethren, for those far and near; for ihe sick and sorrowful. We pray Thee, of Thy mercy to give them all such things as be needful for their souls and bodies, Thiough Jesus Christ our Lord.
V. Our help is in the Name of the Lord
R. Who hath made heaven and earth
V. Blessed be the Name of the Lord
R. From this time forth for evermore
V. O Lord hear our prayer
R. And let our cry come unto Thee
The Reader says "The Grace of our Lord," etc.
Devotions for the people to be used at the Holy Eucharist.
In Church before the Celebration the Christians kneel down and repeat together the following prayer.
O Almighty Father, the Maker and Preserver of all things both in heaven and earth Whose only begotten Son in His Own Body did offer to thee once upon the Cross a sacrifice for our redemption and the full forgiveness of our sins, we, grievous sinners though we be, trusting only to this sacrifice presume to join with the priest in presenting to Thee this mystical ,Sacrifice; we do It, we celebrate It to Thy praise and Glory, in remembrance of the Passion and Death of Thy Son Jesus Christ; in thanksgiving for the blessings which Thou hast so bountifully bestowed upon us and all Christian men in Thy Church; for the remition and forgiveness of our sin and for a wide out-spread of Thy Grace upon us and our brethren. And we pray Thee to look favourably upon Thy Church that every living member of the, same may pass this life In peace and that those who are dead may rest in peace and at length pass to a joyful resurrection. In commemoration of and trusting in the Death and Passion of four Lord Jesus Christ we presume to' bring and lay before Thee this Sacrifice.
And all say together the following prayer for the priest,
May the Almighty God keep Thy heart and direct thy lips that thou mayst duly perform this sacrifice and obtain everlasting life. Amen
When giving alms say all together
O God, Holy Trinity, by Whose appointment there is poverty and wealth; Who hast given us all that we possess, we pray Thee graciously to receive these alms which we now present to Thee As Thou didst accept the sacrifices which the Saints of old presented to Thee.
When the elements are being offered add the following prayer.
O God, Heavenly Lord, mercifully look upon us from heaven and send down thy Holy Spirit that these elements may become the Sacrament; and we pray that by Thy bountiful Grace we receiving this Sacrament may obtain true faith and a love that has no end and, filled with the Holy Spirit may humbly obey Thy Commandments; keeping, whilst in this world, from every kind of sin and receiving with Thy Saints hereafter the blessing of eternal life.
After the Blessing say together the following prayer,
O Lord Christ, we have now finished our service and completed the mystical sacrifice
which Thou didst ordain; when calling to mind Thy Passion and Ressurrection during this mystical sacrifice we have already enjoyed a foretaste of eternal life and infinite bliss. We pray Thee to look mercifully upon us that hereafter we may together be brought to the fulness of everlasting happiness.
The Song of Symeon. Psalm CXVII--Alleluia. Glory be to the Father, etc.
Whilst the Priest is receiving, say silently the following prayers.
Wherefore we Thy servants in remembrance of the Passion, Resurrection and Ascension of the Son of God, our Redeemer, Jesus Christ, here offer and present unto Thee the Sacrifice which He has ordained, giving thanks to Thee for Thy infinite blessings. O Lord Jesus Who dost condescend to be really present now under the form of Bread and Wine we look to see Thee clearly face to Face in heaven.
O Lamb of God, etc. (Thrice)
Before receiving the Body of Christ say silently
Lord I am not worthy, etc
Before receiving the Blood of Christ say silently
What reward shall I give, etc &,.
After receiving the Sacrament say silently
Glory be, etc.
O Lord Jesus, my Redeemer now Thou art truly one with me and I am one with Thee. Jesus, is now enshrined within my heart and my soul has become God's throne. May He always rest within my heart and never depart from me. And I, too, resolve firmly till death never to depart from Him. Amen.
II.--Passing from the order in which these translations were used to their contents
(a) THE LITANY:--The Deprecations and Obsecrations are separated at the semi-colons, thereby giving a greater number of Responses which make the service at once more intelligible to the uneducated and very congregational.
The intercession begins with suffrages for the Emperor, Crown Prince, magistrates and people of Corea, which replace those for the "King," "Royal Family," "Lords of the Council," and "Magistrate" of the English Book. Then follow the suffrages for "All nations," "the Church Universal," "Bishops, Priests and Deacons," and for all who "love and dread Thee," thus bringing all that follows within the general category suitable to both catechumens and Christians.
The Lord's Prayer is not printed since catechumens are not allowed to use it.
The rubric before the Litany, referring to the occasions when it is to be said, is omitted and, instead, there is the following plain direction. When the Litany is said by Priest and People the Priest says the versicles alone, and the people make the responses in order.
(b) OFFICE OF HOLY COMMUNION:--The opening rubric of the Office of Holy Communion runs thus; When the Priest has entered the Sanctuary and gone to the Altar, whilst he is saying the Lord's Prayer, together with the Prayer following, the Christians kneeling in silence listen attentively to what he is saying and at the end of the prayer answer Amen.
The Lord's Prayer, though now printed, is said silently if catechumens are present. The Ten Commandments, with the Kyrie after each Commandment, and second post-Communion Collect, are followed by the Collect for the Day and Prayer for the Emperor, and Conversion of Corea (see above,) the Collects for the King being omitted. Introducing the Collect etc, there is a rubric directing the people to sit during the Epistle, stand during the Gospel, to say before the Gospel "Glory be to Thee, O God," and after the Gospel "Thanks be to Thee, O God"; to which is added an instruction to the unbaptized, that, if there be no sermon they are to leave the Church, and another to those who are baptized, that, they are to remain and take their part in the Holy Communion. After the Catechumens have departed the service proceeds with the Nicene Creed, the people having first been directed by a rubric to stand. Following the Offertory Sentences (of which only two have been translated) comes the rubric, whilst the Priest is reading these portions the people must present their alms and other devotions. After the Priest has placed them upon the Altar and has placed there the Bread and Wine which has been brought, he shall pray for the whole Church. The service is then continued as far as the Prayer of Consecration without variation from the English original, except in the following particulars;
(i) The three and Long Exhortations are omitted.
(ii) In the Prayer for the Church Militant the words "Militant here on earth" are omitted, since a translation of them would, have been--would still be--unintelligible to the Christians; whilst a paraphrase of them would have been wholly out of place here.
(iii) The petition for "Christian Kings, Princes and Governours" is omitted. The Emperor of Corea has already been prayed for and could not find a place in this prayer; whilst to have prayed for Christians and to have omitted any mention of the Emperor would have been misunderstood.
(iv) The words "and specially to this congregation here present" presented so great a difficulty to the translators that it was determined to make their meaning plain by the insertion of this clause from the Communion Office of the Church of Scotland; "And we commend especially to Thy merciful goodness the congregation which is here assembled in Thy Name, to celebrate the commemoration of the most precious Death and Sacrifice of Thy Son and our Saviour Jesus Christ." After the Prayer of Consecration, is printed the Prayer of Oblation, which is said immediately after the Canon and before the Communion of the Priest. This was done to bring the Corean Office into tune with the Offices in the American and Japanese Prayer Books (both largely used in the Far East) and so to have for all those who are in Communion with the Church of England in Corea a practically uniform Office. From thence to the end of the service presents no variations from the Book of Common Prayer except in two particulars:--
(i) For the sake of brevity--which is a great consideration in so diffuse a language--only the first parts of the words of administration to each communicant have been translated.
(ii) The service ends with the Blessing; the Post-Communion Collects and all subsequent rubrics being omitted.
THE OFFICE OF HOLY BAPTISM:--The rubric before the Office of Baptism for those of riper years runs thus; When any such persons as are of riper years are to be baptized, notice shall be given to the Bishop who appoints a Priest or Deacon to examine the Catechumens and see if they be sufficiently instructed in the Doctrine; and to exhort them to prepare themselves with Prayers and Fasting for the receiving of the Sacrament of Holy Baptism.
On the day appointed all the Christians and Catechumens being assembled in Church the Priest first turns to the Catechumens and asks whether any of the persons here presented, be baptized or no; if they shall answer N o; then shall the Priest say thus.
The service proceeds as in the English Book, the second rubric at the end of the Office only being omitted.
CONFIRMATION: --Holy Baptism is usually administered on the Eves of the three Great Festivals and is followed immediately by Confirmation. The Baptismal vows having, therefore, been made before the Bishop, the Preface and Renewal of Vows in the English Office of Confirmation became meaningless and so were not translated.; The Office beginning with the versicles "Our help is," etc.
In the event of Confirmation not following immediately upon Baptism the Baptismal Vows (with the exception of the third) are renewed by the candidates in the presence of the Bishop, before the beginning of the service. In the case of boys belonging to the Kanghoa boarding school who were baptized (with the English Office,) as infants, the Church Catechism is repeated by them in Church before the Bishop and congregation. The opening rubric runs thus;--Before those who were baptized in infancy are confirmed) they must satisfy and renew publicly before the Bishop the vows which their Godparents made on their behalf. They must repeat the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and be diligently instructed in the Church Catechism.
At the time of Confirmation, immediately after those of riper years have been baptized, some Christian, by the Bishop's direction, stands up and reads the appointed portion of Holy Scripture, Acts VIII vs 14, 15, 16. Then the Bishop proceeds with the Office of Confirmation thus.
It may be mentioned that the lection referred to in this rubric is thus used in the American Office for Confirmation.
(c) LESSER OFFICES;--(1) The first baptism took place before the Offices of Morning and Evening Prayer had been translated and the first service provided for the weekly use of the neophytes was the Liturgy which became to them an enlargement of the then familiar Catechumenorum. Pending the arrival of these Offices two short Offices, based on Prime and Compline, were prepared and authorized for use in public worship until the Order for Morning and Evening Prayer appeared; when their use as Church Offices were discontinued. The Christians having been accustomed to the General Confession and Absolution provided in the Compline it was determined to continue their use for the present, both at Matins and Evensong. They were accordingly printed at the end of the new book and the translation of the Office began with the words "O Lord open Thou our lips," etc, prefaced however by the following rubric.
As all kneeling repeat the Confession with the Minister and humbly listen whilst he pronounces the Absolution. After the Lord's Prayer has been said secretly by all the Minister says "O Lord, etc,"
The Lord's Prayer is here ordered to be said secretly since not infrequently Enquirers and Catechumens are permitted to be present at these Offices in order that they may hear the Scriptures read. They are dismissed before the Apostles' Creed.
The two Offices then follow closely the English Prayer Book to the end of the third Collect, except that (i) the alternative Canticles have not yet been translated (ii) the rubrics are confined strictly to directions when to stand, when to kneel, how to respond, etc.
On Sunday morning the Litany or Eucharist follows at once. At Evensong the Office concludes, after-the office hymn, with--
V. The Lord be with you. R. And with thy spirit.
V. Bless we the Lord, R. Praise be to God.
May the souls of the faithful departed rest in peace, Amen.
(g) THE ORDER FOR THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD.
(h) THE CHURCHING OF WOMEN.
(i) THE FORM OF SOLEMNIZATION OF MATRIMONY
These three Offices following closely on the lines of the English Prayer Book, call for no remark.