Project Canterbury

Anglican Church in Corea:
Being Documents, original and translated, issued by Authority during the Episcopate of the First Bishop of the Church of England in Corea between 1889 and 1905
by C. J. Corfe, Bishop

Seoul: The Seoul Press, Hodge & Co. 1905.

The Holy Scriptures and Catechetical Teaching.

On arriving in Corea in 1890 the Mission found no version of the Old Testament in the vernacular, whilst the efforts of previous translators of the New Testament were generally admitted to have been unsuccessful. But, as the numbers of the Mission would then have been unable to make any use of native versions of the Scriptures the meagre condition of translation work affected them but little. Nevertheless it was at once determined that the first use to be made of any adequate knowledge of Chinese and En Moun should be to prepare portions of the written Word of God to act as the basis of the Church's teaching and preaching when the time for these should arrive. The form of the first attempt to translate the scriptures was suggested to the Bishop by a note in Gore's "Mission of the Church," which seemed peculiarly helpful as indicating to missionaries, who in some respects found themselves in the same position as the first Missionaries of the Church, a scheme of practical usefulness in regard to the order in which these written instructions to the heathen should be prepared.

"The original Catechetical teaching of the New Testament," he says, (p. 167; "seems to have contained--

(a) Instructions in the facts of our Lord's Life, Death, Resurrection, etc., e.g. S. Luke i, 1--4; i Cor. xi, 23; xv, 3, 4;

(b) Instruction in the meaning of rites, Baptism the Laying on of hands, the Eucharist, Heb. v, 1--6; Cf. Rom. vi, 3; i Cor. x, 15, 16; xi, 23 et seq.; Cf. Acts ii, 38. This would have included the learning of the Lord's Prayer. See Didache 8;

(c) Instruction in the moral obligations of the Way; and in 'the last things.' Heb. vi 1, 2; I Thess. iv 1, 2; v 2. We must add to this what, I think, almost all N. T. writings would imply,

(d) Instruction in the meaning of the Name, the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost.

In all cases the references given above are not references to the teaching of the N. T. Books, but to the teaching which those Books imply to have been already given.

Helped by these suggestive words the Mission, prepared to enter upon this part of its work in three directions.

1. A book (of the size of St. Mark's Gospel) was first compiled from the Gospels and Epistles in English and after about five years study was, by the help of Corean Scholars, translated from various Chinese versions of the Bible, such as those of Bishop Schereschewsky, Bishop Burdon and the Delegates. This little work contained, in the ipsissima verba of Scripture, a history of the principal facts of the Christian Religion. It was known as Lumen ad Gentium Revelationem--a translation of the Chinese title--and has since been published in English--still retaining however its Latin title--by S.P.C.K. (Northumberland Avenue, W. C.) price 6d. In the translation of this Tractate the Bishop and all the clergy took part independently; and after the various translations had been collated by the Rev. M. N. Trollope whom, as being the best scholar in the Mission, the Bishop appointed as revising editor it was printed in parallel sections, in Chinese and Corean, by the Mission Press and issued by the authority of the Bishop

2. The old Testament was then taken in hand after a similar manner, the Mission having here had the advantage of using as a basis (which, however, was not always followed) the old Testament Selections which had long been published in Chinese by Bishop Burdon of Hongkong. As these selections in Corean have been issued by the Mission Press they have provided the First Lessons at Mattins and Evensong; whilst portions of Lumen furnished the Second Lessons until a reliable version of the New Testament (which, however, still leaves much to be desired) was issued a few years ago by the British and Foreign Bible Society in Corea. These Old Testament Selections, beginning with the account of the Creation of the World have, in seven years, brought the Inspired Record as far as the end of the Book of Deuteronomy--the 5th Volume, containing the account of the Wanderings, having been completed by the Bishop almost on the day of the consecration of his successor on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul 1905. The Sections, which contain nothing but the words of Holy Scripture, are composed of the following passages:--


iv i to 18; 25,26.
v 4,5
vi i; 5 to 9; 13, 14;
17 etc. i.e. to end of Chapter, vii i to 5; 7 to 10; 17 to 19; 23 etc. viii i; 4. to 12; 15 etc. ix i; 9; ii to 19; 28. xi I to 9; 27 etc. xii I to 7. xiii 4 to 16.
xiv I; 10 to 12; 14 to 20. xv i to 7; 13, 16, 18. xvi 1,2; 4 to 12; 16. xvii 1 to 21. xviii 1,2; 9 etc. xix i to 7; 9 to 29. xxi I to 21. xxii l to 19 xxiii 1,2.
xxiv 1.2; 4; 10 to 12; 15 to 17; 23 to 29; 35 to 38; 49, 50; 58 to 61; 66 etc.
xxv 20 etc,
xxvi 34, 35.
xxviii i to 5; 1O etc.
xxix i; 13 to 30.
xxx 43
xxxi I to 3; 17, 18.
xxxii i to 13; 20 to 22; 24 to 31.
xxxiii i; 3 to 5; 8 to ii; 18 etc.
xxxv i; 10 to 15; 19 to 20; 27 etc.
xxxvi 6 to 8,
xxxvii i; 3 etc
xli I to 43; 46 etc.
xlii i to 29; 35 etc.
xliii i to 31, 33 etc.
xlvi i to 4; 26 etc.
xlvii j to 12; 27 etc.
lxviii I to 14; 8 to ii; 14 to 19; 21.
l i to 8; 12 etc.


i 6 to 14; 22.
iv 1 to 20: 27 etc.
vi 2 to 13.
vii 6 to 17; 20 to 24.
viii 1 to 8; 12 to 25 , etc.
x 3 to 27.
xi 1 to 9.
xii 1 to 39.
xiii 17 etc.
xiv: to 15; 19 to 25; 27, 30. 31.
xv 22 etc
xvi 1 to 15; 31, 35.
xviii 5. 7; 13 etc.
xix 1 to 20
xx 1 to 21.
xxiv 3 to 8; 12 to 14; 18.
xxxi 18.
xxxii 1 to 6; 15 etc.
xxxiii 1 to n.
xxxiv 1 to 9; 27 etc.
xl 1 to 16; 34 etc.


x ii.12; 29 etc.
xi 1 to 23; 30 etc
xii 16.
xiii 1, 2; 17 to 31.
xiv 1 to 4; ii; 22 to 25; 39 etc.
xvi i to 7; 12, 16, 18 to 22; 25 to 35.
xx 1 to 3; 7 to 12; 22 to 25; 27 etc.
xxi 1 to 9; 21 to 24; 31 etc.
xxiv 1 to 18; 25.
xxxii 1; 5 to 7; 16 to 18; 28 etc.
xxxi 1 to 21.


xxxii 44 etc.

3. The third direction in which provision was made for the instruction of the future Enquirers and Catechumens (who, it must be remembered, were without documents in the vernacular which dealt with Christianity and therefore with the Doctrine and Practice of the Church of England was by the preparation of a Catechism. A translation of the Church Catechism would have been obviously useless for adult heathen whose education had been Confucian and whose religion was a worship of Demons. On other grounds, too, it was advisable to have a longer and more comprehensive Catechism since it was found necessary to continue the Catechumenate, usually, for a period of two years, by which time all who were to be baptized could be familiar with its contents. A translation (somewhat baldly literal but, it is to be hoped, fairly accurate) of this Catechism follows.

Catechism for Catechumens.

1. For what reason do you come to the Church?
2. To worship God and to save my soul.

2. How can you worship God and save your soul?
By obeying His Commandments without reserve and by keeping the precepts of the Church.

3. Do you believe in God? I do.

4. Who is God?
The Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, angels and men, and all things. [Angels are pure spirits without fleshly bodies or material forms. Some were rewarded for their obedience to God and became His ministering Angels. Others rebelled against God and were punished and became Devils.]

5. Is God a Spirit?
God is a pure Spirit and has no material form.

6. Has God a father and mother?
No. God is self-existing.

7. Has God a beginning and an ending?
No. God is eternal.

8. Is God Almighty?
He is Almighty, there being nothing in His personal Government of heaven and earth which God cannot do.

9. Is God Omniscient?
He is; since in our thoughts, words and actions there is nothing which God does not know.

10. Is God perfect in goodness?
He is, being of infinite justice and mercy.

11. Where is God?
He is in every place, filling heaven and earth.

12. Can God be seen in this world?
No, for God has said "Heaven is my throne and Earth my footstool."

13. When shall we see Him?
If in this world we serve Him faithfully, when we die we shall behold Him in heaven.

14. How many Gods are there?
There is but one God.

15. How many Persons are there in the one God?
Three; and so God is called the Trinity.

16. What is the name of the First Person?
The Father.

17. And of the Second?
The Son.

18. And of the Third?
The Holy Ghost.

19. In this Trinity is one Person before or after another; greater or less than another?
No. In this Trinity the three Persons are all equal.

20. Are there three Gods?
No. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God, yet they are not three Gods but one God.

21. What did God create?
God is the Maker of heaven and earth, angels and men, and of all things visible and invisible.

22. When did God create them?
Many thousands of years ago. It is not known how many.

23. How long will heaven and earth last?
Until the General Judgment when all will be destroyed.

24. What is the General Judgement?
The name given to the judgment and sentence pronounced by God on all men for the good and bad deeds which they have done.

25. When will this take place?
God has not told us; so it is impossible even to conjecture.

26. What will God do after the General Judgment?
He will make a new heaven and a new earth.

27. For how long will they last?
For ever and ever.

28. Which was the most precious of all God's Creations?

29. Why?
Because when He first created him God made man in His own Image.

30. Was man's nature originally good?
As it came first from God man's nature was good but he wilfully disobeyed God and was overwhelmed in sin.

31. What is sin?
Man's transgression of God's Commandments.

32. What are the sins which we all have?
Man's sins are of two kinds, original and actual.

33. What is original sin?
The sinful nature which everyone inherits at his birth in consequence of the disobedience of our first parent Adam.

34. What is actual sin?
That which every one commits voluntarily.

35. How do we commit sins voluntarily?
Every one sins voluntarily when he breaks God's Commandments and does as he pleases.

36. What are God's Commandments?
The Commandments which God has given are comprised in ten.

37. What are the ten Commandments?
[The ten Commandments here follow.]

38. What do we chiefly learn from these Commandments?
Two things; our duty towards God and our duty towards our neighbour.

39. What is our duty towards God?
[The Duty towards God]

40. What is our Duty towards our Neighbour?
[The Duty towards my Neighbour.]

41. If you transgress anything which God has taught us in the ten Commandments do you sin against God?
Yes, I commit a great sin.

42. Is there any one in the world who is not a sinner?
With the exception of our Lord Jesus Christ there is no one in the world from Adam to the present time, however holy he may be who has not sinned.

43. Who tempt us to sin?

44. What are they?
Evil Spirits who delude us into committing sin.

45. What is the Prince of the Devils called?

46. Can the Devil make you sin against your will?

47. How will God help you if you resist the Devil and refuse to follow his leading?
He will send His Angels to my assistance.

48. What is an Angel?
A good spirit created by God who in heaven always praises Him and assists men on earth according to His bidding.

49. When you break God's Commandments and sin against Him will you incur His anger and be punished?

50. How will you be punished?
Perhaps by meeting with misfortunes in this life or by the eternal punishment of Hell in the next.

51. Does God delight in casting men into hell to be punished eternally?
No; God loves all mankind and desires them to have eternal life.

52. Can God forgive you the sins which you have committed?
He can if I believe in Him and am heartily sorry for them.

53. What has God done for the forgiveness of men's sins?
He became Incarnate in the world.

54. What do you mean by this?
The Incarnation is a word which means that God came done and was born in the world; a word, therefore, which means that He took a soul and body and became truly man.

55. When did He become Incarnate?
About 2,000 years ago.

56. Where?
In Judaea.

57. Did man know nothing about God before this?
There were two ways by which mankind, before the Incarnation could have a knowledge of God: (i) They could conjecture that there was a God by a consideration of the universe and its contents. Without a spring there can be no fountain. A tree involves a root. Children must have parents. There is no household where there is no master; no government for the kingdom if there is no king Consequently if there were no God the universe could not have existed. (ii) Before the Incarnation God personally revealed Himself by speaking to certain Prophets who heard His words and so could recognise God.

58. What was the nation to which God spoke in this way?
The Jews, who were chosen by God from the rest of the nations in the world to receive this revelation of Himself.

59. Who was the Founder of the Jewish nation?
A holy man called Abraham.

60 When did he live?
Some 2,000 years before Christ.

61. Why are the Jews called Israelites?
Israel was a name given to Abraham's grandson Jacob.

62. Who was Moses?
A Saint who was a teacher of the Jews about 1500 years before Christ.

63. Who was David?
A great King of the Jews who reigned about 1000 years before Christ.

64. Who were the saints who preached to the Jewish Church before Christ?
The Prophets.

65. What are the Prophets?
Saints who by the power of the Holy Ghost foreknew the will of God and declared it to man.

66. Did the Jews receive from God any special help to enable them to keep His Commandments gladly?
Yes, but in spite of this they broke God's Commandments and rebelled against Him.

67. What did God do then?
He at last came into the world and became Incarnate.

68. Which of the three Persons in the Holy Trinity became Incarnate?
God the Son.

69. How did He become Incarnate?
Of the blessed Virgin Mary, whom God chose for His Mother.

70. By what name was He then called?
By the name, of Jesus, which means Saviour of the world; and also by the name of Christ, which means one of exalted rank.

71. Is Jesus Christ our Lord?
He is.

72. Is Jesus Christ God?
He is.

73. Is He man?
He is truly Man.

74. How is He man?
Because He has a soul and body He is very Man.

75. How is He God?
Being in the original Nature and Substance of God He is truly God.

76. Who was the Mother of Jesus Christ?
The Blessed Virgin Mary.

77. Is she a virgin?
Yes, she is ever a virgin.

78. How could she be a virgin and the Mother of Jesus?
By the power of the Holy Ghost a child was fashioned in her womb of her pure substance, so that the Holy Mother remained altogether a Virgin.

79. Why did God become Incarnate?
To save mankind from their sins.

80. What do you mean by salvation?
Salvation means rescue by redemption.

81. How did Jesus save mankind?
By enduring willingly His Cross and Passion.

82. Was there no way in which, with the Almighty power of God, He could escape such suffering?
Though, being Himself God, Jesus could have used His Almighty power to escape the Passion He did not, but met it joyfully.

83. Why, when He could have avoided it?
Mankind deserved severe punishment for their sins; they had forfeited the love of God and incurred the penalties of hell. But God in compassion to them took man's nature upon Him and saved mankind by suffering joyfully even to the death of the Cross in man's place.

84. Was the Body of Jesus buried after His death?

85. What became of His soul?
It went to Paradise where, to those who had died before the Incarnation, He declared the Salvation which He had wrought on earth and saved the souls in Paradise who believed on Him.

86. After His death Jesus rose again, did He not?
Yes, He rose again the third day from the death,

87. And did He ascend into heaven?
He ascended into heaven on the fortieth day after His Resurrection and sat on the right Hand of the Father.

88. Jesus has now ascended to heaven. Will he come again?
He will come again at the end of the world from heaven.

89. Why will he come again?
To judge the quick and the dead.

90. How many kinds of judgment are there?

91. What are they?
The particular judgment and the general judgment.

92. What is the particular judgment?
The judgment which the soul will hear when, after it has left the body, it stands alone before God. Those who have done good will be rewarded, whilst those w,ho have done evil will be punished.

93. What is man's soul?
A spiritual, invisible substance which, when united to man's body, makes him a thing of life.

94. Does the soul die?
The soul does not die and vanish like a vapour.

95. Does the body die?
Yes, and it decays.

96. After it is dead will the body live again?
Yes, at the end of the world the bodies of all who have died will rise again together.

97. Then where will they go?
They will all pass before the general judgment of God.

98. What is the general judgment?
The judgment which God will pronounce before all men upon the good and evil deeds which each has done; when the souls and bodies of the just will go together to heaven there to enjoy eternal happiness whilst the souls and bodies of the unjust will go together to hell and receive eternal punishment.

99. What is heaven?
The place where God continually appears and is clearly seen by saints and angels. Men, too, who by God's grace order their souls aright in this world, after the judgment, will go to heaven and for ever enjoy the unclouded sight of God. God is really our Father and Mother and going to heaven is a return to man's true Home.

100. What is hell?
The place of evil spirits where God is never seen. Men, too, who in this world have rejected God's grace and cherished evil hearts, after the judgment will forfeit God's love and be punished with devils in hell. God is really our Father and Mother and the going to hell is an eternal exile.

101. Why did God become Incarnate?
For us men and for our salvation.

102. But has He had no relations with us since His Ascension?
Since His Ascension into heaven our Lord has continually regarded the world, interceding with the Father for us. On earth, moreover, He founded a church into which we could enter and obtain eternal life.

103. What do you mean by the Church?
The Church was founded by our Lord Himself and continually transmitted, like a legacy, by the teaching of the twelve Apostles, gathering Christians in all the world into a society resembling a body.

104. When did our Lord found the Church?
On the tenth day after His Ascension He sent the Holy Ghost to His Apostles and formed the Church, by uniting them into one Body.

105. Who is the Holy Ghost?
The third Person in the Blessed Trinity. He is from all eternity equal to the Father and the Son, and with the Father and the Son together is one God: as our Lord promised, when He told the Apostles that although He was ascending into heaven He would not leave them comfortless but would pray the Father to send them the Holy Spirit.

106. Will the Holy Ghost ever leave the Church?
Christ told the Apostles that the Holy Ghost would come to them and abide with them for ever. The Holy Ghost, therefore, will never entirely depart from the Church but will remain with her to the end of the world.

107. What is the manner of this ever abiding presence of the Holy Spirit in the Church?
The Holy Ghost by bringing together all those who are in communion with the Church makes them all, in one Body, members of Christ. He reveals to them the Doctrines of God and, filling them with God's grace, makes them truly the children of God. [Doctrine is the personal teaching of God Incarnate. Grace is the help which God gives man for the salvation of His Soul. However the Doctrine is studied, if no effort is made to act in accordance with it the labour is fruitless. God the Son by becoming Incarnate has become the Teacher of Doctrine and the Dispenser of Grace, and so the Holy Ghost has now become in the Church both Teacher and Grace Giver.]

108. By what ceremony are we admitted into the Church?
The only way of being admitted into the Church is by Baptism.

109. Can the soul be saved merely by being baptised?
Anyone by God's grace can save his soul if, renouncing all superstition, he believes only in God, repents of his former sins and becoming a member of the Church by Baptism (once administered) keeps the Commandments all the days of his life.

110. Is there no salvation if we do not enter the Church and are not baptised?
Seeing that for our salvation, God became Incarnate, suffered on the Cross and rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven and founded a Church to whom He entrusted the guardianship of His doctrines and His grace, there can be no means of ensuring the salvation of our souls or of hereafter escaping the eternal pains of hell if, rejecting His merits and His grace, we do not receive Baptism and become members of the Church.

111. Perhaps the time will come when the Church will be destroyed?
The Church being Divinely constituted, though it may suffer much, cannot, so long as the world lasts, be destroyed.

112. How many Churches are there?
There is only one God, one Father, one Baptism, and there is no other Church than that which was founded by God Himself.

113. How many Conditions are there within the Church?
Within the unity of the Church there are the Church Militant, the Church Expectant, and the Church Triumphant.

114. What is the Church Militant?
The Church Militant consists of the members of Church who, whilst they are on earth, devote themselves to God resisting the world, the flesh and the Devil, like soldiers who oppose an enemy on the battle field.

115. What is the Church Expectant?
The Church Expectant consists of those of her members who, when they were on earth, devoted themselves to God, resisting the world, the flesh and the Devil and whose souls, now that their bodies are dead and buried, having passed the Particular Judgment await in Paradise the General Judgment, and are eagerly looking for the eternal happiness of heaven.

116. What is the Church Triumphant?
The Church Triumphant consists of those saints who, now dead, have already attained to the eternal happiness of heaven after a hard victory gained in His service, by the help of God's special grace, over the world, the flesh and the Devil when they were devout members of the Church on earth.

117. You say that the Church Militant, the Church Expectant and the Church Triumphant form but one Church. Although they are invisible to each other is there any inter-communion between them?
With regard to the members of the Church there is no question of quick and dead, of distance or nearness. Though they are invisible to each other they are all members of Christ and, united, form one Body. Like brethren they have common interests; they pray for and help each other and so have inter-communion.

118. Since the Church is but one how comes it that the various Western Countries have different Churches?
When the Church began to spread over the nations of the world from one root and origin the customs and speech of each country were different and their Governments were independent of each other. When looked at from the outside the Churches of those various countries seem to be different, but viewed internally they are all one.

119. What is an heretical Church?
When any one leaves the Church which God Himself founded and the twelve Apostles have handed down and, daring to reject the doctrines which have been in her from the first, vainly takes up something which has no root and forms another Church after his own design--this is called an heretical Church.

120. Do we commit sin by taking part with an heretical Church?
To leave the Church of Divine foundation is, of a truth, like leaving God, and rashly to hold communion with an heretical Church is very dangerous.

121. Why is the Church called Holy?
Because it makes men holy by the doctrine and grace of God of which she is the guardian; and also because it is endued with the Holy Spirit who from heaven takes care

122. Why is the Church called Catholic?
God became Incarnate and founded His Church for all mankind without distinction. Thus the Church, extending over all countries and throughout all ages and preaching the whole truth, is rightly called Catholic.

123. Who is the Head of the Church?
The Head of the Church is Jesus Christ of it and governs it.

124. But who is it that has the chief ordering of the Church in this world? Before His Ascension our Lord endued His Apostles with authority to govern the Church and they, from that time until their death, sent Bishops into all parts, committing to them a delegated authority to continue its government.

125. Is there any difference of rank amongst Bishops?
In every country the Bishops whose authority extends over large regions are powerful, whilst those who exercise authority in small districts have less power. But however this may be, Bishops, from the first, had all together an equal authority which they received from the twelve Apostles.

126. What officers are there in the Church of a rank inferior to Bishops? Next to Bishops come Priests and Deacons. These three orders have
been continually in the Church from the time of the Apostles until now.

127. What are the duties of a Bishop?
To rule the Church within the district assigned to him; to confirm the baptized; to confer orders on those who are to be Priests and Deacons; and, when a Bishop of a neighbouring district dies, to choose in company with the Bishops of those parts and consecrate another Bishop in his place.

128. Can no work be carried on in the Church without a Bishop?
The Bishop's authority being derived from the twelve Apostles of Christ nothing can be done in the Church without one. Other Bishops could not be consecrated; there could be no ordering of Priests and Deacons; and the Church would consequently be useless.

129. If a Bishop has matters which are difficult for him to deal with alone what does he do?
He invites several other Bishops who, after taking counsel together in the power of the Holy Ghost, decide upon them.

130. What are the duties of a Priest?
To help the Bishop and to take care of the people committed to his charge by him; to teach the doctrine, to baptize, to celebrate the Holy Communion, to receive confessions and to use all diligence in dispensing the doctrines and the grace of God.

131. What are the duties of a Deacon?
To attend on the Bishop and Priest and to assist them by doing work for the Church under their orders.

132. Since all men have sinned and, do what they will, are unable to save themselves how can they be saved?
Salvation is possible for all who desire it but they must learn to believe God's Holy Doctrine, receive His Grace and be admitted as members of His Church.

133. What is God's Holy Doctrine?
That which God Himself taught when He became Incarnate in the world and from time to time commanded all the Prophets and Apostles to teach--in a word, what has been recorded in the Apostles' Creed.

134. Repeat the Apostles' Creed.
(The Creed).

135. What do you chiefly learn to believe in the Apostles' Creed?
First I learn to believe in God the Father Who hath made me and all the world; secondly in God the Son Who hath redeemed me and all mankind; Thirdly in God the Holy Ghost Who sanctifieth me and all the elect people of God.

136. Are there any other Creeds besides the Apostles' Creed?
Yes: the Creeds of Nicea and Athanasius, but the doctrine which they deliver is not different and consists of clearer and explanatory statements of the Apostles' Creed.

137. What is the Nicene Creed?
In consequence of the many false teachers and heresies which arose in various places when the Gospel was propagated throughout the world after the Ascension, all the Bishops met in Nicea 325 years after the birth of Christ and after taking counsel together defined the true doctrine clearly and embodied it in the Nicene Creed.

138. Who was Athanasius?
A celebrated Bishop and Saint of that name who took part in the Council of Nicea and by his writings gave clear illustrations of the Faith.

139. What is the practice observed by the Church with regard to the recitation of these three Creeds of identical meaning?
Christians repeat the Apostles' Creed once when they are going to be baptized and afterwards they ought to say it every time they pray and go to Church: and they should say it at the hour of death. The Nicene Creed is recited during the Holy Eucharist and the Athanasian Creed is said on all the principal Feasts.

140. Are there any proofs of the doctrines contained in the Creeds? The proofs are all to be found in the Holy Scriptures.

141. What are the Holy Scriptures? The Old and New Testaments.
[Between the Old and New Testaments there is a supplement to the Old Testament which, although it is read in Church and at home, is not to be regarded as being of the same supreme importance as the Old and New Testaments.]

142. What is the Old Testament?
The record of God's government of the world before Christ--consisting briefly, of the history and laws of God's chosen people, the Jews; Psalms and Poems written by Jewish Saints; and the writings of the Prophets. [The complete number of Books in the Old Testament is 39. The first are those composed by Moses; next come those which were written by holy men from time to time; the remainder conclude with the prophecy of Malachi who Lived about 400 B.C. The Supplement above mentioned fills up the interval of about 300 years before the birth of Christ. The original texts of the books of the Old Testament were almost all in the Hebrew tongue.]

143. What is the New Testament?
The record of the Incarnation of God and the founding of the Church.
The four gospels contain a history of our Lord; in the books of the Acts of the Apostles, of the Epistles and of the Revelation may be read how the twelve Apostles were empowered by God to preach the Gospel and establish the Church. [The New Testament, consisting of 17 books, was written originally in Greek.]

144. Do the Holy Scriptures contain all doctrine sufficient for salvation.? Yes, and the proofs of the doctrines preached in the Church continuously from the first are all to be found in them.

145. Can any one arrive at the truth by rejecting doctrines which have always been taught in the Church and conjecturally choosing the Scriptures at will?
No. When any one rejects doctrine which has been continually taught in the Church and breaks up the Scriptures with presumptuous criticism he not only cannot arrive at the truth but finds himself in a dangerous place.

146. Must Christians read the Scriptures?
They must be diligent in getting hold of the teachings of the Church, searching for the proof of them by a careful and constant attention to the Scriptures and praying for the light of God's Holy Spirit to give them a spiritual knowledge when they are searching for their hidden meanings.

147. Can men, relying on their own strength, do God good service and save their souls by merely learning the doctrine which He has taught?
They may learn the whole of the doctrine but if men trust to themselves and have not the Grace of God there will be no spiritual force or holiness. They cannot reader God service nor save their souls.

148. What do you mean by the Grace of God?
The assistance which God gives to men to enable them to save their souls by ordering them aright. Without this Grace men cannot do Him such service as will save them. It is only by receiving the Grace of-God that, escaping sin and cultivating virtue, we can please Him by our service and be saved.

149. When God founded the church what rites did God appoint in it to be
channels of His Grace to man? He ordained Sacraments.

150. What do you mean by a Sacrament?
A Sacrament is an outward and visible sign of an inward, spiritual Grace given unto us, ordained by Christ Himself, as a means whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof.

151. Has every Sacrament an outward, visible sign and an inward, spiritual
Grace? Yes.

152. How many Sacraments has Christ ordained in His Church?
He ordained Baptism and the Supper of the Lord to be the two principal Sacraments which all, of whatever condition, who wish to be saved must receive.

153. What is the outward, visible sign or form in Baptism?
Water: wherein the person is baptized, In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

154. What is the inward and spiritual Grace?
A death unto sin and a new birth unto righteousness; for being by nature born in sin and the children of wrath we are by God's Grace made members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. [Regeneration is a word meaning a fresh birth. When men are born they are tainted with sin which, because of original sin, they have inherited from the womb. When they are baptized they receive a new birth, after a spiritual manner and putting away their sins receive Grace.]

155. What is required of persons to be baptized?
Repentance whereby they forsake sin; and Faith whereby they stedfastly believe the promises of God made to them in that Sacrament.

156. Can infants, then, be baptized?
Our Lord specially called little children to Him and bade the disciples, saying, "Suffer little children to come unto Me and forbid them not." Christians must bring their children to be baptized when they are infants.

157. Why are infants baptized when by reason of their tender age they can
have neither repentance nor faith?
Because they promise them both by their sureties, which promise when they come to age, themselves are bound to perform. [The sureties or substitutes who covenant for infants are called God-parents, that is to say God-fathers and God-mothers. Boys when they are to be baptized, must have two of the former and one of the latter. Girls, one of the former and two of the latter.]

158. Who is the minister of Baptism?
It has always been the office of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons to baptize, bat if a person capable of being baptized should be in danger of death any one of mature age, male or female, can baptize him by pouring water on his head and, without further ceremony, repeating the prescribed form of words. [Unless there be grave occasion Christians must not thus dare to baptize, and if the occasion is sufficiently grave they must at once inform the Bishop, Priest or Deacon of the fact.]

159. How often can a person be baptized? Only once.

160. What is the Lord's Supper?
The continual remembrance in the Church of the sacrifice of the death of Christ and of the benefits which we receive thereby. It is also a rite by which spiritual food is given to our souls. [The rite of Holy Communion is sometimes called the Holy Eucharist, the Lord's Supper, and the Mass.]

161. How dare we bring any sacrifice other than that which our Lord offered once to God the Father by dying on the Cross as the Victim of a perfect and sufficient sacrifice for the whole world? True. There is no other sacrifice in this world which is of value for saving from sin besides that which Jesus Christ made of Himself on the Cross once, for the redemption of man, and, now that He has ascended, He ever presents to the Father in heaven. Calling to mind the merits of Jesus in the Sacrifice which He then made of Himself for us and trusting to that Oblation we offer the Sacrifice which He then made of Himself on our behalf. We also call to mind the merits of Jesus and, trusting to the Oblation which He has made, offer the Eucharist which He Himself commanded and nothing else. [Under the Old Covenant, the Jews by offering to God iambs and other victims in sacrifice were really foretelling in type the sacrifice which Jesus was going to accomplish on the Cross. Now, under the New Covenant, by the celebration of the Rite of the Eucharist we Commemorate the merits of Christ and shew forth the sacrifice which He accomplished on the Cross, presenting it to God in a mystery. That is to say, Jesus Christ in His availing-sacrifice is the Source of our Rite of the Eucharist whilst It is a consequence of the Sacrifice wrought by Him.]

162. What is the outward and visible part of the Lord's Supper?
Bread and wine which the Lord has commanded; bread being the name given to a loaf made of wheat and wine being made from grapes.

163. What is the inward part or thing signified?
In the outward elements of Bread and Wine the Holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus are hidden after a spiritual and mystical manner so that when believers partake of them they truly receive the Body and Blood of Christ.

164. Our Lord being really in, and not leaving, heaven how can He be in the Sacrament of the Eucharist on Earth?
The doctrine of the Eucharist is one which in our ignorance altogether transcends the understanding. How can we with the eyes of the body fathom the Almighty power, goodness and wisdom of God? [God's mysterious workings cannot be seen by the eyes of the flesh but they can be seen by the eye of faith.]

165. What are the benefits which we receive from partaking worthily of the Holy Communion?
The strengthening and refreshing of our souls by the body and blood of Christ as our bodies are by the bread and wine. [Having by Baptism already become one Body with Jesus Christ we afterwards, by frequent and fruitful Communions, become more and more closely united with Him and, finally, in the Resurrection attain to life eternal.]

166. Is there any benefit if we dare to receive the Holy Sacrament un- worthily when in our heart Me despise it?
There is not only no benefit to us but like Judas we are guilty of the sin of rejecting and hating Christ.

167. Whose duty is it to celebrate the Holy Communion?
The duty was first entrusted to the twelve apostles by Jesus Christ and then handed down by them from that time until the present to be discharged by Bishops and Priests in succession.

168. Who can receive the Holy Communion?
Any one may receive It who is baptize d and having come to years of discretion has first been confirmed.

169. How often should Christians receive the Holy Communion?
Holy Baptism being a new birth and the Holy Communion being man's spiritual sustenance Christians after a due preparation of body and soul should repair to the Church every Sunday and appointed Holy Day to receive the Holy Communion. If there has been no due preparation or if the priest forbids them to receive they may only attend the service and put off making their communion to a later day. [Perhaps Christians are ill or live far from the Church or have some good reason which prevents them from attending this service every Sunday. Although going to Church when they can they may seldom have the opportunity of receiving the Sacrament they must not fail to make their communion three times every year, of which Easter must be one.]

170. What is required of persons who come to the Lord's Supper?
To examine themselves whether they repent themselves truly of their former sins, steadfastly purposing to lead a new life, have a lively faith in God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of His death and to be in charity with all men.

171. If, when they examine themselves they are conscious that they cannot communicate by reason of some great sin what further preparation can they make?
They may confess it before a priest and after they have received absolution make their communion.

172. How must persons prepare their bodies to receive the Holy Communion?
They must abstain from all food from midnight until they make their communion and put aside their ordinary business and wash them selves. [If Christians through sickness or bodily weakness or any other grave cause are unable to observe a strict fast, they may obtain a dispensation from the Bishop; but it is not the custom to needlessly violate this fast.]

173. Are there any other Sacraments besides the two chief Sacraments which Christ ordained in His Church?
There are five lesser Sacraments which have come down to us from the time of the Apostles until now.

174. What are they?
Confirmation, Penance, Holy Orders, Holy Matrimony and the Visitation of the Sick.

175. Are all these five of equal importance?
No, (1) Confirmation all Christians must receive when they come to years of discretion. (2) Penance is for those who after baptism, when conscious of their sin desire to receive special absolution;' (3). Holy Orders is for those who enter the Ministry. (4; Holy Matrimony is for those who wish to be married by the Church. (5) the Visitation of the Sick is for those who fall into grievous sickness after Baptism.

176. What is the outward sign in Confirmation^?
The imposition of the Bishop's hands on the head of the Christian and the prayer for the descent of the Holy Spirit.

177. What is the spiritual grace of Confirmation?
At Confirmation the Holy Spirit comes upon the Christian and bestows on him His sevenfold gifts that he may become a brave soldier of Jesus Christ, (a)

178. How often may Confirmation be received? Only once.

179. Who administers Confirmation? The Bishop.

180. How must Christians prepare for Confirmation?
They must resolve heartily to act all their lives in accordance with the vow they made to God when they were baptized.

181. What is Penance?
The confession to God in the presence of the Bishop or a Priest of sins committed after baptism and the absolution of those sins given by the authority of Jesus Christ, (b)

182. When must Christians confess?
At any time when under the conviction of their sins they are disquieted and cannot receive the Holy Communion; and at the point of death when the conviction of sin makes them shrink from meeting God's judgment.

183. What points must be observed in making a good confession?
There are three; (1) Contrition, (2) Sincere confession, (3) Resolution of amendment. If any of these is wanting there will be no true confession.

184. How must we prepare for confession? By careful examination of the conscience.

185. What must we do after confession?
We must perform the penance given us by the Priest.
(a) Confirmation is like a seal which the Holy Ghost sets on a man's soul. It can only be received once.
(b) As the practice of Penance varies in kind, Christians must go to the Priest for instruction, but the more important points are mentioned below.

186. What is this?
Penance in Chinese is a word which means reparation for the sins which we have already committed. Since our Lord died on the Cross to set us free from all sin that we might escape the eternal pains of hell the performance of our penance must be a pledge of our contrition and resolution of our amendment. Perhaps we have done an injury to someone and shall have to repair the evil name which we have brought on the Church.

187. If we treat God's commandments and customs of the Church with indifference and neither make confession nor perform our penance how shall we be punished?
The Priest will receive the Bishop's instructions to rebuke such sinners and exclude them from Church for days or even for months and if they do not repent he will cut them off altogether and excommunicate them.

188. Will those who are excommunicated and who die impenitent escape the pains of hell?
It will be difficult for them to escape the pains of hell seeing that they have obstinately rejected God's grace.

189. What is holy Matrimony?
The solemnization of the marriage of Christians wherein God pours His Grace on bride and bridegroom so that they become one body and can live together in peace and unity to their lives end.

190. What are the laws of Marriage?
They are many. The principal ones to be noted are that couples must not be united without marriage rites; the husband and wife when they are married must not leave each other; the husband must not have a concubine; Christians must not intermarry with heathen.

191. What is Holy Order?
The rite by which the three Orders of the Ministry are conferred and Bishops, Priests and Deacons are empowered to teach Divine doctrine and to dispense Grace.

192. Who established this rite?
Our Lord at first gave the power of governing the Church to the twelve Apostles. They followed His Commands in choosing men and making them Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. Which power of conferring Holy orders has descended in unbroken succession from the days of the Apostles to the present time.

193. May anyone who has not received Holy Orders hold Government in the Church?
Any one who not having been ordained vainly attempts to administer the Sacraments or to interfere with the affairs of the Church breaks God's commands, cuts himself off from the Church and becomes a heretic.

194. What is the Visitation of the Sick?
A rite for the assistance of Christians who are sick, when serious sickness befalls them they must send for the Priest and beg him to say the prescribed prayers and perform the appointed rites. [Besides the above seven Sacraments the Church has Her funeral rites and many other customs but mention has been made in this catechism of the useful things which have to be observed through life. Christians will learn the rest after baptism.]

195. What are the three virtues which we must always practice? Though we are bound to engage in every good work yet especially in almsgiving, prayer, and fasting.

196. What is almsgiving?
Giving generously our worldly goods and offering them to God for the relief of mankind. [Christians of every condition must give of their worldly goods each Sunday according to their means and entrust them to the Priest to be used for Church Expenses and as alms for the poor.]

197. What is fasting?
The subjection of the body and the triumphing over the lusts of the flesh by abstaining from food. [There are two kinds of Fasts, great and small. On great Fasts the abstinence from food is complete, food being untasted for several hours. On Lesser Fasts good food, such as meat is avoided and the meal is frugal. Christians must look at the Calendar and see whether the fast days to be observed are great or small.]

198. What is prayer?
That by which the heart is lifted up to speak to God. [Prayer, Confession, Thanksgiving and Praise are all forms of Prayer.]

199. How many kinds of Prayer are there?
Four--Two public and two private. Every Sunday and appointed Holy Day Christians must take part in public prayer and on other days they must engage in private prayer.

200. What prayer did our Lord Himself teach us?
The Lord's Prayer.

201. Repeat it?
(The Lord's Prayer)

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