CONNECTED WITH THE
JAPAN MISSION OF THE
MARGARET JEFFREYS HOBART, B.A.
The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society
Transcribed by Wayne Kempton
Archivist and Historiographer of the Diocese of New York, 2011
I. BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOLS
II. TRAINING SCHOOLS
III. NIGHT SCHOOLS
IV. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS
VII. STUDENT WORK
PART I: BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOLS
ST. PAUL'S COLLEGE
(Shi Ritsu Rikkyo Gakko)
St. Paul's College, Tokyo, is an institution operating under the Government license. It is the only school with a college department connected with the Sei Ko Kwai, and the only boys' day-school maintained by the mission of the American Church. It comprises a Middle School (Chu Gakko) and a College Department (Dai Gakko). The president of St. Paul's is the Rev. Charles S. Reifsnider. The headmaster is Dr. Motoda.
St. Paul's was founded by Bishop Williams February, 1874, immediately after the establishment of our mission in Tokyo. A house was rented in Tsukiji and the Rev. C. T. Blanchet was placed in charge of the school. After two years of very encouraging work, the schoolhouse was burned in one of those destructive fires that at times sweep over a Japanese city. It was impossible to find another house in the foreign quarter, and foreigners were not allowed to reside in any other part of the city, and so the school was closed. At the time of the fire the school numbered fifty-five pupils, forty-six of whom were boarders. [5/6] Two years later, in the autumn of 1878, Mr. Quimby came up to Tokyo from Osaka, in order to open the Divinity School. As soon as he got that under way, he reopened the boys' school, but this time only as a day-school. It was known at this time as the "Edifying School.''
Realizing the importance of such an institution, in 1880 the Board appointed a headmaster for the school, Mr. J. McD. Gardiner. Mr. Gardiner reopened the boarding department and built a proper school-house (1882). The institution grew rapidly, and many of the pupils became Christians. In 1883 Miss Emma Verbeck was appointed teacher of English in St. Paul's, and two years later Miss Williamson began her work in the school. Both of these ladies taught off and on for a number of years, so that their names are strongly identified with the early life of the College. Besides these teachers the clergy in Tokyo helped in the instruction by teaching each for a few hours a week, and in 1888 Dr. Victor Law was regularly appointed an instructor at St. Paul's.
In 1887 St. Timothy's School, Osaka, was discontinued and a number of the students on scholarships were transferred to the Tokyo School. About the same time the standard of the latter was raised and made to correspond to that of an American college. The instruction was given chiefly in English, and English text-books were used.
Not long after this, with the change of sentiment towards every thing Western, came a demand on the part of the students to make the school more Japanese in character. It is interesting to note that the committee of students who were chosen to petition the headmaster for a change in the organization of the school was composed of such men as Mr. Kobayashi, Mr. Naide, Mr. Hayakawa and Mr. Ishii.
The wisdom of bringing the school into closer touch with [6/7] Japanese educational ideas was recognized, and the curriculum and method of instruction were consequently changed and made to correspond to those in the Government schools. At the same time Mr. Saotome was made assistant headmaster of the school.
In 1891 Mr. Gardiner resigned from the management of St. Paul's, and was succeeded by the Rev. T. S. Tyng. The old building being in very poor repair had been condemned by the Government, and therefore, soon after he became president, the imperative necessity of securing funds for a new building sent Mr. Tyng to the United States. Three weeks after his return an earthquake destroyed the schoolhouse and killed the secretary, Mr. Tamaki. The school was temporarily housed in Trinity Parish House, but by 1896 the new buildings, consisting of an academic hall and a dormitory, were ready.
In the same year an attempt was made to bring St. Paul's more into line with the Government Middle Schools in order that application might be made for the coveted Government license. Accordingly the curriculum of the lower grades was somewhat remodeled, and some studies not required by the Middle School curriculum were dropped. The English school was moved to Kanda, where it continued with fluctuating success for several years. A college department—Senshuka in contradistinction to the Middle School or Chu Gakko—was opened, but after a few years' trial it was found better to close it.
The Rev. Arthur Lloyd became president in 1897, the year after a license was granted to St. Paul's. In 1899 Dr. Motoda became headmaster. The foreign teachers at this time were Mr. Cartwright, Miss Kimball and Mrs. Smith.
By virtue of the Government license the students were now exempted from military service and were admitted on certificate to the Government colleges. This naturally made [7/8] St. Paul 's a far more desirable school than it had ever been before, and the number of students immediately jumped from seventy-two to one hundred and thirty, and the next year to two hundred and twenty-eight.
The school, however, was soon threatened by a serious danger. In 1899 the Minister of Education issued the following edict: "It being essential from the point of view of educational administration, that general education should be independent of religion, religious instruction must not be given or religious ceremonies performed at Government schools, public schools, or schools whose curricula are regulated by provisions of law, even outside the regular course." A number of the mission schools at once surrendered their licenses. But at St. Paul's the case was somewhat different, inasmuch as religious instruction was never given as part of the curriculum of the Chu Gakko or Middle School department. Only in the dormitory were religious instruction and attendance at the services compulsory. Mr. Lloyd, Dr. Motoda and Mr. Evans—the committee appointed by the Bishop to investigate and report on the matter—called on the Educational Bureau and asked whether under these conditions St. Paul's might retain its license. Permission was given, and the continued growth and increasing influence of the school assured.
In 1903 Mr. Lloyd resigned to succeed Lafcadio Hearn at the Imperial University, and the Rev. Henry St. George Tucker was appointed president of St. Paul's. The following year the Rev. Roger Walker took the place of Mr. Cartwright. Miss McKim and Miss MacAdam were the women teachers at this time.
Mr. Tucker raised the tuition fee the following year, but, notwithstanding, in 1905 he reported five hundred and seventy-three students. The need for new buildings was apparent. Accordingly the president made an appeal which was so generously answered that in 1907 St. Paul's was [8/9] able to open a new hall with class-rooms and an assembly hall, and an office building.
The same year the college department—the Dai Gakko—was opened with encouraging results, although, in order to do it, it was necessary to borrow some of the class-rooms belonging to the Middle School, thereby cramping still more that already crowded department.
Since 1907 various makeshift buildings have been erected. The school is now holding classes in closets and store-rooms. The buildings are described as (save one) "shamefully inadequate for the public school of any town in the Union."
The success of the reopened college department proves the fact that the time has gone when a middle school is sufficient to meet the educational requirements of missionary work in Japan. It is true that the Government colleges are admirable from an academic point of view. But from a religious point of view they are altogether lacking. They are always negatively, and sometimes positively, anti-Christian. The vital necessity of having some place in which the young men of the Sei Ko Kwai, and especially those who are looking toward the Ministry, can receive a secular education of the same grade as that offered by the Government colleges and at the same time enjoy the privilege of Church training, makes it imperative that St. Paul's be established on a permanent basis. Moreover, the fact that the new Central Theological Seminary will look to St. Paul's for its students, increases the necessity for prompt action.
With these facts in view, plans have been made for transferring St. Paul's from the dust and bustle of its cramped quarters in Tsukiji to commodious and creditable buildings on a new site in the outskirts of Tokyo. Fifteen acres of valuable ground in a location which promises to be eventually the centre of a district of a high class of schools have been purchased with money ($50,000) raised by an energetic Philadelphia committee. With $150,000 more it will be possible [9/10] to erect plain but dignified and substantial buildings of brick. The committee for the Central Theological Seminary have bought ground opposite the new site for St. Paul's, and it is hoped that when (in the autumn of 1912) the buildings for the latter are completed, enough will be built on the St. Paul's property to enable the Dai Gakko to move out. For various reasons it is not wise to move the Chu Gakko immediately.
In October 1911, President Tucker was elected Bishop of Kyoto, and in March 1912, he laid down his duties at the College in order to take up the new work. He was succeeded by the Rev. Charles S. Reifsnider, who assumed the presidency of St. Paul's on the first of April.
St. Paul's is supported by an appropriation from the Board and by the fees received from the pupils. A school that requires a quid pro quo naturally ranks better in the public estimation than one known as a "charity school." There are, however, scholarships that are given to deserving students who need help. Many of the pupils work their way through St. Paul's—delivering milk or papers, drawing a jin-ricksha, or doing any other sort of work they can find out of school hours.
The students at St. Paul's come from all over Japan, from Formosa, Korea, Hawaii and China. The limit set for the Middle School by the Government—six hundred—has long since been reached. In the College department there are over ninety students. The first class from the Dai Gakko was graduated in June 1911. There were thirteen men in the class, nine from the commercial course, four from the arts course. All four of the latter entered the Divinity School in the following autumn. There are now forty-six students in the Dai Gakko preparing to study for Orders. In June, 1912, eleven of these will be sent out to form the first class of the new Central Theological School.
St. Paul's offers a five years' course in the Middle School [10/11] and a four years' course in the College Department. By arrangement with the Central Theological Seminary, divinity students are to remain in St. Paul's for three years and in the Seminary for three years.
The day begins with chapel in the Cathedral at 7:30. School opens at 8, and lets out for all except the lowest classes at 2:30. The classes are of fifty minutes' duration, and between classes there is a ten minutes' recess, during which time the whole school adjourns to the playground. School is in session every day of the week except Sunday, although Saturday is a half holiday. There are a goodly number of national holidays to make up for this.
The curriculum covers courses in: Morals, language, literature and grammar (Japanese), English language, literature, conversation and grammar (Chinese), Japanese geography, general history, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physical geography, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, mineralogy, physiology, hygiene, drawing, music, military drill and physical culture. It is planned to enlarge the curriculum and offer a greater number of elective courses when the College moves to its new home.
The Christian teaching in St. Paul's is voluntary in the schools but compulsory in the dormitory. It is found that voluntary religious teaching in the Middle School not only complies with the Government requirements, but in the end shows far better results. There are well-organized Bible classes—providing continuous courses—offered out of school hours, besides lectures and personal work.
In the dormitory the opportunities for personal work are necessarily much greater. The students attend chapel daily, and are all instructed in regular classes. There are special classes for catechumens.
In the day-school the number of students baptized is small, but the influence of the Christian teaching received is abiding, as is shown by the number of students who become [11/12] Christians after leaving the College. In the dormitory the results are very striking, for nearly two-thirds of the students living in the school receive Christ for their Master. In the College department about half of the students are Christians.
An organization for Christian work exists among the students, known as the Sei Nen Kwai. Every night at nine o'clock, immediately after the general study hour, a number of the students meet together for a prayer meeting, conducted entirely by themselves. By means of gifts from friends in America they were able to furnish a special room as their Prayer Room.
Tennis is the favorite pastime of the students, although they are very fond of baseball and football (English). There is an outdoor gymnasium connected with the College, and here the boys like to exercise. Fencing and jiu-jitsu are also popular amusements. Whenever the boys can get an evening off, they like to get up some sort of entertainment. They are clever at sword-dancing and amateur theatricals.The standing of St. Paul's is unquestioned. The students pass very high in all the Government examinations, and are admitted on certificate to some of the higher schools. The Christian character of St. Paul's, which used to be used as an argument against sending a boy there, is now considered one of its greatest assets, inasmuch as the value of Christian training and morals is beginning to be acknowledged by the commercial classes in Japan.
SCHOOL FOR THE CHINESE
One of the results of the war between Russia and Japan was a great influx of Chinese students into the schools in Tokyo. In 1907 it was estimated that 10,000 young Chinese [12/13] were attending schools in the Japanese capitol. Their undisciplined and immoral lives presented a serious problem to those interested in conditions among the students. In the spring of 1906 the attention of the mission in Tokyo was called to this state of affairs by the members of the Shanghai mission. Bishop McKim resolved to ask the Board for an appropriation to be used for a school for these Chinese. The appropriation was made and a house rented. The Bishop of Hankow sent one of his priests, Mr. Wang, to take charge of the work. The school was placed under the supervision of the president of St. Paul's College, and several Japanese teachers were engaged.
The school was opened early in 1907. A three years' course in elementary subjects is offered with the aim of preparing the students to enter a regular Japanese school at the end of that time. In connection with the school is a hostel for the students. The director of the school lives in the dormitory and shares in the life of the young men. There are several Christians among them, and Bible classes and prayer meetings are held.
In 1909 the school reported sixty-two pupils, but since then, owing to the change in conditions in China, the number has diminished. Mr. Wang was recalled to Hankow after the first year. The present director, Mr. Elwyn, is doing valuable evangelistic work among the students.
The school [* It was in 1909. No report since.] is the only Chinese school in Tokyo. It has won for itself high rank, and its pupils do it credit when they pass on into the Japanese schools.
ST. MARGARET'S HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, TOKYO
(Rikkyo Koto Jo Gakko)
 St. Margaret's School, Tokyo, is a high school for girls, licensed as such by the Government, and therefore obliged to conform to Government rules and standards. It is the only girls' high school connected with our mission in the jurisdiction of North Tokyo, and the only one of any kind in the Kyobashi district of the Imperial City. The Rev. J. H. Koyabashi is the headmaster, and Miss Gertrude Heywood is the lady principal.
St. Margaret's was founded in 1877, and for the first few years of its existence was moved about from place to place under the care of Mrs. Blanchet, and then Miss Pitman (afterwards Mrs. Gardiner). In 1882 Miss Riddick took charge, and the following year the school was able to move into a foreign dwelling house on the same site as the present school building. In 1889 Miss Heath succeeded Miss Riddick. During these early days it was pre-eminently a boarding-school, all the girls living in the house of the principal. Education for girls beyond the primary school was uncommon. For this very reason, however, it was able to exert a strong Christian influence and almost all the girls who were not Christians when they entered were baptized before they left.
Because of the small number of the pupils and the great variety of their attainments, and because also of the newness of the work, neither the curriculum nor the length of the course was fixed. The subjects most stressed were the Bible, English and sewing. There were no Japanese text books at the time. But later, as the Government developed its schools and trained its teachers, the Japanese awoke to the idea that they needed Japanese schools for the Japanese. [14/15] Therefore when Bishop Hare came to Japan, he decided that it would be better to give the management over to the Japanese Christians. He appointed as Japanese principal Mr. Shimizu, a strong Churchman who had had experience in educational work, and Miss Goepp as English teacher. The curriculum was revised so as to conform more to that in use in the Government schools, classes graduating every year at the end of March.
From that time until 1908 the course of the school's life was uneventful, being simply one of gradual development. The most important event was the building of a new dormitory and class rooms in 1898. During this time, besides the wives and daughters of the Tokyo missionaries who devoted a great deal of time to the school, Miss Verbeck, Mrs. Smith and Miss Neely taught at St. Margaret's.
Meanwhile, the Government schools were increasing and improving so that it became necessary for St. Margaret's to apply for a Government license in order to keep its standing and prevent the attendance from dropping off entirely. Since this was done the number of pupils has been increasing year by year. The only requirements to be met were that the school should meet the Government standards for building, equipment and teaching force, and that it should substitute voluntary religious instruction for compulsory. One of the conditions for obtaining the license was that the school should build new class rooms at once. In May, 1911, a building was completed which was about half of what was needed, but it was all that the money then in hand would allow. During the Woman's Jubilee meetings, however, enough money was raised to complete the equipment of the school, and 1912 sees the opening of the Philadelphia Woman's Jubilee Hall. In 1910 Miss Gertrude Heywood, then teacher of English in the school, at the request of the students themselves was made "lady principal." The Rev. J. H. Koyabashi is the headmaster.
St. Margaret's now possesses 1228 tsubo of land (a little more than an acre), on which stand a dormitory in Japanese style capable of accommodating fifty girls, two Japanese residences, a school building in foreign style with fifteen class rooms besides library and offices, and the Philadelphia Jubilee Hall in which there are an assembly hall and gymnasium. These buildings are built on the four sides of a playground which contains tennis-courts and a basket-ball field.
St. Margaret's, like every other school in Japan, including Government schools, charges a tuition fee. These fees, which are small, are supplemented by the appropriations made by the Board and by the money given for scholarships.
The number of students entering St. Margaret's has almost doubled since obtaining the license, and another large increase is expected when the new buildings are finished. At the beginning of the school year, April, 1911, two hundred and one students were enrolled, of whom thirty-five entered the dormitory. Owing to the fact that good high schools for girls are being built all over the country, the number of boarders will never increase again in the same proportion. There are twenty-one Japanese and four foreign teachers employed. Four of the women teachers live with the boarding pupils and help by their work and influence in the Christian life of the dormitory.
St. Margaret's is situated in the part of Tokyo where the merchant class are in preponderance, and therefore the pupils are drawn largely from the homes of the merchants. There are also girls from other parts of the city, and many daughters of professional men. The girls in the dormitory come from all parts of the Empire.
School keeps, on five days of the week, from eight-thirty until eleven. The studies are very much the same as those in our own high schools at home excepting Latin and Greek. [16/17] English takes the place of German and French. Much emphasis is laid on practical things. Sewing occupies a large part of our time, for no girl is allowed to graduate until she is able to make complete sets of clothes for men, women and children. Reading and writing are very important, for whereas an American girl learns to read and write in the early years of the grammar school, a Japanese girl has just made a beginning when she enters the high school. This is because she has to learn to read and write some three or four thousand Chinese characters, and the person who cannot write characters of great beauty is not considered well educated. Other subjects taught in the school are mathematics, history, geography, Japanese literature and composition, ethics, hygiene, physiology, physics, chemistry, zoology, etiquette, drawing, domestic science and cooking.
The girls of St. Margaret's are as full of fun and enjoy their play-time as much as any other school girls. Their special festivals are O Hina Sana, the doll festival, and New Year's Day. In the house they amuse themselves by playing among other things a kind of jackstones with tiny bean-bags, and a game called "matching up the family," very much like our game of authors. Outdoors there is tag, and blindman's bluff, fox and geese and so on, just as in America. Basket-ball has recently been introduced, and is played by the day-pupils sometimes in their gymnasium hours, and by the dormitory girls regularly twice a week in the afternoons. Once a week the latter are taken for a walk to one of the parks, or to some other place of interest. The girls take pride in being able to walk a great distance and come home with fine color, and appetites that make the cook shake her head over the price of rice.
Japanese girls do not read as much as American girls do, largely because there are very few books suitable for young people. The girls in the dormitory do a great deal of knitting [17/18] and sewing, some for themselves, but more for the Junior Auxiliary work. The girls who live at home do more of the house-work than their American sisters do.
The day-pupils are in the school only in the school hours and since in a licensed school religious instruction cannot be given as part of the curriculum, the opportunities for Christian work are not many. Twice a week half of the noon hour is devoted to Christian classes: once a week the whole school meets in the assembly hall for an instruction given by one of the Tokyo clergy; and once a week smaller Bible classes are held. These last provide more of a chance for personal influence on the part of the teachers.
In the dormitory the Christian instruction and attendance at the daily Morning Prayer in the Cathedral are compulsory. Every morning during Lent the Christian girls are in the habit of gathering at half after six in the morning for hymns and prayer, and on Sunday evenings there is a prayer meeting led by one of the older girls. The attendance on Sunday evening is of course voluntary, but it is unusual for a girl to stay away, and many non-Christian girls have testified after leaving school to the deep impression these meetings have made upon their lives.
It is, however, the beautiful Christian atmosphere which prevails throughout the dormitory, and extends even to the school itself, that does most to win the girls to Christ and to make them realize the power of lives dedicated to His service.
Where the pupils do not become Christians their prejudice against Christianity is at least broken down, and the way is often prepared for them to receive baptism later in their lives. Out of the two hundred and sixty-seven girls graduated from St. Margaret 's between 1890 and 1910, one hundred and fifty-six are professing active Christians. Of course a large number of these were Christians before they came to St. Margaret's, but surely it is as important to provide a school where Christian girls may receive spiritual [18/19] training along with a good education, as it is to make new Christians.
Moreover, St. Margaret's has done an important work in providing the mission with women workers. Graduates of the school are found as Bible women, as nurses in the hospitals and as kindergartners and teachers in the mission schools.
As the Government opposition to any connection between religion and education gradually breaks down, and with it the popular prejudice against Christianity, the work in the school may look for more definite and larger results. The outlook for St. Margaret's school is very bright, and the opportunities for service are abundant. The hope is that, in material equipment and spiritual devotion, it may be able to meet these opportunities.
THE GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL OF THE CITY OF PEACE
(Formerly St. Agnes's School)
Founded in 1874
St. Agnes's School, or, as it is now known, the Girls' High School of the City of Peace, stands in the mission grounds in Kyoto opposite the Imperial Palace Park. It is a boarding and day-school holding the Government license, and is the only Church school for girls in the district of Kyoto. Mr. Tamura is the principal.
St. Agnes's had its beginning in a class of little girls that Mrs. Quimby taught in Osaka in 1874. In the autumn of that same year Miss Ellen Eddy, the first single woman worker in our mission in Japan, reached Osaka, and in the following January took over the care of the children, rented a house and opened a girl's boarding and day-school, [19/20] known at that time as the "Light in Darkness School." The number of pupils increased rapidly and several received baptism and confirmation. On the departure of Miss Eddy, in 1881, Miss Belle Michie took charge of the school, and after her marriage to Dr. Laning the Bishop appointed Miss Williamson mistress in charge. The school was at this time housed in an old inn, and the number of pupils was so much too great for the building that during a part of this time Miss Williamson was forced to give up her own bedroom and sleep on the veranda. Miss Margaret Mead, Miss Palmer, Miss Lovell, Mrs. McKim and Miss Mary McKim all taught at one time or another during this period. When Bishop Hare came out in 1891, a change was made in the arrangement, a Board of Japanese and foreigners being formed, with Mr. McKim as the principal. When Mr. McKim became Bishop it was further decided to move the school to Kyoto. Accordingly the Osaka St. Agnes's was closed in 1894 and sixteen scholarship pupils were transferred to St. Margaret's in Tokyo.
Meanwhile an excellent site had been secured for the buildings in Kyoto, facing the Imperial Palace Park at its most beautiful point. The site was well known in the city as the birthplace of the scholar and poet Sugawara Michizane (see Murray, page 130), who is still worshipped as the patron saint of letters. Here Trinity Church was erected, and here were built a dormitory, a school-house, and a residence for the foreign teachers, the buildings of the new St. Agnes's. The formal opening of the school took place on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, 1896, with forty-three pupils on the roll, seven of whom were boarders. Mr. Gring was principal at the time, but in 1898 Mr. Tamura became principal, and has remained so ever since. Miss Aldrich, Miss Bull, and then Miss Peck, and for a short time Miss Mary Gordon (now Mrs. Charles S. Reifsnider) served the school as teachers of English, and in 1910 [20/21] Miss Hasu Gardiner, the daughter of the former headmaster of St. Paul's, was appointed to succeed Miss Peck. In 1909 St. Agnes's received its license as a girls' high school from the Government. Besides Mr. Tamura there are twenty-two Japanese teachers in the school.
The same buildings, which were never intended for more than one hundred and fifty, are now made to accommodate some two hundred pupils, sixty or seventy of whom are boarders. Three girls sleep in one twelve-by-nine room in the dormitory, and in the class rooms the teachers have to squeeze sideways along the aisles as they examine their pupils' work. There is an assembly hall in the main building, but in order to allow the whole school to gather at the same time it has been necessary to remove the seats and let the pupils sit on their heels on the floor.
The maintenance of the school is provided for by an appropriation from the Board, the fees received from the pupils not being sufficient to pay the expenses. There are a few endowed scholarships.
In the early days of St. Agnes’s, Government competition with the mission schools was not so sharp as it is now, especially since it has moved to Kyoto, where is situated one of the most popular girls' high schools in the Empire. Nevertheless it has grown steadily in popularity, and every year a number of applicants are turned away for lack of room. A convenient line of electric cars passes the school and thus makes it possible for a number of pupils whose homes are in distant parts of the city to attend. The boarding department provides a Church school to which the Christians throughout the district can send their daughters.
The course of study includes two years in a Preparatory Department, four in the Academic, and two in the Advanced Course. Pupils who have graduated from the Government lower schools can enter the Preparatory Department of St. Agnes's. The average age of these little girls is ten years.
 While in this department they are obliged to take all the studies prescribed: Japanese reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, composition, vocal music and English, and to pass two hours a day in the sewing room. Pupils in the Academic Department may choose whether they will take the sewing course or the regular course. In the former four hours a day are devoted to instruction in sewing and only the necessary branches of academic study are required. In the latter course the schedule laid down by the Japanese Department of Education is followed. The usual branches of general and scientific study, Chinese, cooking, and sewing, are taught. English is not required, but it is often elected by the pupils. Piano, violin, organ and koto lessons are "extras," as are flower arrangement and the serving of ceremonial tea. The course in etiquette is compulsory.
Gymnastics are a part of the curriculum, and lessons in archery are provided for all pupils who wish to take them. The boarding pupils have stated hours for exercise in the school-grounds, where they play battledore and shuttlecock or ball. At times they go for walks in the Imperial Palace Park. There are two annual picnics, the Blossom Picnic in the spring, and the Mushroom Picnic in the autumn, to which the girls look forward with eager anticipation.
For the religious training of its pupils St. Agnes's possesses exceptional advantages. The school buildings are in the same compound as Holy Trinity Church. The boarding pupils are required and the day-pupils urged to attend the services in the church. Religious instruction is part of the curriculum. Bible Classes are held twice a week, and a regular course of Bible study followed.
The life of the girls in the dormitory is like the boarding school life in America. Breakfast is early, followed by Morning Prayer, which the headmaster reads in the assembly room. The girls sing—and sing well—the familiar [22/23] hymns and chants. Their voices in reading are very soft and gentle, and they incline to intone so that their responses sound like the humming of telegraph wires. Breakfast is at seven, dinner at twelve, supper at five; school work is from eight to three-twenty. Evensong in the church at six, lights out at nine.
Once Bishop Partridge asked the rector of Holy Trinity what proportion of the pupils were under Christian instruction, and his answer was: ''That whole school is practically preparing for baptism—the opposition of the parents in the homes is what keeps the numbers down." In the face of such a statement can we doubt that the Girls' High School of the City of Peace is an important part of the work in the District of Kyoto?
PART II: TRAINING SCHOOLS
TRINITY DIVINITY SCHOOL
(Sei Ko Kwai Shin Gakuin)
Trinity Divinity School is the seminary in which the candidates for Holy Orders connected with the mission of the American Church receive their training. The Bishop of North Tokyo is the Dean. The School is about to be merged into the new Central Theological College, and is consequently in a state of metamorphosis.
This institution was founded in 1878 as a joint theological school for the American Mission and the S. P. G. An attempt had been made to have a single school for all three missions, but the C. M. S. preferred to have their own in Osaka. The school was opened in the dining-room of Bishop Williams’ house in Tsukiji, Tokyo. Mr. Quimby came up from Osaka to take charge, and Mr. Shaw and Mr. Wright (of the S. P. G.), together with Mr. Quimby and Mr. Blanchet, undertook the teaching. There were ten students the first year.
On Palm Sunday, 1883, the first candidates for the Ministry in the American mission—Nobori Kanai and Masakazu Tai—were made deacons. After their ordination, the work of the school lapsed for a few years. The candidates connected with the S. P. G. mission were instructed separately by the S. P. G. missionaries, and there were no candidates connected with our mission.
 There were, however, a number of young men in St. Paul's who were looking toward Holy Orders. Knowing their desire, the Bishop used to send these students to various stations to preach, in order that they might have some practical experience and that he might be able to test them. They found, however, that they were not well enough instructed to be able to answer the hard questions which their listeners sometimes put to them, and accordingly they appointed one of their number (Mr. Hayakawa) to go to the Bishop and ask him to arrange some classes for them. The Bishop complied with their request, and in 1886 reopened the Divinity School with a class consisting of such men as Mr. Naide, Mr. Yamabe, Mr. Seita, Mr. Ogata, Mr. Minagawa. When Bishop Hare made his first episcopal visitation (in 1891) he was able on Trinity Sunday to make Messrs. Naide, Yamabe, Sugiura, Minagawa and Chickashige deacons.
The school was at this time housed in a building erected especially for it in 1882. In 1885 Mr. Morris was transferred to Tokyo in order that he might become a resident professor at the Divinity School, and in 1889 it was further arranged that Mr. Woodman should give all his time to the school, that Mr. Cole should lecture once a week, and that Mr. McKim and Mr. Tyng should each come up to Tokyo for a period of six weeks every winter to give two special courses.
Soon after this the Rev. J. M. Francis was appointed to the faculty of the Divinity School, and until his resignation from the mission in 1898 lectured on various subjects to the candidates. His influence in the school was profound, and to no one, perhaps, as much as to him is due the fine morale of the Japanese ministry to-day. Soon after his consecration, Bishop McKim appointed Mr. Francis subdean—he himself being, of course, the dean. Besides Mr. Francis, Mr. Woodman and Mr. Morris, Dr. Davis and [25/26] Mr. Tyng were for a few years resident professors, and Mr. Page, Mr. Dooman and Mr. Lloyd lectured at one time and another in the school. In 1898 and 1899 Mr. Sweet and Mr. Wallace succeeded Mr. Francis and Dr. Davis. Mr. Woodman was made sub-dean after Mr. Francis left, a position which he held until his death in 1909. Since then there have been few changes in the faculty. Bishop Awdry and Mr. Imai have at times given courses, and for a number of years Mr. Yamagata and Mr. Ochiai have been professors.
Until the last year the school has occupied the original buildings erected for it, although they have been somewhat altered and improved.
In 1904 Trinity Divinity School was granted a Government license under the new regulation that all institutions wishing to rank as schools should hold such a license. The school is registered as a technical school. The license makes it possible for the school to confer degrees, and for the students to be exempted from conscription. It also makes it necessary for any student entering to present a certificate of graduation from a school of middle school rank.
According to the old system, the students spent two years in the school, then a year in field work, and then two years more in the school. At this time the course was changed, and made to cover five years, all spent in the school—two years of preparatory work, and three years of advanced work. Instruction was given in English, Sociology, Logic, Psychology, and the History of Philosophy, Hebrew, New Testament, Greek, Old and New Testament History, Church History, Systematic Theology, Pastoral Theology, Apologetics, Homiletics, etc.
After those first few years of a joint school, the S. P. G. had maintained its own separate school in connection with St. Andrew's Community Mission. In 1884 the C. M. S. established Holy Trinity Divinity School in Osaka. Thus [26/27] in the Sei Ko Kwai there are three theological schools, none of them of very great strength or efficiency, and two of them are in the same city. For a long time a hope was cherished that eventually there should be a Central Theological College for the Sei Ko Kwai. Therefore, when the great thank offering was made at the time of the Pan-Anglican Conference, the Bishops of the Sei Ko Kwai asked that part of it be devoted to the building of such a college. The grant was made, and already land has been purchased opposite the site later secured by St. Paul's for its new buildings. The plan is that, while this Theological Seminary shall be the central training school for the ministry of the Sei Ko Kwai, St. Paul's shall be the great Church College. It is arranged that students shall spend three years in the College department of St. Paul's and three years in the Theological College. The Governing Body of the new institution consists of the Bishops of the Sei Ko Kwai, and the Nominating Committee has on it, besides the Divinity professors at Oxford and Cambridge, the Dean of the General Theological Seminary in New York and a representative of the Missionary Society of the Church of England in Canada.
Building has already begun, and the Central Theological College expects to open in the autumn of 1912. The Osaka Divinity School will continue its useful existence, but the S. P. G. and Trinity Divinity Schools will be merged in the Central Theological College.
In fact these two schools are already united. In 1911 Trinity Divinity School gave over its buildings to the School for Catechists, and its students are living in the S. P. G. buildings and working with the S. P. G. divinity students. The Rev. Mr. Imai has charge of the school.
ST. MATTHIAS'S SCHOOL FOR CATECHISTS
(Sanichi Dendo Gakko)
 St. Matthias's Catechetical School provides training for those men who, while wishing to serve the Church as evangelists, are yet unable on account of their age or lack of education to enter the Divinity School. The rector of the school is the Bishop; the sub-dean, the Rev. P. O. Yamagata.
Trinity Divinity School, before receiving its Government license, used to admit students who could never become more than Catechists, as well as those who were candidates for Holy Orders. But when in 1904 it became a licensed school, only graduates of a middle school could matriculate, and therefore the need of a special school for catechists was felt. The Bishop accordingly opened St. Matthias's School in a separate building situated at some distance from the Divinity School in a neighborhood that provides an especially good opportunity for evangelistic work. Mr. Chickashige left Osaka to become the sub-dean. He and his family lived in the school building, thus enabling Mr. Chickashige to be in close touch with his students. Besides the rector and the sub-dean, Mr. Tucker and Mr. Yamagata gave instruction in the school.
Two years ago Mr. Chickashige left St. Matthias's, and Mr. Yamagata became sub-dean in his place. Mr. Welbourn gives a great deal of time to the school. During the last year the school has been moved to the old Divinity School buildings to which it has fallen heir, since Bishop McKim feels that, although Trinity Divinity School is merged into the new Central Theological College, the Catechetical School will be a necessity for some years to come.
 The number of men in the school varies, but there are usually about ten. No student under twenty-five years of age may enter St. Matthias's. The students are generally men of forty years or so, from the middle classes, who, after engaging in some mercantile business, resolve to devote the rest of their lives to service in the Church. The course used to cover only two years, but since 1908 it has been extended to three years and the requirements for entrance made somewhat more severe. The course covers Old and New Testament Exegesis, General Church History, Theology and Evidences. Besides this, practical evangelistic work is required, the students helping the clergy of the city when requested, and making addresses at the preaching place in connection with the school, each one twice a week. During the summer the students engage in active evangelistic work under the direction of experienced clergymen and catechists.
THE CHURCH TRAINING SCHOOL FOR MISSION
(Dendo Jo Gakkwan)
The Sendai Training School is the Training School for Mission Women in the northern district. The School holds a license from the Government as a "Shiritsu Gakko." Deaconess Ranson is in charge, and the Rev. Allan W. Cooke is the chaplain.
Early in the history of the Church in Japan—even before a similar need was realized in America—it was found necessary to provide special training for women who wished to do Christian work among their own people. Such women are called in Japanese Fujin Dendo Shi, which is variously translated as "Mission Woman," "Bible Woman," and "Helper," but is more nearly equivalent to "Church worker." [29/30] How the training of these women was first begun in Osaka and later transferred to Tokyo, is told in the article on the Kyoto Church Training School. After St. Mary's Bible School was moved back to Osaka in 1897, Bishop McKim opened the Joshi Shin Gakko for training women workers, in Trinity Parish House. In 1900 the Bishop placed Miss Neely in charge. She opened her own house—in Tsukiji—as a home for the students, but most of the classes were held in Trinity Parish House. During this time the various clergy resident in Tokyo, the professors at the Divinity School, and the ladies connected with the mission taught for longer or shorter periods in the school. In 1902 Miss Neely was sent to Mayebashi and the school was closed.
However, in the spring of the following year the Bishop stationed Miss McRae and Miss Bristowe at Sendai in order that they might open a regular Training School for Mission Women. Since then the school has prospered and grown in influence and strength. In 1906 Miss McRae and Miss Bristowe were on furlough and Miss Babcock was in charge. Two years later Miss Bristowe resigned, and Deaconess A. L. Ranson became the head of the school.
Throughout the first five years of its existence the Sendai School was lodged in a Japanese house where the students lived with the American ladies. The classes were held here and in the parish house, and daily Morning Prayer was said in the church. But under these conditions growth was almost impossible, since eight students were all that could be accommodated. Moreover, with the thin paper walls, it was impossible to secure the quiet necessary for the intellectual and devotional life of the school. For these reasons, Bishop McKim designated the $10,000, which was the share of the 1907 United Offering falling to the Missionary District of Tokyo, for the purpose of building an adequate plant at Sendai. Land was secured through a "left over" [30/31] from the Men's Thank Offering, and the present building erected under the careful supervision of the chaplain, the Rev. Allan W. Cooke.
In 1909 Deaconess Ranson was invalided home. During her absence the School was under the care of Miss Newbold, assisted by Miss Babcock and Miss McKim. The Deaconess, however, was able to return in 1911, and resume her duties as house-mother and teacher. In 1909 a kindergarten was opened in connection with the Training School and placed in charge of Miss Fyock, but for an account of this department of the school see the separate article under Kindergartens.
In January, 1912, the school was licensed by the Kencho as one of the "Shiritsu'' schools, which are known as kakushu gakko. This is a sort of omnium gatherum classification which takes in what is left after the other schools of various grades, classes and sexes are all catalogued. The license was not sought, but was practically forced upon the chaplain.
Sendai, where the school is situated, is a city of 100,000, on the Pacific coast, about 250 miles from Tokyo. It is the metropolis of Northern Japan—a railroad centre, the headquarters of the Governor of the Province and an important educational centre. The only University north of Tokyo—besides many high schools, an agricultural school, and mission schools of the Baptist and German Reformed Boards—is found at Sendai.
The Church is strongly established at Sendai. There is a beautiful church building, consecrated in 1904, a parish building, a catechists' house, a rectory, and the buildings connected with the Training School. The latter are built in Japanese style around three sides of a quadrangle. On the first floor are the chapel, two class-rooms, a reception room, the dining-room, kitchen and housekeeper's room. Upstairs are bedrooms for sixteen students. The teachers' [31/32] house, built in American style, is connected with the schoolhouse by a covered passage.
The school is located in the heart of the city, almost next door to a hospital, about ten minutes' walk from the station and twenty from the church. Opposite are the kindergarten buildings.
The students come mostly from the middle class—the great majority are from St. Margaret's. There are some, however, who have first heard of Christianity in their adult years, and have not had the advantage of training in a Church school. For any of these women to take up Christian work means definite sacrifice, since they could receive much higher stipends in almost any Government position. Often the families of these girls are disappointed to have them choose this work, and even when their family takes an interest it is generally impossible for them to give any financial help. For this reason it rarely happens that a young woman is able to pay her expenses while at the school, and so most of the students are supported by scholarships.
There are two courses, the regular and the special. To enter the former the students must be graduates of schools of the rank of St. Margaret's. Only older women are admitted to the latter course, women whose practical experience makes up for their lack of mental qualifications. All applicants must present certificates signed by a physician and a clergyman testifying to their physical and spiritual fitness for undertaking the work of mission women. The curriculum includes the Old and New Testaments, Prayer Book, Theology, Church History, Christian Evidences, English, music, sewing and practical work. All the students have experience in teaching in Sunday-school, preparing candidates for confirmation, and visiting in the homes of Christians and non-Christians. Besides the Sendai Church Sunday-school, there are two Sunday-schools in the kindergarten building, [32/33] and a "Sunday-school" that meets on Saturdays, since there was found no other time for it; nor could the teachers meet the demand to hold a fourth Sunday-school on Sunday.
In the summer of 1910 the experiment was tried of sending the students to the country for mission work during the summer vacation in order that they might have an opportunity to practise what they had learned in the school. The results were so good that summer-work has become a regular part of the curriculum.
Thus far all the students have lived in the dormitory, which is by far the best arrangement, since the most important part of the training comes from the ordered Christian life of the school, and the close personal contact with the teachers. The capacity of the new building is sixteen. Since there are more applicants than the school can receive it is possible to choose among the candidates and thus secure only the most promising students.
An interesting feature of the Sendai Training School is the summer conference for the mission workers which meets in its buildings. This conference was inaugurated in 1911, and so great was the mutual benefit and pleasure derived from it, that a unanimous request was made that the conference be made a yearly event.
THE KYOTO CHURCH TRAINING SCHOOL
(Joshi Dendo Kwan)
Begun as St. Mary's Bible School, 1884
The Church Training School at Kyoto is the Training School for mission women in the southern district. The school is directly under the Bishop. Miss Suthon is the vice-principal.
The necessity for training the Japanese women for [33/34] evangelistic work among their own people was early recognized. It is possible for these so-called Bible Women to gain an entrance into the homes of people whom the missionaries find it difficult to reach. Moreover, they are able to act as intermediaries between their fellow-countrywomen and the foreign workers, as interpreters not only of the language but of the different points of view.
As early as 1884, we find Mrs. McKim in Osaka, holding classes for the instruction of Bible Women, and Mr. McKim asking for some one to take regular charge of the work. To meet this demand Miss Mary Mailes was sent to Osaka. A house was procured for her outside the foreign quarter, and St. Mary's Home for Bible Women opened. The school was never large, but the work done was good and the women trained were faithful and devoted. The spirit that governed the school is well shown in the name it went by among the Japanese—the Home of Peace. Miss Mailes in a letter written in 1890 describes the life of the school as follows: "We rise at six, breakfast at seven, and have prayers at half past seven. The Bible classes begin at eight. We have five Bible classes in the house every day. My work is all in Japanese, as the girls do not understand English. The Bible classes are over at three and then we go from house to house. We have supper at six and prayers at half-past six."
Soon after this Miss Mailes returned to the United States and the school was moved to Tokyo. Miss Suthon, Miss Perry (a volunteer worker), and Miss Verbeck taught in the school for a longer or shorter time during the Tokyo period. In 1892 Miss Mailes went out again, but her strength was not equal to the task and after two years she was invalided home. On the 22d of September, 1896, she passed to her reward.
The school was then transferred again to Osaka and placed under the care of Kimura San, Miss Mailes 'a faithful helper. [34/35] In 1898 she wrote: "There are five students in the house. They are all very earnest and study well. Since coming to Osaka they have been helping the work in the churches. Bishop Williams lives next door to the home, and so is able to oversee all that goes on in it. He holds prayers every day at St. Timothy's at 7:30 A. M. Please do not be anxious about the work here, for it is going on very happily." Besides the regular Bible lessons, training in teaching the Bible to unbelievers, and organ lessons, were given.
In 1901 Bishop Partridge became principal of the school and moved it to his See City. The Kyoto clergy undertook part of the teaching, and Miss Kimura remained matron.
In 1909 the Bishop decided that it would be wise to enlarge the scope of St. Mary's and ''merge the little Bible School with its two or three pupils into the broader and larger Kyoto Training School for Church Workers" modelled on the lines of similar institutions in the United States. Accordingly he rented buildings from the Congregational Board which they had used as a training-school for nurses and opened the Kyoto Church Training School on Michaelmas Day, 1909, with Miss Suthon as vice-principal.
To-day the school is still housed in the same buildings. They are located opposite the Imperial Palace Park about ten minutes' walk from Holy Trinity. The grounds cover about two acres and are attractively set out with beautiful flowering trees. But the buildings were erected thirty years ago and are much out of repair. These consist of a house in foreign style and a dormitory for the students. On the ground floor of the latter are the chapel, reception room, recitation-room and school-room and above are the bedrooms—six mats each in size. The school is able in its present quarters to accommodate, about fifteen students, but, owing to the necessity of spending a large part of the [35/36] appropriation made by the Board on the rent, it is impossible for the school to accept more than eight students. The appropriation is the only means of support the school has, and, since all the students have to be maintained on scholarships, this number is the most the school can support. Fifty dollars covers the expenses of one student for a year.
The school opened with sixteen students and that number could be easily reached again if the number of scholarships were increased. There are a great many applications for admission to the school, a number from graduates of the high schools. It is thus possible to admit only the best candidates.
The course of instruction covers three years, and after graduation the students are expected to work for two years in the Church. The curriculum covers the Old and the New Testament, the Prayer Book, Christian Evidences and Christian Doctrine, Church History, psychology, child study, normal classes in Sunday-school methods, English, church music and ecclesiastical sewing including the care of altar linen. For practical work the students teach in Holy Trinity Sunday-school and visit the homes of their pupils. The school year is from Michaelmas to St. Peter's Day. Two months of the summer are devoted by the students to work in the various country stations under the direction of the minister-in-charge.
The lecturers at the school are the Bishop, the Rev. H. Yamabe and Miss Suthon. Miss Ogawa teaches music and Mrs. Tucker teaches ecclesiastical sewing.
The value of this work of training competent women evangelists can hardly be over-estimated. The outlook for the future of the school is encouraging, but growth depends entirely upon the obtaining of better equipment and the establishment of scholarships.
PART III: NIGHT SCHOOLS
FUKUI NIGHT SCHOOL
The Fukui Night School is an English evening school maintained by the mission of the American Church as a means of reaching the young business men, and the students in the various Government and private schools, in Fukui. The priest-in-charge, until his transfer to St. Paul's College in April, 1912, has been the Rev. Charles S. Reifsnider. The principal of the school is Mr. Anton F. Blaum.
Fukui, the capital of the Province of Echizen, is an educational centre. It is also one of the strongholds of both Buddhism and Shinto. Situated as Fukui is on the west coast, the climate is notoriously bad, and the city is void of any attraction for an ambitious man. For these reasons the more alert and clever citizens are apt to move away, a fact that renders permanent Christian work hard to establish.
Fukui was twice opened as a mission station, the first time about 1887. The work lapsed and when Mr. Reifsnider went up there in 1904, it was necessary to begin over again. One of the first things that he did was to open the night-school. The population is conservative, and the non-Christian influences very strong. The question of establishing a point of contact without arousing antagonism and direct opposition was difficult, and at first the school, because of its avowedly Christian character, had little success.
 Soon, however, it won the confidence and the respect of the community, and to-day holds an honorable position in the town. It has proved itself a powerful factor in breaking down religious prejudice and in overcoming the ostracism which formerly attached to all things Christian. Two of the graduates are studying at St. Paul's, preparatory to entering the Divinity School, and another is hoping to enter the School for Catechists. Ten of the graduates have received baptism and confirmation, and even those who have not accepted Christianity have been deeply influenced, morally and spiritually, by their life in the institution.
The school occupies three small, badly lighted rooms in a rented Japanese house in the residential part of the city. There are forty-one students enrolled, although the capacity of the school is limited to thirty-five. The average attendance is twenty-nine—the attendance at a night-school is always irregular. The students are bank, post-office and merchant clerks, primary school teachers (among these the principal of one of the schools), prefectural and municipal clerks, and secretaries and students from the Government and private schools.
When the school began Mr. Reifsnider, his brother John and his native teacher taught the classes. The staff now consists of Mr. Blaum and two native teachers, Mr. Ohira Yoshiro and Mr. Abe Tomeiji, gentlemen, says Mr. Blaum, in whom the Christian and samurai spirits are harmoniously blended. Both of them are graduates of mission schools.
The course extends over three years, at the end of which time a certificate—valuable to the graduates from a business point of view—is awarded. The school meets for two hours every evening, Monday to Thursday inclusive. The subjects taught are: English, i. e., reading, writing, spelling, dictation, grammar, correspondence, conversation, composition, translation and the English Bible. Conversation and correspondence are the subjects most appreciated [38/39] by the students. Although it is a night-school, the students find time for an occasional game of ping-pong or croconole.
Once a week there is a lecture for all the students on some religious subject, accompanied by prayers and the singing of hymns. During Lent this is replaced by a service with a sermon in the vernacular by the parish catechist.
The expenses of the school for the year are Yen 720. Part of this is met by the appropriation of Yen 600 made by the Board. The rest comes from the entrance and tuition fees.
The work of the school is much hampered by its inadequate quarters, but when a church and parish house, for which the sum of $3,500 has been asked, are erected at Fukui, and the school is able to open its doors to a greater number of students, we can look for even more successful and progressive work than has been accomplished in the past.
NARA NIGHT SCHOOL
The night-school maintained by our mission at Nara provides classes in English for the young men of the city. It is under the care of the priest-in-charge of Nara, the Rev. J. J. Chapman. The principal is Mr. Ikezawa.
Nara is an important educational centre and likewise a stronghold of Buddhism. One of the first and most influential mission stations established by the American Church was at Nara. The first church there was built in 1887, and the congregation placed under the care of Mr. Dooman, who went to Nara to live. He opened the mission Middle School. From a secular point of view this school always did well. It held a Government license, and ranked [39/40] very high among the middle schools of the country. In 1896 money was raised to erect new buildings. The school was partly self-supporting, and was helped generously by the native Christians. But the systematic teaching of Christianity to the students was never encouraged, and the influence of the teachers was not strongly Christian in its character. Accordingly Bishop Partridge, shortly after reaching Japan, thought it best to close the school.
Soon after this Dr. Correll and the Rev. Charles S. Reifsnider were stationed at Nara, and the first thing they did was to consider how to use the old Middle School buildings. Seeing the importance of establishing a point of contact with the young men of the city, they opened an English night school on the seventh of March, 1902. That same year Mr. John Reifsnider joined his brother at Nara in order to teach in the school. Miss Kimball, resident missionary at Nara, also took part of the teaching. There were several volunteer teachers from the schools in the city, also a judge and a lawyer who gave their services. Instead of salaries, small presents of money were given.
For a while the school did splendidly. Many, who otherwise would never have come into contact with the missionaries, began to attend the services, and not a few were baptized. But lately the school has been much cramped by reason of the scantiness of its support and the insufficiency of its teaching force.
The school was held until lately in the old Middle School buildings, but these were erected on rented land, the lease of which expired March, 1912, and therefore they have been torn down and re-erected on the new mission lot as a combined parish house and night-school. This lot is situated in a beautiful part of the city, the best section, in fact.
The session begins with a religious address to the students. There is an attendance of from thirty-five to seventy—clerks from the banks and the prefectural offices, prefectural [40/41] and municipal secretaries, merchant clerks, students and military officers. Formerly all the elementary branches were taught, but lately it has been possible to give courses only in English, and chemistry, physics and mathematics. The present teaching staff consists of Mr. Chapman, Mr. Ikezawa and Miss Kimball.
An allowance of Yen 35 a month is made to the school by the mission. This, with the entrance and tuition fees, has to meet all the expenses. The income is far too small to permit of much hiring of native teachers. "It is a sink or swim kind of existence all the time," says Mr. Chapman.
When asked what is the outlook for the future of the school, Mr. Chapman answers: "None—unless we can secure a foreign teacher, and a better place in which to teach."
WAKAYAMA NIGHT SCHOOL
The Wakayama Night School is an English school the aim of which is to reach and benefit, spiritually as well as intellectually; the young men of the city of Wakayama and the surrounding country. It is directly under the care of the resident missionary, the Rev. Isaac Dooman. The headmaster is the Rev. Daijiro Yoshimura.
Wakayama is one of the oldest mission stations in the southern jurisdiction and an important centre for evangelistic work. It was first opened in 1882 by some of the Osaka clergy. Six years later the Church of the Saviour was built, but it was some years before the station had a resident missionary. It was not until 1896, during the time Archdeacon Page had charge of the work, that the school was started. For a good many years the school had [41/42] a fluctuating history, but three years ago it was reorganized by Mr. Yoshimura and placed, it is hoped, on a permanent basis.
The school is held in three Japanese rooms built on the mission property in the centre of the town. Though small, the rooms are pleasant and well ventilated. The students come mostly from the middle and higher families. The attendance varies from thirty to seventy-five—the attendance at a night-school is always fluctuating. English, the Bible, general and local history, and reading on various amoral and other subjects are taught. Besides the headmaster and Mr. Dooman (who gives occasional lectures), Miss Mary Laning, a niece of Dr. Laning of Osaka, and Mr. Saito teach in the school. The teachers are all members of the Church in Wakayama. The students all belong to the parish branch of the Y. M. C. A., as full members if Christians, and as Meijo Iin or honorary members, if unbelievers.
The salaries of the three teachers are paid by the mission. The only income is from the fees of the students, which amount to about fifty cents a month from each. This money is spent on the incidental expenses of the school.
The session opens with a hymn, some collects, the Lord's Prayer and the benediction. There is a Bible class once a week. Two former pupils of the school are now studying for the Sacred Ministry. A number of the young men have become Christians, and even those who have not been brought to baptism have at least had their ignorance and prejudice against Christianity dispelled. Moreover, the school has produced among the citizens of Wakayama a favorable disposition towards the Christians. The plan is eventually to open a commercial department in the school and thus to extend its sphere of usefulness.
OSAKA AIRIN NIGHT SCHOOL
Founded (ca.) 1904
 The Airin Night School at Osaka is an institution that provides a means whereby those children of the poor who otherwise would be unable to study even the most rudimentary branches may gain a primary school education. The principal of the school is Miss Uta Hayashi and the headmaster, Mr. Jitsunosuke Kobashi.
The Airin Night School was founded about eight years ago by those indefatigable Christians, Miss Hayashi and Mr. Kobashi of the Widely Loving Society. Through the efforts of Bishop Williams a Japanese building, with eight rooms, four on each story, was obtained as the schoolhouse. Since the school has opened there have been over one hundred graduates. Among these there is many a shop-owner who, but for the Airin Night School, would not to-day have known a single ideograph.
There is an attendance of about sixty children. The staff consists of three teachers. The course of instruction covers six years, and the subjects taught are the same as those covered in the first six years of the Government primary schools. The age of the pupils ranges from seven to fourteen years.
The school is supported by an appropriation from the mission, by an allowance from the Hakuaisha, and by scholarships founded by the Osaka City Office. The total income and the total expenses are Yen 320.
The school reaches a class of children who otherwise are not provided for in any way. Since Osaka is a large manufacturing and commercial city, the chance for these children to find profitable employment is excellent if only they have some education. "By the help of God," says the headmaster, "we hope to build more schools of the same character."
KAWAGUCHI COMMERCIAL NIGHT SCHOOL, OSAKA
The Kawaguchi Commercial Night School is a school maintained in connection with Christ Church, Osaka, for the purpose of reaching the mercantile classes in that great commercial city. The principal of the school is the rector of Christ Church, the Rev. Yasutaro Naide.
The need of providing the young men of Osaka with a sound commercial education has become paramount since the city has developed into the important manufacturing centre that it now is—the Birmingham of Japan, it is called. There are three commercial day-schools all enjoying the privileges of Government licenses: one maintained by the Roman Catholic mission, having an enrollment of three hundred pupils; and two managed by the Buddhists. All of these schools stand very high. In the Buddhist schools religion is never directly taught, although occasional lectures on morals are given to the students.
Realizing the importance of such schools, and anxious to establish some point of contact between the Church and the young men of Osaka, Mr. Naide opened his Commercial Night School in 1905. The school has won for itself an excellent reputation, and ever since its beginning has exerted a strong moral influence in the city. Some of its graduates, upon entering a higher commercial school, have done exceedingly well. Others—especially those who are Christians—have the reputation of being ideal clerks.
The school is held in the parish-house of Christ Church, in Kawaguchi, the old foreign part of the city. There are about fifty students, sons of merchants, and clerks from banks, shops, manufacturing concerns, and brokers' offices. There are nine teachers on the staff. The course of study follows that prescribed by the Educational Department of [44/45] the Government, and covers English, bookkeeping, mathematics, commercial practice, economics, and Japanese language. The students come gladly and work industriously. The course covers three years, and classes are held for two hours each from Monday to Friday evenings.
The expenses of the school come to about Yen 1,000 a year. The income is derived mostly from the entrance and the tuition fees. When these are insufficient to cover expenses, they are supplemented by contributions from the teachers and the trustees of the school. There is a debt of Yen 400 incurred by the purchase of utensils—mats, etc.
What is really needed is a good day commercial school, or at least a more adequate staff and better buildings in order to increase the efficiency of the night-school. In order to realize either of these plans, financial help is necessary. To build and maintain a day-school would cost about the same amount as to build and maintain a middle school. To provide a new building for the night-school would cost about Yen 300, and to provide the school with a specialist for its principal, about Yen 20 to 50 monthly according to the amount of time he would be expected to give. Probably Yen 500 a year would make the school a model night-school, and in consequence there would be a rapid increase in the number of pupils. Two hundred pupils would support the school.
Much emphasis is being laid in Japan upon the commercial value of Christian morals. Surely in such schools as the Kawaguchi Night School there is a splendid field for demonstrating the eminently practical character of the religion of Christ.
PART IV: INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS
AOMORI INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL
The Aomori Industrial School is a day-school in which sewing and embroidery are taught to the young women of the district. The Rev. J. C. Ambler is the priest-in-charge, Miss Bristowe is the resident missionary and Miss Sasaki is the directress of the school.
The Church began her work in the north in 1892 by stationing Miss Suthon at Aomori. She organized various Bible and English classes and did a good deal of work among the women. She was succeeded in 1896 by the Rev. and Mrs. Chappell and Miss Irene Mann. In order to increase the opportunities for evangelistic work among the women, Miss Mann opened an industrial school. Besides the instruction in sewing usual in schools of this kind, the pupils were carefully taught the Bible and the teachings of the Church. The success of the school is in large measure due to Mr. E. Kawaguchi, a devoted Churchman of Aomori, by whose interest and help the school was established; and to Miss Inabe, the first directress, and Miss Sasaki.
In 1898 Miss Babcock came to assist Miss Mann, and, after Miss Mann left, Miss Wall was stationed at Aomori for a few years. In 1908 Miss Bristowe succeeded the latter. The same year Mr. Ambler became priest-in-charge of the district. In 1911 a disastrous fire swept the town, and the church and parish-house were destroyed, although the [46/47] house in which the Industrial School is held was saved—the very building that Bishop McKim and Bishop Lloyd wished would burn down.
The school is still housed in these inadequate quarters. It is supported mainly by the fees paid by the pupils. There are about forty girls in the school, a large proportion of whom are the daughters of the well-to-do in the country around who come up to Aomori in order to study at the mission school. Besides the sewing courses, the tea ceremony and flower arrangement are taught.
Every morning there is a service with an instruction which the pupils are required to attend. They thus receive careful Church training, and often those who have not become Christians while in the school later acknowledge Christ their Master, and receive baptism. The school is thus an important centre of influence throughout the northern provinces.
HIROSAKI INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL
Founded Winter of 1904-1905
The Hirosaki Industrial School is a day school where sewing, embroidery, etc., are taught to women who wish to learn how to support themselves. The Rev. J. C. Ambler is the priest-in-charge. The school is taught and managed by Japanese teachers.
The mission station of Hirosaki was opened in 1898 by the Rev. W. F. Madeley. Mr. Limric and Miss Bristowe, and then Mr. Cartwright, Miss Irene Mann and Miss Boyd were placed in charge of the work. Miss Mann was at Hirosaki at the time of the Russian War when the families of so many of the soldiers were in such dire want. In order to help these women to earn a living for themselves and their children, Miss Mann opened an industrial school [47/48] in which she taught sewing and embroidery and paid her pupils from the profits made on their work while they were learning. In addition, of course, the women receive careful Christian instruction.
The school now numbers about twenty. It is housed in a very inadequate building, and has little money for the running expenses since no appropriation is made for its maintenance by the Board. Since 1909, when Miss Mann left Hirosaki, it has been entirely under the care of the Japanese teachers.
ST. ELIZABETH'S SCHOOL OF NEEDLEWORK
Founded as the Kanazawa Industrial School 1900
St. Elizabeth's School of Needlework is an institution in which the working women of Kanazawa are taught how to do all kinds of needlework and are employed to make goods for the market. It is in charge of Miss Peck and Miss Tetlow. The priest-in-charge of Kanazawa is the Rev. B. Ohashi.
A mission station was established at Kanazawa in 1897 by Mr. Dooman and Miss Suthon. Miss Suthon devoted her time chiefly to Bible Classes and little work was done among the women. However, when Mr. Chapman and Mr. Welbourn succeeded Mr. Dooman in 1900, an industrial school was opened and soon proved itself an effectual way of reaching the women of the city.
Kanazawa is a manufacturing city, noted for its habutae, a certain kind of glossy silk, and for its embroideries, silk fabrics and gold foil. In the manufacture of the habutae and embroideries for the large export stores thousands of women are employed, who work for "starvation wages" seven days a week, while daylight lasts. The Industrial School was opened in an attempt to help these poor little [48/49] Japanese mothers. Young girls and even small children are also received into the school and taught needlework.
Miss Suthon commenced in a rented house by employing a few women at better wages than their task-masters. Her first assistant was one of her own servants. Later, as the school grew and she found a market for her goods, an expert teacher trained in Tokyo was employed, and a good-sized two-story, building erected upon the mission grounds.
From the beginning an hour a day was devoted to Bible instruction and singing hymns. Sunday was made a holiday, but an unwritten law was soon established that attendance at Sunday-school and the morning service was expected of every one. From the first the women seemed glad to come to Church, and to-day they are among the most devoted of those who attend the services. Even the unbaptized repeat the General Confession, the Lord's Prayer and the Creed.
When Mr. Chapman was transferred to Nara in 1908, St. Anne's Embroidery School—as it was then called—moved with him. For two years it continued its useful work in its new home under the direction of Miss Mary Scott. Since Miss Scott's resignation in 1910, St. Anne's at Nara has been discontinued.
Meanwhile for two years the industrial school building at Kanazawa was unused. In 1910, however, Miss Peck and Miss Tetlow were sent by the Bishop to reinforce Mr. Ohashi, the priest-in-charge of St. John's Church, Kanazawa, and to reopen the school. The new school known as St. Elizabeth's School of Needlework, [* There seems to be a tendency to go back to the old name of St. Anne's.] is modelled on the same lines as the older one. It receives its support from private patrons of its needlework, and from an appropriation made by the Board.
HASHIMOTO SHUTOKU GIRLS' SCHOOL
Founded (ca.) 1895
 The Hashimoto Shutoku Girls' School is an industrial school for the young girls of the city and surrounding country. The Rev. Isaac Dooman is the priest-in-charge, and Mr. Urabe Tokusaburo, the catechist resident at Hashimoto, is the principal of the school.
Mission work was begun at Hashimoto about 1886 by the Rev. T. S. Tyng. Soon after Mr. Page, as Archdeacon of Kyoto, took charge and the industrial school was opened. This school has proved a most important religious agency in the parish ever since its inception. The classes meet in the parish-house. There are twenty-nine on the school records (1912) with an average attendance of fifteen. The pupils are the daughters of business men, farmers and officials. A few are graduates of the higher schools. There are four teachers.
The school is supported by the appropriation granted by the Board and by the money received in tuition fees.
The curriculum covers the Bible, sewing, tailoring and embroidery, the tea ceremony, flower arrangement, artificial flower making and Japanese composition. The favorite subjects offered are the Bible, sewing and tailoring.
Since the school was founded, there have been forty baptisms among its pupils. The idea of the school, says Mr. Tokusaburo, is "to develop ideal Christian women completely equipped with everything necessary to make them useful and helpful wives and mothers."
IWASA SEWING SCHOOL
About twenty miles south of Wakayama is the town of Iwasa. The oversight of the mission work here falls upon [50/51] Mr. Dooman, resident missionary in Wakayama, but there is a catechist living in Iwasa and the Christians there worship regularly in a rented chapel. Not long ago Mrs. Chihara, the wife of the catechist, started a sewing school for the young women of the town. The school meets in one of the rooms of the chapel building and numbers about twenty-five. The pupils are mostly from the well-to-do families of Iwasa and the neighborhood. The school receives no financial help from the mission.
Sewing and manners are the only things taught. Attendance at the chapel services is voluntary, nevertheless most of the pupils are regular members of the congregation. No definite Christian teaching is given in the school, but inasmuch as Mrs. Chihara is a faithful churchwoman and exercises a strong influence over her pupils, many of them are led to become inquirers into the Way, and a few have received baptism.
"I should like to see the wife of everyone of our workers," says Mr. Dooman, "doing as good work with no money and no murmur, as this noble woman is accomplishing at Iwasa."
PART V: ORPHANAGES
ST. JOHN'S ORPHANAGE
St. John's Orphanage, Osaka, is a home for destitute boys and girls founded and maintained by the members of St. John's Church, Osaka. The rector of St. John's, Mr. Hayakawa, is the director of the orphanage. Kichitaro Kashiwano, a young man who came to the orphanage as a little boy, is the business manager. Since the death of the devoted matron, Miss Fumi Umeda, a year ago (1911) no permanent matron has been appointed.
On Trinity Sunday, 1888, a new preaching place was opened in Osaka as St. John's Church, in connection with the Gakushukwai or Ladies' Institute in which Mrs. Laning (Miss Belle Michie) and Miss Bull were working. The following year the ladies of the parish decided to devote part of the proceeds of a bazaar which they had held to the establishment of a home for destitute children. The work was begun in a small house in the rear of the rectory. But these quarters were very cramped and did not give the children sufficient yard room in which to play outdoors, so in 1894 enough money to purchase a new and more commodious house with a good-sized playground for the children was raised in various ways—by the Christians of Osaka and by friends in America, among whom was a band of little girls in Charlottesville named and working in memory of Mrs. Laning.
Seven years ago (1905) the necessity of moving the [52/53] orphanage to a better part of the city was realized. The old buildings stood on such valuable land that the sale of it was almost sufficient to cover the cost of the new plant. The energetic ladies of the church raised double the amount that was lacking to supplement this, and St. John's Orphanage was able to take up its abode in a comfortable wooden building in the Momoyama district, about fifteen minutes by trolley from the church. The institution owns about 1,500 tsubo of land on its new site, but the buildings are too small to accommodate as many orphans as it wishes. One room is fitted up as a chapel, but the hope is that some day a real chapel may be built.
There are twenty-five children in the orphanage to-day, about half girls and half boys. They attend one of the Government schools near by, and the Sunday-school of one of the C. M. S. churches which is convenient—St. John's is too far away to make it practicable for the little ones to attend Sunday-school there. When the children grow older they are trained for domestic service or for some trade according to their ability. The more promising children are sent to some higher school, to the Poole School (C. M. S.) in Osaka, to St. Margaret's or to St. Paul's. There are two Orphanage girls who are graduates of the Poole School—one at present a teacher in the Widely Loving Society Orphanage, and one married to the principal of a Government school in which she herself is teaching. Another girl is now at St. Margaret's, preparing to go up to the Sendai Training School, and one of the boys is at St. Paul's and a postulant for admission as candidate for Holy Orders. Another "orphan" is the organist of Trinity Cathedral, Tokyo, the only native pipe-organist in the Church.
THE WIDELY LOVING SOCIETY ORPHANAGE
The Hakuaisha or Widely Loving Society Orphanage is an institution in one of the suburbs of Osaka devoted to the Christian training and education of orphans and destitute children. Although not under Church control, it is managed by devoted churchmen and churchwomen, and receives the support and approval of the Bishop in its work. It is governed by a Board of directors who are mostly members of the Church. The present head of the institution is Mr. Kobashi, who with Mrs. Kobashi and Miss Hayashi runs the orphanage. The chaplain is Mr. Naide, rector of Christ Church, Osaka.
Like Holy Trinity Orphanage, the Hakuaisha was founded as a private enterprise—a venture of faith—by a Japanese churchman, whose heart was touched at the pitiful stories told about the children left orphans by the Gifu earthquake in 1891. This gentleman, Mr. Kobashi, had hardly done more than begin his beautiful work, when he died. His brother, who succeeded him as head of the family, did not feel in as close sympathy with it, and there seemed danger that the plan would fall through. A younger brother, however, Mr. Jitsunosuke Kobashi, was found ready to carry on the work. He has devoted his life and his slender means to the Hakuaisha with the result that to-day it is the largest of the orphanages connected with our mission.
At first the orphanage was at Osaka, but after the death of the founder it moved to Tokyo, where it remained until 1899. At that time a large farm was bought for it near Osaka and it was moved to its present home. In the famine year, 1906, fifty children were received from the famine-stricken districts. In 1908, through the gift of two [54/55] American ladies, the Church of the Redeemer was built for the children of the Hakuaisha and Mr. Naide became the rector. A school maintained in connection with the orphanage is attended by some hundred and forty children.
The orphanage is supported by the work of the orphans, and by the gifts of friends in Japan and in this country. The children are taught to be as far as possible self-supporting, and with this end in view an industrial department has been established. The older ones work on the farm and sell the milk and vegetables. The younger ones make envelopes, ropes, candles and tooth-brushes.
The religious training of the children is carefully supervised. Daily prayers are said, the children attend the Sunday-school at the Church of the Redeemer, and are taught the Bible and the teachings of the Church in the day-school.
HOLY TRINITY ORPHANAGE
Holy Trinity Orphanage, Takinogawa, Tokyo, is a home for destitute girls with a special department for feebleminded children. It is a private enterprise, established and maintained by a Japanese gentleman, but it is a distinctly Christian institution, and an important feature of the work of the Sei Ko Kwai in North Tokyo. It is managed by the founder, Mr. Ryoichi Ishii, assisted by his devoted wife. At present (1912) the chaplain is the Rev. Mr. Kobayashi of Tokyo.
In the year 1891 a terrible earthquake devastated the provinces of Owari and Mino. As one of the saddest results of this disaster, a large number of children were left orphans. Taking advantage of their helplessness, some men made an attempt to get possession of the little girls for [55/56] dishonorable purposes. This report came to the ears of a young teacher at St. Margaret's School, and so stirred his heart that he resolved to devote himself to saving these poor children. Accordingly he gave up his position, hurried to the scene of the calamity, and there collected a number of orphans whom he took back to Tokyo with him. A house was rented at Oji and the orphanage was begun. Later the name of Holy Trinity was given it.
As the orphanage grew, new buildings were added, also a chapel and a playground. For a long time the Rev. J. K. Ban acted as the chaplain.
In 1906 it became necessary to move, and the orphanage was transferred to Takinogawa, near Tokyo. There is a well-equipped plant consisting of the chapel, a dormitory for girls, dining-room, office, and school-house. Nearby are the boys' dormitory and a hospital.
Among the little girls with whom the orphanage started there was one feeble-minded child. Her education presented a great problem, and in order to solve it Mr. Ishii decided to study the question of training the feeble-minded. This he has accomplished so successfully that at present the department for the feeble-minded is of chief importance in the school. The girls in the orphanage proper are trained as nurses or teachers for these unfortunate children, and so patient and faithful are they that they are in demand as attendants in similar institutions, for it is said that only Christians can successfully do this work. Mr. Ishii himself has studied in the United States and is considered in Japan an authority on the subject. He is often asked to lecture, and to confer with teachers in the normal and grammar schools.
Mr. Ishii has invented various machines and contrivances for use in developing the stunted faculties of the children, in increasing their power of attention and in teaching them differences of shape, substance and color. His little charges [56/57] always improve under his care, and some of them become in time perfectly normal.
The feeble-minded children respond wonderfully to Christian teaching. They are fond of Church and Sunday-school and many of the more developed ones can appreciate the love of Christ and His coming to earth as a little child. They enjoy singing hymns, and on Sunday evenings, in their impatience to begin, sometimes ring the bell themselves before the hour.
In connection with the orphanage is a school having a six-year primary department, a five-year middle school and a two-year course of training in the education of the feebleminded. The girls in the orphanage attend this school, and receive careful Christian instruction.
Holy Trinity Orphanage is supported by the fees received from the parents of the feeble-minded children—most of them come from the well-to-do classes—and by gifts from friends in this country and Japan. If Mr. Ishii were willing to emphasize the religious side of the work a little less, he might have many powerful patrons among his fellow-countrymen. Perhaps these would-be benefactors do not realize that it was the love of Christ dwelling in the heart of the young teacher that gave him the inspiration and the faith to undertake his great work at a time when there was no apparent source of maintenance for his enterprise.
PART VI: KINDERGARTENS
THE GAYLORD HART MITCHELL MEMORIAL
The Gaylord Hart Mitchell Memorial Kindergarten at Akita was the first kindergarten opened in connection with our mission in Japan. It is at present in charge of Miss Ethel Correll (daughter of Dr. Correll of Tsu). The priest-in-charge is the Rev. C. H. Evans.
Work was begun at Akita in 1902 by the Rev, and Mrs. W. P. Madeley. Mrs. Madeley had no sooner settled herself in her new home than she determined that there should be a kindergarten for the children of the March Wind, as the little ones of this northern coast town are called. Accordingly the Little Helpers promised an annual sum for the support of the kindergarten, and in 1905 Miss Mead opened the doors of her Japanese dwelling to the children of Akita. She soon had her kindergarten full and was writing cheerful letters home, but one night her house and all her possessions were destroyed by fire. When the babies came the next morning to find that there was no place in which to hold their kindergarten, they wept lustily. Miss Mead decided to look for another house, but the catechist, saying, "It is better under the shadow of the cross," offered to open his house, next door to the church, for the children. So the kindergarten was held there until 1908, when the new building, erected as a memorial by the Little Helpers, was ready.
 This building is pleasant and airy and situated on high ground. The street on which it is situated, however, is a back street, neither very broad nor very clean, and in one of the poorer sections of the town. Consequently the pupils are children of the humbler folk. Not more than sixty children are allowed to enter at any one time. The average attendance is forty-five. There are three assistant teachers, all of whom teach in the Sunday-school as well as the kindergarten, and call at the homes of their pupils.
The kindergarten begins at nine o'clock with a hymn, and a prayer repeated by the teachers and the children in unison. Once a week a Bible story is told to the children. Before they eat their midday luncheon, they say grace, a custom which their mothers say they take back with them to their homes. The usual kindergarten work and games occupy the rest of the morning.
The kindergarten is now supported by an allowance from the Board and by the monthly fees received from the children.
The missionary value of the kindergarten is two-fold, first as a means of training the little ones themselves, and second as a means of entering the homes. In order to keep hold of the children after they graduate from the kindergarten, an alumni association with meetings every other month has been started.
(Sei Ai Yochien)
The Sei Ai Yochien, or Holy Love Kindergarten, is maintained by our mission in one of the worst towns in the northern part of Japan. The city of Wakamatsu was one of the last outposts of the followers of the Shogun at the [59/60] time of the Restoration. The taint of rebellion has clung to the town ever since, and impeded its progress. Moreover, there is a great deal of sake made in Wakamatsu, and consequent moral laxity. The kindergartner in charge of the Sei Ai Yochien is Miss Bessie Mead; the priest-in-charge of the station is the Rev. W. F. Madeley.
The station at Wakamatsu was established in 1902 by Mr. Cooke. In 1906 Mr. Madeley succeeded him. The first thing that Mrs. Madeley did—as she had done at Akita—was to open a kindergarten.
The kindergarten is held in a Japanese dwelling near the centre of the town, in easy walking distance for even the smallest pupils. The house is a little too small; besides, it has to be used for the services until the church—for which money is slowly being raised—is built. The enrollment is limited, and even with fifty-nine—the number now in attendance—the circle is crowded. The pupils come mostly from the homes of shopkeepers, although some are children of physicians. The attendance is regular and they enjoy coming.
There are two well-trained Japanese teachers, both adapted to their work. An untrained assistant is also employed. The foreign supervisor—Miss Mead—attends to the finances, and superintends the work in every way, but does not teach the children. She visits the kindergarten constantly in order to know the children, and calls on the parents of the pupils in their homes. This visiting in the homes is, of course, one of the most important parts of the work. Mothers' meetings are held at irregular intervals.
On Sunday at nine o'clock there is kindergarten Sunday-school, with an average attendance of fifty. Some of the former pupils also attend, and the number has been as great as eighty.
Besides this the children are trained in lessons of practical Christianity. For example, at the harvest festival, [60/61] they are asked to bring fruit and vegetables with them to the kindergarten, and then these are distributed among some poor old women whose stories and whose needs are told to the little ones.
Although there have as yet been no baptisms as a direct result of the kindergarten, Miss Mead says that the prejudice against Christianity has been greatly lessened, and that in the case of the children at least she feels sure that they will never be opposed to the teachings of the Master.
The mission kindergarten is the only one in Yumoto. It is managed by an earnest Japanese Christian, Hatsuse San. The station at Yumoto is under the care of the Rev. James Chappell of Mito.
The kindergarten was originally started simply to give employment to Hatsuse San after her husband left her, but it has proved its great value in the work of the mission. Neither Hatsuse San nor her assistant have ever had any training as kindergartners, but they do very well nevertheless and the people of Yumoto seem glad to send their children for the teaching given them by these women. Every summer Hatsuse San goes to Tokyo to a summer school and comes back full of new ideas which she proceeds to put into practice. Her assistant has become a Christian through her influence. The girl was baptized during the absence of her father. On his return he was very angry, took her away from the kindergarten, and destroyed her Bible and Prayer Book. But later he relented, and she is once more doing good work at the kindergarten.
The kindergarten is held in the kogisho or preaching-place—there is no church at Yumoto. There are forty children [61/62] enrolled with an average attendance of thirty-six. The kindergarten is supported by an allowance from Mr. Chappell and by the fees the children pay.
The children attend Sunday-school and some of their parents come to the services. As a result of the school some of the parents and of the children have received baptism.
(Shin Ai Kindergarten)
The Shin Ai Kindergarten, or the Kindergarten of the Love of God, is situated in one of the worst slums in Tokyo. It is in charge of Mr. Peter Kunekichi Goto.
Bimbo rin kodakusan—many children have the poor—runs the Japanese proverb. This seems especially true of the Shitaya district of Tokyo, where families of seven or eight eat, sleep, and work in rooms of four and a half mats (9 x 9 feet). The games of the children reflect the moral depravity which has brought the families to such a region, since they delight in playing the "pawnbroker," and the "burglar." After working among these wretched people for some time, Mr. Goto decided, in order to reach the children and thereby help the community as a whole, to open a kindergarten. He himself has a great hold over the little folk, since he loves them and sympathizes with them. Accordingly, in September, 1907, he started the "creche," which has ever since proved a potent means of bettering the conditions in the slums. In 1910, with gifts from the Ministering Children's League in Tokyo, and from other friends, a new and commodious building, with a little yard, was procured. An organ was bought with money got by selling a diamond ring given to Mr. Goto by a young Tokyo [62/63] lady, whose heart was touched by the story of the faith of one of the little children in the kindergarten.
The building, with its light and airy kindergarten room, is owned by the mission, but the land is only rented. On Sundays an altar is brought out from behind curtains, and service is held in the kindergarten room.
There is an attendance of fifty-four children, coining from bad and vicious homes. Besides the director, Mr. Goto, there are two teachers and an untrained helper. The work each day begins with prayers and a hymn. The children are encouraged in thrift by the creche bank where they deposit each day the half of their ko-zukai, or pin-money, which every child in Japan, no matter how poor, expects daily for sweetmeats. This amounts to a half sen a day. The kindergarten is divided into two classes, the faith and the love classes. They are taught the regular kindergarten subjects, and in addition thirty minutes each day is devoted to religious training.
This work is supported by special contributions and by an allowance made by the Bishop. For its further development, however, financial help is greatly needed.
Every week a mothers' meeting is held, at which a religious talk and other instruction are given for the mothers of the kindergarten children.
Most of the Christian families connected with our work in Shitaya have come into the Church through the influence of their little ones in the creche, who act as missionaries in repeating in their homes the Gospel story.
 The kindergarten at Sendai is really one department of the Sendai Training School for Mission Women. (See article on the Training School.) It is planned to open in connection with the kindergarten a training school for kindergartners. Miss Fyock is the kindergartner-in-charge, and the Rev. A. W. Cooke is the chaplain.
The Sendai kindergarten was begun in 1909 by Miss Fyock, who was appointed especially for this work. That autumn a special building was erected for the kindergarten at the same time as the Training School buildings. It stands opposite the latter, on a main street where many passers-by stop to see what the foreigners are doing with those joyous children inside. There is a pleasant playground planted with pines and plum trees, and a Japanese garden with sandboxes under the shade of the wistaria, and a swing and seesaw. The house itself is large, there being room for one hundred and twenty. Thus far, however, the smallness of the teaching staff has made it unwise to admit more than forty. There is a sunny playroom with chairs of different sizes from which the babies invariably roll on to their native seat—the floor—until taught how to sit in foreign fashion. Upstairs is a dormitory for the normal students-to-be.
The children come from the families of small tradesmen, artisans, teachers, and army officers. There is an average attendance of forty-three out of forty-six enrolled. Miss Fyock has two Japanese assistants, one of them a graduate of St. Margaret's who gave up a far better position in order to engage in the Master's work.
The children begin to arrive at eight, although the bell [64/65] does not ring until nine. They open with hymns and the Lord's Prayer. Bible stories are regularly taught to the children. The regular kindergarten course of training is followed.
The school is supported by a monthly allowance from the Board and by the fees of the children. The expenses, however, somewhat exceed the income, and it takes very careful management to make both ends meet. The Japanese assistants receive the munificent salary of eight and seven dollars a month respectively.
In connection with the kindergarten there is a Sunday-school. Recently special classes for the nurse maids—ill brought-up little girls of fourteen or fifteen—have been started. There is a mothers' meeting, and it is planned in the near future to begin a fathers' meeting. Twice a week a class is held for those of the kindergarten children who have already graduated and are now attending the grammar school.
Visits are made to the families of the pupils and the teachers thus gain an entrance into the homes and gradually an influence over the parents. It frequently happens that the child is the means of leading the whole family to the Master.
HATUSKARI KINDERGARTEN, KAWAGOE
The Hatsukari Kindergarten, Kawagoe, is under the direction of Miss Upton. The Rev. Matsakazu Tai is the priest-in-charge of Kawagoe.
Kawagoe is the oldest of the out-stations in the northern district. Mr. Tai and Mr. Kanai began work there in the early eighties, and the church was built in 1889. The present kindergarten was started by Deaconess Ranson and Miss Heywood in 1907 in a rented house. Mr. Tai had already [65/66] had a small kindergarten, but it had dwindled to almost nothing, and the three or four children who remained met informally in the house of the former teacher. In May, 1908, the Bishop bought a foreign style house in a different part of the city, and the two kindergartens were united as the Hatsukari or "Wild Goose" (the former name of Kawagoe) Kindergarten. In Japan, the parents of the children leave the matter of their attendance at kindergarten to their own choice. At first many little ones, curious to see what this new thing was, crowded to Miss Heywood and the Deaconess, but they soon tired of the novelty, and left again. Upon this the Bishop decided that it would be better to move the kindergarten and supplied money with which to buy some land in a different part of the city. At the time of this change, certain necessary alterations were made in the house, and now, although the building is not ideal, the essentials at least are secured.
The kindergarten is situated in a central position, near one of the large primary schools in Kawagoe. The building is of foreign style, with three class-rooms, a circle room, and rooms for the caretaker. It can accommodate sixty children. The enrollment varies from month to month; there are generally about fifty-five. The children come mostly from the merchant class. There are three teachers in the kindergarten, but since none of these have been trained, the results obtained are not very satisfactory.
The expenses of the work are met by the fees received from the children; by a monthly allowance of $12.50 from the Board; and by specials.
The results of the Kawagoe Kindergarten are in some ways discouraging; the teachers, as stated, are untrained, and the standard set by the Government and the other mission kindergartens is not attained. With greater financial support, however, these defects could be remedied. Not many have as yet been led to the Church through this [66/67] agency, but prejudice has been broken down, and some of the children have become regular attendants at the Sunday-school.
In connection with the Kawagoe Kindergarten, some work has been done among the neglected country children nearby. In Japan the greatest poverty and misery is found in the small towns and villages rather than in the cities. These people have, comparatively speaking, but small opportunity to educate their children, and of what opportunity they have they take little advantage. The children are taught nothing at home, and even among themselves they seem to have no games or interests. During the time that the Kawagoe Kindergarten was being moved, the teachers opened a kindergarten at Igusa, a neighboring town, and succeeded very well with it. At present all that they have time to do is to teach in two country Sunday-schools. But the hope is that some time kindergartens may be established in all the country towns and villages.
ALL SAINTS' KINDERGARTEN, URAWA
All Saints' kindergarten, Urawa, is under the direction of Miss Upton of Kawagoe. The station is ministered to by the Rev. C. F. Sweet, one of the professors at Trinity Divinity School.
The work at Urawa dates far back in the history of the Tokyo district, but it was 1901 before the first resident missionary, the Rev. William Smart, began his work at this station. The kindergarten was started in the autumn of 1911 as a private venture by Miss Upton in the hope that she might make of it a model kindergarten and establish a training school for workers among the country children of Japan. She engaged a trained kindergartner at her own [67/68] expense, and, with some money given to her by a friend, purchased materials and equipment. The Bishop has since then taken over the kindergarten and granted it an allowance of Yen 15 a month.
Miss Upton hoped that All Saints' Kindergarten would have twenty-five pupils when it opened; instead, fifty applied. There are now over seventy-five. This necessitates two sessions a day. The attendance at the morning session is much more regular than at the afternoon session. The teacher has proved herself very efficient, and has become good friends with the parents of her pupils. The great need is a proper building with adequate accommodations and equipment for all the children who wish to come.
The Aomori Kindergarten is under the direction of the resident missionary, Miss Flora M. Bristowe. The priest-in-charge of the station is the Rev. J. C. Ambler.
The station at Aomori was opened in 1892 by Miss Suthon. The kindergarten was not founded until 1908. It is inadequately housed, but there are thirty-five or forty children in attendance. The kindergarten is supported by an allowance from the Bishop, and by gifts from friends in America, and by the fees—very low—which the children pay.
A special class has lately been begun in which those children who are already baptized, or whose parents are under instruction and wish to have their children become Christians, are taught the Lord's Prayer. There are about twelve in this class. All the children in the kindergarten can say the Creed and a shortened form of the Ten Commandments. Special classes are given for those children who have passed on into the ordinary schools.
 Since the teachers wish to feel that they are not emphasizing the Christian side of their instruction without the knowledge and approval of the parents of the children, no child is admitted into the kindergarten if the parents are opposed to the avowed aim—namely, to make the children good, and eventually to make them Christians, an aim which is distinctly explained to them before their child is enrolled. The results have been surprisingly favorable, inasmuch as a number of the families of the kindergarten pupils are catechumens. The mothers' meeting is well attended by women who are interested, but not yet ready to acknowledge the Master.
Of course the homes of all the children are regularly visited by Miss Bristowe and her assistants—this, too, after due warning, since the parents are told when they register their child that they will receive calls from the mission workers and be asked to attend meetings at which they will be explained the Christian teaching which is being given to their children.
The kindergarten at Hachinohe is under the direction of Miss Flora M. Bristowe, the resident missionary at Aomori. It is taught by the Hachinohe mission woman, Hoshi San. The station is ministered to by the Rev. J. C. Ambler of Aomori.
The kindergarten was begun in 1910. It meets in the kogisho or preaching-place. Hoshi San receives no salary except her regular pay as Bible woman, and the few sen received in fees from the pupils pay the expenses of the kindergarten. There are about fifteen children in attendance. Only those are received whose parents understand that coming to the kindergarten means that their children are [69/70] to be taught the religion of Christ, and they themselves are to be visited by the teacher. The work is only a year old, but one of the mothers is already a catechumen, and several attend the mothers' meeting.
The kindergarten at Morioka is under the direction of Miss Flora M. Bristowe, the resident missionary at Aomori. The station is ministered to by the Rev. J. C. Ambler of Aomori.
The kindergarten was begun in the autumn of 1911. It has a comfortable building. Only twelve children are enrolled thus far, although more wished to come. These were not admitted by Miss Bristowe because their parents were opposed to Christianity. The same system prevails here as at Aomori, and no children are allowed to come to the kindergarten whose parents are unwilling to have them taught the Gospel. Already the parents of the children in the kindergarten are becoming interested in the Church.
The Kumagaya kindergarten is in charge of Mr. J. S. Kitazawa, the resident catechist. The station is under the care of the Rev. R. W. Andrews of Mayebashi. The Rev. S. Kuwada is the native pastor.
Work was first begun at Kumagaya when Miss Ada Wright was stationed there in 1902 in a house built with United Offering money. In 1910 the kindergarten was opened, and it soon won a place for itself in the esteem of the townspeople. "It turns their hearts toward the Church," says Mr. Kitazawa. There are about fifteen pupils, [70/71] children of merchants, mechanics, officials, physicians, and even Buddhist priests. Two teachers manage the kindergarten and visit the families of the children. The usual kindergarten work and play is pursued, and there is added Christian teaching and training. The financial condition of the kindergarten is satisfactory, the money coming from the fees of the pupils and from the mission. In connection with the kindergarten there is a mothers' meeting once a month. Of course the children of the kindergarten attend the regular Sunday-school.
ST. JOHN'S KINDERGARTEN, KYOTO
St. John's Kindergarten is the older of the two kindergartens established by our mission in Kyoto. It is under the care of Miss Mabel Bacon. The priest-in-charge of St. John's Church is the Rev. H. Yamabe.
St. John's Kindergarten was begun in 1910 by Miss Bacon, who had been appointed that year for the special purpose of starting work of this kind in Kyoto. St. John's was Bishop Williams's parish while he ministered in Kyoto, and the church was the last one built by him before leaving Japan. The kindergarten is held in two well-lighted and well-ventilated rooms on the ground floor of the church. There is a good-sized yard, around the sides of which are twenty small gardens in which both vegetables and flowers are planted and tended by the children.
Forty pupils are enrolled, the children of small shopkeepers, proprietors of "milk-halls," printing offices, fan shops, toy shops, incense shops, second-hand clothing shops, cake shops and drug shops, sake dealers, toy makers, carpenters, etc. Children from such homes play mostly on the streets and are very bright and well informed about the happenings in their little worlds. The kindergarten is the [71/72] only mission kindergarten in that particular district of Kyoto, and children attend from a good distance. There are more applicants than can be admitted.
Of the three Japanese teachers only the director is a certified graduate of the Kobe Training School. The two assistants are graduates of mission schools, who have been given their training in kindergarten methods at St. John's.
The customary kindergarten subjects are taught, and it is a gratification, writes Miss Bacon, to see how eagerly these children enter into them. They are particularly fond of games that dramatize the deeds of great heroes and thus give opportunity for an expression of patriotism. Moreover, they do especially well in all kinds of handwork.
The tuition fee is sixty sen (thirty cents gold) a month per child. Out of this all the incidental expenses, new material, heating and janitor's wages, are paid. The teachers' salaries are met by the appropriation of $200 made by the Board, any deficit being made up by the Bishop.
About half of the children who attend go on Sundays to the Sunday-school of St. John's Church. Considering the fact that the church is in the midst of the Buddhist temple district, this is a most encouraging proportion. Once a month an alumni meeting is held in order that those who have passed away from the influence of the kindergarten into the public schools may not be entirely lost sight of. Three-fourths of the graduates attend.
Mothers' meetings are held every six weeks. The women seem glad of the opportunity to meet socially, and listen attentively to the talk or program prepared for them. Thus far none of them have taken an active part, but Miss Bacon hopes that they soon will feel well enough acquainted with the teachers to do so.
Miss Bacon rates the importance of the kindergarten in the evangelization of the people very high. Any child who spends two years, she says, at a mission kindergarten, at the [72/73] impressionable age of five or six, absorbs things which will never be forgotten, and which are bound to have an effect on his future life.
ST. MARY'S KINDERGARTEN, KYOTO
St. Mary's Kindergarten is maintained in connection with St. Mary's Church (see the account of Student Work). It is under the care of Miss Mabel Bacon. The priest-in-charge of St. Mary's is the Rev. W. J. Cuthbert.
St. Mary's Kindergarten was begun in January, 1911, by Miss Bacon. It is held in the small building adjoining St. Mary's Church, which is used for the kindergarten in the morning, and for students' classes in French and English in the afternoon. There is no playground for the children, but Mr. Cuthbert is trying to secure a piece of property next to the compound to be used for this purpose. The children, therefore, have to spend their two recesses indoors.
St. Mary's is situated in one of the most desirable residential sections of Kyoto, and most of the pupils come from the homes of the better classes, such as bankers, doctors, and professors in the University and the High Schools. They are always accompanied by servants, and so much waited on are they that they are quite spoiled. As a result of the life they lead they do not see as much of what is happening in the world about them as do the children who attend St. John's Kindergarten, and consequently they are slow in entering into the studies and the games. But when they wake up, they are as eager and enthusiastic as any one could wish. Since St. Mary's is the only kindergarten in the neighborhood, the full quota of twenty-five is always enrolled. The attendance is irregular, though, since these little ones are kept at home by anxious mothers for the very slightest cold.
There are two Japanese teachers. The director is a certified graduate of the Hiroshima Kindergarten Training School, and the assistant a graduate of the Shin Jo Gakko (the English mission school in Kobe) with what special training she has been able to receive under Miss Bacon at St. Mary 's.
The regular kindergarten subjects are taught, and it is a pleasure to see these children—at first so timid and lacking in self-reliance—acquire the ability to do what is required of them, and to do it very well indeed. It takes a longer time to obtain results with these than with the children of the poorer classes. The kindergarten charges a tuition fee of seventy-five sen (thirty-seven and a half cents gold) which meets the expenses of janitor, fuel, materials, etc. The teachers' salaries are paid from the appropriation of $200 made by the Board.
So far the attendance from the kindergarten at St. Mary 's Sunday-school has not been large. Never more than eight have as yet come at once. The reason for this lies in the fact that the upper classes are slower and less willing to accept Christianity than the poorer people,—not entirely because of opposition to Christianity per se, but because the city officials and the local governors insist upon having their employees attend at the Shinto shrines and oppose all tendencies toward the "Western religion." This notwithstanding the fact that the Japanese Government grants religious toleration.
Once a month there is an alumni meeting for the graduates of the kindergarten and the children seem glad to be back again in the old rooms, playing their favorite games and doing the handwork they most enjoy.
The mothers' meeting is also held once a month, and the women seem interested and glad to come, although as yet they are not willing to take any active part.
PART VII: STUDENT WORK
Work among the students at the Government schools and colleges is carried on by means of hostels providing board and lodging for students, and by mission work connected with the churches in the student districts. In Kanda, Tokyo, there are All Saints' Church and the Girls' Boarding-House under Miss Boyd; in Hongo, Tokyo, St. Timothy's Church and the Doshikwai; in Kyoto, St. Mary's Mission; in Fukui, a hostel for boys; and in Kanazawa, the Sanichisha or Trinity House, a hostel for young men. A hostel for girls has been planned for Sendai, but as yet it has not been possible to put this plan into action.
The peculiar necessity for such work will be realized when on one hand is considered the great importance of reaching the class from which will come the future leaders of Japan, and, on the other, the difficulties and dangers which beset the students in the Government schools. Western education is a new thing for the boys, education of any kind—except in household matters—is a new thing for the girls. From all over the country, from coast villages and mountain hamlets, as well as from the large cities, the young men and women are crowding into the Government schools and the Imperial Universities. Dormitories are provided for some—by the Buddhists, by the great diamyos for the students from their provinces, and by the Government itself. But these are inadequate and usually poor. The greater number of the students are living in cheap boarding-houses. They have no so-called "college life." There are no athletics, no [75/76] amusements, no clubs and fraternities. It is not hard to see that under such conditions—especially considering the very low moral standard that exists in Japan—the dangers that beset, and the influences that surround, these young men and women are matters for grave anxiety. There are two great student districts in Tokyo, Kanda and Hongo. In Kanda there are various Government schools, in Hongo is situated the Imperial University.
ALL SAINTS' CHURCH AND
As early as 1893 Mr. Tyng had opened a boarding-house for students in the former district, but this attempt was short-lived. Since then student work in Kanda has centred about All Saints' Church. When the Rev. Arthur Lloyd became president of St. Paul's, he undertook the charge of All Saints', which he worked in connection with the English School in Kanda, at that time a department of St. Paul's. Mr. Tucker followed Mr. Lloyd at All Saints'. In 1912 the Rev. J. H. Lloyd was placed in charge of the Mission to the Kanda students. With money from the missionary thank offering of 1907 a new church on a new site in the very centre of Kanda was erected. In 1907 Miss Lulu Boyd was placed at All Saints' to help Mr. Tucker. She rented a house, which she opened as a hostel for girls. Those who live in the house are under her constant supervision, and she is able to exercise over them that restraining influence which is so sadly lacking in the lives of most of the students. They are required to report to Miss Boyd or the Bible woman when they return from school and are not allowed to run out on the streets at all hours as their friends in the boarding-houses do. Their day begins with prayers, and they are taught the Bible. The work is greatly hampered by lack of recreation rooms and proper equipment.
 In Hongo the student work is of more recent date. Bishop McKim had long wanted to establish a mission among the University students, modelled on the Cambridge Mission at Delhi and the Oxford Mission at Calcutta, but it was not until 1901 that he found the right man to undertake this work, a native deacon, the Rev. Barnabus Sakai, educated in the schools of Japan, and at Harvard and the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, U. S. A. Bishop McKim accordingly sent Mr. Sakai to America to appeal for funds for such a mission. In 1903 the Doshikwai, with Mr. Sakai at its head, was opened, and the same year evangelistic work among the Hongo students was started by the Rev. J. A. Welbourn.
The Doshikwai, or "Fellow Feeling Society," is a Church hostel situated near the University grounds, having accommodation in its three small buildings for eighteen men. It offers to the student an opportunity to secure, at no greater outlay than he would have to make for rooms in one of the unsatisfactory boarding-houses, an attractive home amidst healthy influences and pleasant surroundings. Residence at the hostel is not limited to Christians. Any man of good character, willing to make some study of the Christian religion in order to understand its teachings and its purpose, may be received whenever there is some vacancy. The aim of the Doshikwai is to bring those who are not Christians into daily contact with those who are, to put them into the way of knowing Christianity and thus of being influenced by it. There are prayers every morning at seven which the members are expected to attend, and where each in turn reads the chapter in the Bible. On Friday evenings there are special meetings for the discussion of such topics as "Personal Religious Experience," when addresses are made by the Japanese, English and American [77/78] clergymen in the city. On Sundays there are services for the students at St. Timothy's Church.
ST. TIMOTHY'S CHURCH
St. Timothy's is situated near the Doshikwai, and although both institutions have the same aim their work is independent. When Mr. Welbourn started St. Timothy's Mission, the only place of worship in which he could gather his congregations was a small room in his own house, which he had fitted up as a chapel. Here he organized Bible Classes and began holding services. Although fairly successful in gathering men into the Bible classes, it was hard to get any to attend services held in a private house. For this reason Mr. Welbourn appealed to the College men in the United States to raise money sufficient for the erection of a student church. Several thousand dollars was raised in this way, and that was supplemented by a gift from the Men's Thank Offering, with the result that on Advent Sunday, 1909, the Bishop of Tokyo was able to consecrate a church for St. Timothy's. The new church is immediately opposite the College Dormitory, in which are some six hundred of the fifteen thousand students living in Hongo.
ST. MARY'S MISSION, KYOTO
In Kyoto work similar to St. Timothy's Mission was begun in the same year, 1903, by the Rev. W. J. Cuthbert, as St. Mary's Mission. Mr. Cuthbert has a house near the Imperial University, which he opens to the students. There are reading and sitting-rooms, where they may spend their spare time, and upstairs a chapel is arranged and services and classes are held for the students. Lately some of the young women have begun to attend the Mission services. With the growth of the work a regular church building [78/79] became an absolute necessity, and in 1910 Mr. Cuthbert was able to purchase a site and begin the building of St. Mary 's Church.
PUKUI AND KANAZAWA HOSTELS
At Fukui and Kanazawa there are hostels for the students working at the Government schools. These have been in existence for a number of years, and are conducted on much the same plan as the Doshikwai.
PART VIII: HOSPITALS
ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL
St. Luke's Hospital is the only Christian, and one of the few Charity Hospitals, in Tokyo. It is considered the finest hospital for its size in Asia. St. Luke's is the only medical work connected with our mission in the northern jurisdiction, although there were formerly two other dispensaries in Tokyo—the Good Samaritan Dispensary, opened by Mr. Sugiura in connection with the True Light Church, but lately discontinued, and St. Andrew's Riverside Mission, maintained by Dr. Teusler for a few years soon after he came out. The physician in charge of St. Luke's is Dr. Rudolf B. Teusler.
The first medical missionary sent by the American Church to Tokyo was Dr. F. W. Harrell, who came out early in 1884, and in the following May opened a dispensary in which he treated a large number of patients. Feeling that a hospital was an absolute necessity for effectual work, he appealed for money to build one. The Woman's Auxiliary immediately undertook to raise the sum. Meanwhile Dr. Harrell opened a second dispensary and built a temporary ward. But this fine beginning in the end came to very little, for in 1887 Dr. Harrell, having accepted a Government position, resigned from the mission, and the work was closed for three years.
In 1890 Dr. J. J. Sellwood, under appointment of the [80/81] Board, reached Tokyo and promptly reopened the dispensary, but owing to his wife's ill health was forced to resign the next year.
Nevertheless in the summer of 1891 Bishop Hare gave directions to build the hospital for which money had been provided some years before, and this was accordingly done in Tsukiji. Dr. Osada, a Japanese physician, was placed in charge, and the Cathedral clergy undertook the evangelistic work in connection with the hospital. It was impossible, however, for St. Luke's with its poor equipment and its inadequate staff to amount to very much, and therefore in 1899 Bishop McKim asked for a foreign physician to be sent to take charge, saying that it was better to have no hospital than one that did no credit to the mission.
Accordingly Dr. Rudolf Bolling Teusler of Richmond, Virginia—a young physician of brilliant promise who had already gained a reputation for himself in his own city—was appointed, and sailed for Japan in January, 1900. The following year the Bishop reported that the new missionary had already succeeded in reviving this "moribund institution.''
The hospital was closed when Dr. Teusler reached Tokyo. After a year of preparation he opened two dispensaries, the one in Tsukiji, and St. Andrew's Riverside Mission for the fishermen and sailors. Later the hospital was reopened, room by room and ward by ward as the proper equipment was secured. A drug store was also established, with Mr. Akimoto in charge. This has always proved a most important and profitable department of the Hospital.
The next year a training school for native nurses was begun with Miss Iyo Araki at its head. Miss Araki had nursed Miss Mailes during her terrible illness and had accompanied her to the United States on her return in 1894. Subsequently she had been trained at a hospital in Richmond, [81/82] Virginia. To Miss Araki, together with Mr. Akimoto and Dr. Kubo, who became Dr. Teusler's assistant a little later, is due in large measure the success which Dr. Teusler has been able to achieve. Two years ago (1910) Mr. Akimoto died. Miss Araki and Dr. Kubo are still at the hospital.
The question of equipment soon became serious. The number of patients steadily increased until the wards and private rooms were full to overflowing and there was a waiting-list. Sufficient money was procured in 1901 to build an annex containing new operating rooms, seven private rooms, a large drug store and a new dispensary. The old dispensary was utilized for wards and nurses' rooms. In 1903 a sterilizing plant was added. By 1904 the doctor was again begging for new buildings. Some money was raised in Tokyo by the foreign colony, who were all much interested in St. Luke's, and more was given in the United States. It was possible with these funds to remodel and enlarge the old buildings, and to erect a new building, containing a beautiful operating room, a cement ward, and other surgical rooms. In 1906 the present fine sterilizing plant was installed, and in 1908—on new ground acquired by the hospital—a dispensary capable of accommodating two hundred patients, and several private rooms, were added to the hospital plant.
On the 22d of January, 1911, Dr. Teusler celebrated the tenth anniversary of the opening of the present St. Luke's by a dinner to the medical profession in Tokyo. A few days afterwards a notice was sent to Dr. Teusler that the Emperor of Japan had been pleased to notice the growth and development of St. Luke's Hospital, and that, in recognition of their work done among the poor and afflicted, they would receive a present as a token of His Majesty's approval. Soon afterwards the present arrived and with it a scroll inscribed [82/83] as follows:
PRESENTED TO ST. LUKES HOSPITAL, TOKYO
The hospital has striven for many years saving the poor, and in excellent works of charity. You are charged to continue these beneficent deeds and, with the ever-increasing mercy, good results will come.
To applaud your merit this document is given in accordance with the will of
HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY.
February 11th, 44th. Year Meiji.
The Minister of the Imperial Household.
BARON TOSUKE HIRATA.
The hospital at present occupies the buildings in Tsukiji, the erection of which has been described above. The plant is in every way modern and well equipped. There is modern plumbing throughout, a steam sterilizing plant, three operating-rooms, X-ray apparatus, and all the other facilities of an up-to-date institution. But the buildings are too small to accommodate the numbers that apply for admission. Moreover the situation of the hospital, in the heart of "down-town" Tsukiji, is not at all favorable. Almost every year a few rooms are added, but this can not go on indefinitely, and the hope is that some day a large, new hospital may be erected on a new site.
The staff consists of Dr. Teusler, Dr. Theodore Bliss, appointed his assistant in 1910, six Japanese physicians and a corps of efficient nurses under Miss Araki, besides the clerks, apothecaries and servants. Most of these are Christians. Some of the most eminent physicians in Tokyo act as consultants. The medical department of the University and St. Luke's Hospital are able to co-operate in such a way that much mutual benefit results.
 St. Luke's is almost self-supporting. It derives its support from the fees from patients, from the receipts of the pharmacy, from the income from Dr. Teusler 's "private" practice—this amounts to five or six thousand dollars a year—and from the appropriation allowed by the Board. Although a great many charity patients are received, fees are accepted from all those who can afford to pay for their treatment.
St. Luke's ministers to all classes, and to all nations. An average of one hundred patients a day are treated in the dispensary. Fishermen and sailors from the junks in the near-by harbor; soldiers, policemen, school-teachers, students, coolies, are all represented. There are always a great many babies and children. In the wards and private rooms there is accommodation for sixty patients. A large proportion of the private patients are foreigners, for St. Luke's is almost the only hospital where the foreigner resident in the East can find the same care and comfort when he is sick that he has at home. Moreover, Tokyo offers a better climate than the cities further south, and than those in China and the Philippines, and, on account of its close connection with the University, St. Luke's is able to provide for consultation with a specialist when necessary.
The importance of its ministry to foreigners, however, must not be allowed to overshadow its value for the Japanese. In Tokyo there are few good hospitals. Until lately there has been only one distinctively charity hospital, and that was poorly built, equipped and run. The two hundred charity beds in the University Hospital admit only patients that will be of use in instructing the students. Most of the people receive their treatment from third class doctors—Machi Isha, or street doctors, as they are called—who have a very limited medical knowledge and whose inefficiency often costs the life of the patient.
But even more important than the opportunity to minister [84/85] to the bodies of these sick and neglected men and women is the chance thus given to minister to their souls. There are Bible women connected with the hospital and the dispensary who devote their time to evangelistic work among the patients. Bible Classes and services are conducted by some of the Japanese priests who act as chaplains of the hospital. Every morning there is a service in the waiting-room of the dispensary, and on Wednesday evenings there is a short service and address for the hospital patients and staff. There is also a careful follow-up system in order that those who have grown interested in the Church during the days spent in the hospital may not fall away out of neglect.
ST. BARNABAS 'S HOSPITAL
St. Barnabas's Hospital, Osaka, was one of the first hospitals built in Japan, and at present is the only hospital connected with our mission in the Kyoto district. The physician in charge is Dr. Henry Laning.
The first medical missionary to be sent out to Japan by the American Church was Dr. Ernest Schmid, who joined Bishop (then Mr.) Williams in Nagasaki in 1860. Dr. Schmid opened a dispensary, and later a small hospital, built up a good-sized practice and started classes in Western medical methods for the Japanese. After two years of energetic work, however, he broke down and was compelled to return to the United States.
From the time that Dr. Schmid returned, Bishop Williams was unceasing in his appeals for a missionary physician for Japan. No answer came until 1873, when, as one of the results of the great day of intercession for Missions [85/86] observed throughout the Anglican Church, Henry Laning, M.D., offered himself for the work. Dr. Laning reached Osaka in July, 1873. During the first six months after his arrival he devoted himself to the study of the language, although he received any patients who presented themselves in his own home. At the end of that time, having tried and failed to secure permission from the Government to open a dispensary in the heart of the city, he began his dispensary in a house rented in the Foreign Concession. Two years later he moved into a more comfortable house, in which there was room, not only for the dispensary, but also for Mr. Morris's preaching chapel, a manifest advantage in the evangelistic side of the work.
The growth of the work was such that in 1880 Dr. Laning felt justified in asking for money to build a hospital in which he could treat those cases that needed constant attendance, careful nursing and good food—all impossible to secure in the average Japanese home. The degree of self-support which the dispensary had reached made him hope that a hospital might in time become self-supporting. Accordingly in 1883 there was opened in the Foreign Concession of Osaka a well-appointed little hospital consisting of two buildings, one devoted to out-patients, rooms for private patients and rooms for the native staff, and the other containing four wards for charity patients.
The following year Miss F. J. Shaw, of the Nightingale Home in London, came to the hospital and opened a training school for nurses. We find it recorded that "on St. Barnabas's Day, 1884, the nurses adopted a becoming uniform—a light, clean-looking, Japanese dress of brown holland, aprons with bibs and pockets, and white muslin caps tied behind the bow or chignon the Japanese women always wear."
The growth of the hospital was steady. It soon became self-supporting, except for the salary of Dr. Laning. [86/87] Evangelistic work among the patients was successfully carried on by means of services and the teaching given to the patients by the Bible woman.
In 1905 Miss Serena Laning was appointed for work in Osaka. She has become directress of the hospital and spends much time ministering to her father's patients. Five years later (1910) her brother, Dr. George Laning, was appointed his father's assistant.
The buildings erected in 1883 were in use until 1909, when the purchase by an electric car company of the corner lot of the mission compound and the consequent necessity of moving some of the mission buildings, offered an opportunity for the erection of a new plant for the hospital. On the 18th of March of the following year the new buildings were ready for use. St. Barnabas's is now modern in form, and better located and better equipped than ever before. In consequence the number of patients treated has greatly increased. The expenses for the maintenance of the hospital have also been increasing in the last years, and it has been difficult for those in charge to make both ends meet. For this reason the Board of Missions have this year (1912) granted St. Barnabas's the same appropriation that is allowed to St. Luke's, Tokyo.
Sei Nen Kwai
Dormitory at St. Margaret's
Dinner in St. Agnes Dormitory
The Balcony at the Church Training School Sendai
St. Elizabeth's Sewing School
St. John's Orphanage
Prayers at the Widely Loving Society Orphanage
Ward, St. Luke's Hospital
Aseptic Operating Room, St. Luke's Hospital
St. Barnabas's Hospital