Etenim per unum Spiritum nos omnes in unum corpus baptizati sumus, & Judæi & Græci & servi & liberi: & omnes potati sumus in unum Spiritum.
For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have all bee made to drink into one Spirit.
Which words (And I have all been made to drink of one spirit) cannot have any other reference but to the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, which he calls The cup of blessing, the 1. to the Corinthians the 10th chapter. The end of the Apostle is taking arguments from the Sacrament, is double, First to perswade Christians to cleanness of life, which he doth, in the first to the Corinthians the tenth chapter Ye cannot be partakers of the Lords table, and the table of Devils. Secondly, bending himself here against Schismes and contentions that were amongst the Corinthians, he takes another argument from the nature of this Sacrament, to exhort them to the unity of the spirit; that forasmuch as they all are partakers of one Sacrament, and drank all of one spirit, therefore they should seek to be at unity and concord with themselves: The Apostle sheweth this to be a good consequence from the beginning of the chapter; and we see an example of this kind of argument, in the ninth chapter of Luke where the Disciples say, Master, we saw one cast out Devils in thy name, and we forbade him, because he followeth not us: And this Apostle saith, in the first epistle to the Corinthians, the first chapter, that because they were divided, so that some were Pauls, some of Apollo, therefore they were no true Christians: Thus we see, that as from the Sacrament of cleanness, he exhorts them to cleanness of life; so from the Sacrament of unity, he moves them to love and concord, and tells them they ought to avoid dissention. To perswade unto unity and love, nothing is more effectuall than the consideration of the naturall body, which although it have many members, diverse in quality, situation, and use; so as the one is more noble than the other, yet they grudge not one at another, For the foot doth not say, because I am not the hand, I am not of the body, nor the eare, because I am not the eye, I am not of the body, in the first to the Corinthians, the twelfth chapter and the fifteenth verse, neither doe they contemn one another, For the eye which is the most excellent member, doth not say to the hand, I have no need of thee; or the head to the foot, I have no need of you, in the first to the Corinthians, the twelfth chapter, and the twenty first verse; but contrawise, there is a sympathy and fellow feeling; So as if one member be grieved, all the rest are grieved; and if one be honored, all the rest rejoyce with it, verse the twenty sixt[h]; so if men could be perswaded that they are one body, there would not be such divisions and dissentions in the World as there are; for howsoever they be diverse in respect of nature; some Jewes, some Grecians, as [614/615] also in respect of estate, some bond, some free, as the Apostle here speaks, yet their diversities are not greater than those which we see between the members of the body naturall: And now the Apostle goes about to perswade them they are one body, and therefore ought to be at unity, which he doth thus: That body which hath one beginning, and one nourishment, is one body; But all the faithful have one beginning in the fountain of regeneration, that is in baptisme, and are all nourished with one nourishment; for they are all baptized into one body by one spirit, and all made to drink of one spirit; therefore they are all one body, and consequently should live in unity one with another. In regard of which unity, which the body hath not only with Christ her head, but with members among themselves, the Apostle calleth the body Christ, in the first to the Corinthians the twelfth chapter and the twelfth verse.
Now to come to the consideration of these things, our way is, First, to set down the necessity of being of this body: Secondly, the means how we come to be of this body, that is, by the spirit: Thirdly, that the spirit is the means; so as withall baptisme and drinking is required, that is, out incorporation into the body of Christ, which is his Church, is both by the spirit and by baptisme.
For the obtaining of the spirit two things are to be practised, First, that we have a thirsting desire after the spirit; Secondly, that we ask it of God by prayer.
First, For the necessity of our incorporation, whereas the Psalmist saith, Psalm the eighty ninth, God hath not made all men for nought, we must first set down this, that there is a necessity that some should be saved; for it falls not into a man that is wise to do anything in vain, much less may we think that God, the fountain is wisdome, will suffer all men to perish; and therefore that there are some elected and chosen out to be saved. Secondly, and therefore our speciall aim should be to be of that number, but scattering, renting, and dividing, is an enemie to safety, and they that will be safe, must be recollected and gathered together under some head: It that which made Moses pray to God to set a rule over his people, and that the congregation of the Lord should not be as sheep which have no Shepheard, Numbers the twenty seventh chapter and the sixteenth verse; When Christ saw the multitude, he had compassion on them, because they were dispersed & scattered abroad as sheep having no Shepheard, Matthew the ninth chapter the thirty sixt[h] verse; and not only so, but Christ did that, that he might gatherer together in one, the Children of God which were scattered, John the eleventh chapter and fifty second verse. Thirdly, before Christ had a body and before he was manifested in the flesh, the Congregation was called a Synagogue, because it was then sufficient for them to be gather together sub uno pastore, though they were not ruled by one spirit: But now they must be not only under one Shepheard, but must all [615/616] be one body, and that not a dead Carkasse, but a living body, such a body that liveth not by a soul, but by a spirit; for that is the difference that the Apostle makes between Adam and Christ, in the first to the Corinthians the fifteenth chapter, the first man, Adam, was made a living soul, but the second Adam was made a quickning spirit. This quickning spirit is it, by which the mysticall body of Christ liveth, which goeth through the body, and giveth life to every member. This is a mysticall incorporation, and is spiritually to be conceived, and the union between Christ and his mysticall body is so straight, that speaking of it, he saith, Acts the ninth chapter, Why persecutest thou me? and the Apostle understanding the Church calleth it Christ, in the first of the Corinthians, the twelfth chapter and the twelfth verse; then he that will be saved, must not be part but be gathered, and that in to the body of Christ, because Christ is only the Saviour of his body, Salvator corporis, Ephesians the fift[h] chapter and the twenty third verse. So that if a man be out of the body, and be not a member of Christ's body, he cannot be saved and so Christ himself tells us John, the fifteenth chapter, If the branch abide not in the vine, if cannot bear fruit; so unlesse a man abide in me, he cannot bear fruit, but he is sarmentum, a dry branch, and is cast forth into the fire. Whereby we see that all shall not be saved, but only they that are gathered into the mysticall body of Christ, and as members of his body, doe live by his spirit working in them.
Secondly, This incorporation standeth on two points, First, of generation: Secondly, of nourishment. For there can be no body, except it be begotten; and the body being begotten, dissolves again, and turns to nothing, unless it be nourished. Such a thing we are to conceive of our incorporation, both parts whereof are expressed by ingrafting and watering: For in all thing as he that will be preserved in any estate, must first enter into it, and there he must remain in it.
The Analogie of these two we shall finde to be in the mysticall body of Christ. First, he that will be of the body, must come in by regeneration. Titus the third chapter and fift[h] verse; He must be ingraffed into Christ's body, Romans the sixt[h] chapter and the fift[h] verse: He must put on Christ, as the Apostle saith, Galatians the third chapter, as all they doe that are baptized in Christ Jesus: Then being, as it were, begotten and ingrafted in to the body, he must be nourished and fed, that so he may continue in that estate, he must as a new born babe, desire the sincere milk of the word, whereby he may grow up, the first epistle of Peter, the second chapter and the second verse; He must be watered, the first epistle to the Corinthians the third chapter; He must eat the flesh of Christ and drink his blood, that so he may abide in Christ, and Christ in him, John the sixt[h] chapter and fifty sixt[h] verse. By these a man is made partaker of the body of Christ, by the other of the spirit; By baptism we have our incorporation, by drinking the blood of Christ we receive the spirit. [616/617] Thirdly, Why doth not the blood of Christ immediately incorporate us into the Church, without the mediation of water in baptism, and drinking of Christ's blood in the Lords Supper?
The ancient Fathers hold two reasons hereof.
First, Taken from the love of Christ, that ever since Corpus assumit sibi, Hebrews the tenth chapter and the fift[h] verse; since he took part with the Children of flesh and blood, Hebrews the second chapter and the fourteenth verse, as he consists of a spirit and a body; so he delighteth to work, not only by a spirit, but by a body also: and this is an honor that he imparteth to bodily things.
Secondly, He useth this course to shew his power; which appears hereby to be great, in that albeit these elements of water, and bread and wine be weak and beggerly elements, Galatians the fourth chapter and the ninth verse; yet by his power he exalts them and makes them effectual means, to incorporate us into his body, and so set us in that estate wherein we may be saved. So the one reason is a testimony of Christs humane love, the other a token of his divine power.
Secondly, If we demand, Why he makes choice of water, bread and water, rather than of any other elements. It is in regards of the proportion and analogie that they have with the things signified.
The seed Wherewith we are begotten, is a waterish substance, and as the Scripture sheweth, water is the seed of the world, for the spirit of God moved upon the waters, Genesis, the first chapter. Therefore is water used in the Sacrament of our regeneration; and because it is lumidum it doth nutrire. The juice and nourishment that we suck out of the meat digested, is that which nourisheth our life; and therefore the element of wine is used in the Sacrament of our nutrition, that is after we are born a new and washed with water in baptism, to signifie our new birth: then we must receive bread and water in the Lords Supper, to confirm our faith in the body and blood of Christ, whereby we are sealed unto eternall life. There is another reason why God worketh our incorporation by the means of these elements, and that is, that as out of darknesse he commanded light to shine, the second epistle to the Corinthians, the fourth chapter, so he might work out salvation by that which was our destruction. Therefore because the destruction of the world was by water, wherein as Peter saith, All the world perished, except a few even eight persons: So it is his pleasure, by the water of baptism as an outward means to save us, the first epistle of Peter the 3. chapter: That as by water was the deluge of the world; so by it might be the deluge of sin. It was the eating of the forbidden meat that destroyed the world; therefore he hath thought it good, by eating to save men: that as then it was said, If ye eat, ye dye, Genesis, the second chapter; so now it is said, except ye eat the flesh of the Sonne of man, ye have no life in you, John the sixt[h] chapter and the fifty third verse.
Now the mediation of these elements are no lesse necessary to preserve and keep us a lively members of the mysticall body of Christ [617/618] than bread and water are to maintain natural life. The People whom Saul commanded to eate no bread, were so faint with fasting, that their soul was ready to goe out of them the first book of Samuel the nineteenth chapter: Therefore when David and his men were hungry and weary and thirsty in the wilderness, Barzillai and others came and brought provision, the second book of Samuel, the seventeenth chapter and the twenty ninth verse: When Abraham returned from the slaughter of five kings, Melchizdeck met him with bread and water, Genesis the fourteenth chapter. So it is with the faithful, unless this spiritual life be susteined with these outward helps: Therefore the Apostle saith, We are all made to drink of the same spirit.
Out of which words for matter of Doctrine, where Christ saith, Drink ye all of it, the Adversary saith, that it was spoken to the Disciples; and therefore it is lawful for none but Priests to receive the Cup in the Supper. But Paul speaketh more generally, Nos omnes potati sumus, not only the Clergy but lay men: And that both parts of the Sacrament was administered to all sorts, appears by D. Aropagita and as the Apostle saith, We are all partakers of one bread, the first epistle to the Corinthians, the tenth chapter and the seventeenth verse, he doth not exclude both parts of the Sacrament.
Secondly, We see there is a necessity of eating, in as much as God appoints that the means whereby he will communicate his Spirit, Acts the fift[h] chapter. He gives the spirit to none but such as obey him; Therefore we must obey him when he commands us to use this means, especially seeing he commands them with a nisi, John the third chapter, Except a man be born again of water; and John the sixt[h] chapter, unlesse ye eate the flesh and drink the blood of Christ, ye have no life in you: With these conditions and for these uses are we commanded to drink the spirit of life, which it gives, and so shall we live by him, John the sixt[h] chapter and the fifty seventh verse; Christ shall live in us, Galatians the second chapter.
There are that doe not potare in eundem spiritum. Water of it self is not able to purge from original corruption without the spirit; and Potus vappa sine spiritu, The flesh profiteth nothing, it is the spirit that gives life, John the sixt[h] chapter; The word it self preacheth not, unlesse God giveth increase, the first epistle to the Corinthians the third chapter: nay, this spiritual food kills some: for they eat and drink their own damnation, the first epistle to the Corinthains, the eleventh chapter. Therefore, if we will drink the spirit, it is required First, That he thirst after spiritual things no lesse than after worldly things; John the eleventh chapter, Si quis sitit ad me veniat & bibat, verse the thirty seventh. Secondly, He must pray for the Spirit; for God giveth his spirit to them that ask it, Luke the eleventh chapter: So while Jesus was baptized and prayed, the Heavens opened and the holy Ghost came down upon him. Luke the third chapter and the 21 verse. We must both thirst after the spirit, and pray for it, else we cannot 618/619 have it. But if we come non fitientes omnino without any sense of our own want, or come only with a form of godlinesse, the second epistle to Timothie, the third chapter and the fift[h] verse; we may drink the outward object, but not the spirit; for they that come thus pray not to God to be made partakers of the spirit, as of the object. And to this we may add, as a reason of our unprofitable drinking, how can we reap the spirit, seeing we sow only to the flesh, Galatians, the sixt[h] chapter. In as much as we sow no spiritual works, we cannot be partakers of the spirit. These are the means to obtain the spirit. Then when we have drunk, we must examine our selves, whether we have drunk the spirit; which we shall know thus: A drink and potion is either for recovery of health, or for comfort or refreshing. If we finde that the blood of Christ hath purged our consciences from dead works, Hebrews the ninth chapter; and that we mortifie the deeds of the flesh by the spirit, Romans the eighth chapter, then we have drunk of the same spirit. If we finde the power of sinne abated in Baptism, and the will of sinne by this Sacrament, then we have drunk the spirit. Secondly, for refreshing, which is the other use of drinking, as Psalm the seventy eight and sixty fift[h] verse, The Lord arose out of sleep, was gyant refreshed with wine: there comes courage to a man by drinking of the spirit; so as he hath a desire to spiritual drink: Ephesians the fift[h] chapter, Be not drunk with wine, but be filled with the spirit. Now they call the Holy Ghost new wine, Acts the second chapter, these men are filled with a new wine: For indeed as the one, so the other gives greater alacrity and cheerfulnesse.
In respect of these two effects, it is termed the holy spirit of God and therefore, First, He that having drunk findes in his soul a comfortable anointment, the first epistle of John the second chapter, the seal of the spirit, Ephesians the first chapter and the thirteenth verse, and the earnest the second epistle to the Corinthians the first chapter and the twentieth verse, he hath a signe that he hath drunk the spirit. But these sensualiter, are not enough; they may deceive us; there were that eat and drank in Christs presence, but he told them, I know you not, Luke the thirteenth chapter. Therefore to the comfort of the spirit we must add the holy spirit, and see what operation he hath; we must see if we can find sanctificationis spiritum, the second epistle to the Thessalonians the second chapter, and the fruits of the spirit wrought in us after we have drunk, Galatians, the fift[h] chapter and the twenty second verse, whether we be transformed by the same spirit, the second to the Corinthians, the third chapter. Thus we see the Apostle in this place, against the spirit that lusteth after envy and contention, James the fourth chapter, useth the Sacrament of unity, to perswade men to unity and love, and against the unclean spirit, he useth the Sacrament of cleannesse, as, in the first epistle to the Corinthians, the sixt[h] chapter, Shall I take members of Christ and make them the members of an Harlot?
By the effects that the spirit worketh in us, we may know whether we have the spirit; for we are not only made partakers of Christs body [619/620] in Baptism, but of the spirit in the Lords Supper; If we cleave to the Lord Christ, we are made one Spirit, the first epistle to the Corinthians, the sixt[h] chapter: Whereupon then ensueth, That as he and his Father are one, so are we one with Christ; and consequently, being one with Him, we can want no happinesse; for his will is, That we should be with him where he is, and behold his glory, John the seventeenth chapter and the twenty fourth verse.