Project Canterbury

Church in the Colonies
No. 27.

Diocese of Capetown, Part II.

A Journal of the Bishop's Visitation Tour through the Cape Colony, in 1850

London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1853.

ON Easter Monday, April 1st, 1850, I commenced my Fourth Visitation, intending, if God permit, to pass through the Karroo to Colesberg, visiting the several towns and villages in my way; then to cross the Orange river, and travel through the country called the Sovereignty, inhabited by the native tribes, and the rebel Boers, who are again in a state of commotion, to Natal. In this Dependency I hope to remain some weeks, and return to the Colony through Faku's territory and British Kaffraria. I then propose visiting the whole of the Eastern Province, and returning home by the sea-coast.

This Visitation, if it please God to spare me to complete it, will probably occupy nearly nine months; but I trust I may be enabled to reach Capetown before Christmas. It would be presumptuous to reckon on a safe return after so long a journey, and I do not. I feel, however, that I am in the hands of a gracious Father. Let Him do with his servant as seemeth good unto Him. Only let this Visitation tend to the furtherance of his glory, and the advancement of his kingdom; I shall then be perfectly satisfied, whatever befals myself.

I started on horseback with----. The Rev. H. Douglas and Mr. Davidson accompanied me a little way. The Rev. H. M. White and the Rev. H. Badnall were in the cart. We rode across the flats to Stellenbosch. We had service there in the evening, and an excellent congregation. The Rev. P. Carlyon seems happy here, and I trust his work is prospering.

Easter Tuesday.--A wet day. It cleared up, however, a little, and we started again on horseback, after a meeting with the Civil Commissioner and some members of the municipality, about a site for a Church. We rode through the beautiful Ban-Hoek Pass and Drakenstein to Paarl, and got thoroughly wet. In our way we passed by a new missionary institution of a Mr. Stegman, of which the people in the neighbourhood did not speak well. At Paarl we held service again in the evening. I preached, and administered the Lord's Supper. The evening was very wet, and we had but a small congregation. The Rev. J. Inglis, whom I ordained Deacon a short time since, is, I trust, doing good. The English population is small, but Mr. Inglis is already talking about a Church. At present he officiates in the Government Schoolroom.

April 3d.--Rode, after breakfast, through Wellington to Mr. Bain's, who has the charge of the new road which is being made through the mountain pass, called after him, Bain's Kloof,--and of the convict gang who are employed in the work. He is a highly intelligent man, and takes a great interest in geology. He has a considerable collection of fossils, &c. from different parts of the Colony.

April 4th.--Rode up the pass, the scenery of which is beautiful, and the views very extensive. The road, which is nearly completed on one side, promises to be an excellent one. In one part of it there is a tunnel of about 330 yards, the first that has been made in South Africa. The whole of the work is done by convicts, of whom there are about 250. The Colony is indebted to Mr. Montagu for the admirable system adopted for the management of the convicts, and for the great public works which they have already executed. There being no navigable rivers in the country, it is dependent altogether upon the formation of good roads for the opening out of its resources. Mr. Montagu has already succeeded in carrying roads over some of the most difficult and important passes. The present road, which is nearly opposite to the Mitchel's Pass, opened last year, will, I believe, shorten the route to the interior by at least fifty miles.

At the top of the pass I parted with------, who, with Mr. Bain and his family, had accompanied us so far. Mr. White and I rode on to Tulbagh, where we arrived at seven o'clock, after a ride of nine hours. We took up our quarters at Mr. Shand's, the minister of the Dutch Church, who had kindly invited us to stay with him. We arranged that Mr. White should, upon his return, hold service on Monday next for the few English in the place.

April 5th.--Left Tulbagh at nine o'clock this morning; reached Worcester after dark. Mr. Le Sueur, the Civil Commissioner, has been good enough to invite me to remain with him during my visit to this place. My time here has been spent in seeing the people, writing letters, and holding Divine service. Our congregations have been very good, and many express their earnest desire to have an English Clergyman settled in Worcester. This I could not promise them, as my funds are entirely exhausted; but I assured them of my earnest desire to do so, if only I could obtain sufficient means for his support. Since I was last here, the inhabitants have themselves raised a subscription of 50l. a-year for this purpose. May God speedily enable me to provide for their wants! We had eight communicants; and I confirmed a young man--a convert from the Church of Rome--whom I was not able to confirm at my late visit.

We left Mr. Le Sueur's hospitable mansion at dawn of day this morning. I now travel with six horses, having been obliged to purchase two more. At Mitchel's Pass Mr. Piers, magistrate of Tulbagh, met me to show me the site of the proposed new village of Ceres, and to fix upon sites for Church, &c. At the foot of the pass Mr. White left me, and returned to Tulbagh with Dr. French, who had kindly come out in his cart for him. He is to hold service at Tulbagh this evening. I arrived somewhat late at Adrian Van Wyk's, a deacon of Mr. Shand's Church. I found here an English couple were very anxious to have their child baptized. After talking to them a little, they themselves proposed that I should have prayers. I consequently read and explained a portion of Scripture, and united with them in prayer. The man, who has a party of English labourers under him, employed in road-making, undertook to read some portion of the Morning Prayer and the Lessons every Sunday to the labourers.

Tuesday, April 9th.--Before starting this morning, offered prayers with Mr. Bird, who seemed thankful. Met the labourers on the road. All approved of my proposition about prayers on Sundays, and said they would attend. They were all members of the Church. I undertook to get Bibles and Prayer-books sent up to them. They live in tents, and are shortly about to move into the very heart of the Karroo, to make Mr. Montagu's new road across these desolate plains to Beaufort. We spent the night by the Patata river. During the day one of my horses appeared unwell. I gave him a dose of Battley's opium (intended for me in case of tic in my head) mixed with some wine, that Mr. Le Sueur had been kind enough to put up for me. I slept but little, partly from the uncomfortableness of my bed, and partly from anxiety for my poor sick horse, who was tethered at my feet to the cart.

Wednesday 10th.--Outspanned at a miserable farm of an intelligent Dutchman (De Villiers) who speaks English fluently. His wife is a sister of one of the Dutch ministers; and his little boy (the only instance I have met with) has set his heart upon becoming a "predikant." Our poor horse appeared better, so as to encourage us to proceed; but before we could arrive at water where we could out-span, he became so ill that we took him out of the cart. He then appeared evidently suffering from inflammation. I gave him more laudanum, but to no purpose: we staid by him till he died. I felt more on the occasion than I could have conceived, for when one has no other companions, a man soon becomes attached to his horses. While moralizing on the carcases of oxen that are strewed along the whole length of the road, I little thought that my poor horse would so soon be added to the number. However, his lot may be better than that of his companions, who have some months' hard work before them, and some thousands of miles to travel before they return home. I gave 20l. for him only a few days ago. We saw to-day a poor ox lying helpless by himself, left by his owner to die in the desert, being able to go no further. It was quite dark before we quitted our horse. As Ludwig could not see the road, I had to run before the cart for a mile or two, and point it out, and warn him of stones, rocks, and gullies. We arrived at a wretched hovel at Zoute Kloof, where an uncouth farmer, with his family, suffered us to outspan. I slept in my cart, and would have gladly cooked my own supper, as I have been lately doing from my own provisions; but I thought if; might give offence, so I partook of a very uncomfortable meal with them.

Thursday, 11th.--We see fewer spring-boles than in the Colesberg and Graaf Reinet Karroo, and no gnus or ostriches, though we observed traces of the latter. The country too is more hilly, and the Karroo narrower. Hitherto our route has been bounded by a low range of hills; they can scarcely be called mountains. To-day, however, we came in sight of the Zwart Mountains. Though there has evidently been much rain of late, as is proved by a spring of green grass here and there, the country is very dry, and it requires a sharp eye to find out the almost imperceptible streams or puddles which are denominated rivers. Outspanned at the Ghielbeck river, where we breakfasted, or rather dined off our stores, and where I was able to wash and shave: outspanned again at Groote Rivier. We slept at Bluid Rivier in the bed of a torrent. While settling myself here I remembered Judge Musgrave's warning never to do this. A thunder-storm fifty miles to the north might have the effect of changing the dry bed, covered with drift wood, into a foaming torrent, and wash us all away without more than a few minutes' notice. The Eight appeared very fine, and we could no where else get shelter for our horses from the wind, so we outspanned in a soft sandy place.

As an instance of the value of land in the Karroo, I may mention that a farmer told me that he rented 5,000 morgen (10,000 acres) of government for 1l. a-year.

Friday, 12th.--A dreary day's journey over barren, stony hills. There having been rain lately, we found water in most of the rivers. We passed the night at the Bitter-water river. On remarking upon the more than usual muddiness of the water, Ludwig observed, "It is just like milk."

Saturday, 13tt.--Still the same barren, dreary route, over stony hills. I was happy to get a bathe in a muddy pool in the Gamha River, caused by the late rains, which have evidently preceded us. We arrived at Beaufort at seven o'clock in the dark. I found Mr. Welby bad reached that place about an hour before me. He had been out nearly the whole week, and both he and his horses were knocked up by the ride.

Sunday, 14th.--We held Divine service in the government schoolroom. The congregation was about seventy both in the morning and evening. I confirmed five candidates, and we had four communicants. The numbers were small, but Mr. Maynard has only been a few weeks here, and these are the first-fruits of his ministry. I am thankful to hear all the parishioners speak very highly of him. He has made a most favourable impression. God grant His blessing to the work. I grieve to see symptoms of jealousy here, as elsewhere, and that attempts are made to prejudice the minds of some against the Church. This perhaps was only to have been expected, but it is painful. Mr. Welby preached in the morning. I addressed the candidates and preached in the evening.

Monday, 15th.--Writing before breakfast. Great part of this day was spent in receiving and paying visits. I met also the Church committee, and we settled finally the sites of the Church, parsonage, and burial-ground, concerning which there had been some little difference of opinion. I was particularly interested in one visit which I had paid to an aged widow lady, whom I remembered to have conversed with on my former Visitation, when she and her brother were the only communicants. She is a "widow indeed." Her Bible and her Prayer-book are her chief companions, and she is full of faith, and humility, and zeal. When last I was here she besought me more earnestly than any one else to send a Clergyman, telling me she had been thirty-six years in the Colony without seeing the face of a minister of her Church. Her earnest prayer has been daily offered up for a faithful pastor, and God has in mercy heard her prayer. She seemed full of gratitude and love, and sorrow that she could not do more for her Lord. It refreshed my spirit greatly to converse with her, and to see how God had, apart from outward means, thus trained and perfected a soul. Her great desire now is to see all her children, who, almost from necessity, have joined another communion, return to the bosom of their mother-church before she dies. Some have already done this. One I am to confirm (with a few others) before I leave; and others are hesitating, and will, I trust, by God's mercy, be led ere long to seek re-communion with the Church, which has not until now been a mother to them. We had Divine service in the evening. Congregation about seventy. Mr. Maynard preached. Two or three of the parishioners afterwards came to tea.

Tuesday, 16th.--After breakfast attended a public examination of the government school, which I thought in a satisfactory state. Afterwards called on several of the parishioners. At two o'clock a vestry was held for the election of churchwardens. To this succeeded a meeting to take steps for the immediate erection of a Church. A good spirit prevailed, and I trust that ere long it will be commenced. The meeting lasted some time, and I entered upon the subjects of missions--schools--and the support of the ministry, with reference to my pastoral letter. In the evening we held Divine service again, when I preached. There were three more candidates for confirmation, whom I addressed extempore. The day was ended with a party of the parishioners to tea.

Wednesday, 17th.--Started this morning a little after light. I rode with Mr. Welby, and his servant went in the cart. I leave this place with much comfort, and a good hope that the Church will take root there. Mr. Maynard has already impressed his parishioners very favourably, and he has an active assistant in his wife. Difficulties there doubtless are in his path, and jealousies exist there as in most other places; but amidst it all the work is prospering, and, if we prove faithful, it will prosper. We out-spanned at Rhinoster Kop, and slept at the farm of an Englishman, Mr. Martine, who received us very kindly.

Thursday, 18th.--A long day's journey through the Karroo. We were eleven hours in the saddle. I find that Kafirs and Fingos began to appear here as labouring servants at the farms. One farmer to-day had just engaged a Kafir as herd. He had 100 head of oxen, and 200 sheep, and these were to be maintained on the farm in lien of wages. There was a party of seven Kafirs on a neighbouring farm who also had a large stock. In fact, they are a kind of itinerating farmers. We passed the night at Camdeboo, at the foot of a very fine mountain. It was late before we arrived at a farm, which the farmers in this country do not like. They had had their supper. Nothing, however, could be kinder than they were. They soon prepared food for us, and gave up their beds to us. But neither of us slept the whole night, for very sufficient causes. We were off again about half-past four o'clock by starlight, and had a very long day to Graaf Heinet--not less than twelve hours. Our horses, however, seemed quite fresh. It is wonderful how these animals travel. We cannot have passed over less than sixty miles of very bad road to-day. We outspanned three times. Once only did we get a bundle of forage for each of them. At the other places they picked up what grass they could find. Luckily for them there had been very heavy rains lately. The ride to-day has been a beautiful one. The forms of the mountains are very inking. We found Mr. and Mrs. Long quite well, but not expecting us till to-morrow. They were, however, on the look-out for the archdeacon, who is corning up to meet me with his Kafir and English servants, and a horse carrying a tent. We walked out after tea to look at the new Church by moonlight. It is a very correct Early English building, though they have not been able to carry out exactly the plans which I sent them. It nevertheless is exceedingly well built, and is, I think, at present the best Church in the diocese.

Saturday, 20th.--A great portion of the day spent in receiving and paying visits. Long conversation with the churchwardens. The archdeacon not making his appearance, we walked out in the afternoon to look for him. We met him at some distance, coming on alone, with a bag over his shoulders, a bundle under his arm, and his staff in his hand. He had been delayed a day from the loss of his horse, which had either strayed or been stolen in the night. He therefore deposited his tent in a Kafir hut, sent his English servant home, and walked on with his Kafir man, who, as usual, had sore feet, and, being knocked up, was lagging behind. We returned in time for evening service, when we had a very good congregation. Mr. Welby preached; the archdeacon and I sat up till very late in conversation.

Sunday, 21st.--This day I held a Confirmation. There were fourteen candidates, amongst them the archdeacon's man Wilhelm, who is the first Kafir who has been thus received into the Church. He was very devout and attentive. May he be the first-fruits of an abundant harvest! There were about thirty communicants. The offerings were for the new Church. The archdeacon preached. I addressed the candidates. The schoolroom (was quite full. In the evening it was again crowded, when I preached. I had much conversation to-day with the archdeacon respecting the foundation of our mission in Kaffraria. I must endeavour, if I can, to take Graaf Reinet again, on my return from Kaffraria, and consecrate the Church.

Monday, 22nd.--We had at least thirty at morning prayers, and a large congregation in the evening, when Mr. Welby preached. The day was spent chiefly in conversation upon subjects relating to the Church, and in returning visits. We dined with Mr. Heugh, the churchwarden. Within the last few months a Romish priest, accompanied by three nuns, has arrived here. These latter have devoted themselves to the work of education, with, at present, but little success. The priest appears an indiscreet man, to say the least. He is a Belgian, and is full of the subject of modern Romish miracles, upon which he enlarges in the society of those who have no faith in them. In his sermons he is very vehement in his denunciations of Luther and Calvin. I have been much pleased with my visit to Graaf Reinet. Great interest seems to be taken in the work of the Church. The congregations have been excellent. Here, as everywhere, in spite of government schools, maintained at great expense, people are looking to us to supply them with education. Having been consulted about bringing out a teacher, I have expressed a readiness, to provide a deacon-schoolmaster upon the guarantee of an income of 100l. a-year. The schoolmaster will be curate to the minister of the parish, and assist him in his, duties. In course of time I trust, with the aid of schoolmasters, to be able to supply the outlying districts with at least occasional services. It is almost impossible for farmers, living at a distance of twenty or thirty miles from Church, to come in frequently for the Sunday services. The inability to leave their farms for any length of time without servants upon whom they can depend (for the coloured servants cannot be relied on), together with the expense, prevents many families from attending. One gentleman in this parish is very anxious to erect a small oratory for his own and the neighbouring farms. I shall be glad to see these springing up in different parts of the and trust that by combining education with the of the Church, we may ere long be able to do more than we can at present for the country districts.

Wednesday, 24th.--My journey to Richmond has occupied two days. The first day's journey lay through the Sneewberg, on the road to Beaufort, which I travelled in my last Visitation. The weather has become quite cold, but we are on very high ground. On arriving at the village, I found an empty house prepared for my reception. Many of the Dutch farmers have built small houses for themselves, which they occupy during the "nacht-maal" (communion), and occasionally when they come in on a Sunday. They have in fact their town-house and their country-house, just as our forefathers had in the county towns in England. Upon my arrival, Mr. Hope, the Civil Commissioner, came to call upon me, and very hospitably entertained me during my stay. I went with him to call upon Mr. Beranger, the Dutch minister, who kindly placed his Church at my disposal, and gave orders to have it lighted for evening service.

I had scarcely time to take a look round the village, mid partake of Mr. Hope's dinner before Church time. There was a very good congregation. I understood that all the English and many of the Dutch inhabitants were there. It was the first time that the prayers of the Church of England had ever been offered in the village--the first time that a minister of that Church had ever set foot in it. Moreover, there is not now, nor has there ever been, I believe, a religious teacher of any English sect in the place. I was pained to find how little acquaintance the English seemed to have with the Liturgy. None knelt,--none even stood,--all sat motionless, even while singing the 100th Psalm. One or two voices indeed were wised up to repeat the responses, but even they did it irregularly, and not at all during the reading of the Psalms. I must do the poor people the justice to say that they felt and lamented this, and pressed me earnestly to send them dome Prayer-books. I preached to them partly extempore, and invited all who desired my counsel and advice to visit me at my lodging in the morning. Several came,--one brought up an Unitarian, whose family had turned Romanists, desired to be confirmed in the English Church, and, if needful, to be baptized. He was an educated man, and I promised to send him some books, and to make arrangements for his reception into the Church. Others came to state their conviction that they were falling away from God, and their sorrow for it,--others to express their desire to live nearer to God, and their inability to do so, and to complain of their destitute spiritual condition. One undertook to call the English together, and endeavour to make arrangements for the erection of a Church-school. I told him that I would give 20l. towards it, if a suitable building were erected, and made over to the Church, I also promised to endeavour to get a teacher who should hold Divine service in the schoolroom; but told him it was very uncertain whether I should be able to afford to send one, as my means were at present quite exhausted. This is just the place for a steady, earnest, deacon-schoolmaster. I must endeavour, if possible, to obtain one. May the Lord provide! I fear that many of the English, circumstanced as these poor people are, very rapidly fall away, The absence of a minister of the Church, and of almost every restraint to which at home they were accustomed, is generally too much for them.

The high wages and the cheap wine and brandy lead to much intoxication. One man, who told me he was in the receipt of 2l. a-week, actually came to beg of me. I left the place with very painful and melancholy feelings. At the next circuit court at Graaf Reinet, seven Africanders resident in. this village are to be tried for forcibly carrying off from the custody of the magistrate some Kafirs who had offended them, and for other deeds of violence. A Kafir in a state of intoxication tumbled, as I understand, against a child. A scuffle ensued between the Africanders and the Kafir and his companions. The Kafirs were taken into custody, and committed to prison for ten days. The Africanders did not think the punishment sufficiently heavy: they therefore seized the prisoners in defiance of the law, carried them away, and beat them. They afterwards went in a body, and armed, to the Kafir location, and drove them all away, shooting at several of them as they ran off, but killing none. None of these men have since returned. It seems very doubtful whether a jury can be found which will return, be the evidence ever so dear, a verdict of guilty on such an occasion. [The parties were all acquitted.] I left Richmond for Colesberg at one o'clock, having employed my whole morning in conversing with the people who came to see me. We slept at a Mr. Ackerman's, who has a property of 60,000 acres in the Karroo. I could not induce Mm to accept of any payment either for myself or my horses. One occasionally meets with genuine hospitality of this kind, though in only one other instance has a farmer refused to be paid. On no one occasion, while travelling through the Colony, have I ever been refused admittance into the Boers' houses. At most places they expect only to be paid for the forage, and are not unfrequently surprised at receiving payment for board and lodging. I should always, however, if it were not for my horses and man, prefer the open veldt to a farm-house. One is more independent, one can sit down to write, (a matter of great importance to me, followed as I am from place to place with large packets of letters.) The necessity of talking to the people without having anything but a smattering of the language is very wearisome. If my dear friend the archdeacon, while performing his pedestrian visitations, is sometimes shown to the door, and refused a morsel of meat, and told as a favour he may lie in an outhouse, it is, I believe, in consequence of their suspicions of Mm, and not from any desire to be inhospitable. They cannot believe that a predikant would walk. They never knew or heard of such a thing, and take him for an impostor--a discharged soldier--a convict. It is in vain to tell them that our Lord and Master and his holy apostles walked. It may have been so. But they know that predikants don't walk.

Our second night was passed near a mud house about three hours from Colesberg. The building not looking very tempting, I passed the night in the cart. The country from Richmond to Colesberg is like the rest of the Karroo, dreary, dry, and monotonous. Up till to-day we have seen very little game. This afternoon, however, we came across immense herds of spring-bok, and several quaggas and wilde-beestes. The country was as well stocked as an English gentleman's park. We still continue to ascend, and have been coming up hill ever since leaving Worcester. We arrived in Colesberg a little after ten o'clock. After getting thoroughly washed, and having partaken of some breakfast, I went to look at the Church, which is about breast-high. The plan which I gave has been followed more accurately than I could have expected, and the building will be respectable. I could have wished, indeed, that it had been all of stone, instead of brick plastered, but the great expense of working stone, and the scanty means of the small English community, precluded the idea. Soon after my arrival, one of the deacons of the Dutch Church came to inform me that some of the elders of that Church, farmers in the country, objected to my using the Dutch Church for service tomorrow, and to consult me as to what was to be done. It had been offered by the minister and accepted by Dr. Orpen; some few of the parishioners, however, found fault with their minister for lending it, though the great majority were, I believe, quite willing. Of course, I declined using it, and regretted exceedingly that my visit to the place should in any way be a source of discord between the minister and his people. I afterwards called on Mr. Reed to thank him for his kindness, and to say that I would officiate in the court-house. I believe their objections arose partly from the bad spirit which is afloat with regard to the English, in consequence of the anti-convict agitation, partly from the close connexion of many of these farmers with the rebel Boers over the Orange river, whose spirit they Lave in some measure imbibed, and partly from their confounding our Church with the Roman communion, in consequence of its episcopacy. The Dutch generally throughout the Colony entertain strong feelings of antipathy against the Romanists, and have a great dread of them. They for the most part know nothing of the Romish faith, and are themselves so credulous and ignorant, that they would fall easy victims to that Church's teaching, were it. not for their wholesome fear of it. The recent arrival of several Romish priests has added to their alarm. The Romish Bishop is, I understand, to be here next Sunday.

We held our service in the court-house, where Dr. Open officiates until the Church shall be built. The congregation was about seventy in the morning, and quite filled the room; the communicants were twenty. Eight candidates presented themselves for confirmation. The collections at the Offertory were devoted to the new Church. In the evening I preached again, on love,--charity,--thinking it a suitable subject under present circumstances.

Monday, 29th.--Called on some of the parishioners. Attended a meeting of the Church committee. Had much conversation with Dr. Orpen respecting the work of the ministry in the parish. In the evening again we held Divine service, when I preached. The court-house was quite full.

30th.--Left Colesberg this morning at 8 o'clock for Bloemfontein. The first house in the Sovereignty belongs to an English farmer, where we outspanned. Slept at Philipolis, the capital of Adam Kok's territory. Mr. and Mrs. Van der Scholk (of the London Missionary Society) received me very kindly. In the evening I called upon Captain Adam Kok, who is the chief of a portion of the Griquas. He is a very common-place looking man,--a Christian, and, I believe, a sincere one. He does not appear to have much authority over his people. His country forms part of the Sovereignty, but he governs it under British protection. Any Europeans, however, that may be living in his territory are under British rule and he has no authority over them. At this present time I understand that he and other chiefs are much dissatisfied with the government regulations respecting land. Several Dutch Boers hold farms under him upon lease, the payment, I imagine, being nearly nominal. At the expiration of the leases, government requires the Griquas to pay the tenants for the improvements made upon the farms by the erection of buildings, &c., or to lose the land altogether. This they feel to be oppressive, and assert, with I know not what truth, that nothing was said about such payment in the original agreements. Philipolis is a tolerable sized village, and has its chapel and school. The Missionary speaks with much interest of his work, and says, that very many of the people are sincere Christians. He has received upwards of 100l. from them this year, as their contribution towards the London. Missionary Society. He thinks also that the Griquas are advancing in civilization and industry, Some with whom I conversed on the subject at Colesberg think differently. The country is fertile, with abundance of springs. The farms (if you may call them so) appear very poor and miserable. I did not see a single patch of ground under cultivation, though I am told there is a good deal. Adam Kok has a pension of 300l. a-year from the British Government. There is a rumour here to-day that Moshesh's brother has attacked the Boers.

May 1st.--Started by daylight. The road from here to Bloem-fontein is as good generally as a road in England, though the hand of man has not been employed upon it. The country throughout consists of large plains bounded by low mountains or rocky koppies. There is abundance of game--the gnu, bless-bok, and spring-bok. There are also a great many of the beautiful cranes of the country, and some fine eagles. We found no forage at any of the places we stopped at, but there is abundance of grass. We stayed for a short time at Mr. Wright's farm at Boom-plaats and I surveyed the field of Sir H. Smith's late battle with the Boers. The rebels were posted behind some strong koppies; but retreated speedily from one to the other, till their retreat became a rout. I visited the craves of our brave officers and soldiers, who are buried in flailed enclosure in the middle of Mr. Wright's garden. Hearing that they had been buried without any religious service, I read our office for the burial of the dead over their remains. I did so because it was a satisfaction to myself to do it, and because I thought that it might be some consolation to surviving friends and relatives. I should have remained here for the night if I could have obtained forage, But hearing that there was some at the next farm, we pushed on, but did not arrive till after it was dark. Our reception was at first not very cordial; and I mention the circumstance because it illustrates both the bad and the good side of the Dutch Boer's character, and is perhaps indicative of the state of feeling of these enterprising but self-outlawed men towards the English government and people. We asked if we might outspan for the night. The farmer replied, "Yes, but that I must sleep in my eat, for he had no room." I then asked if he had forage. "No, he had none." "Was there much grass?" "No, the locusts had eaten it, and there was scarce any." Would he sell half a bushel of wheat, for the horses were very hungry, and even a little would prevent them from straying during the night?" "No, he had scarce enough for himself." I went in with him to his house, and sat down and I talked. After a little while his heart began to soften, and when he saw that I was still anxious about the horse?, he ordered his son to fetch a sack of oats, and measured out early a muid, so that our poor animals had abundance. He made me however pay, as I was quite willing to do, an exorbitant price. Afterwards we went in to supper, and ere very friendly, and in the morning he helped us to inspan, and gave us our cup of coffee. I should have mentioned that at first he tried hard to induce us to go on to the next farm, where he said there was forage. This however was impossible. It was so dark that I had been obliged for some time to go before the horses to point out the path, and it was beginning to thunder and lighten around us in every direction. Seeing the night was likely to turn out a bad one, they invited Ludwig to sleep in the house. After a very good night in my cart, we proceeded on our way, and arrived at Bethany about half-past nine. This is a station of the Berlin Missionary Society for the Coranna people, who, I believe, are the same race as the Hottentot. The missionaries received me not only very kindly, but with evident respect for my office. The Mission at, present is only just recovering from the effects of the late war. During the disturbances of the Boers, the whole of the people under instruction were dispersed. Many have never returned. The present number of inhabitants in the village is about 500. These consist of several tribes, Corannas, Bechuanas, Bastards, and Bushmen. The school consists of about 100. There were not more than fifty present to-day. It had been intended to be a holiday, the teacher having gone out with the Government Surveyor, to mark the boundaries of the land belonging to the Mission, upon which the farmers were encroaching (the extent of which they told me was, according to Adam Kok's original grant, an hour's ride in every direction from the Mission premises). The children repeated the Lord's Prayer in Dutch, and sang very prettily. They did not appear to know much, or to show great intelligence. But what is to be expected from a mixed race so drawn together, after little more than a year's training? The Missionaries of the Berlin Society are, I believe, all strict Lutherans. They adhere to the Augsburg Confession, and to the Lutheran views of the sacraments. They complained to me of the very unsound views generally taught by English dissenting missionaries, with reference to the sacrament of Baptism, "which," they said, "being spoken of generally as only a sign or mark, the coloured people confounded it with the signs or marks made upon their cattle, and did not esteem it in any higher light than this." They spoke of the evils already resulting, and likely to do so to a much greater extent, as the coloured people become more educated, from the variety of sects and societies which exist in Southern Africa. This is a subject which it is impossible for any thoughtful mind to ponder, without many anxious forebodings. Christianity is, I believe, presented to South Africa under twenty distinct forms and associations. What, fifty years hence, will be the result?

We passed the night near a half-ruined farm, where I found an Englishman with his wife and family. I was happy to have the opportunity of uniting with them, in this spiritual desert, in prayer. They were members of the Church of England, and seemed respectable people. He had lost all his savings, first by the Kafir war, and then again, a second time, by the Boers, who, upon the breaking out of the late rebellion, had robbed him, as an Englishman, of everything, even of his Bible and Prayer-book. There are a great many lions and wolves in this neighbourhood. One of the latter came prowling about us very early in the morning. We started before daylight, and after outspanning at a very kind and obliging Dutch farmer's, arrived at Bloem-fontein about eleven o'clock. A party of gentlemen rode or drove out to meet me. My morning was spent in receiving visitors. At three o'clock a deputation from the military and civilians waited on me, and presented an address expressive of their satisfaction at my arrival amongst them, and their hope that it might lead to the establishment of a Church and Clergyman in this Tillage. They placed also in my hands a list of subscriptions towards a Church, amounting to 200l. and stated that they expected to raise 300l. We had some interesting conversation. I informed them that hearing of their zeal and exertions while at Colesberg, I had written from that place to my Commissary, requesting him to send out a Clergyman especially for them, for that I regarded the effort they were making as a Providential opening, and did not feel at liberty to hold back, while God seemed to be beckoning on. I told them, however, that all my funds were exhausted, and that I had no means of supporting an additional Minister; that I had applied without success to the High Commissioner for a stipend towards a Clergyman; and that, therefore, if one were to be permanently maintained here, it must be chiefly through their own offerings. I did not press them to enter into any engagements at the present time; but I wished the members of the Church at the very outset clearly to understand how I was circumstanced. After this interview I walked over the village with Major Warden, the British resident, who had kindly invited me to stay at his house during my visit. About five I met the Church Building Committee, and we decided upon sites for Church, Burial-ground, Parsonage, School, and upon the erection of a Church to hold 200, for which I undertook to furnish plans. Major Warden promised to bring the subject under the notice of the High Commissioner, with a view to obtain from him the like assistance which has been granted towards the erection of the Dutch Church. I own I feel that an equal measure of favour has not hitherto been shown to our Church. There are two Dutch ministers already appointed, each with a salary of 250l. Could more ministers be found, they would, I understand, receive similar appointments. In the capital and only village in the Sovereignty, the population is nearly exclusively English. 1,400l. has already been paid to Government for erven;--nine-tenths of this, Major Warden informs me, are from Englishmen. Out of this sum 500l. have been given to the Church and school, the Church (Dutch) receiving 320l. the school 180l. The whole amount of subscriptions to the Dutch Church is 3,000 dollars (225l.) Hitherto we have got nothing for our church, and I have been refused 100l. a-year towards a Clergyman's stipend, although there are 250 of our troops here besides the civilians. At Smithfield, I understand, the whole fund arising from the sale of erven is promised to the Dutch Church; at Harrismith, one-half; at Winburg, I believe, two-thirds. The great bulk of the population in these villages will probably be English. Bloemfontein is rapidly rising in importance. A press is coming up, and a newspaper is about to be started. The Romish Bishop is soon to visit it, with a view, I understand, to fix a priest there, and the Methodists have decided upon planting a station in the village. Everything is of course in a very rough state. There is nothing remarkable in the situation of the village; it is defended by a rude fort, mounted with four guns. In the evening I met Dr. Frazer and Mr. Murray, the zealous young Dutch minister, at dinner. He was placed here, I believe, when little more than twenty-one years of age, and has had a very difficult post to fill, which he has done with great zeal and discretion.

Saturday, May 4th.--The greater part of this day has been occupied in preparing candidates for Confirmation, and in other spiritual works. Several of the officers and the Civil Commissioners dined with Major Warden in the evening.

Sunday, 5th.--I began this day's services with a marriage. At ten o'clock we had morning prayers and a Sermon for the troops in an open shed. Some of the civilians attended, and there was an excellent congregation. Immediately after this, I consecrated the military burial-ground, which has been very neatly walled in, and which already contains forty bodies. At half-past one, we had afternoon service in the schoolhouse. The room was crowded, and the congregation consisted nearly exclusively of English. Three children were baptized after the second lesson; four candidates were confirmed, whom I addressed at some length; ten communicated; our collection at the Offertory was for the new Church, and amounted to 15l. As I preached again, the service lasted nearly three hours, and we encroached upon the time appointed for the Dutch service. There was not room in the building for many of the Dutch people, but they crowded round the doors "and windows throughout the whole time. It happens to be the Sunday appointed for their "aanneming," or confirmation, which is without imposition of hands. I counted nearly fifty wagons in the outskirts of the village.

Monday, 6th.--A busy morning. Employed in writing letters on business, &c. I shall probably have no opportunity of writing again for a month. Afterwards called upon the members of the Church residing in the village. Dined with the officers.

Tuesday, 7th.--Started this morning on horseback for Thaba-Umchu, the kraal, or rather town, of the chief Marokko, accompanied by two Cape Corps orderlies, who are to be my guides through the country in my visits to one or two Missionary stations. Mr. Murray, the Minister of the Dutch Church, rode with me part of the way, and several English came out for about a mile on the road to take leave. I had also the honour of a salute from the guns of the fort on my departure, though when I heard of this compliment being about to be paid, I begged to decline it. After a ride of forty-five miles we arrived at Thaba-Umchu, which is a singular-looking native town of considerable size. There are, I believe, about 2,000 houses, and the population is about 8,000. Each house is surrounded by a low stone wall, making a kind of court. The houses are round, built of clay, and thatched. I went into one which had a sort of inner room, in which in cold weather the inmates sleep. The inhabitants are Bechuanas of the Barolong tribe. They are very rich in cattle: some private individuals have, I understand, 1,000 head of cattle, and 100 horses. Indeed, the whole country for some miles round seemed covered with cattle. There are not more than 150 Christians. The school has about 60 scholars. The chapel is a very poor one; another is about to be built. This tribe practises circumcision. Polygamy is very common. The men sew, and make caresses; the women do all the hard work, build the houses, cultivate the ground! &c. The chief is not a Christian, but is much under the influence of the Missionary, Mr. Cameron, of the Wesleyan Society, with whom I took up my quarters, and who was very hospitable. The Heathen are always glad, for political reasons, to have a Missionary residing at their kraal, I went to see the chief Marokko: he was sitting with his counsellors over a fire, in the council chamber, which was a mere open court surrounded by a fence. They were discussing the subject of the meeting to be held in a day or two, with some other chiefs and the British resident. He seemed glad to see me, and shook hands very heartily. Every petty chief who can get together a party of followers is entitled to be of the council. There are a great many of these in this large town. Each of them appears to have from ten to fifteen huts about him. I sat up till late with Mr. Cameron, talking over Missions, the Church, and Wesleyanism, and afterwards passed an excellent night on his sofa. I fear Marokko's people have not yet advanced far in civilization. The greater number of them still wear nothing but the carosse. They appear very indolent. How these 8,000 people employ themselves is marvellous. Some of them, indeed, are engaged in tending their flocks. A small proportion cultivate patches of ground in which Kafir com is sown; but the great majority seem to have nothing to do, and to do nothing. I understand they purchase a great part of the grain which they consume from other tribes, giving cattle in exchange. There seems an abundance of land capable of growing wheat. I did not see a single garden, except the Missionary's, in the whole place. One native Christian has built a stone house, in imitation of the English. These people, in personal appearance, manner, and bearing, are far inferior to the Kafirs. The country has a very bare appearance, having no trees, and scarce a single bush. It is covered with a close grass, which is well cropped by the numerous herds.

Wednesday, 8th.--I put down here while I have a little leisure (not often the case), during which my horses are browsing midway between Thaba-Umchu and Macquatlin, (Molitzani's kraal,) some few circumstances relating to this distant country. The Vaal river is now the boundary which separates the Sovereignty from the Boers, who refuse to recognise British authority. These men have formed themselves into a Republic, and have their "Raad" (Council): the exact constitution, however, of their government they have not fixed, though they have had many meetings. I understand that they are about 10,000 in number. Their feelings are very bitter against the English Government. Some regard that Government as Antichrist; some the Queen in person. They took Dr. Frayer of Bloemfontein a prisoner not long since for presuming to cross the Vaal river while hunting, haying no permission from them to enter into their territory. It appears quite clear, I think, that they have amongst them at least a modified form of slavery. Several people in Bloemfontein, including, I think, both the Resident and Civil Commissioners, informed me that it was not uncommon for them to purchase a child for a heifer. Young Mr. Murray admitted that this was occasionally the case. The greater number of these people are very anxious for a predikant and a Church, and they have pledged themselves to a sum of, I believe, 270l. a-year. They are desirous of giving a call to Mr. Murray, who, on his part, would be quite willing to go, if he could see a prospect of his place of Bloemfontein being supplied; but the Dutch Church seems quite incapable of providing a sufficient body of Ministers for its own increasing wants, although there is no difficulty about stipend. I understand that at this moment there are not less than twelve vacant parishes.

To return, however, to the Boers: some few of these refuse to receive Mr. Murray's ministrations, in consequence of his connexion with the British Government. They will not (on religious grounds and scruples) allow him to baptize or marry, although of course great evils are daily arising from their inability to partake of these ordinances from any other quarter. There is a party also of Boers who think they are on their way to Jerusalem, and that they are not very far distant from it. They are deceived by the apparent nearness of Egypt in some of the maps in their old Bibles. There are some symptoms of a growing fanaticism amongst these poor people. The Dutch Boer, wherever he may be, and under whatever circumstances, never casts off his respect for religion. There is nothing sceptical in his mind. Perhaps ho lacks the energy and mental activity which generally lead to infidelity where the means of grace are wanting. His religion, however, is traditionary. It exercises no very great influence over him. He is very superstitious, and would offer just a field for the Romanist to exercise his ministry upon, were it not for the extreme dread, terror, and dislike, with which he regards Popery.

We rode to-day a distance of about forty miles a fine grassy country to Makquatlin, the village of the chief Molitzani. There were neither bushes nor trees to be seen the whole day; but the hills became higher and more picturesque, as we approached the village. We saw one village of Marokko's people at a distance, and met with a great many cattle. There was scarce any game to be seen. Makquatlin is beautifully situated at the foot of a semicircular mountain. The appearance of it was very pleasing as we approached. The sun was setting full upon it, and everything looked cheerful. The houses indeed of the natives, who are of the Bastuto tribes and the Bechuana race, are inferior to Marokko's. They are built entirely of reed or grass, like the Kafirs' and Fingoes', but they have a very small court of reed, generally in front. Altogether they do not look nearly so comfortable as Marokko's houses. The village is much smaller than Thaba-Umchu, and contains perhaps about 1,200 souls. There appeared, however, a much larger tract of country under cultivation than at that place, which, considering the disproportion of the population, is very striking, and speaks much for the industry of these people. Indeed, I am told, that they grow more grain (which is always Indian, or Kafir corn) than is required for their own consumption, and that Marokko's people purchase of them. The chapel here is a neat brick building erected by the natives, who have also just finished a school. The Mission-house has an excellent garden is. front of it. Mr. and Mrs. Daumas (of the Paris Missionary Society) received me very kindly. The hearing them converse in French with their little family brought home (for Europe seems like home) vividly before me. I had much interesting conversation with him during the course of the evening. His converts are about 100. His school consists of about 100. In their natural state these Heathen believe in the existence of gods; they regard their ancestors as gods, and sacrifice to them occasionally a goat or an ox. They believe in the immortality of the soul. He told me of some facts which induce him to think that some of the tribes believe in the transmigration of souls. In the evening, after tea, I walked out with Mr. Danmas into the village. He took me to see some of the native Christian houses. These are built after the European fashion, and there is an effort at neatness. Several of them have nice gardens, walled in, and abounding in fruit-trees, walnut, plum, lemon, and orange, which Mr. Daumas has introduced. They are beginning also to plant trees before their houses. I conversed with some of the Christians. As far as I am able to judge, they appear to be sincere. I went to call upon Molitzani, but met him with one or two companions walking through the village wrapped in his carosse. I told him "I would not pass through his country without calling upon him, for he was one of the powers that be, which we Christians believe are ordained of God." I had some little conversation with him about Christianity. He has just been suffering greatly from war with the neighbouring chief, Sinkoneyalla, who burnt down, a few months since, the village in which he lived, distant about a mile from the present one. The effect of this war has been very unfavourable to the Mission work. It has unsettled the minds even of the best of the people. It has brutalized many, and has stopped all improvement. The Missionary and his wife spoke with great pain of this. One striking thing occurred during the war. Molitzani with his warriors was compelled to fly from his village and country. The Missionary remained. Molitzani and his people sent their wives and children, property, &c. to the Mission station, fully assured they would be safe there. The chapel and the house were, upon Sinkoneyalla's approach, filled with aged women and children. Sinkoneyalla respected the sanctuary. He sent word to the Missionary that he knew he was a servant of God, and that he wished for peace and not war. Not a thing or person was touched, although the village about a mile off was burnt to the ground. [Since writing the above nearly eight months ago, Molitzani, having attacked a neighbouring Mission station, was called to account for it by the British Resident. As he refused to give satisfaction and to pay the fine imposed, a body of troops from Bloemfontein was marched against him, and Marokko invited to join them in chastising him. He was attacked and defeated, and a large number of cattle taken from him, a portion of which were given to Marokko. Soon after Marokko's return home he was attacked by Moshesh, the most powerful chief in the Sovereignty, and 4,000 head of cattle were taken from him. We have insisted on Moshesh restoring these and giving satisfaction. Up to this time he has not done so: and, at this stage of affairs, war has broken out with the Kaffirs. Any attempt now to punish Moshesh would add greatly to the dangers to which the Colony is exposed.]

On my ride next morning to Merimitzo, at which place Major Warden had appointed to meet the chiefs Marokko, Molitzani, and Sinkoneyalla, to settle disputes arising out of the war, I passed through a country which a few months ago was full of life, but is now a desert. We passed, I think, not less than, half-a-dozen deserted kraals, and did not see a single living being, or a single head of cattle, or, indeed, any game. All was desolate. The inhabitants, through fear of Sinkoneyalla, had forsaken their country, and had not yet dared to return. We witnessed on a small scale the fearful ravages of war. Mr. Daumas pointed out to me one kraal, the head man of which was an aged brother of Molitzani's. When the people under him fled, he chose to remain, because the Corannas under the chief Gert Taibosch had assured him, that, being an old man, he would not be interfered with. Sinkoneyalla, however, murdered him in cold blood. He showed me another spot near which we passed, where a son of Molitzani's was killed with a few followers. It appears that though Molitzani had every reason to expect an attack from Sinkoneyalla, he made no preparation against it. Consequently, when news was brought that the enemy was approaching, all were in bed. Their horses had to be caught, and their arms prepared. Molitzani's son put himself at the head of about eighteen followers, and, against the entreaties of his father, went out to meet 800 horsemen. Not one of his party, I believe, returned to the village. On this occasion, the Corannas, under Gert Taibosch, joined with Sinkoneyalla as allies. The war being at an end, they in their turn, being but a small tribe of about 300 men, have fled out of the country, fearing the revenge of Molitzani. They have trekked beyond the Boers to Jan Bloom's country, who is also a Coranna chief; but many of his cattle, probably stolen from Molitzani, having died, Major Warden hears he wishes to come back again and resume his territory. The Corannas are said to be a remnant of the old gottentots, and they say that their forefathers lived near the Cape. Having been long accustomed to the use of fire-arms, which the other tribes in the neighbourhood are as yet novices in, they are formidable enemies. When we arrived at Gert Taibosch's village of Merimitzo, I was surprised to find such slight remains of a tribe having dwelt there. There were only the ruins of one or two huts. There was a Wesleyan Mission to this tribe. The premises were still standing, though somewhat ruined. All the windows of the dwelling-house, in which a table and a Bedstead still remained, were broken. The out-buildings were in a state of dilapidation. The same room was used here both for school and chapel--a very unfortunate and improper arrangement, I think; for surely, if we come to teach the heathen that there is a God, and that they must reverence and worship Him, we should be careful to distinguish God's house, and make them feel the sacredness thereof. Mr. Daumas spoke to me of this, and of the importance of attending to these things. In the present case, the chapel was the most shabby building on the station, and its broken and defaced pulpit, with the whole scene around, filled me with melancholy reflections. We arrived r nearly an hour before Major Warden. Shortly after he joined us, Molitzani, with a considerable number of followers came up. He had exchanged his dirty though picturesque carosse, in which I had seen him the night before, for a white hat, a long drab coat, such as our farmers wear, and corduroy trowsers. Many of his followers had imitated him; others were still in their ordinary dresses; they all looked very common-place. After waiting some time, in hopes that Marokko and Sinkoneyalla would appear, I was obliged to take my leave, as I was anxious to join my cart, which was distant about two hours from the place of meeting, meaning, if possible, to push on a few miles on my road before night-fall. Major Warden accordingly ordered two of the Cape Corps to accompany me as guides, one of whom said he knew the way; and Molitzani called one of his people out of the crowd, who was said to be acquainted with the country. After receiving full instructions we started, and rode hard for between three and four hours, when we came to a road, and all admitted they knew not which way to go. After directing the man to off saddle, I mounted the highest hill in the neighbourhood, to take a view of the country. Nothing was to be seen but one dreary waste. I found, however, on the top of the mountain, a very extensive deserted stone kraal or village, which had evidently being fixed upon that exposed spot for purposes of defence. I could not learn to whom it belonged. At present Sinkoneyalla is the only chief who avails himself of the natural resources of the country for purposes of defence. He lives, I understand, upon the top of a mountain, to which there is but one approach. By the time I had descended, it was getting dark. As our horses were knocked up, I thought it better to spend the night in the kraal, which would prove some shelter to us. Happily, the soldiers did not approve of my counsel. We started, therefore, on foot, one of the orderlies being so stiff that he could not mount his horse. He soon, however, grew weary of walking, and, with my help, managed to get into his saddle. I walked on alone. At one time, being somewhat in advance of the others, I was tracked by some wild animal, which, however, did not venture to interfere with me. Several more were howling round about. In about an hour and a half's time one of the soldiers descried a light in the distance, and another half-hour brought us to a farm close by Winburg, where the owner received us kindly.

In such a country as this, where you may travel for days without seeing a house or meeting a person, it is a serious patter to lose one's way, especially if unprovided, as I was, with food. I did not, however, feel the least uneasy, knowing that I was in the hands of a gracious Father, who had brought me through greater difficulties than the present. It was while I was in the act of offering up the Lord's Prayer, under a very strong sense of the presence of God, that the man cried out he saw a light. We got some supper here, and forage for our horses, and I passed a very tolerable night in a wagon, standing by the house. My men also found shelter, and well it was they did, for it rained nearly the whole night. A farmer's house in this part of the country seldom has more than one room, and that without door or window-frame. In this room the whole family, and frequently strangers, sleep. This would be still more inconvenient and objectionable than it is, were it the custom to undress at night; but this is not the case. I understand it is thought sufficient to do this once a-week.

Next morning we started in the rain for Geldenhuis farm, where my cart was, and reached it about eight o'clock, having gone about twenty-five miles out of our way. After washing and dressing, I started in my cart, right glad to find myself once more in it. After travelling about two hours, we came precisely to the same spot, where I had discovered that we had lost our way, just twenty hours before. This day's journey was through a fine grass country, abounding in game. There were no trees nor bushes, but low mountains of a picturesque appearance, chiefly on our right hand. We arrived at night at an encampment of Boers, who were trekking over the Vaal river, with their flocks and herds, near to which was; the wretched hovel of a farmer, who spoke very bitterly against the British Government. They gave us, however, some spring-bok for supper. The night was so cold that I could scarce sleep at all. We were off early again, our poor horses, which have had nothing but the dry grass of the country for the last two days, looking very disconsolate,: This evening we were to have arrived at Mr. Bester's, a Dutch farmer, who was implicated in the late rebellion, but whom the Governor, wishing to conciliate the Boers, appointed magistrate of Harrismith. We were, however unable to reach his house, and therefore outspanned in the veldt. Being a cold night, and somewhat fearing lest our horses should be attacked by lions, which abound in this, part of the country, we set fire to the grass, both for warmth and to frighten away wild beasts. I had intended to spend the next day, being Sunday, quietly at Mr. Bester's; but I was compelled to proceed on my journey, there being no water for the horses where we were. Mr. Bester's house lying out of the road, we missed it, and arrived about eleven o'clock at a Hottentot's house, whose name is Old Isaak. Here I determined to spend the Sunday. I found one or two English traders there, as well as several Dutch farmers. After enjoying the luxury of a thorough washing, and having had some breakfast, I collected together the few people that were about the place, and held divine service, preaching to them extempore. I had scarcely finished, and was yet talking to the people, when my dear friend and companion in my former visitation, the Rev. J. Green of Maritzburgh, Natal, stood before me, He had ridden six days to meet me, accompanied by a son; of Mr. Moodie, Secretary to Government at Natal. His intention was to have waited for me at Harrismith; hut he passed it in the dusk on Saturday, and finding himself late last night, half way to this place, came on here. I was delighted to meet him again, and we had, of course, much interesting conversation. Neither of us had much rest that night. There was a party of coloured people who spent most of the night in playing the fiddle and dancing. The dogs--the ducks--the horses--the oxen, kept running about, uttering their various and discordant cries throughout the night. We were off by daylight the next morning. The nature of the country was still the same, but the features of it more striking. As we approached Harrismith, we caught views of some fine-shaped mountains. We out-spanned for the night by the Wilge (or Willow) River, which, like the Elands, had the appearance of a real, though small river, which is not the case with most of the so-called rivers in South Africa. Mr. Green rode on with Mr. Moodie to Harrismith, intending to spend the night there, and recover a horse, which, being knocked up, he had sent there. Shortly after he had left us, I discovered that either he or I was in the wrong road. Believing that he was in the road to Maritzburg, instead of to Harrismith, I became very uneasy about him, and sent Ludwig out to fire signal guns. Some time after his return from a fruitless effort to recall him, I went out and fired also, and hallooed for some time, but could hear nothing of him. I returned therefore to my cart, feeling assured that he must spend the night, which was dark, cold, and wet, in the veldt. I had scarce, however, made ready my hammock, and wrapped myself up in my carosse, before Ludwig heard the horses' tramp, and in a few minutes I welcomed them back with joy. After giving them some cold ham and biscuits, we endeavoured to sleep, being very weary, and passed a better night than could have been expected, sitting up in the cart. We were three above, and two below. Curtains being fixed round the bottom of the cart, and meeting one Mother, my men have always a dry and warm bed, be the weather what it may.

Next morning Green rode to Harrismith to fetch his horse. I commissioned him at the same time to endeavour, if possible, to fix upon sites for the future church, parsonage and school, before all the erven are sold. At present there are not more than two or three houses in the village; but, if the Sovereignty is continued as part of the British possessions, and peace is maintained for a few ears, it probably will become an important village or town. The country is more pleasing than that which I have lately passed through; the mountains are fine, but there is no timber. The soil appears to be good, and I should think it is well watered. The grass grows to a very great height, but it is now either withered or burnt, and the horses appear to dislike it very much.

As evening came on, we began the descent of the Drakenberg. It was so very precipitous, that the pole cracked in several places, even though we unloaded the cart, and carried all the luggage ourselves for a distance of upwards of half a mile. Night surprised us during this operation. We therefore outspanned at the bottom of the steepest declivity. I never knew my driver baffled with a difficulty before. As the pole had cracked before we reached the worst part of the road, he said he did not dare to "reim" (lock) the wheel; and that if we went down with it unlocked, all would roll into the precipice below. He said we must turn back, we could not attempt the descent. As this, however, was impossible, we did attempt it, and arrived safe at the bottom, though through many dangers. I understand a cart has never been down before. The wagons of the country can, if they please, lock all the wheels. We spent the night again very uncomfortably and with little sleep, sitting or reclining as well as we could in the cart.

When day dawned and we proceeded in our descent, (which I did on foot, considerably in advance of the cart,) a glorious view presented itself. All the kloofs in the mountains around us and above us were covered with wood, to which our eyes of late had been but little accustomed! Before us was a vast range of country of an undulating character, an apparently interminable succession of hill and dale. The grass, which on the other side of the mountain was dry and withered, was here, especially in the kloofs, green and verdant, and several sorts of flowers were still in blossom. I know not whether the change of scene affected me at all, but I have seldom enjoyed a two hours' walk more. During the whole of the time I was enabled to maintain almost uninterrupted communion with God. The cart had scarcely overtaken me, before we reached a deep ravine, near to the first house which we have seen for nearly four days. In descending this, the pole snapped in sunder, and at one time I thought my driver would have been killed, and the cart dashed to pieces. Happily, however, the horses, perhaps through fatigue, behaved very well, and the cart reached the bed of the river with little additional damage. A kind farmer in the neighbourhood brought his wagon and Kafirs, with wood and forage, and we were enabled to splice our pole, and proceed on our journey after two or three hours' delay.

We again slept in the veldt. On the following day we passed through a pleasing country without further serious accident, though the front board of the cart gave way altogether,--our swingle broke,--the iron ring which fastened the harness of the four front horses to the pole snapped in two, and we had several similar trifling misfortunes. The soil of the country seems very fertile. Much t of the grass is as high as full-grown wheat in England. A great portion, however, has been burnt by the farmers, as is usual in this country during autumn, there not being sufficient stock to consume all that nature supplies. This custom destroys the trees along with the grass, which causes the country to appear somewhat bare, though in several parts the mimosa appears. We passed one fine river, the Tugela, in which I bathed, as I have been enabled to do also for the last three days,--much to my refreshment; for having so little sleep, and not being able to lie down, I am getting somewhat fatigued. A life like that I am now leading, makes a man feel that he is a wayfarer,--that he is a stranger and a pilgrim upon earth,--that this is not his home or rest. God grant that it may lead me more and more, day by day, to prepare, as I trust it is in some measure doing, to enter into that rest that "remaineth for the people of GOD."

We passed the night by the banks of a little stream. Our horses having strayed to some distance during the night, we were long in finding them, and therefore did not start very early. I had been three hours on foot before the cart overtook me. There are a great many ancient Kafir kraals all along the road, which evidently were raised by the former inhabitants of the country, who have now passed away; for I understand that there are not more than two petty chiefs of the ancient tribes remaining in the whole dependency. The 100,000 coloured people who now dwell in the country, and have had considerable tracts of land assigned to them, are chiefly refugees from the tyranny of Panda and other chiefs. Two of these came up to us while we were cooking our supper last night in the veldt. We did not see them for some time, it being very dark. They were thankful for some food and tea which we gave them, and expressed their gratitude in a superabundance of complimentary epithets at their departure.

We breakfasted at the Bushman's Drift, a military post upon a fine river--at least fine for South Africa. It has been placed there to check the depredations of the Bushmen who dwell in the Drakenberg mountains, which are their strongholds. These men are the great cattle-stealers of this colony, and the Sovereignty. I am told that if they are followed when stealing cattle, and are closely pressed, they will kill their spoil, in order that at least it may not fall alive into the hands of its owner. The Bushmen appear to be the most lost and degraded of all the tribes of South Africa. They are very bold and daring. Quite lately thirteen of them committed an atrocious murder in the Sovereignty under peculiar circumstances. Some of them were in the employ of a Dutch farmer. He had been in the habit of giving them tobacco. On one occasion when they asked for it, he either had none to give, or would give none. His Bushman servant said he would be revenged. In about a week after the refusal, he came by night with a party of thirteen of his tribe, and attacked the farmer's house-. When he appeared at his door they shot him with their poisoned arrows, and then entered his house, and killed his wife and all his children in cold blood, battering in their skulls with Knob Keries. Troops were sent out to apprehend them when the murder was discovered. They made a determined resistance, occupying a kraal for defence. Six were killed before the party would surrender. The remainder were brought to Bloemfontein, tried, condemned, and hanged.

The officers at the Post did me the favour to call upon me where I was outspanning, and supplied all our wants. from thence we went over a very hilly country, with wretched roads, to the Mooi River, where we had some supper in an Englishman's hut, and pushed on by moonlight a little further, being anxious to make sure of reaching Maritzburg the next night. We outspanned, as usual, in the veldt. This is the ninth night that I have been unable to undress, or go to bed, while I have been taking long walks every day. I am surprised that I am not, more fatigued than I find myself to be. The next morning we arrived at the Umgeni River to breakfast, after a drive of four hours over a hilly country. Here there is a very beautiful fall. The river rushes over a perpendicular rock into a valley, which is about three hundred feet below, the valley itself is wooded and picturesque. I do not know that I have seen a finer fall in any part of the world. Before we left this spot, a party rode up from Maritzburg. Having understood from them that His Honour the Governor, who had kindly invited me before I left Capetown to pay him a visit, was expecting me at his house, I resolved to drive there at once.

We arrived at Maritzburg about four o'clock. The first view I caught of it was from the top of a mountain, at whose feet it lay. The descent to it is long and steep. We-were rejoiced to look again upon human beings and dwelling-houses, after having travelled so many days without seeing any signs of life. Maritzburg is not like any of the villages in the old colony. Perhaps it resembles George more than any other place. No one expected our arrival for-at least a week to come. They were disposed to think it impossible that I could accomplish the journey in the time proposed. I told them that I make it a point to keep my engagements, if possible. Before I left Capetown I wrote to say that "possibly I might be here on Thursday--more likely on Friday--probably not till Saturday." I should have been here on the Friday, had I not gone one day out of my road to visit the Mission stations in the Sovereignty. I bless GOD that He hath brought me to this distant part of the Diocese in health and safety; and heartily do I pray that my visitation here may tend to the promotion of His glory, the advancement of His kingdom, and the good of the souls of this people.

The Governor received me very kindly, and has, I am sorry to say, given up his own rooms for my accommodation.

I calculate that I have travelled 1,400 miles with the same horses, in less than seven weeks. Mr. Green has ridden not less than 400 miles to meet me.

Whitsunday, May 19th, 1850.--An interesting day. A. little more than a year ago there was no clergyman of the Church of England in this colony, nor, as far as the members of the Church could see, any prospect of one being appointed. Now there are two; one here and the other at the Bay. [A third has since arrived, sent out by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.] A large emigrant population is, however, flowing in, and there is a vast missionary work lying before the Church, amongst the 100,000 Zoolus that have of late come into the colony. We shall need, therefore, a considerable increase in the number of our Clergy, if we are in good earnest to undertake the work God has given ns to do. Our services were held this morning in the Government schoolroom, a large and commodious building, the upper end of which is partitioned off for divine service. It is fitted up with a decent Communion-table, a very hand, some Early English stone font, well executed, and a massive lectern, carved and made of the finest wood in the colony. There was a large congregation, filling the whole room. Everything was done decently and in order, and in accordance with the rubrics. There were twenty-five communicants. I preached both in the morning and evening. choir broke forth with the Psalm, "O come, let
unto the Lord, let us heartily rejoice in the strength of our salvation," I was for the moment quite overcome. That text, "How shall I sing the Lord's song in a strange land?" rushed into my mind. It was not that I was moved by any desponding or ungrateful feelings, but I could not refrain from tears. The sacredness of the day itself, its peculiar appropriateness for the first service of the first bishop of the Church of God in this land,--the devout and reverential manner of the congregation that had been gathered by the zeal and earnestness of my dear friend,--gratitude to Almighty God for what Ho has already Wrought for us in this land,--and a very fervent desire that God, "who as at this time did teach the hearts of His faithful people by sending to them the light of His Holy Spirit," might pour out abundantly the gift of His Spirit upon our infant Church,--all these contributed to make me feel very deeply the services of this day.

May 25th.--I have been at Maritzburg now a week. 'My whole time has been fully occupied with receiving and paying visits,--the examination of Mr. Steabler for Ordination, the Confirmation, and the preparation of Sermons. It is a comfort to have the daily prayers of the Church established in this far-distant land. The sacrifice of prayer, and 'praise, and intercession, is uninterruptedly offered, and will, "I trust, prevail with God. The worshippers, indeed, are not many, but there are a few who value the privilege; and Christ's promised presence is, assuredly, not withheld. On Thursday the Confirmation took place. There were forty-four candidates, amongst whom were several of the Solitary. The congregation was large, and all behaved devoutly. Several Dutch were present, and amongst them their minister. He told me afterwards that his people liked the service, but objected to the coloured people, of whom there were several, being confirmed along with the rest. He reasoned with them on the subject, but it will require some time to eradicate their prejudices.

I have had much interesting conversation with the Governor this week. He seems disposed to devote his whole energies to the improvement of the colony. I have seen much also of the other public servants, and especially, of Mr. Shepstone, the very able superintendent, or chief of the whole coloured population of the colony. We dined one day with the Secretary to Government; another, at the camp, with the officers of the 45th regiment. On the other days the Governor has had one or two of the chief inhabitants to dinner.

On Friday, being the Queen's birth-day, the troops fired a royal salute, and paraded before the Governor; and in the evening His Honour had a party. After the review I; went with the Governor to the Colonial Office, to receive the ambassadors of Panda, Chief or King of the Zoolus, who had come to congratulate him on his arrival. Mr. Shepstone told us they were the same messengers who had been sent on all occasions during the last two or three years. He said that one of them was a subtle-minded; clever man. They had no clothing except a dark kind of blanket or horse-cloth, and were fine, intelligent-looking men. After they had been seated, they were invited to declare their message. This they did sitting, with much expressive action. "They had been sent to congratulate the Governor on his "arrival, and to wish him health and prosperity--to inform him that Panda was not well." (This was supposed to be said to avoid the possibility of an invitation to the Chief to come to the colony. On a former occasion, when invited, he excused himself on the ground that his feet were sore; he was offered a wagon, but replied that he had once, in the time of the Boers, taken a journey in a wagon, and had been so shaken that he had never recovered from it since.) They added "that Panda admired the British Government for its justice;--that he liked it much better than that of the Boers; that he particularly approved of the arrangement with regard to cattle;--that he thanked the Government for what had been sent, and hoped that more had been found; that the tribe had been entirely conquered by Panda, and had sent in its submission."

The Governor informed them that he had sent an embassy to Panda to announce his arrival, which had crossed Panda's on the road; and that he thanked them for their message, but would give his reply on a future occasion.

The ambassadors are lodged in a kraal out of the town, from which the inhabitants have been removed to accommodate them. They had an ox given them for their maintenance on their arrival two days ago. They were asked if they had had it, and liked it. They replied, "Yes, and had eaten it up." Another was promised, for which they were duly grateful. The formal business being finished, a friendly conversation sprung up. We asked them about the unhealthy country near Delagoa Bay, upon which their country borders. They spoke of it as marshy, full of bushes and trees; and said that wild beasts were there as thick as leaves, but that all men and oxen that went near it died. The Governor told them that I was the chief minister of religion in this part of the world, and said that if Panda wished for a minister of God, and would send him word to that effect, he would communicate with me about it. They were asked how they liked the review. They admired it very much. They could not understand how all the soldiers marched with one step. They thought the music showed a great house. It gave them a pain across their stomachs. The only thing they could have dispensed with was the firing; it gave them a pain in the head.

Panda's army is enrolled in regiments, and consists chiefly of young unmarried men, kept apart from the rest of the population. The arrangement about cattle, to which they alluded, arises out of the desire of Government to check the influx of Zoolus into this colony. Such is the tyranny of Panda that, if no restrictions existed, his whole people would leave him, take refuge in the colony, and place themselves under British protection; and thus Panda's power, which, tinder any circumstances, it is supposed, cannot last long, would be entirely and immediately broken up. This, however, it is thought, would not be a politic measure to adopt at present, for the colony has already a very large coloured population,--115,000, to which it is necessary to assign hinds which would otherwise be sold; and Panda's neighbourhood serves as a wholesome restraint upon those who have once felt, and might again, if they misconducted themselves, feel his power. His name is a kind of bugbeat to them; not that these poor people, however, are disaffected, or difficult to govern; on the contrary, they are most docile and manageable. They have hardly yet, in any single case, fallen into habits of intoxication. They show a great aptitude for labour, and willingness to work, especially under good superintendence; and they have the very greatest respect for law and constituted authorities. Still, however, it is thought advisable to discourage the extensive immigration which is setting in, especially from Panda's country; therefore no one is allowed to bring his cattle with him across the frontier. He may come himself if he likes, but he must come empty-handed. If he brings cattle, they are taken from him, and sent to Panda, who consoles himself for the loss of his subjects by the appropriation of their property, to which, indeed, he is by the laws of his country (that is, his own laws) entitled. The consequence is, that there is personal safety for those who are oppressed, and whose lives are threatened; but there is no encouragement given to disaffection; and Panda himself cannot fail to be struck with the good faith and generosity of the British Government. It is singular enough that his former subjects, after changing their allegiance, have no fear whatever of his resentment, on revisiting, which they occasionally do, their former country. Mr. Shepstone says there are not more than three or four men now in the colony who would be afraid to put themselves in his power. And these are men who were his former counsellors, and who are acquainted with all his secrets. The right of changing their chiefs,--transferring their allegiance,--seems to be recognised amongst all the South African tribes.

I should have inserted here, at greater length, incidental notices of this very interesting people, if I had not obtained a promise from Mr. Shepstone to put down upon paper for me much that he told me. There are many traditions, customs, habits, and manners of these people, which he, more than any other man, is competent to give information upon, which are gradually dying out, and which will be altogether lost in a short time, unless he record them. Being the son of a Wesleyan Missionary, having lived with Kafirs from his childhood, and being now regarded by the 115,000 Zoolus in this colony as their Inkosi Inkulu, which brings him into daily contact with their national life, system, laws, and polity, he has had opportunities, greater than perhaps all other men, of acquiring an intimate knowledge of all that relates to them.

Trinity Sunday, May 26th, 1850, Maritzburg.--This day I admitted to the Holy Order of Deacons the Rev. W. A. Steabler, who came out more than two years ago in the same ship with myself. During this period he has approved himself as a zealous faithful labourer, having been employed as catechist, both here and on the frontier, with much acceptance. I purpose sending him to commence our work at Bloemfontein. I took occasion to preach plainly on the subject of the Ministry of Christ. This I should have thought it desirable to do under any circumstances, at the very first ordination in a new Colony; but I felt the more constrained to do so, in consequence of a person having, immediately upon my arrival, advertised lectures and sermons, in which he has assailed the Orders of the Church, and her services, especially Confirmation. In the evening I preached again, on the subject of the Ever Blessed Trinity. The schoolroom was quite full on each occasion.

On Monday I was present at another interview with Panda's messengers, when the Governor gave them his official answer. They do not like to receive messages in writing. They carry away, however, the substance of what B said very accurately. Some messengers also from the Chief Faku received an audience on the same occasion.

It will, I think, be a happy day for the native population of South Africa when British rule shall extend, as I think it must ere long, from the eastern frontier of the Cape to Delagoa Bay. Before ten years shall have passed away, this will, I apprehend, be the case. May the Church be prepared to enter heartily upon the important and most promising work which God in His Providence is opening out to her!

On Tuesday I started with the Governor, who occupied a seat in my cart, for D'Urban. Several gentlemen accompanied us. It is his intention to see as much as possible of this portion of the Colony during the next fortnight. We are to visit together the American Mission Stations, the Cotton Company's lands, &c. The day was unfortunately wet, and we could not see much of the country, which was hilly, grassy, and bare. The roads became so slippery that we could hardly travel, and evening came upon us before we reached Botha's, about thirty miles, where we were to sleep. One of my horses fell in the dark just before we arrived. Next morning we started after breakfast for D'Urban, distant about twenty miles. We diverged from our road to visit Mr. Bergthiel's settlement at Little Germany. Mr. B. has brought out thirty-six German families, and planted them on a farm which he has purchased. He paid their passage out, fed them till they could support themselves, assigned 200 acres to each family, upon which, they have built comfortable houses, supplied them with agricultural implements, and stocked in some degree their land. Besides this, though a Jew himself, he in part supports a Missionary from the Berlin Society, and a schoolmaster, and has built both chapel and school. There are said to be 1,200 acres of land on the farm under the plough. The farm is of the usual extent, viz. 6,000 acres. But beside this he has purchased several other farms. The original cost of the farm was 500l.; but I understand that he calculates that he has in one way or another embarked a capital of nearly 10,000l. upon it. The greater part of this remains in the shape of a debt from the of the land to the owner, who has charged to their account all that he has expended in their behalf from the time they left Germany to the present hour. The result of this is that each family is indebted to Mr. Bergthiel to a considerable amount, varying, I understand, from 150l. to 350l. This of course places very considerable power in the hands of the creditor. All agree, however, that it has not been in the least abused by him. On the contrary, he has not only been lenient, but liberal. His arrangement, I am informed, is that they shall pay six per pent, interest on the debt till it is paid off, and one-third of the produce of their land by way of rent. Nothing, however, has as yet been paid. As to the system itself, I conceive it is in some respects valuable. The comforts which the people enjoy, the order, neatness, and industry which prevail, all are highly important, if only for example's sake to others. Undoubtedly such an establishment is in many ways beneficial to the Colony. I think also it may be considered as a safe speculation for the proprietor. Be it, that he has altogether laid out 10,00l.; it is all upon his own land. Every emigrant, though nominally enjoying a lease for five years, with a right to a renewal upon the same terms, and a promise of remuneration for improvements, buildings, &c. should he remove from the settlement, is de facto a mere labourer upon the estate, fed, clothed, and supported, but not paid. Consequently, the owner's property is becoming more valuable from day to day, at as cheap a rate to himself as possible. The stipend of the Pastor and schoolmaster, indeed, bring in no direct return. But if the labour of the emigrant's family is worth more than the cost of his keep, every hour that he works is a benefit to the proprietor. Whether the system will work ultimately well for the emigrant, is another matter. I do not think it will. He is entirely in the hands of the proprietor, and, except under the most liberal treatment, will be in debt all his life. I believe Mr. Bergthiel feels that it 18 utterly hopeless to expect that the debts will be paid off. They give him, however, a very considerable power over his tenants. Were I a poor emigrant, I would infinitely prefer fighting my own way in a new Colony. At the end of two or three years any industrious labourer would be better off than Mr. Bergthiel's tenants. He would not have lived so comfortably during those years, but, at the end of them, he would not be in debt, and would probably have realized something.

I put down my impressions upon visiting this settlement, because it has excited a good deal of attention, and the system adopted is much approved of. My statistics were gathered from conversations with those whom Mr. B. has left in charge of the settlement during his absence in Europe, whither he has gone to bring out more emigrants, whom he purposes to engage upon very liberal terms, and upon a somewhat different system. From all that I have seen I should say that Mr. Bergthiel may be entirely depended upon for the fulfilment of his engagements, which is more than can be said for most speculators.

The Governor was received most loyally, and myself also with many marks of respect. Their bell rang at his Honour's approach. The people, headed by their minister, came out in procession to meet him, with their Psalmbooks under their arms. He was welcomed with a salute of small arms as he passed under the first of the triumphal arches which were erected. Blowers were strewed in the path, and at the Superintendent's house, the minister, in the name and presence of the inhabitants, addressed his Honour, thanking him for his visit, &c., and afterwards addressed me. We returned our thanks, and said a few words, which were interpreted to the people, who then cheered us. After visiting one very well cultivated allotment, we partook of a cold collation at the Superintendent's house, and quitted this interesting and beautifully situated settlement, much pleased with all that we had seen.

Our drive to D'Urban was through a beautiful undulating country. I should have called it well wooded, bat the timber is so very small as scarcely to deserve the name. Much of the country is like an English gentleman's park, and brought forcibly to my mind thoughts of home and days long past in our dear native land. In some of its features, too, it reminded me of the Knysna district, though it is not, I think, equal in beauty to that part of the Colony. yfe caught from several points distant views of the sea, and as we approached D'Urban, commanded a full view of the bay. Unfortunately, the bar has again washed up so high as to leave only seven feet of water upon it, and ships are consequently obliged to ride outside in the open anchorage. Several gentlemen came out to meet us. The governor took up his abode at the house of Mr. Field, collector of customs, and I at that of Mr. Mesham, one of the churchwardens, the son and brother of clergymen.

June 1st.--The town of D'Urban is rapidly rising. Building seems to be the employment of every one. At the present moment it is inundated with an influx of emigrants, some of whom willingly remain spending their little capital in drink and idleness after their long voyage. Others lie detained from inability to get upon their lands, Mr. Byrne's agent not being prepared to locate them. This is causing some degree of discontent.

I cannot but fear that a labouring population, the greater part of which is without capital, is pouring in too fast, and that there will consequently be much distress. How the majority of those who come are to live for the first few months, I know not. There are not sufficient capitalists to employ them. The land, indeed, is rich, and will grow almost anything; but how they will subsist till their houses are built, and their crops come up, remains to be seen. And if they all take to cultivating the soil, will there be a sufficient market? Cotton, indeed, if the cultivation of it will pay, may be exported to any extent, but there are, in the immediate neighbourhood of this town, deserted cotton lands; although in some places it is said that this year the Crops will pay exceedingly well. I have taken two rides with the Governor--one to the Point, and across the harbour to the Bluff, a projecting hill of about 300 feet high, which runs out into the sea, and forms the western bank at the entrance of the harbour. In the immediate neighbourhood of the Bluff, the small remnant of one of the original tribes of the country is still living. The chief's name is Umneni. The tribe does not consist of more than 600 souls.

Another ride which we took was to the Umgeni river. The country is very beautiful, and I enjoyed the ride greatly. The trees are chiefly evergreens. The convolvulus was creeping over the highest of them. The bush was very thick, and flowers were still blooming. Amongst these I observed the hibiscus, salvia, &c. The castor-oil, tobacco, indigo, sarsaparilla, and hemp, grow in great abundance. Elephants abound in the hills in the neighbourhood of D'Urban, and as we passed through the bush, we saw their paths in every direction. The tiger, wolf, and wild dog are also to be found.

On Sunday, June 2d, I preached twice, and administered the Lord's Supper to twenty-five communicants, in the Government schoolroom, which is used for Divine Service until a church can be built. The congregation in the morning was full to overflowing. Several persons were obliged to go away unable to obtain admittance. On the Monday, I held a Confirmation in the morning, when only eleven candidates presented themselves. I afterwards attended a meeting of the parishioners, (at which the Governor was present,) to take into consideration the subject of the erection of a church. There were not very many present; but a committee was formed to collect additional subscriptions. I intimated to the parishioners my desire to see the Church system of weekly collections adopted. We began with the offertory on Sunday, which produced upwards of 7l.

On Tuesday morning the Governor, myself, Mr. Green, Dr. Stanger, Mr. Shepstone, and Captain Gordon, started on horseback to visit several of the American Mission Stations along the north-east coast, and the lands of the Natal Cotton Company. We are to be out the whole week. Our first day's journey lay through a beautiful country to Mr. Lindley's Mission Station. The scenery partakes more of the mountain character than any I have yet seen in the Colony. We had some very fine views, especially where we off-saddled, at a water-fall, where a branch of the Umgeni falls into a basin nearly 300 feet below it. The latter part of our day's ride was through a pleasing valley. I like Mr. Lindley much. There is a plain straightforwardness about him. He shows no desire to colour anything. He has not many houses in the immediate vicinity of his station, and he does not give an encouraging account of his work. He has been here two years, and has baptized fifteen. There are about ten more either baptized, or ripe for baptism; and he regards all these as sincere. His congregation is about forty, and he has a school of about thirty under the charge of a native teacher.

When he first came here, the heathen flocked around him, and he had large schools and congregations; but when they found that the gospel would interfere with their heathen customs and practices, they held several meetings, and resolved that they would have nothing to do with the religion of Christ. From that time much opposition has been offered to the Mission work. The men will not allow their wives to come to hear the Missionary, or the children to go to school. They fear that if they became. Christians, they would leave them, and they would thus lose a valuable property; for they buy their wives, who do all the work, and sell their daughters. Perhaps the very apposition that is offered is encouraging. Satan feels his kingdom invaded. Mr. Lindley's impression is that very many have a secret conviction that the truths pressed upon their acceptance are truths, but that they hate the light, and will not come to the light, lest their deeds should be reproved. Both he and Mr. Shepstone agree that the Zoolus are in one respect very different from the frontier Kafirs,--that, whereas the latter are essentially sceptical, Mid doubt or dispute all you say, the former are ready to believe when truth is pressed upon them. They readily, for instance, believe in the being of God, His providence, the account of the creation, &c. The great difficulty in the conversion of this people will be, that they practise fearful abominations, and love to have it so. I doubt, too, whether hereafter it will not be found that their covetous dispositions offer a serious impediment. They have a great desire to accumulate property, like their countrymen, the Fingos in the old Colony. A great part of the Zoolu population does not practise the rite of circumcision, which is common to the whole Kafir race. Chaka forbade it during his reign, and thus the custom was broken in upon. Many, however, still practise it; and there is a rite similar in its nature for the females.

Wednesday.--We rode this day through a beautiful undulating country to the Mission Station of Mr. Lewis Grout, who received us very hospitably. Mr. Lindley accompanied, us, and I had much interesting conversation with both these gentlemen respecting Missions and the Heathen. Mr. Grout's account of his work is not more encouraging than Mr. Lindley's, and they say that all their Missions are in the same state, and from the same causes.

Mr. Grout has only about fifteen children at school, six Christians in his Mission field, and from forty to sixty attendants on Divine worship. He does not appear to have any course of systematic instruction for catechumens,, which Mr. Lindley has, instructing them in the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, and in a short elementary Catechism. Mr. Grout prefers commenting on the historical parts of the Old and New Testaments, which have been translated, and in which they take much interest. There is as yet no chapel at either of these institutions. During our day's ride we entered into several kraals, as we passed near them. Most of the inhabitants fled and hid themselves at our approach. We understood that they were afraid of the "sambok" (whip), which, I apprehend, in days I hope for ever gone by, has been freely administered to them by the white man.

Thursday,--Our day's ride was through a beautiful country, covered for the first few miles with bush, but afterwards consisting of extensive plains, to the Mission Station of Mr. Alden Grout. We looked into many of the trials as we passed by. Such of the inmates as were not frightened, seemed always thankful to be noticed. When Mr. Shepstone told one of the great men of a tribe, whom we met, who the Governor was, he said, "It was a lucky day for him to have seen his great chief. He should be the happier for it." These savages have a delicate, and sometimes very striking way of expressing themselves. The language of this man, Mr. Shepstone said, was not merely complimentary.

In the course of the day we passed by a farm of a newly, arrived emigrant who seemed in great discomfort, and complained bitterly against the Government for having taken him in, in allowing him to come here. He said he could not live. His poor wife, with a babe in her arms, stood by, uncomplaining, but looking unhappy. A little further on we came to the farm of a Mr. Morwood, who has thirty-five acres of rich land in a high state of cultivation. The sugar-cane, tobacco, wheat and oats, were growing in, great abundance. He talks of founding a village. Besides his arable land, he has a complete nursery-garden well stocked with a variety of plants and trees. It is quite refreshing to behold a farm in so advanced a state. Our day's journey was thirty miles.

Mr. Grout's station is very beautifully situated on the banks of the Umvoti. The view as you descend the hill to his house is very striking. To the left you look upon a rich well-wooded valley. To the right you see a considerable reach of the river stretching down to the sea, the roar of whose waves you hear, and which is about six miles distant. Mr. Grout has an excellent house, and well-stocked garden extending down to the river.

All the rivers here abound with crocodiles, as docs the country with the usual kinds of wild beasts. Last Sunday morning one of the Kafirs was much torn by a tiger. When I was going to bathe in the morning Mr. Grout warned me against the crocodiles, which are more difficult to escape from in the water than on the land. They frequently catch the Kafirs in the water, and destroy animals, especially calves and dogs. Before taking our departure on Friday, we were present at an examination of Mr. Grout's school. Of these there are two, one for adults, the other for children. There were about fifty present, chiefly adults; and we were much pleased with their appearance and examination. They were all clothed in clean dresses, which I rejoiced to see in this distant part of the Colony; for it is very painful to behold the whole population, even in the towns, walking about entirely unclothed. Nothing can be more picturesque, indeed, than the naked Zoolu, with his shield on his arm, his assegai and knob-keri in hand, his fine form improved by the crown which the married men usually wear upon the head, and his body adorned with rings and beads; but one soon loses all idea of the picturesque, in a sense of the degradation of these interesting people. I could not therefore but rejoice in the conviction that Mr. Alden Grout's Mission was being, at least in some degree, blessed to their good. Most of those in the school either have been baptized, or desire to be so; and I could not but perceive that there was a difference in their very countenances from those of their Heathen countrymen. There was a modesty, a diffidence, an innocency of look. The most advanced read our Lord's Sermon on the Mount out of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which has been translated for them; and one young woman read very fairly in English. Mr. Shepstone was our interpreter. We put a few questions to them. They showed an acquaintance with the leading doctrines of the Christian faith, and the outlines of Scripture history. They sang and chanted very nicely, Mr. Grout confirming what other Missionaries had previously told me, that the Kafir language is peculiarly adapted for chanting. Their knowledge of arithmetic and geography was not great. The sewing was very respectable. The young women had both cut out and made up the clothes that they wore. I should have enjoyed the scene more, and entered into it with more spirit, had I not, just before the examination commenced, opened three newspapers in succession, which were lying on the table, and found each of them full of accusations against the Church. May God preserve us from falling into a similar spirit.

Just as we were about to mount our horses, we were informed that there was to be a gathering of the Kafirs to meet the Governor. When Mr. Shepstone told the messengers that we could not wait, they said, "They would burst, if they found on their arrival that their great Chief had gone." We therefore waited for them, and spoke a few words of kindness to them. They shouted and clapped their hands when we took our departure. Our ride this day was nearer to the sea-coast; the country was less undulating, but covered to a considerable extent with bush. Some parts of it were very beautiful; but it is still almost without inhabitants, though nearly the whole of the country on the sea-coast has already been disposed of. We arrived towards sunset at the Cotton Company's lands, lately sold to Mr. Byrne. We took up our quarters in tents, which his agent had prepared for us on the site of one of the proposed new villages, and partook of an excellent dinner, which he had managed to provide in the wilderness.

Saturday.--We examined this morning the site of the proposed new village, which is beautifully situated on a hill, (Commanding a view of the sea, and surrounded by well-brooded hills and dales. I fixed upon sites for Church and burial-ground, and also upon 100 acres apportioned for glebe land. Mr. Byrne's agent expressed his readiness to transfer these at once to the See. I do not wish to detract from the apparent liberality of the Company, but it must be remembered that each adult labourer of either sex upon this property has cost the Government 100 acres of this very land for bringing him out; and that the probable appointment of a Clergyman or Catechist will help forward, in a temporal point of view, the objects of the Company, giving confidence to those who need it, and an air of stability and progress to the undertaking. Several of the emigrants formed themselves into a Church Committee, with a view to obtain funds for the support of a minister, and to take measures for the erection of a wattle-and-daub building, until a church can be built. We afterwards rode through a beautiful country to another village, called Verulam, a few miles off. This is fixed upon for a Methodist location, and consists of about 12,000 acres. I obtained a site for a church here. There probably will be a third village on these cotton lands, and at least three more between D'Urban and the Umvoti. If the tide of immi. gration should still continue setting into Natal, several additional Clergy will soon be required to provide for the necessities of the people. I think there are not less than a dozen now villages already decided upon in several parts of the colony. After endeavouring to settle some disputes between the immigrants and the Company's agents, we proceeded on our journey through an exceedingly beautiful country to D'Urban, and arrived at about seven o'clock at Mr. Mesham's, having had a most agreeable and interesting excursion.

June 9th.--We had service both in the morning and afternoon in the government schoolroom. I have heard to-day from a lady who lives in the neighbourhood, that the chief Umneni, of whom I have before spoken, removed from his lands on the Bluff last Friday. He came to bid her farewell before he left; for they had been kind neighbours to each other. "It was not without sorrow that he quitted his birthplace, where he has resided all his life, and withstood in his fastnesses the victorious troops of Chaka, who conquered the whole country, and brought into subjection all the native chiefs except this one and another. But now we want his land. It is important for our growing settlement at D'Urban that it should be in our possession; therefore he must go. He is weak, and we are strong."

If we are to pursue the system which we have already in some degree adopted towards the native tribes, the same judgments from a just God which have already overtaken the Boers for their cruelties and injustice towards the poor heathen will assuredly come upon us. I fear we are treading in their steps.

I should here observe that the local government, acting under the instructions of Earl Grey, who takes a deep interest in the condition of the natives, is about to fix the whole coloured population in ten locations. This had been decided upon for some time, but it has never yet been carried out, and the natives are quite uncertain as to the proper boundaries of their reserves. The Report of the Committee appointed for locating them, dated so far back as March, 1847, strongly recommends that all lands set apart for the natives should be vested in trustees for their use, I believe this to be a point of deep importance. Unless it be done, the natives will be gradually deprived of their land. No local government will be able to withstand the restless and insatiate demands of the white man, even if its own wants did not tempt it to sell, from time to time, under various pretences, which will always be forthcoming, property which has no legal owner, and is in the hands of government. The question, is one which demands immediate attention, and should not be postponed. The Zoolu has now a great respect for the English. He hates the Dutch for their injustice. There is now a saying which is becoming very common amongst them, which is, I think, a very affecting one; when he sees or feels a wrong, he is in the habit of saying, "I should say it was wrong, if it was not done by an Englishman." His reverence for the English will not allow him to believe that they would willingly do a wrong; and yet he cannot altogether stifle his convictions. How long will this last?

June 10th.--We rode this morning along the S. W. coast to Dr. Adams' Mission Station. The country is, I think, not quite equal to the eastern side of D'Urban, though it is throughout very pleasing, and we had occasionally some fine views of the sea. The distance was about twenty-four I)t, and Mrs. Adams, though not expecting us to-day, received us very kindly. During our ride I mentioned to the Governor what I heard about Umneni's removal. He knew nothing about it, and undertook to inquire into it on his return, and see justice done.

Tuesday, 11th.--After breakfast this morning, we had an examination of Dr. Adams' school. There were fifty present, chiefly adults, and all dressed. There were present also some of the chiefs, with a few of their fol. lowers, who had come to see Mr. Shepstone. They all sang a hymn very nicely. Two or three read the English Bible, and others read it in, Kafir. I asked them a few elementary questions respecting the Christian faith. The Governor put questions relating to their moral and social state. Their answers were satisfactory. Dr. Adams told us his school was not in a good state, in consequence of his inability to attend to it of late, through the failure of his health. By two o'clock we reached, according to appointment, Mrs. Dunn's farm at Sea-view. Here I met a party of immigrants settled in the neighbourhood, and urged them to form a Committee with a view to the erection of a church or churches, and the maintenance of a minister. One gentleman offered 100 acres of land for glebe, and it was thought that 200 or 300 acres would be given. I am to hear from them shortly. Mrs. Dunn gave us a cold collation under a fine tree in her grounds. The situation of this farm is very beautiful. It commands an extensive view of the Bay and the surrounding country. We returned late in the evening to D'Urban.

Wednesday., 12th.--This morning after Divine Service I consecrated the burial-ground. I afterwards returned several calls of the parishioners, winch I had hitherto been unable to do. Two gentlemen, who had undertaken to collect subscriptions towards the support of a Clergyman or Catechist for the Cotton Company's laud, called to report that they had raised upwards of 60l., and to express their hope that the Catechist would be able also to undertake the office of teacher to their children, for which they promised additional payments. Mr. Morwood also, in behalf of another Company, volunteered a free passage out in any of their ships for a Clergyman or Schoolmaster, 500 acres of land for glebe, and sites for church, &c., in a new village about to be erected, provided I would undertake to send out a Clergyman. This I have agreed to do, though of course the glebe will provide no adequate support for some years. At four o'clock I attended a meeting of the parishioners of D'Urban, called with a view to promote the erection of the new church. It was decided that a church, for which I should furnish the plans, should be as soon as possible erected, to hold 250 persons. Prom the report of the Committee appointed at the last meeting to raise addilional subscriptions, it appeared that upwards of 100l. had been collected, making a total of 450l.. The church will cost 1,000l. Some of the parishioners took the opportunity of complaining that the benches in the schoolroom had been let. I told them that I had already expressed my opinion on that point to the minister and churchwardens, and, as they felt as I did on the point, would give directions that they should be free. They objected also to the payment of choir, clerk, and sexton, in their present impoverished state. As Some gentleman in the room offered to lead the choir gratuitously, I advised that the sum of 12l. a-year only should be paid for a sexton. Complaint having also been made that 70l. had been taken from the church-building fund, and applied to the fitting up of the schoolroom, I suggested that the only way of repaying it would be from the weekly offerings. It was arranged that they should be appropriated to this purpose and to the relief of the poor at present, though the Missions of the Church, and other works brought under the notice of the Church in my last pastoral letter, were not to be altogether overlooked. We drank tea at Mr. Lloyd's. The meeting lasted nearly four hours.

Thursday, 13th.--After passing a great part of the night in writing letters, I had a very busy morning, receiving by appointment several gentlemen who wished to make arrangements about Clergy and Schools. I licensed this morning Mr. Steele as Catechist and Schoolmaster to the immigrants OE the Cotton Company's land. This gentle-man came out of Ireland, highly recommended to me by many people of respectability. He is anxious to offer him-self as a candidate for Holy Orders. After several conversations with him, I determined to receive him as a candidate for the office of Catechist, and had him under examination the whole of yesterday. At twelve o'clock I started in my cart on my return to Maritzburg, the Governor following on horseback. We slept at Botha's that night, and arrived at the capital the next afternoon.

Sunday, 16th.--Preached at Mr. Green's. Seven o'clock service to the troops, who quite filled the School Chapel, which they have erected for themselves. Preached again at morning prayer. Mr. Green in the afternoon. Examined the Sunday School; I was glad to find the children evidently under good training.

Wednesday, 9th.--Rode with Mr. Green and Mr. Allison to Indaleni, the Mission Station of the latter. The day was very warm, and by the time we arrived at our destination, I was so unwell that I was scarce able to enter with interest into an examination of the Mission people. After dinner, however, eight of the most advanced and intelligent converts, whom Mr. Allison employs as teachers, sending them out to preach to the different kraals, came in and sat down upon the floor, and we had first an examination of them, and afterwards a conversation which lasted between two and three hours. I was much pleased with the account which they gave of their past Heathen and present Christian state. They showed an acquaintance with the leading doctrines of the Christian faith; and, so far as I could judge, are sincere in the profession of it. They seemed all intelligent men, some of them remarkably so. I talked to them about witchcraft. Their opinion was that the witch-doctor had no supernatural power, but that all his pretensions were delusions. They could not account for the universal belief prevalent amongst the heathen that he has such power. I asked them whether in their heathen state they had any notion of the one true God? "No, they believed their ancestors were gods, some good, some evil." "Where did these gods dwell?" "Everywhere. They flitted about, some in snakes;" consequently they never killed snakes. "Did they think the good and the evil, or only the evil, were the snakes?" "Both." "Did they worship their gods?" "They offered sacrifices to them." Any one offered these sacrifices. They bad no particular people for it. They afterwards ate the sacrifices. "What was their belief about themselves when they died?" "They would also be amongst the gods." "The good and the evil alike?" "Yes." "Did Panda, who was killing his subjects every day, think he would be amongst the gods when he died?" "They did not suppose he ever thought on the matter." "Did his subjects think so?" "Yes." "Did they think there was much prospect of their countrymen, as a whole, embracing the Gospel?" "They thought the prospect encouraging."

After a sleepless night, we had an examination of such as were under instruction in the school, after breakfast. They Sang, like all the natives of this land, very sweetly. Mr. Allison examined them in the 53d chapter of the Prophet Isaiah. I addressed to them a few words of encouragement gad exhortation. Afterwards some of them came down to Wish me a good journey. I returned to Maritzburg the same day, taking in my way the new village of Ivolo, which was being laid out. Some few of the immigrants had arrived, and were living in tents. They complained grievously of their not being able to get their land marked out. There were several from the Duke of Buccleuch's estates. These had been very liberally provided for by him. He had paid their passage out, and the expense of their land journey,--a most important point, but little thought of by poor emigrants in England,--had supplied them with ploughs and other implements, clothes, &c., and ordered that they should receive rations of flour till their crops came up. For this generous treatment they seemed very thankful. The only regret I felt was, that no provision seemed to be made for their spiritual wants.

Mr. Allison's is, I think, upon the whole, the most advanced Mission station in the colony. He has altogether I believe, 120 professing Christians. Several of these have already built houses in European fashion, and are cultivating enclosed gardens. He Las twenty boys in his own house maintained at an expenditure of 350l. a-year; 140l. has been acquired by the labour of the people, chiefly, I believe by the making of wheelbarrows, which have been taken by Government. He has 10,000 acres of land, which he is allowed to occupy. Mr. Allison's position is somewhat anomalous. He belongs to the Wesleyan Society, who have ordered him to leave this station, which he is unwilling to do. He has appealed home, and is now awaiting the decision of his case.

Saturday, 22d.--This morning I consecrated the burial-ground after Divine Service, the Governor and many of the congregation being present. At one o'clock we held a public meeting, to take into consideration the subject of the erection of the church. It appeared that during the sixteen months of Mr. Green's ministry, a sum of upwards of 600l. had been raised in the parish for church purposes; that of this 200l. had been expended in. the fitting up of the school, the purchase of land for the improvement of a site for the church, fencing in the burial-ground, maintenance of Divine worship, and in house rent for the clergyman,--and that therefore 400l. remained. The grant of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and my subscription, made this altogether about 550l. A church to hold 250, of the simplest character, it was found, would cost 1,500l. Some were anxious that a fresh subscription should be opened, and the church immediately begun. But the majority of the meeting preferred depending upon the weekly offertory alone, being convinced that as much would be raised in that way, which they deemed more legitimate than the other. In the end it was decided that the windows, which would take the longest time to complete, be immediately begun, and that the foundation of the building should be laid, but that the remainder of the church should not be contracted for until the church-wardens had 900l. actually in hand. I informed the meeting that the Secretary at War had refused 100l. a-year for a military chaplain. There are, therefore, 600 of our troops still dependent upon services voluntarily rendered to them; and the poor in England are giving their weekly pence to support a minister for Her Majesty's forces.

The meeting also fully agree with me, that it would be most desirable, in. the present circumstances of the colony, to invest in land a sum of 450l. placed in my hands for Church education in this district.

Sunday, 23d.--This morning I again preached in the military chapel, and afterwards in the church. Mr. Green preached in the afternoon.

Tuesday, 25th.--Confirmed at early prayer this morning four more candidates, who had not been able to present themselves at the last confirmation. Afterwards rode out with the Governor and a large party to a review of about 900 Kafirs, who had been summoned for the purpose. We were on the ground some time before they made their appearance. After a little delay they came pouring down in several bands from the heights above us, chanting in a low monotonous tone a war-song. They then ranged themselves b a semicircular form in front of the Governor, Mr. Shepstone, their chief, being at their head. When all had placed themselves, one, who acted as a kind of public orator or herald, decked with cows' tails, brass rings, and a variety of other ornaments, stood forth, and with most Stentorian lungs proclaimed his chief's (Mr. Shepstone's) praises. The people then shouted. Next, Mr. Shepstone rode up to the Governor, and did homage by surrendering to him his sword. The people again shouted for the Governor, who then rode into the midst of them and addressed them. Afterwards, he proclaimed a new law against cattle stealing, which is commencing for the first time in the district. The law was, that every kraal to which stolen cattle should be traced, should pay a fine of five, for each ox stolen; that every thief should be "eaten up," that is, lose all his cattle, and should, besides, be well beaten.

After the law was read, the people, through, their orator assured the Governor that they were his children, and would obey his law. They then began their war-songs and war-dances, which, tribe after tribe continued for two or three hours. Their dresses were somewhat fantastic. Most had great feathers in their hair, or bunches of feathers, &c., dangling about their heads, and many were hung about with ox-tails. They had their shields, which covered nearly the whole body, and long sticks with them, but not their assegais. There was nothing very striking in the dance. They moved generally slowly, in unison with their chant, which continued all the time, and grew louder and louder as they proceeded. At times they worked themselves up to a high pitch of excitement, rushing forward very vehemently, beating the air with their sticks, and kicking with the knee or the foot against their shields. Occasionally some favourite warrior would rush out from the crowd, take several bounds in the air, and endeavour to show himself off to the best advantage. The applause which followed was proportioned to the estimation in which his prowess and valour were held. One man who was figuring away was recalled, his companions telling him, they never heard that he was a great warrior. Their wives and children were on the ground in considerable numbers, bringing melies and beer for the men. The Governor, however, had already provided them with ten or twelve oxen for their repast. Afterwards, they rushed in bands up and down the hill, exhibiting their mode of attack. Altogether, the sight was, I thought, painful and humiliating. The men looked more like demons than human beings.

Wednesday--I rode out to-day with the Governor to the station of Mr. Davies of the Wesleyan Society, There is no daily school here, and nothing to see but some tolerable mission premises. He said his congregation averaged from 60 to 100; that he had ten Christians, four of whom were Converts from this people; that he had a tolerable Sunday-school, but that the people were opposed to a Day-school. A neighbouring chief with his tribe came to greet the governor. He complained that the white man was daily encroaching upon the location, and that he was uncertain whether he would be allowed to stay on his land. The Governor told him, that so long as he and his people did veil they need not be afraid of any, that he was to remain upon the location, and would not be disturbed. Upon inquiry of Mr. Davies, he stated that the Land Commission had given farms to individuals within the limits of the location, the boundaries of which had been fixed by proclamation, by the late Lieutenant-Governor. It appears absolutely necessary that some steps should be taken to secure to the natives the lands which have been assigned to them. The grasping selfishness of the white man. will encroach upon them from year to year, unless something is done for their, protection. If the matter is not soon settled permanently in one way or the other, whether by appointing trustees, or in some other way, my conviction is, that no local government, however honest and sincere in its desire to protect the weaker side, will be able long to resist the continual pressure from without.

Saturday, June 29th. St. Peters Day.--The third anniversary of my consecration. Little did I foresee three years ago the extent of the duties, anxieties, and responsibilities of the episcopal office, especially in a diocese so circumstanced as this. Had I known, when summoned to take the oversight of the Church in this land, in all its fulness the nature of the work to which I have been called, or my own insufficiency for it, I had not dared to consent to bear the burden. Here is a vast colony, or rather a number of colonies, neglected, and almost abandoned by the Church for the previous half century. Within it there is a population of foreign extraction, hostile to the British Government, and to the Church as the representative of the British nation. Amongst its people, European or Heathen, nearly 200 ministers, belonging to perhaps twenty different denominations, have been labouring. In every village and town is to be found an English population, a large proportion of whom, amidst every discouragement and difficulty, have adhered with unshaken loyalty to the Church of their Baptism. For these, at one and the same moment, a ministry has to be supplied and churches to he erected, and at the same time wide and effectual doors appear to open out for the work of the conversion of the Heathen. There is a general expectation too, in various quarters, that the Church will found Colleges, or Grammar Schools at least, for the education of the upper classes of society. To meet all these demands, funds have been raised after great exertions, chiefly by friends in England, partly also from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, about equal to one-fifth of what the Wesleyans alone expend in South Africa, and little more than one-fifteenth of what is spent by all other Protestant denominations. I am speaking now of the annual income raised to enable me to meet the bills of the Clergy, who draw upon me for their income. The absolute necessity of providing at once a ministry for our people, the difficulty of devising a satisfactory scheme for raising their contributions towards it, the uncertainty of my funds being found equal to the demands upon them, all these have, in a mere financial point of view, been a source of much anxiety. Then the jealous spirit of those who are not of us, and who are determined to interfere with us, whose only desire and endeavour it is to live in peace and love with all who are round about us, has been productive of much pain and distress. The political condition of the colony, too, which has led to a violence of temper and action with which the Church could have no sympathy, has added to our trouble. But, blessed be God, amidst all our infirmities His work has prospered:--churches are being everywhere erected--clergy have been supplied, though, alas! there are several places still destitute, where the people are most anxious for clergymen, but for which I am able to make no provision. And now there seems so plain and solemn a call upon the Church to enter heartily upon the work of the conversion of the heathen to the faith, that we may no longer refrain without sin, and fear of judgment. Oh, may God, of His great goodness, raise up duly qualified men, and provide the requisite means! May He bless the work of His Church in this land! May He give wisdom, and faithfulness, and zeal, and patience, and perseverance, and love to His ministering servants, and may He give to His people, here and everywhere, a spirit of humility, and faith, and holiness, and zeal for the honour and glory of His great name!

Sunday, 30th.--Preached both morning and afternoon. At the Communion there were thirty-five present. In the afternoon I touched upon such points as I thought it important to bring under the notice of the Church before leaving this part of the diocese, to which I cannot hope to return for some time to come. The chief subjects upon which I spoke were our responsibilities as a Church, and as individual members of Christ, towards the heathen amidst whom we dwell; and the conduct of the Church under trials, arising from the bitter and unprovoked assaults its enemies.

July 1st.--I have been much employed since my return from the Bay in carrying on a correspondence with Government respecting ecclesiastical matters; and in maturing a scheme for a Mission work among the 115,000 heathen in the district of Natal. As this scheme may come to nothing, either from, want of co-operation upon the part of the Government, or inability on my part to raise the funds, or procure the men needed for carrying it out, I put it on record here, that it may serve to show at least what was attempted to be done.

Proposals for the formation of certain Institutions for the benefit of the heathen population in the district of Natal.

It is understood that ten locations are being formed for the exclusive use of the coloured race. Each locution to contain within it on an average not less than 10,000 souls, It is proposed that in each of these locations at least one Institution should be founded to embrace the following objects:--

1. The conversion of the heathen to the faith of Christ.
2. The education of the young.
3. The formation of industrial habits.
4. The relief of the sick and afflicted.

That with a view to this there be included within the Institution a Day-school, Boarding-school, Home for Orphans, and the germ of an Hospital.

That a clergyman be at the head of each Institution, and that he be aided in the industrial and educational part of the work by teachers selected for that purpose.

That all the pupils who resort to the Institution be fully instructed in the Christian religion.

That in addition to the ordinary instruction given in elementary schools in England, the male pupils be practically taught gardening, farming, and certain mechanical arts; the female pupils, sewing, cooking, washing, &c., the whole of the household work being performed by them.

That the members of the Institution (who shall, if possible, have some acquaintance with medicine) undertake the charge of the patients, who shall in cases of necessity foe visited by the medical practitioner of the district, appointed and paid by Government for that purpose.

That sufficient land be granted to enable each Institution to exhibit a model farm and garden in operation, and to grow sufficient grain, vegetables, &c. for its own consumption.

That Government guarantee, in aid of each Institution as it becomes established, the sum of 300l. a-year. This grant to be for five years certain, but liable to be reviewed at that period. That the Bishop endeavour to obtain a free passage from England in some of the emigrant ships for the clergymen, with their assistants and families, but that, should he be unable to do this, the Government pay for the same.

That, inasmuch as it appears to be doubtful whether it would be desirable that a shop be attached to the Institution, it remain with the Visitor hereafter to decide in each particular case.

That the accounts of each Institution, so long as it continues to receive assistance' from Government, be open to its inspection; and, if required, an annual account of receipts and expenditure be transmitted to Government.

That the Bishop of the Diocese be, ex officio, Visitor of the Institutions.

The plan here sketched out is further developed in the following letters addressed to the Lieutenant-Governor:--

P. Maritzburg, June 17, 1850.

Sir,--I beg to submit for your Honour's consideration the enclosed scheme for the improvement of the heathen population of this land. It is unnecessary, I feel assured, for me to discuss the duty or the necessity of the Government's adopting some measures for their benefit. The obligation has been recognised both here and at home; and has beet pressed by Earl Grey upon the attention, of the local Government. It is, I apprehend, felt by every one that if the coloured race in the dependency of Natal' already amounting, as I am informed, to 115,000, and still increasing in numbers, is to be saved first from contamination, and ultimately from annihilation, through its intercourse with the white race now pouring itself into the country in large masses, as has unhappily too often been the case, immediate steps must be taken to educate it in the fullest and highest sense of the word. The education that I propose is one that embraces the physical, as well as the mental and moral improvement of the people. I desire to see them taught an industrial system, in combination with the ordinary instruction usually given in elementary schools. Above all do I trust, that at least the opportunity may be afforded them of embracing the Christian faith, under the teaching of zealous pastors. With a view to this I have proposed, that in each of the locations about to be formed an Institution should be founded, similar in many respects to those adopted by the Moravians in other countries, which, under the superintendence of a clergyman, should combine with religious teaching an extended system of secular and industrial education; and at the same time afford a home whore those who are suffering from sickness or disease should be both nursed, and receive the benefit of such medical treatment as the Institution might be able to afford. The scheme also embraces the instruction of a limited number of children of both sexes as boarders in the Institution, in the hope that there may thereby be gradually raised up a body of teachers, who both by example and direct instruction may exercise a beneficial influence over others. The chief obstacle in carrying out the plan that I have proposed, would arise from the difficulty of raising sufficient funds for maintaining it. As it appears, however, that Earl Grey has given instructions that the hut-tax imposed upon the heathen, already amounting to 8,000l. a-year, and expected to increase, should be expended for the immediate benefit of those from whom it is raised, I apprehend that, there is no way in which a portion of it could be more appropriately and beneficially employed than in the formation and maintenance of such Institutions as I have proposed. I Lave, therefore, suggested that 300l. a-year should be set apart for each Institution. Should your Honour see fit to approve of this, and it should receive the sanction of His Excellency and Earl Grey, I should be prepared to attempt the formation of such Institutions upon receiving a guarantee that they would meet with the support of Government for a limited period. The Institutions to be under the sole control of the Bishop of the Diocese, and those whom he may appoint under him. This would involve me in considerable pecuniary responsibilities, as the expense of founding and maintaining the proposed establishments would undoubtedly be great. I would, however, cheerfully undertake this; and should be prepared within a few months after my return to Capetown, unless delayed by the contemplated alterations in the political institutions of the country, to proceed to England, expressly for the purpose of raising the necessary funds, and selecting the agents for carrying on the work. I need not, I feel assured, impress upon your Honour's observation, that the very interesting people whom the providence of God has so remarkably brought under British rule and protection, is apparently ripe for the introduction of such a system as I have proposed, that they are looking to us as their guides and instructors, and would readily submit to our teaching. Nor need I do more than just remark, that the system and constitution of the Church are singularly adapted to their existing notions of law and government; and that the character of its teaching must ever be such as to make them loyal and obedient subjects of the British Crown,--a subject well worthy of the attention of Government, considering the counter-influences which can scarce fail to be at work, in a country so peculiarly situated as this is. I have only, in conclusion, to add, that I should be glad that the scheme which I now propose should, if your Honour sees fit to approve of it, be submitted, before any actual steps are taken, to the diplomatic agent, Mr. Shepstone, who is regarded by the whole native population as their paramount chief, and than whom no man is more competent to give an opinion on the subject. I have the honour to be,

SIR, Your obedient Servant,


The following private letter accompanied the foregoing public and official one:--

P. Maritzburg, June 19, 1850.

DEAR SIR,--I have, during my visits with you to the several locations for the natives on. the coast, been endeavouring to mature a scheme, which, while it should benefit the coloured race of this land, both in a temporal and spiritual way, should aid the Government in the difficult duties which will devolve upon it under the peculiar and rapidly changing circumstances of the country. We all see that the heathen who are round about us are in a transition state,--that they are being trained for good or for evil by the white man from day to day. Already has a great change taken place in many of them, and this will be the case in an increased degree, as the tide of immigration, now setting in so strongly, extends over the land. Ere long the power of the chief, upon which the good government of the people at present mainly depends, will melt away. It is already in certain instances much diminished. What moral influence have we at work to supply the place of the fading power of the chiefs, which has hitherto been relied upon for restraining this people? Unhappily there is but little. A few foreign missionaries, owning no allegiance to the British Government, and opposed upon principle to our institutions, cannot, however good and zealous they may be, meet the necessities of the case; and yet, with the exception of two or three Wesleyans, no other agency is at work for the benefit of this very interesting people, whom we have taken under our charge. After visiting most of the Mission stations in the colony, and conversing with those who take the deepest interest in the matter, I am satisfied that Institutions similar to those which I have proposed to found, are most suited to the existing wants of the natives, and the best calculated to transform them gradually into a religious, loyal, and industrious people. Should your Honour agree with me, and think my plan feasible, I shall very readily enter into it, and labour to bring it into effectual operation. If I could see that there was a prospect of my being able to carry it out without any assistance from Government, I would, for many reasons, prefer doing so. But in the present weak state of the Church, throughout the whole Diocese, requiring, as it does, in all its parts, liberal aid from the mother Church, I see no prospect of my being able to bear the whole expense of the undertaking. I propose, therefore, that the Government should help forward the work, out of the fund collected through the hut-tax; and I have the less scruple in doing this, as I understand that it is in accordance with Lord Grey's views that the amount raised should be spent for the immediate benefit of the tax-payer; and I can conceive of no way in which it could be appropriated more advantageously to him than by that which I have suggested, ftoads and bridges, and other material improvements, would at present be of little benefit to the Kafir, who lives amongst his mountains and valleys, and always travels on foot. I have endeavoured to make some calculation as to the probable expense of each Institution, and I have come to the conclusion that the buildings, including accommodation for 50 pupils--a hospital or infirmary--a residence for several families of teachers--school--chapel, &c., could not when completed cost less than 1,000l.; they would probably cost much more. To this must be added the expense of stock for the farm,--wagon, implements, &c. The annual cost, were the establishment complete, and the Institution full, would not, I think, be less at first than 600l. a-year. Ultimately it might perhaps be made very nearly to pay its own expenses. Missionaries at present pay 5s. a-month to each pupil, and they reckon the cost of each at 5s. a-month. Girls are rather more expensive, as the parent takes the wages, and leaves the Missionary to clothe them.1 60 pupils at this rate would cost 300l. a-year. I reckon this item at 250l. To this I add 50l. a-year, as the probable expense of a hospital or infirmary,--50l. a-year for repairs and incidental expenses,--and 250l. a-year for the maintenance of the officers of the Institution and their families. These would probably be four; a principal, schoolmaster, mechanic, and agriculturist. The whole expense to Government would be little more than the cost of a single school and schoolmaster in each location. There would be no shadow of a ground of complaint upon the part of other bodies of Christians that their money was applied for the promotion of a Church work. The money is drawn exclusively from the heathen, and is to be expended exclusively for the heathen, in such way as Government shall deem most conducive to their welfare. I should have entered more fully into the scheme, had I not felt that circumstances and experience might lead to a considerable modification of it. As the various Institutions can only be slowly and gradually formed, both on account of the difficulty of obtaining the requisite funds and suitable agents for carrying on the work, there will be ample opportunity for any alterations or improvements in the details. I have only to add, that the working out of the plan, if I engage in it, must be left altogether to myself. If I am in any way to be responsible for its success, I must have the entire control of it. Of course, however, I shall be happy at any time to furnish information respecting the various Institutions, and I should desire that their accounts should be inspected from time to time.

I am, dear Sir, very truly yours,

This scheme, the Lieutenant-Governor informed me he highly approved of; but saw difficulties in the way of its entire adoption. These difficulties related chiefly to the divided religious condition of the colony. What he has undertaken to do when laying my proposal before Earl Grey, is "to suggest the question whether an arrangement might be made by which, upon certain terms, the secular instruction of these people might be committed to the See." Should this be decided upon, it would meet my views, and enable me, I trust, to carry out my plan. The State would then supply the means for their secular,--the Church for their religious education.

July 1st.--My last day at Maritzburg. I leave this colony after a little more than six weeks' residence in it, with a mind full of hopes and fears for the future.

One most important question is that of the coloured population. It is essential for the sake of the whole colony, white as well as black, that well-considered and well-digested plans should be adopted for the moral, religious, and social improvement of the natives; and should the present time be allowed to slip by, there will be no possibility of redeeming it. Another source of anxiety is the religious condition of the immigrants now pouring in in large masses. New villages are springing up in every direction, and yet I dare not invite clergy out to take the spiritual charge of them. I have no funds to fall back upon--nothing upon which I can depend for the maintenance of a ministry for a few years to come, until the people shall be in a condition to build their own churches and support their own pastors. May God in His mercy provide a remedy. "Thy kingdom come."

Tuesday, My 3d, 1850.--This day I left Pieter Maritzburg, on my way to Graham's Town through the Southern parts of this colony--Faku's country,--and British Kaffraria. My first resting-place is to be King William's Town, distant, about 450 miles. I allow myself till the 20th of the month for the performance of the journey, but think it very probable that I may be much longer, as no vehicle drawn by horses has ever been through the country before, and the mountains are pronounced to be almost impassable. Indeed, Mr. Harding, the Crown Prosecutor, who has just returned with three ox-wagons from Faku's country, persists in maintaining that I shall never reach King William's Town in my cart. However, there is no help for it, therefore I must make the best of it. Mr. Shepstone, who is unable himself to accompany me as he wished, has arranged, with the Governor's consent, for his brother to do so, until I fall in with Mr. Fynn, who has engaged to meet me on the banks of the Umzumkulu on Thursday, his business compelling him to go round by the Bay. This will secure me civility and assistance from all the Kafirs, and I shall never be without one who can speak the language of the country. I started after breakfast. The Governor, the Recorder, Mr. Shepstone, Dr. Stanger, and several other gentlemen rode out some distance with me. We took luncheon at an intelligent Dutch farmer's, (Mr. Zederberg from the Cape,) who had sent me an invitation. I slept at Mr. Allison's Mission station, Indaleni, and was again hospitably entertained. Almost the whole country is now burnt up, and is as black as a cinder. It wears a very gloomy appearance. We had an instance to-day of the danger of burning the grass, as is now universally done, and will continue to be, I fear, till there is sufficient stock to eat it down. We met an Englishman with his wife in a wagon, who had just been burnt out of his tent, and had lost everything; amongst other things, a little child, as he supposed, but which we afterwards learnt had been discovered, somewhat burnt, near some very long grass, where it had lain two whole days and nights. I saw the poor child, which, was a very interesting one.

Wednesday.--This morning we were joined by our three Kafirs who are to be our guides. One only had his shield and assegai. They all took an unconscionable quantity of snuff, which they administered to themselves with ivory spoons, usually carried in the hair. We had a very difficult day's journey over the mountains. Some of the descents were fearful. I wondered how my man was able to drive down them. I thought several limes that cart and horses would all have rolled together down the mountain. The ascents were no better. At one very steep place the horses fairly refused to go on. After several vain attempts to get them up it, we partially unloaded the cart, and I ran before them, leading them with a rein, as they knew me almost as well as Ludwig. The Kafirs ran behind with stones to stop the cart from going back at the resting-places. I never remember to have been more oppressed by any exertion. Had the hill been a little longer, I am sure I should have fainted; as it was, my legs quite gave way, and I nearly fell. I did not recover myself for half an hour. I walked nearly the whole way, thinking that I was better able to carry myself than the horses were to draw me. We passed the night in a valley half way up a mountain. In the morning we discovered that the horses had strayed. we did not find them till past eight o'clock. We traced their spoor for three miles up the mountain. Fortunately there were some sandy Spots which showed distinctly that they were before us; otherwise we might have been looking for them all day, for we should hardly have supposed that they had gone so far. Observing some marks of a human foot, we had, just before finding them, almost come to the conclusion that some Kafir or Bushman had stolen them. This threw us out for the whole day, and we were not able to reach the Umzumkulu this evening as we had intended. Some part of the country through which we have passed is fine; there is still, however, a deficiency of wood, and one sees nothing but mountains with narrow valleys separating them. There may be plains in Natal, but I have not seen them; nor do I know of any country in the world which is so mountainous, though the mountains are not very high. We Outspanned for the night by the banks of a little stream; Kafirs in the neighbourhood brought us sticks for our fire, new milk, and a few melies, which are very scarce, for our horses. They brought us also a calf as an offering Or tribute, which it is customary to bring to a great chief; (as Mr. Shepstone is considered to be) as he passes through the country on a journey. After we had done our supper I gave them some of our hard biscuits, which they had never seen before, and did not know what to make of; also some sugar, which they pronounced very good, and said it was honey; I then gave them some tea, made very sweet, which they thought best of all. We supposed they would not know the value of money, and Mr. Shepstone. told them he would give them some beads for their melies when they next came to town. I thought, however, I would try them with money, and gave them half-a-crown, telling them it would pay one-third of next year's hut-tax. One of them at once knew what it was, and they seemed to rejoice in their good luck. They left us apparently very happy. These people all belong to Dushani, who; formerly was a great chief, but has been reduced by his incessant wars with Chaka, Faku, &c. The people whom we met were all quite naked, which is not the case with any other Kafirs that I have seen. They were all, even lads of twelve or thirteen, circumcised. Mr. Shepstone says that they eat their meat raw, and are very warlike. Many of them paint their faces.

Friday, 5th.--We could hardly get away this morning; from the Kafirs, who brought us an abundance of melies on their heads, in baskets. Our kind treatment of them last night seems to have encouraged others to come and take their chance. Those who had had some sugar last I night begged for a little for those who had not. We have; had a most disastrous day's journey, and yet have much cause for thankfulness. We ascended the mountain which overhangs the Umzumkulu well enough: but in our descent we came to some very broken ground, but yet not worse than much that we have passed safely over. Just, however, as I was offering up thanksgiving for escape from danger, I saw my cart roll over. In an instant it was turned completely upon its head, quite crushing the tent, and the wheelers were upon their backs with their feet in the air. Ludwig was invisible, being under the cart. We extricated him with some difficulty, and found that by God's great mercy he was not in the least hurt:--lie had not even a bruise. In a short time we managed to release the horses, and then with the assistance of some Kafirs turned the cart over. We found it considerably damaged, but Ludwig, who is a most invaluable and indefatigable man, bound it together with "riems." We then packed some of our goods on the horses' backs, and carried the rest ourselves with the aid of the Kafirs, having previously sent the empty cart a considerable distance in advance, the ground being still very rough. The country here is thickly inhabited by Kafirs, who were not always civil. One chief man of a kraal, on being asked for some milk, said he would get some if we would pay for it. The same man refused to send a messenger to his chief Dushani to tell him of our arrival. Upon Mr. Shepstone, however, threatening him, he found a man. After leaving this place we had still a very difficult country to travel over. It was a plain intersected by a great number of deep ravines. There was no road, not even a track or path to guide us. I was amazed that we got safe through our difficulties: we broke our harness in several places in doing so; but arrived at the Umzumkulu before sunset. This is a fine broad river, and the country about it may be called beautiful, though there is a great sameness in all the mountainous parts of Natal. In coming out of the drift our horses stuck fast, being unable to drag the cart out. After taking the luggage off, we managed to get safe to land, and outspanned just on the bank of the river where I had agreed to meet Mr. Fynn, who, however, did not make his appearance. Some of the grass about us was at least eight feet high; horses were quite lost in it. I feel thankful to Almighty God that the accident which has befallen us this day has not been attended with more mischief. Both man and horses might easily have been killed. This loss of my cart, however, seems to me like the loss of a home. I read in it, wrote in it, slept in it, in fact, lived in it,--for it has been my chief home for some months. Now I am without shelter, but, thank God, it is not a season of the year when we may expect much rain. It is singular that the two worst accidents which I have had in all my South African travels, should have happened in coming into and going out of Natal. My exit was not much more dignified than my entrance, for I drove on foot four of my horses for a considerable distance, and had a knapsack on my hack and two other packages in my hands. Poor Ludwig insisted upon my occupying at night his bed under the cart, though I was loth to rob him of his comfortable berth. I reckon the actual distance from Maritzburg to the Umzumkulu to be eighty miles. I have walked nearly the whole of this, and shall probably have to walk most of the way to King William's Town, as my cart, in consequence of the accident, is quite filled up with luggage.

Saturday.--After bathing this morning again in the Umzumkulu, as I did after sunset last night, I started on foot with a Kafir guide, but waited at a bad drift for the cart. When it came up, Ludwig informed me that he had, at starting, had another upset precisely similar to that of yesterday. He was again under the cart, and both he and the horses once more, by God's great mercy, escaped without injury. The only additional damage to the cart was a considerable crack in the pole, which would undoubtedly have broken, had it not been for the iron plate which was under it. In the early part of the day we had some very difficult drifts. I was quite glad to find myself ascending a mountain again. Before starting, I dreaded the ascents and descents of the mountains more than anything; but since I have been out I have learnt that there is more danger in a plain perpetually intersected by ravines We arrived at the Ibesi river just as it grew dark. It was well that we were enabled to reach it, for the whole country for the last fifteen miles was burnt up, and not a blade of grass was to be seen. The day being windy, the ashes were blown in clouds across our path, which rendered travelling very disagreeable. The atmosphere from this and other causes, such as burning the grass, &c., has been so hazy for the last few days, that I have scarcely been able to see anything of the country. In the course of the day a messenger from Mr. Fynn overtook us, to say that he had been detained by illness, and the knocking up of his horses, and that he would meet us to-night at a place where two roads met. We, however, saw nothing of him. The greater part of the country through which we have passed to-day is uninhabited. It appears to be at least equal in fertility to any part of the Natal District. The neighbourhood of the Umzumkulu seems admirably adapted for farms.

Sunday, July 7th.--After passing a tolerable night under the cart with Mr. Shepstone for a companion, there being just room for two, I took my usual bathe in the Ibesi, but did not like to venture very far for fear of crocodiles, which, for aught I know, were lurking amidst the reeds. After breakfast I endeavoured to give some religious instruction to our three Kafirs, Mr. Shepstone kindly interpreting. I spent a most interesting hour with them. They had heard something of the Christian religion, having been formerly in the neighbourhood of a Missionary. They said they thought at first very lightly of Christianity, but that they began to think there must be something very great in it. They listened with much attention and apparent interest while I explained to them the Being and Nature of the true God, and told them that He was their Maker and Preserver. They said that in their ignorant state they had some sort of idea of a Great Preserver, different from and above their gods, who had been their ancestors. I told them God had given us certain commandments, would they like to hear them? They said, Yes. I then went through several of them. This led me to speak of the nature of sin, and the punishment of it; of a Redeemer, of repentance, and of faith. They appeared very much struck with God's attributes of love and mercy, so different from anything they knew of or had experienced from men. After speaking to them about praying to God, and asking them if they understood me, they said, "Yes, it was like going to their chief and asking him to forgive them any fault." They expressed astonishment at being told that God forgave those who were sorry for sin and left off sinning Very few chiefs ever did this. I spoke to them of the torments of hell, and the happiness of heaven. While speaking upon this latter subject, I asked them if they were happy, or ever had been so; they said, "No; how should they?" I thought my endeavour to explain to them the blessedness of the saved, somewhat affected them When I asked them, if they would like me to send them a teacher to instruct them about God, they said they would wish it very much. Would they listen to what he told them? They would, and would tell their friends and children what I had told them. Would they give oxen and melies to feed a teacher from God? To this they did not like to pledge themselves; but they said they thought their chief would. I told them, I should like much to send them a man of God; but he would have to come from a great way beyond the sea, and he would be poor; and if one came amongst them, they must do what they could for him. They promised that from this time they would pray to God and try to keep His commandments. I told them that, if they did this with all their hearts, God would give them more light and knowledge. Upon telling them that this was the holy day of Christians, and that though we prayed to God every day, yet this was our chief day of prayer, and that they must be very quiet while we prayed; they doubled themselves up close beside us, and put their caresses over their faces while I offered the prayers of the Church. In this land of darkness and the shadow of death, cold indeed must he be who prays not fervently and frequently, "Thy kingdom come."

O my God, raise up, I pray Thee, faithful pastors who may teach these lost ones the way of life. Stir up the hearts of many within Thy Church, to offer of their substance for the establishment and maintenance of a Mission-work in this diocese I and bless the means which Thy poor weak servant shall adopt for the conversion to the faith Of multitudes in this land, who neither know Thee nor serve Thee.

I feel more and more the importance of going home next year, if spared so long, and if the affairs of the Diocese will admit of it, to awaken the conscience of the Church at home, with reference to the myriads of immortal souls in this land, for whom as yet little or nothing has been done. In the afternoon two more guides, who knew the country better than those who were with us, came up with us. They brought a strong calf from their chief Dushani, as a present. They made, after their arrival, some feeble efforts to catch it, that they might kill it for supper; but we saw plainly that they wished to keep it, knowing full well that if we did not eat it, it would become their property. Though our commissariat is getting low, in consequence of our being obliged to feed so many mouths, I was quite willing that the poor beast's life should be spared. The afternoon I spent in writing a sermon by the river-side. We then had evening prayer; and after dark another long conversation with the newcomers. I was much pleased with one of them. He spoke of the peace and quiet and protection they enjoyed under the British Government, so different from the former state bf things under Chaka, who had devastated the whole country, and so destroyed the various tribes, that the one to which these Kafirs belonged, a very small one, was made of the remnants of several. He spoke also with great gratitude of Mr. Fynn, who, he said, had saved the lives of many of them, and to whom they and many other small tribes looked up as their chief. I like these savages, and could be well content to settle down amongst them, and endeavour to teach them the things of God.

Monday, 8th.--We had a blustering night, and but little deep. It blew almost a hurricane, so that more than once I thought the cart would have gone over. Our curtains were but little protection to us. I felt for my poor Kafirs who were lying out in the long grass almost naked. We were just in-spanning in the morning, and I had settled with Mr. Shepstone that he should not go on further with us, as the country we were about to travel over was quite uninhabited, when some one said, that he heard voices shouting. In. a short time two Kafirs came up, who told us that Mr. Fynn had slept near us, and had sent them to inquire whether we were at the drift. Thus at the very moment when we were about to lose our guide, and to travel through an unknown and desolate country, without understanding one word of the language of those whom we were likely to meet, he whom we had been looking for so long in vain, appeared. I was very thankful for God's providential care of us. Shortly after Mr. Fynn himself came up, and we started again on. our journey. The whole country was burnt up as far as we could see, and we were thankful to find a patch of withered grass and some muddy water for our cattle. The road was much better than any we have yet passed over since we left Maritzburg, but the country looked very dreary, though it clearly is rich and fertile. The moles and worms had so turned up the soil since the fire had passed over it, that it was precisely like ploughed land. There was not an inhabitant of a hut to be seen. Mr. Fynn thinks there are about 100 miles square uninhabited. This is part of the country depopulated by Chaka; and it is a portion of the district to which Faku has ceded his right for 100 head of cattle. I have had this day a great deal of interesting conversation with Mr. Fynn, who has been twenty-seven years in the country, and who is now British Resident in these parts. He is convinced, as I think every one must be, that in the order of Providence, British rule will probably ere long extend from Grahamstown to near Delagoa Bay.

We took up our quarters for the night near some clumps of trees, around which some small remains of unburnt grass were to be found, affording some hope of a scanty meal for our poor jaded horses. I felt it quite a luxury to e the enclosure under my cart to myself again, for Fynn would not share it with me; but I begin to feel is some truth in the saying, that if you wish to sleep well on the ground you must dig two holes, one for your shoulder, and one for your hip. My bones are getting sore with the hardness of my couch; but as I walk nearly the whole time from sunrise to sunset, I am generally sufficiently tired to sleep well at night. In the morning we found our horses had strayed to a great distance, in a yam search for food; I was out for two hours looking for them. He had a difficult day's journey over a succession of mountains and valleys. Our late disasters have made us use every endeavour to prevent a repetition of them. Consequently, wherever the country is uneven, we hold the cart down with a riem. Down steep descents we do the same. This is very fatiguing, as it requires to be done constantly, but I feel it a duty to do it, as any neglect would again endanger the life of my driver. We have had to-day constantly to put our shoulders to the wheel to get our cart out of its difficulties, for some of the drifts are so muddy and steep that the horses cannot drag it out of them. One of Mr. Fynn's horses quite knocked up, and he was obliged to leave it on the road. The whole country is still burnt up in every direction as far as we can see. We found, however, here and there a patch which afforded a scanty meal for our horses. The only fine feature in the country that I have seen for the last day or two is a high range of mountains which we kept all day on our right. Beneath it was some forest scenery. I walked nearly every step of the way to-day, and can generally keep up with the cart, gaining in the ascents what I lose in the descents, or On level ground, of which latter, however, it is very rarely that we find a few hundred yards. I am surprised to find that Mr. Fynn knows nothing of the country, nor does his Kafir guide; our only help in finding our way has been what we suppose to be the track of Mr. Harding's wagons, when he came, a few weeks since, this way to negotiate with Faku for the surrender of his land. I know that he took a very bad road in his way down; and I have every reason to fear that we are following in his steps. After outspanning for the night, I had another very pleasant evening's conversation with Mr. Pynn about Kafir habits customs, manners, &c. He mentioned several circumstances showing a similarity between their customs and. those of the Jews. Circumcision of course was one; the marrying of a deceased brother's widow for the express purpose of raising up children to his brother, was another. The sprinkling of the door-posts of their huts on certain, occasions, sacrifice, purification after touching a dead body, were amongst the number. It was also their habit to shave their heads in seasons of mourning,--no Jewish custom indeed, but practised by Job and others.

The country we have passed through to-day is wholly uninhabited, we saw no traces of human beings or of human dwellings. The whole of the coast, or nearly the whole, is inhabited, and Mr. Fynn informs me that it is a much more interesting country, being close by the sea, and abounding in wood. At one time I had some thoughts of going that way, but I believe I should have been delayed several days while a road was being cut out for me through the bush. We lose, however, a good deal of time here in digging a way for our cart through drifts. Ludwig quite agreed with me to-day that if it pleased God to bring us safe through this journey we will not attempt it again. I had no conception of the extent of the difficulties of the road; but if I had, I still must have made the attempt, or left important work undone. We found a small piece of unburnt grass for our poor horses at night.

Wednesday, 10th.--Another most anxious, fatiguing, wearisome day's journey over a country still uninhabited and burnt up. Our road has, I think, been more difficult than ever, and we consider ourselves as lost amongst the mountains. The horses are getting sensibly weaker from want of food, and refused several hills. The only way to get them through a difficulty is for me to walk before them and lead them. I pet them a good deal, and they follow me almost anywhere. Nearly the whole of this I have been thus employed, or in holding down the cart with a riem on ground where it was likely to be upset, ye holding it back down steep descents. I am consequently getting as much out of condition as my horses. Towards evening we arrived opposite the highest mountain we have jet ascended. I pronounced it perfect insanity to attempt the ascent. After resting our horses a little while, however, we determined to try if we could get up it, as we saw there was no alternative. I led the way in my shirt sleeves (for I have discarded my coat,--which is in no better condition than its owner,--the days being very warm though the nights are cold); Ludwig drove, Mr. Fynn held down the cart, and the Kafir carried a great stone on his shoulder to put under the wheel. After great efforts, and frequent restings, we managed to climb the ascent, which was more than I expected, and outspanned for the night on the top of the mountain, close by a forest of yellow wood, where there was a narrow fringe of grass which had escaped burning. We determined to send off the Kafir by daybreak to find out a kraal which we believed could not be far distant, and to procure, if possible, some melies for our half-starved horses. It was in this neighbourhood, Mr. Pynn tells me, that Captain Gardiner, some few years since, was reduced to live upon sugar for some jays, and it was not very far from this that Mr. Fynn himself was for five days enclosed between two rivers with nothing to eat but some sambok--strips of the sea-cow, or hippopotamus hide. Thank God we are still provided with food, though oar stock is getting low. Had it not been
for the forethought of------who put into my cart some tins of meat and soup, and a cheese, we should before this have been in want. I understood Mr. Fynn to say, before we left Maritzburg, that I was to make no provision for the way beyond the Umzumkulu, but to leave all to him; that e should have an ox every night, &c. I laid in, however, stock of 401bs. of biscuit, which happily has been much burnt, and has therefore lasted us longer than it would have done had it been more palatable; and 30 lbs. of salt beef. It is well that I did this, for I know not what we should have done without it, as I have had to feed Kafirs every night. The patience, endurance, contentment, and thankfulness for kindness on the part of these poor people is pleasing. I always insist upon our all--in the circumstances in which we are--sharing alike. Our Kafir said this evening that it was very fortunate that he was travelling with white men, as they lent him a covering at night. Poor fellow, he would otherwise be out night after night in frost and wind, quite naked. We cannot be too thankful that amidst all our difficulties the weather has been so fine--we could hardly have chosen any more to our wishes. Had our journey taken place during the rains of summer, we certainly should not have been able to get through the country. The only disadvantage of this season,--and it is a very great one,--is the loss of grass. In the spring, I can quite imagine this country looking very beautiful, for although the scenery is not generally bold, there is everywhere a rich clothing of grass, a great abundance of rivers and streams, and a fair proportion of forest. I fear the difficulty of making roads over so very mountainous a district will always impose obstacles in the way of its advancement: otherwise it would be a very tempting field for the English emigrant. We passed to-day a heap of stones on the top of one of the mountains. Mr. Fynn told me that it is customary for every traveller to add one to the heap that it may have a favourable influence on his journey, and enable him to arrive at some kraal while the pot is yet boiling. The women, with a similar view, are in the habit of tying the grass in knots.

Thursday, 11th.--From the top of our mountain, which is the highest ground we have yet passed over, we could see the country for many miles round. Everywhere its features were the same, and everywhere it was burnt up and black. On retiring into a wood, near to which we out-spanned for breakfast, (which we seldom get much before two o'clock,) to perform my ablutions, I found myself as black as a pitman just come out of a pit. On a windy day {lie fine ash of the grass penetrates through all one's clothes. We have made a better journey to-day, the country not being so mountainous and rugged, and consequently our difficulties not so appalling as on former days, though we have had quite enough of them. For a mile or two we had unburnt grass. Some of the country through which we have passed would, under other circumstances, appear beautiful; but our anxieties, and the blackness of the whole face of nature, give a gloomy tinge to everything around us. We were much disappointed at not Arriving at Palmerston this evening. We out-spanned for the night in a very bleak spot, exposed to a cutting wind. Mr. Fynn was obliged to leave another of his horses on the road quite knocked up. I cannot be too thankful that mine hold out so well. One of the wheels of my cart, however, is pronounced to be in a dangerous state; we are to try to mend it to-morrow. We have not yet met with a human being, or the slightest vestige of human habitations. It seems strange to travel over so fine a country, abounding in wood, clothed with a rich grass, wonderfully well watered, with a beautiful climate, and yet find it totally uninhabited. Old footpaths are the only evidences of the country having been once occupied by man. War has left the land without its inhabitants.

Friday, 12th.--I spent two hours this morning searching for the horses, while Mr. Fynn and Ludwig endeavoured to mend the wheel,--a fatiguing commencement of my day's inarch. Our day's journey has been more prosperous than We expected, though at night we find ourselves still about twenty-five miles from Palmerston. While out-spanning at mid-day six Kafirs came up with baskets of melies on their heads, sent by Mr. Fynn's Kafir. Our half-starved horses devoured them voraciously. We had some fine Mountain views and forest scenery during the latter part of the day. At night we finished all our provisions except four biscuits and a little cheese, &c.

The natives, who came to us to-day, belong to a chief called Jojo, who is inferior only to Faku in power. Faku is the greatest chief in this part of the country. He has about 40,000 people under him; Jojo has about 8,000. There are several smaller chiefs with 2,000 or 3,000 people each. I understand from Mr. Eynn that in the lands on this side of the Umzumkulu, recently acquired from Faku by the Natal Government for 100 head of cattle, there are three tribes living who have a better title to the land than either Faku or ourselves. These tribes are the Amakholo under the chief Kani; the Amangotshan, under the chief Madigezela; and the Amanckna, under the chief Umzaba. They are living in their own native country. It will be a gross injustice towards them if we take possession of their lands without their consent; but there is no doubt, I believe, that they would gladly place themselves under the British government, provided their lands, which form but a small portion of the territory in question, were duly secured to them. If we honestly desire to protect the natives in this part of the world, and to secure to those who are under our dominion the possession of their lands, I must again repeat, they should at once be vested in trustees, or in some other manner be legally made over to them for ever. I trust something may be done by the government by way of recognising their right to the lands which they occupy, for if it be left in any way indefinite, I feel assured (and those most interested in their welfare concur in the opinion) that they will gradually be deprived of their land under one pretence or another, to make room for the white man.

Saturday, 13th.--We arrived this evening before sunset at Palmerston, thankful to Almighty God for having brought us thus far in safety. We were very kindly received by Mr. and Mrs. Jenkins of the Wesleyan Society. Our road to-day was better than any we had passed over since we left Indaleni. The country was less burnt, and the views occasionally very beautiful. I do not think that my horses could have travelled another day without rest. One of them showed symptoms of sickness. I trust a day's rest, and two or three more of freedom from work, while oxen draw the cart over the difficult country beyond the Umzumvoobo, may restore them so as to enable me to reach Butterworth, about 150 miles, by next Saturday. I have been sitting up till late conversing with my host, and am surprised that I do not feel more fatigued with my journey, for we have travelled, I think, during the last twelve days, not less than 250 miles, nearly the whole of which I have walked. I ought to be thankful that I have been enabled to do this, considering that for two years of my life I could only move upon crutches. Anxiety for the safety of my man, horses, and cart have done more to weary me than mere bodily fatigue. Altogether, I think, I have lost nearly as much in condition as my horses. Mr. Jenkins informs me that there are in the village some Hottentots who have passed through the Drakenberg mountains in search of cattle stolen by the Bushmen. They describe the country as very fertile and well watered, and the scenery as bold and magnificent. The mountain range, where they passed it, was about 40 miles wide. The whole of the country under the Drakenberg, from the Tambooldes, who border on British Kaffraria, to Natal, is uninhabited, and is, I understand, a very fine country. It must be between two and three hundred miles long. I gathered from various quarters that there is a great tendency on the part of the whole native population to move eastward. During Chaka's reign of terror it was just the reverse; he drove them all westward. As an instance of the inclination to return to the east, I may mention that Jojo has just moved several miles in that direction, and it is understood that others are prepared to follow. It is supposed that Kreli has an intention to move, and that, if he does, some of the chiefs from British Kaffraria will occupy his land. The people on the coast, too, show an inclination to move into the interior. Should they actually do this, and the British government occupy the territory which they vacate, it will at once place at our disposal the most valuable land of the country. I have had some conversation with Mr. Jenkins about his work. He does not speak with much confidence of it; though from what he said I could not gather that there was any great room for despondency He reckons his usual congregation of hearers on the Lord's day at 300; he has 40 baptized, and large Day and Sunday schools. He expressed a great desire to see a Church Mission founded in this country. Sad, indeed, it is, that in all these distant outposts there should be no work carried on by the Church. How is it that those who are less richly blessed than ourselves with spiritual gifts and privileges, should be more abundant in labour--more full of zeal for extending the kingdom of God? May the Lord speedily raise up men within His Church, who shall offer themselves for the work of the conversion of the heathen; and may He dispose the wealthy of our land to offer largely and liberally, and in proportion to their means, for the support of those who are ready to spend and be spent for Christ.

Sunday, 14th.--The services at the Mission station began with a prayer-meeting at daybreak among the natives, conducted entirely by themselves. About nine o'clock the Sunday school began. This is also conducted exclusively by natives. The children were very noisy, and did not seem far advanced, though some were reading in the New Testament. They all appeared to take much interest in their work, and to show a great desire to learn. At eleven o'clock there was morning prayer. This consisted of a portion of the Liturgy translated into Kafir, and used in all the Wesleyan Missions, singing, and a sermon. They chaunted the Te Deum very tolerably. As Mr. Jenkins was very anxious that I should address the people, I spoke to them for some time after the service, he acting as interpreter. There were between 200 and 300 present. There was service again in the afternoon at half-past two o'clock, after which about ten of the Christians of the station came to express their satisfaction at seeing me here, and their appreciation of what I had said to them. I had some interesting conversation with them. They spoke of themselves in their heathen state as wolves and not men. They seemed to think that there was a conviction on the minds of the heathen generally, that the only war which the Gospel waged was a war against sin; that they respected Christianity, and did not suspect, as they formerly did, that the teachers of religion had some purposes of their own to serve. They expressed a hope that more teachers would come. I told them that I had come through this difficult Country, expressly to see with my own eyes what its spiritual wants were, and that I was so deeply impressed with the need there is of more teachers that I purposed, if God spared me, going soon again to my own country to fetch them I invited them, whenever they offered the Lord's Prayer, and came to the words, "Thy kingdom come," to remember to pray for faithful pastors for their countrymen. In the evening I offered the prayers of the Church and preached to Mr. Jenkins's household.

Monday, 15th.--Having repaired the wheel, and spliced the pole of my cart, and purchased some beads to traffic with the natives (who do not know the value of money) for food for my men and cattle, I proceeded on a horse, which Mr. Jenkins had kindly lent me, to the Umzumvoobo, my cart being drawn by eight oxen, lent also by him.

I had a most beautiful ride, especially during the latter part of it. Some of the views from the heights of the Umzumvoobo up and down the river, and over the sea, are magnificent. We saw them in a setting sun, which added to the effect. The mountains which overhang the river are of a considerable height, and their sides are well wooded. The whole country is thickly inhabited by Faku's people. These Kafirs are very inferior both to those in the Natal district and in British Kaffraria. They are more heavy, dull, and stupid. Their forms are not so well moulded, and they appeared to me smaller than their neighbours: they are also more dirty. I am told that the Amapondas are looked down upon by the other tribes, and that the others would object to marry into their tribe. They drink and smoke incessantly. I passed to-day a party smoking dagga and drinking their beer, and I was told by Mr. Fynn that they would sit up most of the night at it. Ifaku himself sets a bad example in this respect. A murder has just taken place in this neighbourhood. The punishment for murder is not heavy. If the murderer sends an ox to the chief, the affair is considered as settled. We arrived at Mr. Hancock's, a trader living on the banks of the river, just after sunset. Next morning we went down the river to its mouth (a distance of about nine miles) in a boat rowed by Kafirs, and had a most enjoyable day, The river opposite to Mr. Hancock's house is about five fathoms deep, and lower down ten. The banks are very precipitous, rising to a height of perhaps 800 or 1,000 feet; Mr. Hancock said 3,000. "The Gates," lofty mountains at the mouth of the river, are very fine. The banks'are well wooded. We landed for a short time in one part of the forest where Mr. Hancock employs some sawyers. There are several kinds of valuable wood, unknown in the colony. Two of the hardest and most useful are called by the natives, "Unizimbeti" and "Umnebelala." The latter Mr. Hancock considered to be ebony. This is one of the finest rivers I have seen in South Africa. It is about as broad as the Thames at Henley. It has, like all the other rivers on this coast, a bar at its mouth. The depth of water on the bar, I understand, varies from three to seventeen feet. It is nearly a mile across at the mouth from rock to rock. We saw a great many sea-cows (hippopotamus) swimming about. One followed our boat a great way up the river, but, as it was getting dark, our sportsmen did not attempt to shoot it. As our Kafirs were either knocked up, or did not seem inclined to pull, I took an oar in returning1, and had a very pleasant row, which reminded me of days long past. We returned for the night to Mr. Hancock's, who received us very kindly, though living in a very rough way. On Wednesday morning we rode on to Buntingville, a Wesleyan mission station, distant about 30 miles. The whole country was most mountainous. On climbing some of the hills, I could not but be thankful that my cart was being drawn by oxen, and that my horses were enjoying comparative rest. Indeed, I doubt whether, in their weak state, they could have got on at all. I overtook my cart at the Umgazi river, and reached Buntingville at sunset. The cart, however, did not make its appearance till the next morning. The country through grhich I passed was partially occupied. It is this tract of land, extending to the Umtata, that Mr. Fynn is desirous that the British Government should occupy, and he says that Faku is quite willing. His view is, that our occupation of it might prevent another Kafir war, this being the back country to which the Kafirs drive their cattle for safety, previous to engaging in war with us. Our occupation of it would cut them off from this. Faku, he says, would be glad to have us between himself and the frontier Kafirs. The country is a very fine one, and well watered.

Buntingville station is one of the largest in the district. There are about 600 people residing upon it. It is about 17 years since it was commenced. Many of the coloured people are beginning to build European houses. It is now under the charge of an Assistant Missionary or Catechist, Mr. Wakeford, and the Mission appears to me to be in a languishing state. He tells me there are 75 Christians upon it. The people call themselves Faku's followers, but they belong to a great variety of tribes, who, from various causes, have congregated in this place, and regard the Missionary as their chief. I was sorry to see that while several houses were being built, and had an appearance of comfort, the Chapel, which is also the school-house, was in a most dilapidated state.

Thursday, 18th.--Mr. Wakeford having kindly proposed to lend me horses, I determined to ride to the Morley station, while my cart went by the wagon road. I accordingly had a warm but pleasant ride of about 30 miles. The country was hilly, but appeared to me well suited for farming operations. It is but partially occupied. We passed several small rivers, besides the Umtata, which runs through a very deep and beautiful valley. I had my usual bathe at a sweet spot. The Morley station is just above it, and it took me nearly an hour to ascend a very steep hill to it from the river. The Missionaries have not shown as much taste as the monks of old in the selection of situations for religious houses. Morley, indeed, stands high, and enjoys an extensive view over the open country, but below it there are some beautiful spots, commanding extensive reaches of the river, and upon these the natives have fixed their kraals. One serious objection, however there is to some of the finest sites,--that they are inaccessible even to a South African wagon, which is a machine warranted to go almost anywhere. The rank vegetation also of the lower grounds, and the great heat and closeness of them in the summer months, render such situations un. suitable. Faku's land ends at the Umtata; the country between that river and the Bashee belongs to the Tambookies. It is only partially inhabited. Mr. Garner, who has, as usual, received me very hospitably, informs me that this whole country is very damp, and that neither oxen, horses, nor sheep thrive in it. He has planted a cotton field 50 acres in extent, which he expects will succeed. The natives receive 3d. a-day for their labour. The Mission station, which, like most of the others in this neighbourhood, does not consist of the people of any particular tribe, but of persons from various neighbouring tribes, has about 100 families upon it, and there are 100 Christians. The mixed nature of the population on the Mission stations arises, in part at least, from their being regarded, like the monasteries of old, or the cities of refuge amongst-the Israelites, as sanctuaries to which men may flee for safety. It is a very common thing for the natives when accused, justly or unjustly, to take refuge on the lands recognised as belonging to the Mission. The chiefs generally protect the Missionaries, because they desire to have some one in their neighbourhood who can be their friend with the British Government. They do not, however, really like the institutions, inasmuch as they tend to diminish their power over their people.

One or two native teachers are generally employed on each station. These are usually not Kafirs. They receive a payment of from 10l. to 30l. a-year, the native schoolmaster from 4l. to 8l. Mr. Garner is the only Missionary I have met with who thinks it possible that the witchdoctors may occasionally exercise supernatural or satanic power. He mentioned several instances in which he could pot account for the knowledge they seemed to possess. One case he mentioned struck me particularly. Some years since when he and his party had arrived as strangers in the Bechuana country, they were rather jeering at a witch-doctor, who, however, told one of his people precisely the state of his family and circumstances in Grahamstown. He was perfectly accurate in all he said, and could not, by any possibility, have received information on the subject from any of their party.

Friday, 19th.--I started this morning, on a horse lent me by Mr. Garner, for Beecham Wood, the station of Mr. Brown, a catechist, distant 60 miles; and I have, thank God, been enabled to accomplish the ride without any fatigue. I cannot be too grateful for the health and strength which I enjoy. It requires considerable powers of endurance to go through what I have done during the last three weeks. The district, through which I have passed to-day, is inhabited by Tambookies. It does not appear to be wholly occupied, but I perceive more oxen and goats than I have of late seen. The character of the country has undergone a gradual change since we left Palmerston. Its general features now are hilly slopes. The grass is still abundant, but there are not so many streams. We crossed the Bashee at a very bad drift. The land in its neighbourhood, though covered with mimosa, looks more bare than any I have seen of late. We off-saddled at one or two kraals. All asked for presents; but at one some women brought us skins to sit upon. There is a slight change in the dress of these people. The married men cease to wear the crown which is so becoming on the Zoolu and Amaponda. The women wear more rings on the arms, and even on the toes, and a handkerchief lightly fastened round the head, which would give them g pleasing appearance if it were not always so dirty. We did not reach Mr. Brown's station till late at night. There is not much to interest one in it. It has only been established in this place since the war. There are but twenty-five families on the spot, and twelve Christians The so-called chapel is a most ruinous, dilapidated building. After a sleepless night, passed on a sofa, I rode on to Butterworth, another Wesleyan station, distant about twenty-five miles, Mr. Brown again kindly furnishing me with horses. The country between the Bashee and the Kei, perhaps 100 miles long and 50 broad, belongs to Kreli, who till the close of the late war was considered paramount Chief of British Kaffraria. His country, so far as I have seen of it, has a dense population. In no part of South Africa have I seen the kraals so near together, or the cattle so numerous, or the grass so closely cropped, or more land under cultivation. Could they but be induced to build more substantial houses, and to purchase sheep, we might hope to see the end of our border wars. I was glad to hear from a trader, at whose house I called, that the demand for clothes and other manufactured goods is increasing.

Mr. Gladwin, the Missionary at Butterworth, received me with the same hospitality and kindness as the rest of his brethren. In talking with him respecting the work of Missions in this land, he expressed the pleasure which he felt at the prospect of our commencing a Mission, but spoke his mind freely with reference to our past neglect and unconcern. He said it was a disgrace and reproach to the Church of England that it had so long delayed to enter upon the work, and that 100 more missionaries, at the least, were required in this land. I told him that I felt the reproach keenly,--that I was deeply conscious of our sin, and that if God spared me for another year in health and strength, and the circumstances of the Diocese admitted of it, I purposed going to England to raise the means, and select the men for the work. God grant that the Church may be awakened to a sense of her great responsibilities towards the many thousand heathen under British rule in this land, that when she enters upon the work of their conversion, she may make up by her hearty zeal and diligence in it for past neglect and unconcern!

Sunday, 21st.--The services here this day were the same as at Palmerston. That portion of the liturgy which has been translated into the Kafir language was used. All the people knelt, and made the responses. Mr. Gladwin pressed me so strongly to address the people that I did so, through an interpreter. The congregation consisted of nearly 500, for the chapel, which is the most respectable which I have yet seen, and fitted up with benches, was crowded to excess. There were, perhaps, near 100 Christians. The remainder were either catechumens, or inquirers, or such as came out of mere curiosity. This is the second time during this journey that I have undertaken to preach to the heathen. I was thankful for the opportunity of doing so, however imperfectly; but I was so circumstanced each time that I could not well have avoided it. The people soon understood that a "Great Teacher" had come amongst them, and they would not have been easy or satisfied had I not addressed them. The Sunday School consisted of about 100 children. The basis of instruction is the Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Commandments; but a Catechism is also used, translated by the missionaries.

The sight to-day has been a most interesting one. The whole people of this land are ready, at least, to hear Gospel; they are willing to attend Christian assemblies and schools, to read our books, to be taught by us. The field is white already unto the harvest, but the labourers are few; so far as the Church is concerned, alas! they are none. It is most distressing to think how unfaithful we have been, and are, to our trust. "Thy kingdom come!"

Butterworth is, I believe, the oldest Wesleyan station in this part of the country. It his been, I think, twenty years in existence, and was entirely burnt down during the last war. There are about 125 Christians upon it. In the evening I held Divine service for the few English living in the neighbourhood; we had a congregation of about twenty.

Monday, 22d.--This day I started for King William's Town, in company with Mr. W. Fynn, the British Resident who not only has kindly offered to escort me, but has furnished me with a saddle horse, and oxen to take my cart over the difficult country about the Kei. I have nothing particular to recount of our day's journey. The drift of the river is a very difficult one. When we arrived at it, two wagons, drawn each by upwards of twenty oxen, had stuck fast in it, and delayed us for some time. On the road down to the river, which is very precipitous, we passed the ruins of two more wagons, one of which had broken down, and the other had been upset. I passed the night half-way up the ascent in the wagon of a trader, which he placed at my disposal. My bed, which consisted of sacks of Kafir corn and melies, was none of the softest. Mr. Fynn pointed out to me, as we journeyed, the scenes of several actions with the Kafirs during the late war, and the graves of not a few of our officers.

Tuesday, 23d.--We are now in British Kaffraria, and have travelled to-day through the territory of the Chief Umhalla, to whom I have promised to send missionaries. He is the shrewdest, and perhaps the most influential, of the Kafir chieftains, and one of the least hopeful, I fear, for missionary operations. But I feel that we ought to seek the conversion of these poor frontier savages, perhaps before all others in the land. I do not dispute the justice of our wars with them, or question our present treatment of them; but they have suffered both morally and physically more than any other heathen in the country, from their close contiguity to ourselves. When I shall be able to commence this mission I know not. What we chiefly need is a well qualified, devoted man, who, for the love of Christ, will give himself to the work; indeed, there ought to be two. The Clergy of the Diocese have undertaken to raise 200l. a-year for their support. May fit agents speedily be raised up in answer to our prayers! and may our prayers be unceasing until the desire of our hearts be accomplished!--"Sursum corda!"

I have passed to-day over much of the country that was the scene of the late Kafir war. I walked over the ruins of Fort Warden and Fort Wellington, and visited the graves of several of our brave soldiers. Nigh to the road side, on the floor of a trader's house, now in ruins, are the graves of five young officers, killed on a neighbouring mountain. They had gone out for a ride, and ascended the mountain, the highest in the country, to enjoy the prospect. The Kafirs observed them, and waylaid them as they came down, in a narrow gorge. Most of them were killed at once by the assegais hurled at them by the enemy, who were in considerable numbers, but one officer remained for some time, and defended himself, with his back to the rock. He killed five Kafirs before he was despatched himself. His last act was to tear an assegai from his own body, and hurl it back upon the adversary. I took more interest in the fate of these officers, because I had frequently heard one of them, Captain Baker, spoken of most highly, and because his brother has given 200l. towards the church at King William's Town. I had an account of the whole affair from Lishani, a very fine Kafir, chief of a neighbouring kraal, who was one of the attacking party. The trader, too, in whose wagon I slept, knew all the particulars, as he was with the camp at the time, and formed one of the party who went next day to recover the bodies. There seems to be a doubt whether the last officer killed was Captain Baker, or a Mr. Look. It seems most probable that it was Captain Baker. His body was drugged to some distance, and shockingly mutilated. We passed the night at Hangman's Bush, the last, I trust, that I shall for some time spend in the veldt, as we are within nineteen miles of King William's Town.

Wednesday. 24th.--Arrived early in King William's Town. Colonel Mackinnon, Chief Commissioner of British Kaffraria, had kindly made preparation for my accommodation in his house. The remainder of the day was spent in reading several packets of letters which had been lying here waiting for me.

Sunday, 28th.--Preached to the troops and civilians both morning and evening, in the temporary chapel used for Divine service. In the afternoon I held a Confirmation. I am much pleased with the state of things here; the congregations are good, and Mr. Fleming, the Military Chaplain, is labouring zealously amongst all classes. The foundations of the church, which is calculated to hold 300, and for which about 1,500l. is already raised, are being laid. The plan is Early English. It will be, perhaps, the nicest and most correct little church in the Diocese when finished, and is to be entirely of stone, of which there is an abundance, of a good quality, in the immediate neighbourhood.

On Monday I drove down, in company with Mr. Fleming, in a mule cart, to East London, the port of British Kaffraria. Our route lay through a country in no way very striking. The distance is about thirty-live miles. We breakfasted with Captain Maclean, the intelligent Commissioner of the T'Slambie tribes, who resides near Fort Murray. We afterwards visited Mount Coke, which, in addition to missionary work amongst the surrounding heathen, is intended for the instruction of a certain, number of Kafir youths as teachers. There were eight in the school, some of whom were married men. They live in the institution, but not under the roof of the missionary; yet, if characters are to be formed, if men are to be educated, and not merely instructed, it surely is of the utmost importance that they should live in the very presence of their teacher. The pupils here are taught to read both in English and Kafir, and they receive much the same sort of education that would be given to boys in a National School in England. I was glad to find that they had a well-educated European teacher for their instructor. The missionary also appeared to be an intelligent man. The buildings of the institution, which have been erected since the war, are of a substantial kind; the chapel and the school are distinct buildings, which I have nowhere else found to be the case. After inspecting this institution, we proceeded on our journey, and arrived at East London in the afternoon, having outspanned for some time at Fort Grey, the buildings of which are in a great state of dilapidation. East London, situated on the mouth of the Buffalo river, is but a very small place, and has as few natural advantages as any place I have ever seen claiming to be a port. I could have walked across the river without getting wet above the knee. There is no shelter whatever for vessels, it being an open roadstead; the shore is rugged, and the surf, though there was no wind during my stay, was very heavy. The sole redeeming point is that the anchorage is said to be very good. There has, I believe, as yet been but one wreck. Some people are sanguine in their hope that a trade will be opened through this (dace with Burghersdorp, and the Sovereignty. The land carriage certainly would all be in favour of this, as the distance is much less than by Algoa Bay. Wagons I ravel between King William's Town and Burghersdorp in a week, and the road is good.

On the morning after my arrival I held a Confirmation in a small store, used by the Wesleyans and by the Church for Divine service. There was a larger congregation than I had anticipated. Afterwards Mr. Buckner, the Military Chaplain, with whom I am staying, rowed me a mile or two up the river, the banks of which are pretty, and covered with the euphorbia.

On Wednesday we returned to King William's Town. I have omitted to state, that on Friday last I rode out with Colonel Mackinnon, to visit the mission station of Mr. Birt, of the London Missionary Society. Mr. Birt has the credit of having done more than most of the other missionaries around him, in the way of promoting industry and civilization. His chapel was built almost entirely by the Kafirs. A considerable number of wattle-and-daub houses were either finished, or in the course of erection; and in several of these articles of furniture were to be found. Most of the people on the station have their gardens, and an increasing breadth of land is being brought under the plough.

August 1st.--This day I went, accompanied by Mr. Fleming, to Umhalla's kraal. Mr. Shepstone rode there from Fort Murray to meet us, and acted as interpreter, I had intended to go on horseback, but, the weather proving rainy, Colonel Mackinnon very kindly pressed me to go in a mule-wagon. We took a tent with us, which we pitched at the old deserted post of Port Waterloo. We did not arrive until dusk, not having been able to start early in the morning in consequence of my having fixed ten o'clock for the consecration of the burial-ground at King William's Town. The distance is about thirty miles. I was on the look-out during the day for suitable sites for our mission station, but, of course, could not fix upon any, being ignorant of the nature of the soil, the quality of the water in the streams which we passed, and the position of the various places with reference to the population of the tribe. The situation which appeared to us most desirable, was on the banks of the Kahoon river. I am disposed to think that the wisest course for us to adopt, will be for our missionaries on their arrival to repair some of the ruined huts at Port Waterloo, and remain there until they are in some degree acquainted with the country, and can fix permanently upon a site. This will bring them at the outset, into close intercourse with the chief, whose kraal is close by, and give them an opportunity at least of obtaining an influence over him; whereas, if they were to settle at a distance from him, they would probably not see much of him.

Umhalla is the principal chief of the T'Slambie tribes. He has upwards of 10,000 people under him. He is not, I fear, a promising subject himself, being addicted to drinking, and "eating up "his people,--i.e. robbery and injustice. He does not bear a good character, compared with the other Kafir chiefs, but he is an able and influential man, and no mission exists amongst his people. After we had partaken of a little food, we walked down in the dark to pay the chief a visit; but we had hardly left our tent before we met two of his messengers coming to ask for a present. We found him sitting in a large smoky hut, in the midst of his counsellors, wives, children, &c. There was a fire in an earthen basin in the middle of the hut, which partially lighted it. Most of the people were smoking; and Mr. Shepstone informed me that they had been drinking beer, but this they had discontinued before our arrival. We crept into this crowded reception hall with some difficulty, and were nearly blinded by the smoke. After I had seated myself on the floor, I bade Mr. Shepstone explain to the chief who I was. He got up to welcome me, and to shake bands. I then asked him if he remembered ever meeting me before. He perfectly recollected the two occasions on which we had met, and spoke of circumstances connected with them. I explained to him that I was travelling through the country over which I had spiritual charge; that I had been from home four moons, and should be still journeying for five moons more; that in the course of my travels I had arrived at King William's Town, and had come expressly from that place to see him, not being willing to leave the country without doing so. He thanked me, and said he was very glad to see me. I then told him that I had not yet heard of the teachers whom I had sent for--that they had to come a great way from beyond the sea; but that I hoped they would soon arrive. He said that I must send him the Archdeacon, who had been to see him; that he had taken a great fancy to him, and would have him for his teacher. I told him that he could not be spared, and enumerated all the places in the Archdeaconry that he had to look after; but said I would send him a good man whom he would like, and who would teach him about God. Umhalla then said that "he was a great chief, and that I was a great chief; that he would be very glad if I would come and teach him: but that he knew that this was impossible, for he had heard how many places I had to go to, but that if I could not come myself, I must send him the Archdeacon." Thinking that it was from pride that he desired to have one of our great men to teach a great chief, I told him that the son of one of our great chiefs in England, (the Hon. and Rev. H. Douglas, who had volunteered for this special work,) was willing to come and teach him. He said, "Very well, he might come too "but he hoped I would let him have the Archdeacon." This he repeated twenty times during the course of our conversation, which lasted about two hours. If I felt quite sure that he appreciated in any degree the noble character of my dear friend and brother, and desired to have one so eminently qualified for the work with him, for his own sake, I should augur well for the success of our future mission; but I could not quite satisfy my mind that this was the case, although I think it far from improbable.

I gave the chief a blanket with red stripes, for which he had asked when the Archdeacon was here, and Mr. Fleming gave some beads and knives to his children. He told us he had ten wives, but two had left him,--and twenty-six children. Some of these had very sweet countenances. I then endeavoured to turn the discourse to religious subjects. Umhalla assented to all I said and told him, but did not seem much interested, although he asked me questions about the soul coming back after death to visit those who are yet in the flesh. Like most of the heathen in this land, ho professed to assent to the truth of there being but one true God.

I pressed upon his attention the commandments of God, with special reference to Kafir vices and sins, the doctrine of a future judgment, and the misery or blessedness of the dead. I then talked to him of the country through which I had been travelling, but found that, like the common people of his tribe, he knew very little even of the greatest chiefs at a distance. He knew Faku by name, and had heard of Moshes, but never of Panda. When I told him Panda was Chaka's brother, he said he had heard of the latter and of his wars. He promised to help the missionaries in every way in his power when they came; and when I asked him where he thought they had better settle, he said be would go about with them, and help them to choose a spot. All his people, listened with much interest to what was passing; and he was so much excited that the perspiration ran down his naked body during the greater part of our interview. After taking some sour milk, we parted very good friends. I told him that I always prayed for him and his people to God, and should continue to do so; that, though I was a chief, yet I was but chief minister or servant, and that if God had not given me other work to do, I would willingly settle down amongst his nation, and teach them the knowledge of the one true God, and Jesus Christ his Son. He thanked me, as he had repeatedly done before, saying he must see me before I went, in the morning. Accordingly, before I had washed myself in the river, be came up with most of his wives to introduce them. We waited till we had had some breakfast, and then received him in our tent, and the others at, the door. They speedily ate and drank up all that was left, and we had some more friendly conversation about the mission. Whatever may be his motives, I am sure that he will be thankful to have clergymen for his tribe. It, may be that he thinks they will befriend him with the civil power; or improve his people in worldly knowledge; or give him presents (though I specially impressed upon him that they would be poor men, and could not give presents, and that he must help them); or bring a "winkel" (shop) in their train; but whatever be his motive, he will be glad, I think, to see a teacher come into his laud. God grant that, such may be speedily raised up! The field is white unto the harvest, but the labourers, alas! are few. Our prayers are, I trust, not wanting, that the Lord will be pleased to send some true and faithful servants into this portion of the vineyard.

In my further conversation with Umhalla, I endeavoured to impress upon him that our motives in coming to him Were to do him good in this world, and in that which was to come; that we were not soldiers, or traders, or Government-officers, but men of God, who wished to teach him the things of God. I liked his whole manner, in spite of my distrust of him. He said, apparently with some feeling, that he knew there was a God, and that he must serve Him that he could not do this without his help, and that he must pray to Him for help, and that he would pray. All this may have been mere talk and compliment; but I would fain hope that this poor savage is not all hypocrisy, however bad his general character may be. We are apt, I think, to judge too severely of the heathen. What can we expect from these poor Kafirs? They are brought up, generation after generation, amidst scenes of depravity and vice which could hardly be conceived by those unacquainted with heathenism; they have nothing about them to raise and improve them; they have been nurtured amidst war and rapine, and have been in deadly conflict with us from childhood; the greater number of Europeans with whom they have mixed, and do mix, have not sought to do them good, but have let them see that they despise them, and regard them as no better than dogs; and it is we that have taught them to drink. It is a sad fact, true of this as of all other colonies, that the native population becomes worse and not better for its contact with civilization and a professedly Christian people.

I parted with Umhalla, satisfied, on the whole, with my interview with him. I reminded him again that we were men of peace, not of war; that there had been too much fighting between our people and his people; that henceforth, I trusted, our great aim would be to do him and his people good; to teach them to cultivate their lands, and how to become civilized like ourselves; but above all, to know and serve God. He gave me his assegai, as a token of friendship, and that there should be no more wars between us. [Umhalla has not engaged in the present war. He is "sitting still,'' but renders us no assistance, like Toise and Pato, and the other T'Slambie chiefs. They call him the Gholaub Sing of South Africa.]

We returned to King William's Town on the 2d.

August 3d.--I am now leaving King William's Town, and am about to re-enter the Colony. My Visitation will vet extend, if God spare me so long, until Christmas. I feel that no man can bear the wear and tear of the work "which cometh upon me daily" for any great length of time; but I am content to bear it, so long as He enables me, and I can in any way serve Him, whose I am, and to whom I have pledged my life. The responsibilities and anxieties, however, arising out of the peculiar circumstances of this diocese are very great. To this moment, a grant of 700l. a-year, pledged to me by the Government for seven additional Clergy, has never been confirmed by the local legislature, in consequence of the breaking up of the Council through the Convict Agitation; and I may be called upon any day to refund what has been paid to them, and to support them altogether for the future. The new Elective Council is composed of men who are not members of the Church, nor very friendly. The difficulty, therefore, of providing a maintenance hereafter for the great body of the Clergy who draw upon me for their stipends is one of my chief sources of anxiety, my funds being already pledged to the utmost. The keeping up the parishes, also, to the full amount of their promised contributions, and the labour necessary to bring a church to its completion; the unhappy condition of those parishes which are still without a minister, and the impossibility of raising sufficient funds to warrant me in bringing more clergy out; the jealousies which have been excited amongst various bodies of Christians in consequence of the progress of the Church during the last two years, and the bitterness with which we have been assailed; the efforts which the Church of Rome is making in this eastern province; the agitation which has arisen within the mother Church in consequence of a recent judgment, which has its reverberation here; all these are sources of much anxiety at the present moment. One great consolation, however, I am permitted to enjoy. There is not one of the Clergy whom I have brought out who is not doing well in his parish, and some have been eminently successful in rearing up infant Churches in fields too long neglected. If God be with us, we need fear nothing. Would that I could learn more fully to cast all my care upon Him, assured that He careth not for me only, but much more for His Church! "Lord, increase our faith."

I have endeavoured, during the few days that I have been in British Kaffraria, to form some opinion of my own as to the system adopted towards the Kafirs, and as to their present condition and future prospects: and I have come to the conclusion, which I believe most people have arrived at, that no other system could have been adopted with safety,--that it is essential to our own security, and is working well for the Kafirs themselves, and even acceptably to many of them. We have assumed the sovereignty of the country. The chiefs have had the land divided out amongst them, but they occupy it, not as totally independent powers, but in subordination to the British crown. The Queen is the great chief, and they hold their lands of her. The power of the chiefs has been much circumscribed, but they still govern their people by their own laws without any interference on our part, except when we are appealed to, or any great wrong is done. The principal occasions in which we interfere are when thefts or murders are committed, witchcrafts practised, or a chief "eats up" one of his rich subjects. An instance of this has just occurred with reference to my friend Umhalla. The witch-doctor,--who is the great ally of the chief, and the instrument by which he works for the destruction of his people and the replenishment of his own stock of cattle,--informed against a rich man of the tribe as guilty of witchcraft. He was instantly "eaten up," i.e. deprived of every ox, cow, and calf. These were divided between the chief and his counsellors. Captain Maclean, the Commissioner of the T'Slambie tribes, insisted upon their disgorging the prey. Umhalla was compelled to give up ox after ox, till he retained only a calf, which he said he wished to keep for his mother. But this was not allowed, gild lie was made to send it back. In doing so he sent a message to Captain Maclean to say, it was the only time, in his life that he was ever beaten. He has been sulky ever since. So far as I can gather, our rule is acceptable to the common people, who feel the benefit of laws administered with justice, and the protection given to life and property; but, as might nave been expected, it is not so agreeable to the chiefs. One docs not wonder, therefore, at hearing that they have been talking of moving over the Kei, and becoming again independent. Colonel MacKinnon, however, is of opinion that if they were to do this, their power would be greatly broken, and that they would not be followed by the great body of the people. I should grieve much if such a move were to take place; for the result would be, that we should hereafter have a repetition of our old wars on a more distant frontier.

Being strongly of opinion that we must hereafter be led to colonize the whole country between British Kaffraria and Natal, it seems to be of much importance that our old enemies should remain where they are, under the influence of a system which is gradually changing them. I do not indeed mean to say that we shall have no more border wars, but I cannot but hope, if the existing system is persisted in and marked with firmness, justice, and kindness, as it is under Colonel Mackinnon and his subordinate Commissioners, that we may escape future collisions. It must, however, be remembered that the present generation has been educated in stealing; they are thieves by profession. Of course, a mere system of government, will never, however ably conducted, elevate a people. They require to be trained and educated. This is being partially, though imperfectly, done by means of missions. The, children are in many cases being taught in the Mission Schools. European dresses are being partially adopted, and European houses built. The plough is also being introduced; but no great progress has as yet been made in any of those things. The civilization of Kaffraria is yet in its infancy; and its conversion to the faith has yet to be accomplished.

I was glad to see, on my ride to-day, a farm with wagon oxen, &c. belonging to a Kafir. He has just brought his brother to occupy another farm near him. European houses were rising up around him.

There are about 80,000 Kafirs in British Kaffraria. The Tambookies beyond our territories are said to amount to 90,000; Kreli's people to 60,000. But these latter calculations are not based upon any accurate data. There is no census. Our military posts are fixed in several parts of the land. The troops, however, are not employed in executing the orders of Government. Everything is done through means of the Kafir police, which is a very effective, and, so far as they have yet been tried, faithful body.

I rode to-day to Fort Peddie, distant about thirty-five miles, Col. Somerset having kindly placed Cape Corps horses at my disposal. I took up my quarters at Capt. Campbell's, who was kind enough to invite me to his house. On arriving at the post, I found that in reply to a communication which I had made, several parties were anxious to be confirmed,--others to have children baptized,--and others again to take steps towards the erection of a church. I therefore spent a portion of the evening in conversing with the candidates for Confirmation, and appointed them to meet me in class at the magistrate's office to-morrow morning; for I thought it better to receive them, if at all prepared, rather than let the opportunity, which to some of them might not again present itself, pass by. I fixed also eight o'clock on Monday morning for a meeting of the people.

Sunday, August 4th.--A busy day. At nine o'clock, I met the candidates for Confirmation, ten in number, and was much pleased with them. I found them well acquainted with the Catechism, and apparently in earnest. I remained with them till eleven o'clock, when we held service in the room generally used by the Methodists, but belonging to the post. There was a crowded and attentive congregation, and seven communicants. After service, I called upon several Church families, some of the members of which were sick. This occupied my time till three o'clock, when I held service again. I had one churching, ten candidates for confirmation, and seven baptisms. I both addressed the candidates extempore, and preached; we had again an excellent congregation. After evening service, I walked to see some sick members of the Church at a Mission station, about a mile from the Fort, and to call upon the Missionary whom I had deprived of his place of worship for the day. I returned somewhat late, and fatigued, although I have enjoyed the services of the day very much.

August 5th.--Rode to Grahamstown in company with Mr. Fleming, who arrived at Fort Peddie from King William's Town, a distance of thirty-five miles, by nine o'clock in the morning. The whole day's ride was upwards of eighty miles. We were met about fifteen miles from Grahamstown by the Archdeacon and Clergy, Col. Somerset, and several of the laity. I was thankful to find all our friends well, and the work of God, I trust, prospering in their hands. Before I left Fort Peddie in the morning, I held a meeting of the members of the Church. They entered into a subscription towards the erection of a church, amounting to nearly 100l. They were anxious about the appointment of a clergyman. I could not hold out much hope to them in the present state of my finances. I was not even able to promise them, which they were urgent that I should do, that a clergyman should hold service in their village once a-month; though one of their number, with some degree of justice, said that as I had founded the Church there by the baptisms, confirmations, and Holy Communion celebrated the previous day, they looked to me to carry on the good work which had been begun. Fort Peddie, formerly in the neutral territory, is now part of the Province of Victoria, within the colony. The district consists of about 600 square miles, out of which 140 square miles have been assigned to the 3,000 Jingoes who have been located there. These Fingoes, like all their race, are covetous and saving, and therefore add yearly to their stock of cattle. But in other respects they do not seem to improve much. The Wesleyans have a mission amongst them. The Fingo population came originally from the country of Natal, or the uninhabited regions which I have lately passed over. Chaka drove them out of their country, and the Kafirs in their depressed state enslaved them. We have been their emancipators, and they. Lave always been with us in our wars. There still exists much enmity between the Kafirs and Fingoes; the former still affect to despise the latter. All the Fingoes on this frontier are now subjected to direct taxation. The system commenced, I believe, last year when the 3,000 around Fort Peddie were rated at 10s. per family; 415 families paid this amount. Up to the present time in this year, only 290 have paid. Mr. Edge, the magistrate, thinks that about 500 out of 660 families will pay; but the tax has been raised to 1l. per family, and they are suffering much in consequence of the failure of their crops. The system of taxation is justified on the ground that they have had land given free of rent; that they cost the colony a good deal in the appointment of superintendents, police, &c., and enjoy the protection of the law; while they contribute but little to the revenue of the country, as they use but few articles of import. These reasons are, I think, in their present state, fair, provided they be not too heavily taxed; but as they advance in civilization, it will of course be highly unjust to tax one part of the community, while others are exempt. I prefer, however, the system of taxation adopted in Natal, where the huts, and not families, are taxed. There, when a man has eight or ten wives, living, as they do, in separate huts, he has to pay 7s. 6d. for each of them. Here the poor man with his one wife pays as much as the rich man with his ten. In Natal, the tax not only presses more heavily upon the rich man, but serves as a direct check upon polygamy. There are eight petty chiefs over the 3,000 Fingoes in the district of Fort Peddie.

Grahamstown, August 12th.--I have been here now a week. My time has been fully occupied in making arrangements for my future Visitation, in receiving and returning the visits of the parishioners, and in discussing matters of deep interest to the Church with the Archdeacon.

Yesterday I preached twice at St. George's. The congregations were very good. Every one speaks with great satisfaction of the increase of the congregation and of the number of communicants since the arrival of the Archdeacon, and also of the increase of devotion in the people. A large proportion of the congregation now kneels. The offertory averages, I think, about 4l. per week. The Sunday and Grammar school has been completed. The building is substantial and handsome, and has cost about 900l. Some disappointment has been felt in consequence of the non-arrival of a master. A master has however been appointed, and will, I trust, speedily arrive; but in the mean time parents are sending their boys to the Romish priests to be educated, as they are also entrusting their daughters to the nuns who have lately come out; the evil effects of which have already been felt. Our Grammar school is at present under the charge of a catechist; it has 21 boys in it. The Sunday school, which appeared to be in a good state of discipline, has about 100 children in it. ] understand that the Romish bishop has withdrawn the priests whom he had sent to Cradock and Somerset. I confirmed to-day 46 of the younger members of the Church.. They all appeared to feel deeply, and some were much affected. They have been carefully prepared for this holy ordinance by the Clergy.

Thursday, August 16th.---To-day I received the following Address from the Churchwardens and Vestry, which I insert here as indicative of the feelings of the members of the Church by whom they have been elected to their present offices.

"TO the RIGHT REV. R. GRAY, D.D., Lord Bishop of Capetown.

"The Address of the Vestry of St. George's Church, in the name and behalf of the members of the Church in Grahamstown, in communion with the United Church of England and Ireland.

"MY LORD,--We are happy to see your Lordship again amongst us, enjoying under the Divine blessing health and strength, and continually labouring in the Lord's vineyard with zeal and energy befitting your high calling.

"We rejoice that the Institutions of our Church, now happily in course of development in the Colony, are, as it would seem to us, devotedly appreciated by its members. We hail with delight your Lordship's unremitting exertions to extend the blessings of the Gospel among the surrounding native tribes, and we pray that those exertions, aided by the much-respected Clergy of your diocese, may, through Divine assistance, prove eminently successful.

"We are happy at having witnessed the confirmation of a large number of our young friends and neighbours, in whose welfare we feel the liveliest interest, and we congratulate your Lordship on the prospects thereby opened. "That your Lordship may long live to witness the foundations thus laid ('the good seed which thou hast sown in thy field') grow up into a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof, is the sincere prayer of your Lordship's most obedient servants and followers in Christ."

To this Address I replied at some length. The substance, however, of what I said is embodied in the following remarks:

"GENTLEMEN,--I sincerely thank you for your kind and cordial welcome to this part of the diocese. It has pleased God to bring me safe hitherto through a. long and difficult journey. I gratefully acknowledge His goodness therein, and trust that He may spare me to finish tin's visitation, which, when completed, will have occupied nearly nine months. I only regret that the vast extent of the diocese renders it impossible for me to continue long in any one place, or to become acquainted, as I could wish, with the members of the Church. The only remedy for this will be a subdivision of the diocese, an event to which I look forward with hope at some future day. You express your satisfaction at the development of the Church since I was last amongst you. I rejoice with you therein, and bless God for it. Many--very many of our brethren, who had for years been deprived of the ministrations of their own Church, have been supplied with them, and appreciate with yourselves their increased privileges and blessings. We must not, however, forget that much yet remains to be done. In several places the Church is not yet built, and increased exertions will be needed for the maintenance of the ministry. There are still some villages and districts which are without those means which have been supplied to others, and which I am at present unable to provide from want of funds. Upon the great and deeply interesting work of the conversion of the heathen to the faith, we can scarcely be said to have yet entered in earnest.

"For the carrying on of all these important and holy undertakings, the Church in this Diocese will, I trust, learn to depend more and more upon the blessing of God resting upon its own exertions. It is right and necessary, indeed, that we should, in our infant state, lean for support both upon the mother Church and upon the Government of the country; but I trust that the increase of piety and zeal within our own communion will render us from year to year less dependent upon others for the carrying on the work God has given us to do in this land. I gladly hail the success which has attended your weekly collections at the Offertory, and on other occasions, as a token of this; and I confidently look forward to an increase from these sources,--especially to the fund for the maintenance of the Ministry. I have only, Gentlemen, in conclusion, to congratulate you on the great increase which has confessedly taken place in the numbers who attend at Divine Service in this church since my last visitation. I pray that, along with this outward enlargement of the body, there may be an inward growth in Divine truth and godliness, ' till we all come, in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.' Gentlemen, again I beg to thank you for your kind welcome, and to express my readiness to cooperate with you to the utmost of my ability in all your designs for the furtherance of God's glory, and the advancement of Christ's religion in this important parish."

On Saturday, Aug. 17th, I left Grahamstown for Bathurst, my cart having been repaired, and my horses somewhat refreshed. We outspanned for a time at Mr. W. Currey's, and arrived before dark at Mr. Barrow's, where we found a party awaiting our appearance.

Sunday, 18th.--We had Morning Prayer at eight o'clock; at ten, the Litany, Confirmation, Sermon, and Holy Communion. There were twelve candidates for Confirmation, and about thirty communicants. The congregation was large, some having come from a great distance. Several young women rode seventeen miles, and returned again in the afternoon. The collection at the Offertory was about 11l. In the evening we had full service at six o'clock. The magistrate's daughters formed the choir, and chanted the hymns of the church very well, and in a devotional spirit. One individual from Cuylerville, who had ridden seventeen miles to the service, spoke anxiously about an appointment of another deacon or catechist to that district. He said they could not come often to the church here, and they felt it "so lonesome" on a Sunday.

Circumstances have compelled me for a time to discontinue our services at that post, where there was an excellent, and apparently devout congregation; and want of funds, and the fear of involving myself, and incurring liabilities which I cannot meet, alone prevents my resuming the station. I stated this frankly, and this young man undertook to see whether they could not raise sufficient funds to lighten my responsibilities. I was grieved to say, that all that I could at present do was to assure them that I bore them in my mind, and was most anxious to send them another teacher so soon as I could see my way clearly in the matter.

Monday, 19th.--Met several of the parishioners in the vestry. Endeavoured to stir them up to raise funds for an endowment, or the erection of a parsonage. They thought 100l. might be raised for this purpose. It was agreed that there should be a monthly Communion, and monthly Offertory. Those who were present were quite willing that this latter should be weekly, but thought it better to begin with it in this parish once a-month only. Afterwards I examined the Government school.

Tuesday, 20th.--Started for the Cowie, accompanied by Mr. Dyason, the resident magistrate, Mr. Barrow, and Mr. Waters. It being low water, my cart was driven across the mouth of the river which, it is hoped, will soon become one of the chief ports in the colony. After taking luncheon with Mr. Cock, I mounted the horse which Colonel Somerset had kindly sent for me, and rode to Theopolis, a missionary station of the London Society. The station of late years has been much affected by the departure of a considerable number of its most industrous inhabitants to the Kat River settlement. [The Hottentots at each of these places have joined the Kafirs in the war now raging] The institution is beautifully situated. It has a fine estate annexed to it of, I believe, 7,000 acres of excellent land, worth, I was told by a neighbouring farmer, at least 3,000l. The buildings are on a large scale; but the houses of the coloured people are in a most dilapidated condition, and scarcely any of the land is cultivated, though I was told by the parson in charge that there were nearly 400 people resident upon it. Most of the London Society's institutions which I have seen within the Colony, as Pacclesdorp, Bethelsdorp, Zaurbrak, are in a languishing condition, but at this there really seems to be scarcely anything doing. It is true indeed that there is an infant school kept by the daughter of the last missionary, and another school by a coloured man; but there is no missionary residing at, the station, the only representative of one being an old, soldier, who, in addition to his other functions, keeps a store. Those in charge did not affect to conceal the fact that it was doing no good whatever. The only reason for maintaining it arises from an unwillingness to give up the land, which Government allows the Society to occupy rent free, on the ground of its being a missionary station. I was pleased to hear how gratefully all the people in this part of the country spoke of Colonel Somerset's exertions during the last war. Almost the whole neighbourhood was indebted to him for the preservation not only of the property, but even of the lives of the inhabitants. In the evening I rode on to Southwell, the station of Mr. Waters, whom I hope shortly to ordain Deacon. Here I found the Archdeacon, who had come down from Grahamstown to bring me a large packet of letters which had arrived since I left him. Mr. Waters keeps school at Southwell during the week, and officiates there every Sunday, Once a-fortnight he has services at Biet Fontein, and the Cowie mouth. He has also attempted the establishment of a small mission and mission school for the surrounding Kafirs, which is our first direct attempt at missionary work. The Archdeacon's Kafir man, Wilhelm, is to be a kind of catechist under Mr. Waters.

After passing a tolerable night on the sofa, I endeavoured to prepare for the services of the day. We had first the Litany; after which I confirmed ten candidates who seemed to feel much on the occasion, and whom I addressed at some length. Then followed a sermon, and the Holy Communion; about twenty communicated. After the services were over, several of the farmers of the district dined with Mr. Waters. I spoke to them strongly on the necessity of doing something towards the endowment of this chapelry, and promised them 100l. in aid of it, on condition that they raised at least an equal amount before Christmas. This they thought they should be able to do. As soon as our meeting was concluded, we mounted our horses, and rode about ten miles to the Wesleyan Mission Station at Farmerfield. This is said to be one of the most flourishing institutions in this part of the country. There are four distinct races of coloured people residing upon the property which has been bought by the Society. There are Fingoes, Bechuanas, Hottentots, and Kafirs. They require to be addressed in the Dutch, Sechuana, and Kafir languages. There is no missionary residing on the station; it is under the charge of a catechist. When I arrived, I found that all the people on the station had assembled in the expectation that I would preach to them. for this I was not prepared; but, not liking to disappoint them, I spoke to them for about, half an hour through a Bechuana and a Kafir interpreter. The people on this station, cultivate a considerable quantity of land, and have nearly thirty wagons belonging to them. I understand that they almost supply Grahamstown with fire-wood. A considerable number are baptized, and many read and write. It was nearly dark before our service was over. We had still, however, about six miles to ride to Salem, where we were to sleep at the house of the Wesleyan missionary. Salem is not, properly speaking, a mission station. It is a small village consisting chiefly of English. There is a Wesleyan school for boys, of whom there are about twenty, and girls, of whom there are about six. I sat up till late talking over some subjects of interest which the gentleman of this institution wished to discuss with me.

Thursday, August 22nd--After breakfast, rode through a fine open country to Church-place, where, there is a building used as a Church, and belonging to the Dutch, in which the minister from Uitenhage holds service once in six months. Mr. Henchman holds service; here, and at Mr. Hough's in Olifant's Hock, one Sunday in every month, and has a small congregation at each place. The population is, however, chiefly Dutch, and the people are very anxious to have a minister who can officiate in their own language. They asked me to use my influence to obtain them one. At about two o'clock I held service in the Church, and had a very good mixed congregation. After Divine service, I rode on with Colonel Somerset to Mr. Heugh's in Olifant's Hook, distant about twelve miles. This part of the country is very beautiful, abounding in bush and fine yellow-wood timber. It somewhat reminded me of the coast-country at Natal. Mr. Heugh's house is prettily situated about a mile from the sea.

Friday, 23rd.--Started this morning at daylight, on horseback, and arrived at Quagga's Flat, forty-five miles distant, before two o'clock. Here I held by appointment a meeting of some of the inhabitants, who are anxious co erect a small chapel; which they hope may be done for 100l. or 150l., the greater part of the labour being given gratuitously. It was decided to commence a subscription, and 40l. were raised in the room. I fixed upon a site, and promised plans. It will be very plain and simple, and is to be built of rammed earth. A very good spirit prevailed, and several, having built their own houses, resolved that they would have a Church, even if they had to build it altogether by themselves. At a little after three I got into my cart, and arrived at Commando Kraal, near the Sunday River, about seven o'clock.

Saturday, 24th.--Arrived at Port Elizabeth in the afternoon, and took up my quarters at Mr. M'Cleland's, who refused to allow me to go to a lodging. I found the town somewhat enlarged since I arrived at it nearly two years ago. The bay too had fourteen ships in it, and I understand it has frequently many more. I fear that our Church work is not advancing with the worldly progress of the chief port of the Eastern province. There is no parish that I have been, more desirous to assist than this, ever since my arrival in the Diocese. There is scarce one for which I have been enabled to do so little. I remain here nearly a fortnight, in the hope that I may be able to devise some plan, in conjunction with the parishioners, for the extension of our work. May God bless my endeavours with success! It was only yesterday that Mr. Henchman of Sidbury suggested my sending a clergyman here, and leaving him to be altogether supported by the voluntary offerings of the Church, as I could not undertake the responsibility of inviting another clergyman out from England to be dependent upon my funds. The proposition is worth considering. I should not despair of finding a clergyman, were the circumstances known in England.

Port Elizabeth, August 31st.--I have now been in this town a week, having arrived last Saturday. My time has been fully occupied in conversations, &c. with the parishioners, in the general business of the Diocese, and in religious services. On Sunday I directed notice to be given that I would sit on Wednesdays and Fridays, during my stay, in the vestry, for the purpose of seeing any persons who might wish to converse with me on matters relating to the Church, or of a spiritual nature; that there would be Divine service on those days; and that the consecration of the Church and Churchyard would take place on Friday. The services on all these occasions have been exceedingly well attended. During the week I have had a good deal of conversation with the parishioners respecting the state of the Church in this parish. I have said plainly that our work is in a more dead state here, and at Uitenhage, than in any other part of the Diocese. Many feel this, and are distressed at it. Several of the more earnest members of the Church with whom I have spoken agree with me, that we ought to make an effort to procure the erection of a second Church at the north end of the town, which is increasing very rapidly. I therefore addressed the following letter to the members of the Church, which has been printed, and circulated by the Churchwardens through the parish:--

"BRETHREN,--Since my arrival amongst you, several zealous members of our communion have expressed to me their earnest desire to see another Church erected at the north end of the town, with a special view to the spiritual wants of that portion of the parish, of our poorer brethren, and of the sailors who frequent this port; and one at least has offered to contribute liberally towards its erection.

"I have long felt that there existed a need of au additional Church and a second clergyman in Port Elizabeth and have some mouths ago stated how far I might be enabled to forward these objects in a pecuniary point of view.

"I am anxious now to repeat publicly to you, that I still have at my disposal a sum of 250l. given by Miss Burdett Coutts, for increased Church accommodation for the poor, and that from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and other quarters, I feel assured that I can obtain 150l. more. This whole amount of 400l. I am willing to guarantee towards the erection of a Church, provided the inhabitants can raise during the pre sent year a sum of 500l. from private sources to meet it. I cannot pledge the sum I have named after this present year, because the demands upon me from every quarter are so very heavy, that all the funds placed at my disposal will by that time be well nigh exhausted. Should there be no prospect, therefore, of a second Church being erected, I must devote the sum I have mentioned to other more pressing objects. But should 500l. be raised by Christmas, I would then suggest that a Church, to contain 200, or, if possible, 250 persons, should be erected upon the land offered by Mr. Tee and Mr. Korsten, or such other site as may be deemed more desirable. The Church would of course be so constructed, as to be capable of future enlargement, so that when completed it might hold perhaps 500. The nave might first be erected; aisles, chancel, and tower might be added, as funds were forthcoming. I should be sorry, however, to see anything like a large debt incurred, and a Church to hold 200 would probably not cost less than 1,000l.

"But the thought will naturally occur to us all,--How, when the Church is built, is the minister thereof to he supported? I have already pledged myself towards the maintenance of clergy in the Diocese, to an extent beyond what is prudent; and there are still, in several parts of the land, many of our brethren utterly destitute of the means of grace. I must at once, therefore, candidly say, that, whatever I might have been able to do a year ago, I have not now the means at my disposal for the support of an additional clergyman. He must altogether depend for his subsistence upon the free-will offerings of the members of the Church in this parish. I have myself no fear that an earnest minister, who will devote himself to the visitation of the sick and needy, to Sunday-schools, and to labouring among the poorer members of the Church, will ever be suffered to want, by those who have the power to give, and who are not at present called in any way to support their Pastor.

"With this understanding, then, I am willing to look out for a clergyman, and bring him out, and place him here to minister amongst you. I cannot, of course, undertake to say when one will be found willing to leave home, and all that is dear to him, to labour in this place upon such terms. But I have a good hope that of the very many clergy of the English Church whose sole desire is to spend and be spent for the glory of God, the advancement of Christ's Kingdom on earth, and the salvation of the souls for whom He died, one may be found to offer himself for this work before your Church can be completed. If you then are prepared to cooperate in the attempt now being made to provide additional means of grace for this important and rising town, I will use every endeavour in my power to provide for yon a faithful and zealous pastor.

"Commending this work to your support, and your prayers, I remain, Brethren,

Your friend and Pastor,


Before this letter was printed, sixteen gentlemen undertook, at my request, to act as a committee for the collection of funds. On Friday I met them in the vestry of the church, when a Building-Committee was formed, and steps taken to promote the erection of the church. To-day have met the Committee again to select a site and commence a subscription. A very eligible situation has been fixed upon, the ground being given by two individuals. About 200l. were contributed in the room by the Committee, and the greatest confidence was expressed that the "amount required would speedily be raised. In the afternoon I rode out to the Retief Light-house, which is nearly finished. I enjoyed my ride much, for it was the only relaxation that I have had since I have been in this place. The light-house is a very fine piece of mason-work, and has already cost upwards of 7,000l. It is said that if it had been erected a little sooner, several of the most distressing wrecks which have occurred during this present year would in all probability not have taken place.

On Sunday, Sept. 1, I preached twice to very large congregations, and administered the Holy Communion to about sixty persons. Between the Services I attended the Sunday-school at the north end of the town, established by Mr. Tee, who has erected a wooden building specially for it. I afterwards attended the Sunday-school which is carried on in the church under the zealous old clerk. The children here still bring their weekly pence "for the Bishop's Missions" alas, not yet in operation! The box was opened before me. Altogether they had raised about 61. The offerings in church were about 15l. for the same object to-day. I addressed the children for about half an hour on the subject of Missions. The services of the day were all very encouraging.

Sept. 2.--Drove out with some gentlemen to see the Maitland mines. It has long been known that there are in this neighbourhood veins both of lead and copper. Several gentlemen have formed themselves into a company with a view to work them, or at least to ascertain whether they are worth working. No great progress has as yet been made. Several shafts have been driven a little way, but no rich veins have hitherto been discovered. The ore, however, is said to be very good, and the indications most promising.

Sept. 5.--This day I left Port Elizabeth after an interesting, and, I trust, profitable visit of twelve days. Several persons have availed themselves of my invitation to meet me in the vestry, and with them I have held some most interesting conversations. I am very anxious that the Clergy, wherever it is practicable, should adopt this plan, which I myself followed in England, of sitting at stated periods in the vestry, for the purpose of seeing those who may wish to seek their spiritual counsel. I am perfectly satisfied that there are some persons in every parish who are most anxious to have close confidential intercourse with God's ministers, but who know not how to approach them. This practice of sitting in the vestry to receive them opens a way for such intercourse, of which I find the people of this Diocese well inclined to avail themselves. Several in the parish have told me how much they needed advice and instruction, and how thankful they were for it.

Our congregations have been excellent during the whole period of my stay. On Sundays the church has been quite full. On Wednesdays and Fridays I think there must have been about 150 present. During the twelve days that I have been here I have preached eight times.

Yesterday I held my official Visitation, and examined into the affairs of the Church. I suggested to the Churchwardens and Vestry that an addition of 50l. a-year should be made to the stipend of their Minister, who has been labouring amongst them for many years on a very insufficient income. This was agreed to, although there is still a debt of upwards of 200l. upon the church. The Vestry, however, quite assented to, the propriety of having collections every Sunday, and it was arranged that they should have them.

The Vestry presented to me the following address:--

MY LORD,--We the undersigned, the Minister, Churchwardens and Vestrymen of St. Mary's Church, in Vestry assembled, beg to offer to your Lordship our sincere congratulations on your safe arrival amongst us once more.

In the protection which has been afforded your Lordship during your long and arduous travels through the perils of the wilderness, we cannot fail to recognise the watchful care of the Great Head of the Church; and the success by which your Lordship's endeavours to advance the glory of God have been hitherto attended, induces us to look forward to a time when, through the length and breadth of the land the word of the Lord shall have free course and be glorified through His blessing upon the same continued exertions. We are well aware of the many difficulties by which your path was obstructed, when your Lordship first engaged in the great work of building up the Church in this long-neglected portion of the British dominions; and although your Lordship's labours may be truly said to he only in their beginning, still the facility with which obstacles have been overcome leads to the belief that the Lord has been with you of a truth, and that He will continue to prosper His work in your hands.

During the short stay of your Lordship in this portion of your Diocese, the interest in the welfare, temporal and eternal, of the inhabitants of Port Elizabeth which characterised you in your first Visitation, seems to have suffered no diminution; and the willingness with which your Lordship has come forward to aid in the erection of an additional church for the accommodation of the rapidly increasing population of the town, is the best evidence that can be adduced of your Lordship's untiring exertions in this particular.

Although the want of some superior education to that imparted in the Government schools has already occupied your Lordship's serious attention, still we deem it our duty to bring this important subject to your notice again, as the difficulties under which the inhabitants labour in this respect are becoming every day more pressing.

That your Lordship may be long preserved, and spared to a good old age, to see a prosperous issue put to all your labours, is the heartfelt prayer of your Lordship's obedient and faithful servants.

To this I replied in words to the following effect:

GENTLEMEN,--I beg to assure you that I fully appreciate the kind expressions towards myself personally, contained in the address which you have just delivered. I do indeed feel deeply grateful to Almighty God for His merciful care and protection during this long and arduous Visitation, and amidst the many anxieties which must needs beset the first Bishop of so important and long-neglected a Diocese, in times of much trial and difficulty. You allude to the measure of success with which it has pleased God to bless our endeavours to advance His cause in the world; and you regard it as the earnest of richer mercies yet in store for us. We cannot be too thankful for God's goodness and long-suffering towards our Church, which at length has, I trust, become fully alive to its responsibilities, and is endeavouring to make adequate provision for the spiritual wants of its people. Whether we are to expect a continuance of the Divine favour, and richer manifestations of God's blessing and presence, will depend in no light degree upon ourselves. Increased zeal, devotion, and faithfulness on our part, will lead to increased blessings on God's.

The work of the Church in this Diocese is, as you rightly observe, only beginning. It will require the earnest and united effort of every member of our communion to bring it to its completion. I hail with satisfaction the exertions which many in this nourishing town and port are making for the erection of a second Church. I have already, in my letter addressed to the parishioners, expressed the deep interest which I take in this work. There are few things in the Diocese which I am more anxious to see accomplished; and none which I shall be more happy to promote to the utmost of my power. With reference to the subject of education, to which you allude, I can only now say that I am fully alive to its importance; that I regret with yourselves the inadequate provision which exists for those who desire to see their children enjoying a sound, liberal, and religious education; and that I shall at all times be prepared to cooperate with you in your endeavours to secure for yourselves so inestimable a blessing, I would willingly have offered to bring out a clergyman, for this special work, were it not that I am already involved in very serious liabilities, which I do not feel justified at the present moment in adding to.

My prayers are united with yours, that it may please God very abundantly to bless his work in this portion of His vineyard.

I quit Port Elizabeth with some degree of comfort, and with more hope than when I entered it. The people are certainly very anxious about their church, and there seems to be but little doubt that the money will be raised. The parishioners are kind-hearted and friendly, and, if it please God to raise up a zealous and judicious man for this post, I feel assured he will be of much service, and be largely blessed in his work. I slept at Taylor's, Commando Kraal, beyond the Sunday River. I have for my companion Mr. Ebden, late member of council, whom I found in Port Elizabeth, and who is anxious to proceed to Grahamstown. I have, therefore, offered him a seat in my cart. On Friday I arrived at Sidbury. On calling at Mr. Daniel's, Sidbury Park, I found several gentlemen coming out on horseback to meet me. They returned with us to Sidbury. On Saturday I consecrated the church. On Sunday I confirmed eleven, administered the Holy Communion to sixteen parishioners, and preached twice to very respectable congregations. I am. very thankful to find that a great change for the better has taken place in this parish since the arrival of Mr. Henchman. The people now take an interest in their church, and attend Divine Service. Some, who did not like the establishment of the weekly offertory at first, told me yesterday that they had quite changed their minds; that they now see that it is on every ground most desirable, and that they feel assured that the alms of the people will increase. All, they said, would have given more, had they not still been in some difficulties. They have not yet recovered from the effects of the late Kafir war, in 1847; and the losses which they now sustain by stealing, on the part of their herds, or strangers in the colony, are very great. One farmer present told me that he had lost in this way 600 sheep during the last year. Another said that the annual loss in sheep was one-tenth of the flock. The drought this year is greater than has been known for many years past, and the locusts have been very destructive. The whole country appears quite burnt up, cattle are dying in considerable numbers, and there is scarce sufficient water for daily use. My horses have been very unwilling to drink it, because what there is, is very bad. The gentlemen of this parish bore very strong testimony to the excellence of the present system in British Kaffraria. So effective is Kafir police on the frontier, and so certain to trace to their hiding-place any cattle that may be driven across the line, that all the thieves and vagabonds have ceased to make the attempt. Cattle and sheep are now driven over the Orange River, amongst the Mantatees and Bechuanas. They all cried out for a better system of police in the colony, declaring that farmers would gladly give from 20l. to 30l. a-year towards its establishment. But they affirmed that, under the present system. their losses would almost be equal in ten years to another Kafir war.

Saturday, September 14th.--I arrived in Grahamstown on Monday last. My time has been chiefly occupied in some very anxious business connected with several parishes, arising chiefly from the difficulty the people find in completing the churches which they have begun. The expense of building in this colony is greater than any of us have been willing to believe. Though the designs of the Churches have all been very simple, they Lave in most cases exceeded the means which are at the disposal of the several committees. St. Helena has also furnished me with several topics for careful consideration. On Wednesday evening I preached. On Thursday I attended a tea meeting in the new grammar-school. The vestry had invited the parishioners to meet me. There were about 300 present. After tea and some music, the report of the building committee was read, and sundry resolutions adopted. It appears that the schoolhouse cost 900l, and that a debt of 160A still exists. This it was determined to liquidate by a general subscription. After the report was read, I ' addressed those present at some length, entering first into matters of a local character, and then upon the general prospects of the Church, and the work which was lying before it in this Diocese. I urged upon the parishioners the erection of a boarding-house in connexion with the grammar-school; spoke of the necessity of our attempting hereafter to found a college for the eastern province; and warned parents against sending, as some were doing, their children to the convent for instruction. I then pointed out to them the great progress which the Church, by the blessing of God, has been enabled to make within the colony during the last two years. There had been an increase of thirty-one clergy in the Diocese during that period, thus trebling the whole number. I reminded them of the great state of spiritual destitution in which many of our brethren are still living in several villages and districts; and urged upon them the duty of doing all in their power towards maintaining the work of God, and the ministry of the Church. I then entered upon the missionary field, and spoke of the obligations of the Church. I told them of the steps which had already been taken towards the foundation of a mission, both in British Kaffraria, and in the colony of Natal; and informed them that it was my intention, if God spared me, to return to England during the course of next year, with a view to promote this and other good works. Those present seemed much interested. I concluded with urging them to remember that the church in S. Africa had a great work to accomplish; that though if. was true that, from past neglect, there was much to be done all at once, which it was impossible that we should be able to accomplish by ourselves in our present weak state, and, therefore, we justly leaned in some degree both upon the mother Church and upon the Government; yet that this was a state of things which ought not to continue, and would not continue. That what we had to depend upon was the blessing of God resting upon our own exertions. That what every parish must learn to do was this; to maintain our whole church-work through means of tilt-weekly offertory; that I rejoiced that they were aiming at this, and setting an example to others. I concluded with entreating all to make the cause of God and His Church in this land the subject of their unceasing intercessions.

Sunday, September 15th.--I preached in the morning at St. George's, generally upon the state, prospects, and responsibilities of the Church, with a special reference to the subject of Missions. In the afternoon I preached at Fort England, where service is held, which both civilians and military attend. There being no military chaplain allowed at this place, though it is the head quarters of two regiments, the clergy of the town have readily undertaken the duties which seemed to devolve upon them. Their zealous efforts have met with a response from the troops. They speak with more satisfaction of their work amongst the soldiers, than amongst any other class of the community. There is always a good congregation at the second service at Fort England. Many of them attend the week-day services, and one or two even the daily prayers of the Church. The Archdeacon preached in the evening.

Saturday, 21st.--This has been a busy and anxious week. The pressure of Diocesan business has been more than usually heavy; and the examination of the candidates for Holy Orders has afforded full occupation to the Archdeacon and to myself. On Saturday I consecrated the church and churchyard. The church was full, the parishioners appearing to take a deep interest in the matter. The Archdeacon preached with his usual power, comparing the state of the Colonial with that of the mother Church in the way of gain and loss, and endeavouring to arouse the minds of his hearers to a deeper appreciation of their privileges and duties. We have had full service with sermon every evening this week, the Clergy taking it in turn to preach. The congregations have been good, and there is an increase in the number of attendants at early prayers.

Sunday, 22d.--This day I ordained one Deacon, and, assisted by the Clergy, four priests. There were present altogether ten Clergy. I preached on the occasion. The congregation was very large; communicants about ninety. The service was not over until nearly three o'clock. The offerings for the sick and aged Clergy amounted to nearly 26l.; yesterday for the Church, they were about 12l. It has been a solemn day for us all. I preached again in the evening.

Monday, 23d--The Clergy of the archdeaconry of Grahamstown this day assembled in synod. Several were unable to be present owing to the great distance they would have to travel, and the impossibility of providing for their duty during their absence. Mr. Steabler, for instance, at Bloemfontein, would have had to travel 400 miles each way. The Clergy agreed to apply to Dr. Bray's Associates for a grant of books to form a library for the archdeaconry. Steps were taken to place the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge upon a better footing, so that the books and tracts of that Society, which has been so great a benefactor to this Diocese, might be introduced into every parish. I requested the Clergy to state, after full consideration, to the Archdeacon what they thought would be. the best boundaries for their respective parishes; and I informed them that upon their doing so, the Archdeacon would make a general report to me on the subject, and that I would thereupon fix definitely the boundaries of the parish for each Clergyman. Afterwards I brought under their notice our contemplated mission-work, both in British Kaffraria and Natal, and laid fully before them the plan which I proposed to adopt. They expressed their hearty interest in it, and their entire approbation of it. I then sought their counsel as to the desirableness of my returning to England, the more effectually to carry out my plans, both in the selection of men and raising of the funds required. They expressed unanimously their conviction of the expediency, if not the necessity, of my returning home for that purpose; and, though fully aware of the great inconvenience which all would feel from the prolonged absence of the Bishop of a Diocese so lately formed, and still in so unsettled a state, they assured me they would cheerfully submit to whatever loss or inconvenience might be occasioned, in order that the great work of the conversion of the heathen might be the more effectually promoted.

Tuesday, 24th.--We resumed our session this day. The subject of Missions was again renewed. One of the Clergy thought that the Mission work should begin with the Church in South Africa itself; or at least, that if it did, we should be better entitled to say to the Church at home, "Come over and help us." He offered himself for the work, if I thought good to send him, and said that he should feel honoured in being sent forth to the heathen. I believe he but spoke the sentiments of others present. Towards the close of our session, I brought under the notice of the Clergy the Declaration which I had prepared respecting the Convocation. I am thankful to say that they were unanimous in their approbation of it. They felt that the circumstances of the Church at home called for an expression of the mind and judgment of this distant branch of it, and were most anxious to show this sympathy with the mother Church under her present trials and difficulties.

Both yesterday and to-day we have had full service, with sermon, in the evening, in addition to the usual Morning Prayer.

Wednesday, 25th.--Married Mr. Fleming, Military Chaplain at King William's Town, this morning, after which I started on horseback, in company with Colonel Somerset, for Fort Hare. Several gentlemen rode out a little way with us. It is now nearly two years since I proceeded precisely in the same way, in the same company, along the same road. Since that period God has wrought much for the advancement of His cause and Church in South Africa.

May we be found faithful. We slept at the neat little inn at the Koonap. I was thankful to have a good night's rest, and a little cessation from exhausting business. I have every reason to be grateful that God preserves me in health amidst incessant and most anxious toil. I do not think, during the month that I have spent at Grahamstown, I have had more than an hour or two of leisure. Indeed, I have been obliged to leave it, with much which ought to have been done left undone, and much more done, I fear, in a slovenly way, though I have worked, I may fairly say, night and day. My dear friend and brother, the Archdeacon, seemed almost worn out when I left.

Thursday, 26th.--Arrived at Alice about two o'clock, after a hot ride of about thirty miles. Spent an hour with Mr. Beaver talking over business, and the state of his parish; after which, I went up to Fort Hare, Colonel Cooper having kindly invited me to take up my quarters with him during my visit to this place. During these last two days, I have heard a good deal about the probability of an outbreak on the part of the Kafirs. It is said that they are suffering so much in consequence of the long-continued drought, that they think they may as well die by the ball as by famine. It is certain that they are in great distress and want. Their melies are all gone, and none are to be had in Alice at less than thirty shillings a muid (the price the Kafir gets for them when he sells them to a trader being four shillings a muid). Milk they have none. The cows do not give any, and are themselves dying of starvation. The ground is too hard to allow of their sowing seed for pumpkins; and these things form the chief food of the Kafir. He relies upon his melies for fire months in the year, milk for four, and pumpkins for three: and all these have failed him. I drove out in the afternoon, after my arrival, with Colonel Cooper, and had brought vividly before my eyes the state of destitution to which these poor people are reduced. The mimosa, which abounds here, has been stripped of its bark to furnish them with food, and that, with roots which the women are digging up all over the country, forms the chief support of the population. Can we wonder that they should begin to think of stealing? It is said that they are well supplied with guns and ammunition through the traders, and there can, I think, be no doubt, from all one hears from various quarters, that they are at present in a state of considerable excitement. This it is thought has in part arisen from the appearance of a man amongst them, claiming to be a prophet, who is exercising great influence over them.

We passed by Macomo's kraal: he was standing by his hut, smoking, and stupid from drink. He came up, however, to shake hands.

Friday, 27th.--I confirmed, this morning, nine candidates in the court-house at Alice. The building is but small, and the congregation more than filled it. Afterwards I consecrated two military burial-grounds, and visited a seminary or training institution belonging to the Free Kirk of Scotland, which is intended for the education of coloured children for teachers, in the same school with the children of European parents. There were in the Institution about eighteen of each race. The Europeans pay from 20l. to 25l. each; the coloured children nothing. The children are together only during school hours. They do not live in the, same building, or take their meals in common. The coloured children dine after the white, in the same room and at the same table. I do not see that any good can arise from such a mixed education. The distinction between the races is more marked than if any were educated in wholly separate establishments. None of the children were far advanced. In arithmetic, they did sums in compound multiplication; they read some of Chambers' books on geography and astronomy, full of hard words, and answered some simple questions relating to religious truth. It is the fashion in this colony in almost all schools to teach Chambers' books. Little children who can scarce spell are dosed daily with a smattering of science, or rather scientific terms and words, to the neglect of more useful and important things. The whole colony is, however, I believe, well-nigh sick of the system. The Government gives 100l. a-year to this Institution. There has been a shocking murder committed in this neighbourhood, within the last few days, which is illustrative of the little regard in which, the life of the natives is held by many Europeans. The son of a neighbouring farmer was out in the veldt, with a servant, an Englishman. They saw a Kafir going along the road, and called upon him to stop. He did so. They asked for his pass. He had none. They told him they would take him prisoner, and proceeded to loose the rein from their horses' neck to bind him. He ran away, but stopped about twenty paces off. The English servant walked up to him and deliberately shot him in the neck. He fell down dead. The farmers, doubtless, have much to endure. They lose immense numbers of sheep, but if such deeds as these are perpetrated, we may justly expect Kafir wars as God's scourge and chastisement. The Kafir had about seven pounds of meat and a chisel. He had no assegai, nor even a knife; and it is supposed was on a journey. His murderer is in custody. I am told that I passed close by the dead body in my ride yesterday.

The military villages which were founded after the late war are in a languishing state. Kemp is broken up; Joanna nearly deserted; at Woburn not a dozen remain; Ely is suffering much from the drought, and its population is much diminished: at Auckland the decrease is not so great, but all are reduced. Soldiers do not generally make good settlers; but unmarried soldiers are sure to fail in their attempts. So at least it has been in all these villages. [The male inhabitants of these villages were all murdered at the breaking out of the war--January, 1851]

On Saturday, after returning several calls, I drove in my cart to Port Beaufort. The day was intensely hot. Finding Colonel Somerset still here, I have talked over with him the subject of a subscription to purchase food for the Kafirs in their present destitute state. He has entered readily into it, and agreed to write to Colonel Mackinnon on the subject; and if he should think it desirable, to cooperate with the Archdeacon in setting one on foot. I have written to the Archdeacon about it. I took up my quarters with Mr. Wilshere, who is allowed the use of a portion of the fine stone barracks, which are now nearly empty.

Sunday, 29th.--We had a very large congregation this morning in the church, which was in the course of erection when I was last here, and is now completed. Ecclesiastically speaking, the building is very incorrect, but it is neatly fitted up inside. Our whole work here is carried on by means of the weekly offertory, which, however, does not produce as much as might have been expected. Still, during the two years that a clergyman has been here, much has been effected. The church is finished and paid for, an organ has been purchased for 100l., several churchmen have made special offerings, e.g. a very handsome communion cloth, a pair of Glastonbury chairs for the altar, books, &c. The pews have no doors, and there are no pew rents. We had seventeen candidates for confirmation, and thirty-five communicants. I both preached and addressed the candidates. The service lasted nearly three hours and a half. In the evening, also, we had an excellent congregation; I preached again.

Monday, 30th.--This morning the church was consecrated. There were present, of the clergy, Mr. Beaver, Mr. Willson, and Mr. Wilshere. The congregation was very large. I preached on the occasion. Afterwards I went with several gentlemen to inspect the new churchyard, which I told them must be fenced in previous to consecration. In the evening Mr. Wilshere invited the members of the church to tea in the long barrack-room. About seventy were present. An address was presented to me, expressive of the satisfaction of the inhabitants at the progress made since the last visitation, &c. To this I replied at some length, and entered into a full explanation of the circumstances of the church in the Diocese. I took this opportunity of pressing upon the parishioners that it was absolutely necessary that their offerings towards the support of the ministry should be greatly increased. It is essential that it should be thoroughly understood by the whole diocese, that the work cannot be carried on without increased effort upon the part of all. I informed those present of the steps I was taking towards the formation of missions to the Heathen, both in British Kaffraria and Natal; and entreated the benefit of their prayers.

Tuesday, October 1st.--After returning several calls, I started about twelve o'clock, accompanied by several gentlemen on horseback, for the Mancazana. I have arranged for my cart to meet me at Shiloh next week. Colonel Sutton having kindly furnished me with Cape Corps horses, I have decided to ride this week through the Winterberg. We did not arrive at the Mancazana post till late, having stopped at several farm-houses on the way. The ride was through a very beautiful country, though sadly burnt up at present. Mr. Boon, the catechist at this post, was looking out anxiously for our arrival.

To-day's post informed me that four of the members elected by the people to frame a constitution for the colony have resigned. There is no country, that I know of, in the world, with a small population of 200,000, so thoroughly divided as this in language, race, and religion. There are more than twenty different religious bodies, besides Mahomedans and heathen. There are four languages spoken, and at least four distinct races residing in the colony. There is a vast amount of ignorance, and I fear there ever must be, from the scattered nature of the population. In the country districts a very large proportion of the children of the present generation are growing up without being able to read and write. Altogether, our political prospects are not encouraging.

Wednesday, 2d.--Soon after breakfast this morning several parties came in for the confirmation and services. With these I conversed previous to the hour of church. There were eleven candidates, whom I addressed at some length. I also preached to an attentive congregation of-about sixty, some of whom had come from a great distance. After service I held a meeting of the parishioners at the post. I took the opportunity of consulting them about the services held at the different stations, and brought under their notice the subject of pecuniary support for a minister. I informed them that I could not keep up the work here without considerable contributions from them; that their weekly offerings were very small and wholly inadequate; that I wished to know what they were prepared to do. I spoke to them very plainly, and at considerable length, on all these points. They seemed to feel the necessity of doing more, and proposed that a subscription should be opened in addition to the weekly offertory, which they did not wish to give up. By this means they thought that those who lived at a distance would have an opportunity of contributing. I told them I should not object to a subscription, though I had no confidence in it. One was begun in the room, and only 17l. put down. I felt constrained to intimate, that unless the contributions were very largely increased, I should be obliged, however reluctantly, to withdraw the present catechist from the post; that the demands upon me from every part of the Diocese were so heavy that I could not give towards this work more than a small annual sum.

Thursday, 3d. .... I. held service to-day at the old post, a few miles off, and afterwards conversed with the people who had assembled. It was somewhat unwillingly that I went to this service, which was held in a private house, and was the first at this station, which has only just been occupied, in consequence of the commencement of a village in the neighbourhood. I preached extempore, and was very glad afterwards that I had gone, for a good, earnest, devout spirit prevailed; the people made a collection of their own accord, and entered their names readily in the subscription book. Several expressed themselves very properly, and with much good feeling, and I think they are really anxious to maintain a standing ministry amongst them. I told them they might bring as offerings, a goat, or a sheep, or an ox, or a horse, if they had no money. In the afternoon, Mr. Boon had several of the parishioners to meet me at dinner. I again pressed upon their attention the duty of offering of their substance to God, and urged them to devote at least a tenth to his service. In the evening, walked out to call upon, the Churchwardens.

Friday, 4th.--Rode to Retief, thirty miles, through the same beautiful country which I admired so much two years ago. We called on one or two of the parishioners by the way. One, who had been a wealthy farmer on my last visit, was now a bankrupt. I believe his loss is proving gain to him. I endeavoured to turn the hour I sat with him and his wife to good account. I trust he may yet live to bless God for his chastisement. I examined at Kaal Hock a little school of about thirty children, which Mr. Willson had got up since I was last here. The children are, I think, advancing. This school receives 30l. a-year from Government. I am anxious to see more of these country schools spreading throughout the colony. If they do not, the next generation of the agricultural population will grow up in barbarism. At present, the government funds are given almost exclusively to support free schools in the towns or villages, which want little or no assistance, and set very little value on the Government. Some of these cost between 300l. and 400l. a-year, and are doing but little good. It is with the greatest difficulty that schools are raised or maintained in the country districts, where the population is scattered.

Saturday, 5th.--This morning I went a few miles to examine another Church school. There were about thirty children here also. It put me much in mind of our little village-schools in England. As but few people came to our Church-meeting, appointed to take place at twelve o'clock, it was soon over, and I had some time in the afternoon for letter writing.

Sunday, 6th.--We had a large gathering of people this morning. Divine service was held in the commissariat room of the Port, which makes an excellent chapel. It was quite crowded, and indeed, many had to remain outside. I did not preach, but, instead, addressed the congregation extempore after morning prayer, upon such points as I felt it to be of importance to bring before them. These people, the greater part of whom are old settlers with not much education, have risen by their own exertions to competency. From long neglect and lack of teaching, they have not I fear much knowledge. I therefore spoke to them very familiarly, contrasting their past state without the means of grace with their present blessings, and urging them to devote the tenth of their substance to forward the work of the Lord, in the erection of Churches, support of ministers, and missions. I addressed separately the unconfirmed and unwilling to be confirmed, the confirmed, communicants, and those who neglect communion. After tin's we proceeded with the confirmation, when I again addressed the candidates, of whom there were eight. The number of communicants was fifteen. The people seemed to feel the services of the day a good deal. All, or nearly all, remained for the afternoon service, when I preached again, though many came from a great distance. Several of the wagons would not reach home till to-morrow,. The day has been one of much comfort both to Mr. Willson and myself. I trust there is a real work going on in the souls of some. Certainly there is a manifest improvement in the general state of things. May God give more abundant grace!

Oct. 7th.--We started early this morning for Shiloh. The distance is about forty-five miles. Our route lay over the Winterberg, and we had to walk up the pass. In our way I called upon a sick man, dying, I believe, from the excessive use of brandy; I was told that he took two bottles daily. He professed to be penitent, but I stand in doubt of him. Unfortunately one of the Cape Corps horses took ill upon the road. The Hottentots did not know what to do with him. I therefore took out my lancet and bled him. I left him to come on slowly with one of the orderlies, but he was obliged to leave him about six miles off on the road. I start at daybreak to-morrow to see what can be done for him. We arrived about five o'clock at the Moravian Mission station at Shiloh. The Brethren received us most kindly, but I found they had no forage, and that my cart had gone on beyond Whittlesea, to find some. After changing my dress, and taking a cup of tea, I walked with Mr. Bonatz, one of the Missionaries, to Whittlesea, which is about two miles off, notice having been given that I would hold service there this evening. The village is quite in its infancy. The only pastoral visits which it enjoys are those of Mr. Willson, who holds service here once a quarter. Mr. Shepstone, however, the magistrate, reads prayers every Sunday. We had a room full of people. I had intended to preach to them: but as I had unexpectedly two candidates, both of whom Mr. Willson presented to me as fit for confirmation, I thought it best to make two short addresses--one to the congregation, the other to the candidates. After service I discussed with a few of the people the possibility of the erection of a small chapel. They thought one could be raised for 10(W., and that they could collect 751. I told them that, in that case, I would guarantee them the other Kl., to be paid when the building was roofed in. They said that they thought some funds could be raised for the support of a minister. I told them that what they should aim at would be a deacon schoolmaster, who should both educate their children, and minister to them in things spiritual. We reached home about half-past nine o'clock, and luckily got safe through the host of dogs, which dwell in great numbers in all native habitations, and are very dangerous at night. Shiloh has 20,000 acres of valuable land attached to it, given lately to the Society by Sir H. Smith. There are about 800 people in the Institution: Kafirs, Fingoes, and Hottentots; 300 of whom are Christians. A considerable quantity of land is under cultivation, and there is a fine stream of water, in spite of which, in this severe drought, their crops are suffering greatly. Mr. Bonatz informed me that some of the Kafirs have as many as 100 head of cattle. There are 2,000 head altogether upon the Institution, which is clearly in a thriving state. There are four Missionaries with their families. The whole cost of their support is about 200l. a-year. To meet this the mill produces 100l., and the remainder is obtained by the sale of the produce which they raise, by the shop, and by the wages paid to the Missionaries for work done by them, some being carpenters, others blacksmiths. The people pay no rent for the use of the land, nor do they seem to give much in the way of offerings. Mr. Bonatz spoke of the rumours, which are spread everywhere, of an outbreak amongst the Kafirs. He said that they were dissatisfied at the repeated burnings of their kraals. This only happens, I believe, when they cross the frontier, and squat upon land belonging to the Government or to private individuals.

Tuesday, 8th.--I did not sleep much last night, being anxious about the horse, which we had left in the veldt. At half-past four I called up the orderlies, and, after feeding the horses, went in search of the lost one. We found he had gone from where he was left over night, but traced him to a kraal, where the Kafirs had taken care of him. I drenched him with a bottle of wine which I had brought out for him, and sent him gently on to the Kafir police-station, where I had procured forage. I then returned to Shiloh, after a three hours' ride, with a lighter heart. The good Brethren soon prepared breakfast for me, after which I walked round their village and grounds. There is a vast superiority in the Moravian establishments, so far as civilization and improvement are concerned, over all other institutions in this colony. There is more work done, greater industry, and a more rapid advance in agricultural and mechanical operations. There are two water courses cut here, three miles long, which were full even in this dreadful drought. The gardens were in excellent order, and abounded with a variety of fruit trees; walnut, peach, apricot, vine, mulberry, apple, and pear. Some very large fields, all under irrigation, were fenced in with a willow hedge; the churchyard, a quiet, secluded, peaceful spot, surrounded with an excellent quince fence. The oak and the willow abounded on every side. All seemed busy: I did not see any lying lazily about; several very good mud houses were in the course of erection; a Kafir was planing a door in the carpenter's shop. Mr. Bonatz showed me, with some pride, a bell just cast by Mr. Nauhaus, and made out of the hoops that surrounded some ammunition casks left at the station during the last war. It was 45 lbs. weight, and sounded well. It seemed to me as an illustration of the promise that the sword should be turned into the ploughshare, and the spear into the pruuing-hook.I parted from the Brethren sooner than I could have wished, and walked to Whittlesea to call upon some of the inhabitants who were at service last night. They seem anxious to erect a little school chapel, even though I was unable to promise them services more frequently than once a quarter. After tiffin with Mr. Lloyd, Lieutenant of Kafir police, I walked to see a Bushman's cave in the neighbourhood. There are several of these in this part of the country: the sides are covered with rude drawings of men, animals, snakes, &c. This one had pictures of Kafirs, represented as tall and red, Bushmen shooting with the bow,--cows, deer, snakes, buffaloes, and some other indescribable animals; the execution was very imperfect. The Bushmen are, I believe, the only aboriginal inhabitants who have shown any disposition to imitate nature. There are still a certain number of Bushmen in this district of Victoria; they are under a chief of the name of Vlux, formerly, I am told, a soldier in the Cape Corps. The Government has recognised their right to a certain tract of land within the colony. This being more than they want for their own use, they have let it out to the Tambookies, or allowed them to occupy it. Under the pretence of rent they seem, lately, to have seized a considerable number of cattle and goats, and blood has been shed in consequence; we have had therefore to interfere, and have captured nineteen Bushmen, through means of the Kafir police, and they are now in the "Tronk" awaiting their trial. There has also been a disturbance between the Boers and Tambookies about some disputed land. It is said that the Tambookies are leaving our frontier, and retiring back upon the uninhabited country through which I passed on my way from Natal, to secure peace and quiet. About two o'clock I started off again in my cart, en route for Burgbers-dorp. We slept at Kama's town, a Wesleyan Missionary station under the charge of Mr. Shepstone, several of whose sons are filling important posts in the country. He received us very kindly. The station is upon land given by Government to the chief, Kama, who has stood by the English in both the last wars, literally renouncing kindred, land, and home, for the Gospel's sake. He is brother to Pato and Cobus Congo, both powerful chiefs in British Kaffraria. I was anxious to see this man, because he is allowed, even by those who deny that any Kafirs are Christians, to be sincere in his profession. He has two sons, who are living on the Station, both very excellent young men; I had much conversation with them.

Wednesday, 9th.--Kama, hearing that I wished to see him, came over by seven o'clock this morning from his own place, distant about five miles. He was well dressed, and has a fine open countenance. I was glad to find that he was happy and contented with his land, which I had heard was not the case. His people, I believe, are 3,000 in number. Each head of a family pays 1l. a-year to Government. Mr. Shepstone said they complained of this; but I think, while the great body of the coloured people do not consume articles of import to any extent, and therefore pay no indirect taxes, it is quite reasonable that they should contribute in some way to the expenses of the country; e.g. there is a division of the Kafir police in their immediate neighbourhood, a most effective body, to which they, as well as all the colonists on the frontier, are much indebted, but to whose support they could not contribute at present except by a direct tax. Kama spoke much of the present excited state of the Kafirs, in consequence of the appearance of the prophet of whom I have before spoken. He says, that up to the period when this man assumed the office of a prophet, no one dreamt of war, but that he is now exercising an extraordinary influence over them, and he thinks that they will do whatever he urges upon them. Many of Kama's own people have gone after him. Kama has sent one of his Pacati to his brother Pato to entreat him to have nothing to do with the prophet, or with war; and he has sent to ask the prophet himself what his message from Heaven is, telling him that he is a Christian, and cannot believe that he is a prophet unless he speaks in accordance with God's word. He says, that he thinks the common people amongst the Kafirs are satisfied with British rule, and feel the comfort of not being "eaten up;" but that they cannot endure the restraint of not being allowed to roam about where they please. I parted with Mr. Willson here, he returning home, and I proceeding on my journey. Our route lay through the ordinary South African country, dry and sandy plains, and valleys bounded by bare and bleak mountains. I found a good number of English farms in this part of the country. The people are living as sheep without a shepherd. They are, in spite of great losses in cattle, from the thefts of their neighbours the Tambookies, all growing rich, and could they but be induced to offer the tenth of their substance to God, might have their spiritual wants supplied. We passed the night at a little inn kept by an Englishman.

Thursday, 10th.--After a tolerable night upon the sofa, I proceeded on my journey, through a country precisely similar in its general features to that which I passed through yesterday. Slept at a Dutch farmer's, the good vrouw making me a bed on some chairs.

Friday.--The weather has become intensely cold; there was ice of some thickness on the vley near to the farm, and the wind was so cutting yesterday that I was fain to have recourse to a horse-cloth. We reached Burghersdorp about eleven o'clock. It is a most desolate looking village, and reminded me, with its little square brick houses used only at the nacht-maals by the farmers, more of Richmond than of any other place in the colony. It would be difficult to say what local advantage could have tempted any one to fix upon such a spot for a village. The country round about is bare and uninteresting,--the village itself is a swamp, and it does not appear to offer a single advantage. It owes its rise, like some other villages in this colony, to the Boer's desire to have a village. When once this is determined on, a farm is purchased, a town laid out, erven sold. The farmers themselves purchase erven, and traders, &c. soon follow. Many buy on speculation. The proceeds go to erect a church. In this way 6,000l., or 80,000 dollars have been realized, a church has been built, already showing symptoms of decay, and a very handsome parsonage, the best, I think, in the colony. Had this large sum been judiciously laid out, it would have provided an endowment as well as buildings. I understand hat one of the conditions of the sale of erven, since rescinded, was, that no place of worship for any other body of Christians than the Dutch Church should be erected. Such being the case, one need not be surprised that the congregation were unwilling, as their amiable young minister desired, to offer their church to me to officiate in on Sunday, there being no Dutch service on that day, owing to the absence of the minister. I took up my quarters at a little inn.

Saturday, 12th.--Being at an inn, I have had some quiet in the morning for business; at ten o'clock I met the members of the Church by appointment in the courthouse. I told them that I had come amongst them on a visit of inquiry to seek out the members of the Church, and take counsel with them as to the supply of their spiritual wants. That I wished during my short stay to see as much of them as possible, and to perform any religious offices. That I was ready to baptize their children, confirm any whom I might find prepared, hold Divine service amongst them, and celebrate the Holy Communion. All expressed their earnest desire to have a clergyman. I told them that the only difficulty was the providing an adequate maintenance. That Government could give no more assistance, even if inclined--the state of the-revenue was not such as to admit of it--that I could not maintain one; but if they were prepared to bear the main burden I would aid them as far as lay in my power. It was thought that if one would combine education with the pastoral work he might be maintained. I told them I would look out for such a person as they required, provided they raised the funds; that I should prefer to have a clergyman who could give himself exclusively to the work of the ministry, visiting the farm-houses in the country periodically, for that I felt that the farmers' families were sinking gradually into practical heathenism, and that unless something was done for them, the next generation would lose all sense of religion; that in this very neighbourhood I had met with children who could not say the Lord's Prayer. They seemed to feel the force and importance of this, but thought, that without combining education a maintenance could not be secured. It was ultimately agreed that a committee should be formed with a view to take the whole matter into consideration, and report to me. They were also to endeavour to raise funds for the erection of a school chapel, to which I promised assistance. Should a clergyman be appointed he is to officiate once a month at Aliwal. A Hottentot, baptized in Capetown, was the first to subscribe. He gave 5l., and said that he should rejoice to have a church to which he might go without fear of being turned out for being a coloured man; that he had not ventured for this reason to set foot in the Dutch Church since he had been here. I afterwards called upon several people, and visited two sick men, one of whom I found brought to repentance by Ms affliction. He complained grievously of the want of a minister, and offered 5l. a-year to support one. I dined with Mr. Cole, the Civil Commissioner, and in the evening had five candidates for confirmation, with whom I spent a couple of hours. Two of these were daughters of a former London Society Missionary.

Sunday, 13th.--Held service in. the Court-house this morning, which was crowded. The responses were very fairly made, the singing good. I addressed the candidates extempore, preached, and administered the Holy Communion to seven persons. The service was, in consequence, somewhat long. In the afternoon the congregation was equally good, several being obliged to go away for want of room. I baptized some children after the second lesson. The offerings for the support of the ministry amounted to 8l. 8s. Between services I visited some sick, and administered the Holy Communion to one person. In the evening several people came by invitation to converse with me. The services of the day have been very satisfactory.

Monday, 14th.--Started this morning a little after six, for Aliwal North, distant about forty miles. The road is dreary and uninteresting, and there are but few farms. I drove round by the hot-springs, which are about two miles from the proposed village. These springs cast up about a million and a half of gallons of water daily, at a temperature of about 92°. The water tastes precisely similar to the Harrogate, but loses its peculiar smell and flavour by the time it reaches Aliwal. The village is situated on a fine plain on the banks of the Orange River, by an excellent drift. There are not many houses at present; but being, as it is said, in the direct line from East London to Bloemfontein, with a very fair road, it will, I think, hereafter flourish. The journey to East London may, I understand, be accomplished in eight days, and that to Bloemfontein in five. Shortly after my arrival, a single inhabitant presented himself as a deputation from the public, and welcomed me, in a formal address signed by about twenty people, to Aliwal, hoping that my visit would lead to the erection of a church and support of a minister. I told him that this depended almost altogether upon themselves. I soon found that he at least was in earnest, and therefore entered into conversation with him. He asked what would be required to support a minister. I replied, 150l. a-year. He undertook to raise the money, and offered 20l. a-year himself. I encouraged him to make the attempt. We then went to examine sites for school, parsonage, and church; after which I rode out a few miles into the country to baptize some children. The state of the family will very fairly illustrate the condition of a large number of English on this frontier. I shall therefore explain it. The father was an Englishman, well connected at home. He came out to the colony young, took to travelling, trading, elephant-shooting, and riotous living. Subsequently he married an entirely uneducated English girl, and settled down upon a farm. For several years he has lived without God in the world; but as his children begin to grow up around him, he is brought to think seriously of his responsibilities towards them. I found that not one of them could write, or read, or spell--that they could not even speak the English language. Unless something be done, and speedily done, for the outlying English and Dutch farmers in these remote districts, both for the education of their children and the supply of their own spiritual wants, they will ere long sink into a state little better than that of the heathen who are round about them.

Tuesday, 15th.--This morning I held Divine service at eight o'clock, in a large room in the house where I spent the night. The room was full. I baptized two more children, and preached extempore from Mark viii. 36, 37: "What shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?" I spoke plainly and simply, endeavouring to apply the words to those who were present. After service, the subscription was proceeded with, and upwards of 40l. guaranteed for five years towards the support of a minister. A subscription was also commenced for a church.

I hear from various people in this neighbourhood, that the recent proclamation, by which 150 miles square of territory, reaching nearly to the Witte Bergen, has been added to the colony, has given great dissatisfaction, especially to the coloured people, to whom it belongs. The inhabitants are chiefly Tambookies. For the benefit of being placed under British government, they pay a capitation tax of 1s. for each, head of a family. The district is called a "Native Reserve." No European is allowed, at present, to settle in it, or to purchase land of the natives. The name of the chief of the tribe is Morosi,1 and he has recently been to Burghersdorp, to protest against being brought under British government. I heard from an intelligent English farmer to-day, that considerable tracts of land are being bought in Moshesh's country for one penny an acre, or for a few oxen. This ought not to be allowed. It will gradually lead to the expulsion of the Bechuanas from their land. It is not allowed in the case of a neighbouring chief, Adam Kok: he is not permitted to dispose of his land, and for a very sufficient reason,--he does not know the value of it, and would soon be cheated out of the whole. No coloured man understands the value of land. He would at any time part with large quantities for a few oxen, a little tobacco, &c. We did not return to Burghers-dorp till eight o'clock. After taking a mouthful of dinner, I went out to see some people who desired to converse with me, especially one person who had expressed an earnest wish to be confirmed before I left. I was so pleased with her, that I promised to confirm her privately at six o'clock to-morrow morning, as it may very probably be three years before I can visit this place again. She knew her Catechism perfectly, and traced all her religious impressions to the old clerk at Port Elizabeth and his Sunday-school.

Wednesday, 16th.--After confirming the person of whom I have spoken above, I made an early, start for Cradock. Our road lay through an uninteresting country, abounding in the spring-bole. We passed the night at an inhospitable Dutch boer's place, who received me coldly enough as an Englishman; and, after I had retired to my cart, finding from my man who I was, regretted that he had not known before, for he would have refused me shelter. As it was, I was indebted to him for nothing but a little tripe and pigs' feet for supper. Many of these poor people believe that there are no other Bishops but those in communion with Rome; and entertaining, as they do, a transmitted and hereditary hatred and fear of Romanists, are unwilling to receive them into their houses, or to bid them God-speed. I passed a sleepless night. There being no forage but what was growing hard by, my poor horses, after travelling nearly fifty miles, were obliged to be tethered for the night, without their suppers, to an empty wagon. They were consequently very restless, and one of them got his forelegs entangled in the wagon, and passed three hours erect on his hind-legs, struggling to emancipate himself. I thought for a long while that they were merely quarrelling, but at length I got up, and was enabled to release him. We started in the morning without our breakfast, the family resisting all attempts on my part at friendly conversation. The good wife at parting refused me a piece of bread for the road, though I had just before paid her double what she could have expected. At the next farm we came to, the people were very obliging, and gave us what they had. At night I slept at another Dutch farm, at which the family were in all respects a perfect contrast to those with whom I had been the previous evening. They were cheerful, amiable, kind-hearted, and treated me, as is generally the case with the respectable Dutch boers, all the more courteously out of regard to the sacred office which I bear.

On Friday, at two o'clock, I arrived at Cradock. The greater part of the last three hours I walked, the road being hilly and stony. I find we have taken the shortest, indeed, but by no means the best road, and my cart again shows evident symptoms of going to pieces; indeed another day's rough travelling without repairs, would, I fear, make an entire wreck of it. Mr. Gilfillan, the Civil Commissioner, was kind enough to invite me to stay with him during my visitation; but, finding that Mr. Gray had prepared a room for me, I determined to take up my quarters with him; and was very glad to find myself once more in the congenial society of one of my brethren in the ministry of Christ.

On Sunday I preached twice, and confirmed in the Court-house. The congregations were very good. The Dutch Minister had kindly offered his church, but I declined it, chiefly because I know that some of the Dutch dislike our using their churches, and I do not choose to be the cause of dissensions between minister and people; but also because the Court-house is at present sufficiently large for our English Church congregation, and I do not think I am called upon to use a larger building to accommodate those who are not of us, but might desire to attend our services on the occasion of a Bishop's visitation, out of curiosity or compliment. I object also to make such a distinction between the ordinary ministrations of the Priest, and the occasional ministrations of the Bishop.

Monday, 21st.--Held a meeting of the parishioners at twelve o'clock, with a view to take steps towards the immediate erection of a church. It appeared that out of 200l. promised two years ago, at my first visitation, only 163l. could now be depended upon, in consequence of deaths, removals, &c. The difference, however, has been almost made up through the offertory during the seven months that Mr. Gray has been here. The whole amount of the offerings being nearly 53l, or at the rate of 100l a-year. We decided that a small church capable of future enlargement, to cost about 700l., should be begun, and that the town should be canvassed for further subscriptions. I announced to them also that Mr. Gray would be prepared to take pupils in order to meet the difficulty of finding means for his support. He is to give four hours a-day to school work, and take ten pupils at 10l. each. By this means, and with the assistance of the offertory, he will be able, I trust, to live without being any great burden upon my limited funds. I decided, with the full concurrence of the parishioners assembled, that the offertory should, for the present, be appropriated in the following way--two Sundays in the month towards the building of the church; two Sundays towards the support of the Ministry; one Sunday in the quarter towards the missions of the Church. Hitherto they had followed the plan sketched out in my Pastoral letter, without availing themselves of the liberty therein given to parishes circumstanced like this. They had consequently applied the offertories in rotation to the purposes of church building, maintenance of the ministry, education, missions, sick and aged clergy, and the poor.

In the evening I held another and more general meeting of the parishioners, when I spoke to them for a little more than an hour on the past and present state of the Church, its future prospects, and the steps which I am taking with a view to the foundation of an extensive mission. The clergy are anxious that I should touch upon these points in a more full and familiar way than can be done from the pulpit, and I feel that much good is effected by these meetings. I come by their means in closer contact with the lay members of the Church than I otherwise could; I endeavour to lead them to feel that we are one body, one communion, one brotherhood, from St. Helena to the extreme border of Natal; and to induce them to take an interest in our church work as a whole, which, hitherto, they have scarcely done at all. It is the fashion in the colony for congregations to regard themselves simply as congregations, without recognising their relationship to the other part of the same body. I am enabled on these occasions to give them more complete and accurate information as to the progress of the good cause in the Diocese, than they could elsewhere obtain, and to encourage and stimulate them by the example and efforts of others. I find that they take an interest in what they hear, that they are comforted, and strengthened, and cheered amidst their own difficulties, by finding how others, circumstanced as they are, either have overcome them, or are doing so. And the result is, I think, that they exert themselves the more, and with a better courage. In the evening, also, I called upon the judge,1 who had just arrived, and whom I found very ill. On calling again in the morning I found him somewhat better, and he determined to go into court. I did what I could to induce him to give up his intention, and return home, but was unable to succeed. KG would not allow me to write to the Cape to say how unfit he was for duty, so I tore up the letter which I had prepared. I much fear that he will not be able to get through his work.

Wednesday, 23d--Started late for Graaff Reinet, my cart not being ready, though four men had been at work upon it ever since my arrival. We lost our way, and arrived by a difficult road at an intelligent Englishman's, where we passed the night. We were off again at daybreak. In the middle of the day the iron axle of my cart suddenly broke. My first feeling was one of great thankfulness that this severe accident had not happened between Natal and King William's Town, for, had it been so, I must inevitably have left my cart, with the greater part of my luggage, to its fate. No assistance could have been obtained there. After taking some food, I mounted one of my horses, and rode with Mr. Gray (who accompanies me to Graaff Reinet) in search of assistance. After riding some hours we came to a farm, and obtained the promise of a span of oxen, and a wagon, upon which it is proposed to put the cart, and bring it on to Mr. Liesching's, at whose house we arrived after dark. The road, however, over the wagon-pat-berg, is so very rocky and precipitous, that it seems doubtful whether the cart can be brought in this way. Mr. Liesching, therefore, in the morning, very kindly sent his son and a blacksmith with a bar of iron, in the hope that they may be able to repair the axle. Meantime I remain with Mr. Liesching, feeling thankful that I have such comfortable quarters. His farm, which is a very beautiful one, belonged to the rebel Pretorius. Mr. Gray rode on to Graaff Reinet to announce the delay to Mr. Long, and to put off the consecration of his church.

Saturday.--A day of disappointment. The smith who was sent to my cart got intoxicated, and did not remain to complete his job. He came back, however, saying all was done, and my man coming on with the cart. But shortly after Mr. Liesching's son came home with a different story. The smith's work was a failure, and Ludwig resolved to wait for the wagon, which he was expecting every hour. The Dutch Boer, who had made great professions of a desire to assist, had sent no wagon, but instead had gone himself to Graaff Reinet. A Hottentot to whom he had committed the job, could not find his oxen, and nothing had been done. Mr. Liesching most kindly sent two more men to look for a wagon and oxen.

Graaff Reinet, Monday, 28M.--I was not able to leave Mr. Liesching's hospitable mansion till this morning, the cart only making its appearance yesterday afternoon. I have thus lost three whole days, which have, however, been employed in writing many letters, especially to friends at home, to whom under ordinary circumstances I find it almost impossible to write. Yesterday I held service twice in Mr. Liesching's house. Some young persons in the neighbourhood, knowing that I was there, came over. During the day, I became very unwell, and passed the night in much pain. Mr. Liesching was good enough to lend me his cart, my own proceeding on the top of an ox wagon to Graaff Reinet to be repaired. I find the English round about this part of the country already speaking with great distrust and uneasiness of our proposed new constitution. They are, comparatively speaking, so few in number that they are afraid to make their sentiments known, and are already suffering some little degree of oppression on the part of their more numerous neighbours.

Tuesday, 20th.--I consecrated the church this morning. There was a full congregation. The building has cost nearly 1,600l. and is not yet quite finished. I think it might have been completed for one-half the amount in England. It will hold about 250 persons, and is very neat and ecclesiastically correct. All are much delighted with it; but there is a debt of between 300l. and 400l. still due upon it.

Wednesday, 30th.--I held a confirmation at three o'clock. There were but a few candidates, as I confirmed here six months since. One was a Roman-catholic convert. I preached also, on the subject of Missions, to a very respectable congregation.

31st.--The whole day spent in writing letters, of which I put twenty-two, some of them very important ones, into the post. I should have proceeded on my road to Somerset, to-day, had my cart been finished. The charges for these repairs, and for forage for my horses in the present severe drought, are exorbitant. At the three last villages I have paid upwards of 50l. for these things. Indeed, so heavy are the expenses attendant upon this long visitation, that the mere cost alone would prevent me from repeating it.

The papers to-day have brought more favourable news respecting the Kafirs. The Governor has had a meeting of them at King William's Town, at which most of the chiefs of the T'Slambie division (including my friend, Umhalla,) attended. Of the Gaikas there were fewer. Sandilli, the most powerful and disaffected of them, was absent. The Governor questioned them on the subject of war. They all declared they had never thought of it, and were his children. , He told them that if a new war broke out, he would take their lands from them, drive them over the Kei, and hand them over to the tender mercies of Faku, and even Panda. The Governor has, I believe, determined to institute a searching inquiry into the causes of the late commotions.

November 1st.--Left Graaff Reinet early this morning for Somerset, Mr. Gray returning at the same time to Cradock. At Graaff Beinet the Church may now be considered as established. When the debt upon the church shall be nearly paid off, the parishioners will, I trust, be able to do more towards the support of their minister.

At Cradock our work is quite in its infancy, but this being a rising town, I have but little doubt that God's cause will prosper under the earnest ministry of Mr. Gray. In no place, however, are the fruits of our past neglect more visible. We have a small congregation which assembles in the Court-house; the Independents have a chapel; the Methodists have two, built at a considerable cost, and by the aid, at least in some degree, of Churchmen; the Dutch, of course, have a church. It is generally understood that a certain number of the Methodists contemplate a return to the Church.

More would undoubtedly return had we a church to fold them; but they not unnaturally prefer a very respectable chapel, to which they have been long accustomed, to the uncomfortable, secular aspect of the Court-house, which is suggestive to them of anything but pleasing associations.

Our road to Somerset lay along the foot of a range of mountains, and the country was more pleasing than I had anticipated. I saw here, for the first time, the spek-boom tree or shrub in full flower; it had a very pleasing appearance. The flower is of a delicate pink, and reminds me more of the heliotrope than of any other. We arrived in Somerset on Saturday afternoon. Had it not been for the kindness of Mr. Long, I should have been without any food the last day, for we outspanned by an empty house, the farmer having, during drought, taken his stock to the mountains. The remains, however, of our yesterday's breakfast served to sustain us till we reached Mr. Pain's house in Somerset, where I soon obtained refreshment. I hear, as I travel through the country, more and more of the wretched state of the farmers through the increasing wholesale robberies of their Kafir and Hottentot servants. One Dutchman told me yesterday that he has lost 300 sheep within the last fortnight, driven away, but he knew not whither; another told me that he had lost a still larger number. What is wanted seems to be an efficient rural police, and, perhaps, a vagrant law. Of this latter, however, I am more doubtful, as it may easily be perverted into an engine of great oppression to the coloured races.

Sunday, 3d--Much gratified with the services of this day. The congregations were good, and not, I am told, much larger than usual. The Government schoolroom, in which I officiated, was neatly fitted up, and everything was done decently and in order. I preached both morning and evening. There were sixteen communicants, and seven candidates for confirmation, whom I addressed extempore at evening prayer.

November 4th.--Received visitors, and rode out to Glen Avon, one of the most beautiful farms in all South Africa. In the afternoon Mr. Pain had several members of the Church to dine, and others again to tea in the evening. Somerset appears to me, on this occasion, even more pleas-sing than on my last visitation. It is beautifully situated at the foot of mountains abounding in wooded kloofs and ravines, and the village has an air of quiet, a peace and order about it, which is very attractive. Mr. Pain's house is next door to the London Society's Mission Chapel, and I. was much gratified at beholding a numerous and well-dressed congregation of Hottentots and other coloured people attending it yesterday. It was humbling not to see one coloured person at our service. God has been very long-suffering towards our Church, considering how fearfully negligent we have been, not only of the heathen in this land, but of our own people. It is marvellous that, after half a century of neglect, such a field should still be open to us; and that, as is, I believe, the case in this place, our congregation should be larger on a Sunday than that of other communions. God grant that we may redeem the time, and make amends for past neglect and unconcern, by redoubled diligence, zeal, and self-denial now. May He vouchsafe in time to come, as hitherto, His blessing upon our labours, and render us in our several stations and degrees fit agents for carrying on His work in this land. If His presence go with us, we need fear nothing.

November 5th.--This morning we Lad prayers in the schoolroom, Mr. Pain reading the service appointed for the day, which, however, I told him might be omitted in the colonies. There were about eighteen persons present, which is about the usual congregation at morning prayer on Wednesdays and Fridays. At twelve o'clock I held a meeting of the parishioners in Mr. Pain's house, the schoolroom not being at liberty. The two questions for consideration were the continued support of the Ministry, and the erection of the church. Towards the former, the Civil Commissioner, acting as Treasurer to the Church Committee, paid me 50l. 6s., being a trifle more than the amount guaranteed; and it appeared that in addition to this the weekly offertory had averaged 1 l. a-week. With the parishioners' concurrence, I consented to cancel the subscription list, and to depend altogether upon the offertory for carrying on our work. It was decided that on two Sundays in the month the offerings should be for the support of the Ministry, and generally on the other two Sundays towards the erection of the church;--that once a quarter the offerings should be for Missions, and occasionally for sick and aged Clergy. It appeared that only 100l. had actually been paid into the bank towards the erection of the church. A fresh subscription was therefore opened for this special object, and several gentlemen undertook to advance 500l. on loan, depending upon the offertory for the liquidation of the debt. I promised to furnish them plans, working drawings, and specifications, for a church to hold 150, but capable of future enlargement,--the probable cost would be 1,000l. After business was over I gave the parishioners an account of the present state of the Diocese, and our proposed Mission work, in which they appeared to take an interest. In the evening I returned the calls of the parishioners. The people in this village observe the fifth of November as noisily as in England.

There was a figure of Guy Fawkes, with a lantern, paraded about the streets, tin kettles, bonfires, ringing of bells, and shouting, till a late hour.

November 6th.--Left Somerset after early prayers this morning. I was glad to find we had again a nice congregation. Mr. Pain and Mr. Brown accompanied me part of the way. I was not allowed to depart without a good supply of pat-koss, and other comforts provided by the kindness of the parishioners. I quit Somerset with much satisfaction. There is a good work, I believe, going on there, and Mr. and Mrs. Pain are both in earnest. They are taking a few pupils, male and female. The payments from the parents for their education are to be appropriated to the erection of the church. There has been some little opposition Shown by the Dutch minister here, which has only tended to knit together in closer bonds the members of the Church. It will not be long, I trust, before a neat little church, in one of the prettiest parts of this very pretty village will be erected, to gladden the hearts of not a few earnest and devout members of our communion.

Slept at the foot of the Zuurberg. My chamber was a shop filled with all sorts of goods. I had but little rest, in consequence of the incessant assaults of the too frequent companions of a night spent in a farmer's house. I was glad to hear from the farmer here that he had lost no sheep by stealing, and that he had with him Fingo herds who had been in his service several years. He seemed disposed to think that the thefts and loss of sheep, so very generally complained of, arose in no small degree from motives of revenge: that the servants are frequently unfairly defrauded of their wages, under plea of making up losses, and that they are occasionally beaten very severely, and tied to the wagon-wheel for that purpose. A Grahamstown paper, which I have seen to-day, announces that Sir H. Smith has deposed Sandilli, the most powerful chief in British Kaffraria. He refused, when summoned, to attend the meeting at King William's Town, and is generally understood to have been the chief instigator of the Kafirs at the present time to war. What the next more will be, God only knows. Matters are in a very critical state.

November 7th.--Off at daybreak. The horses were unable to drag the cart up one very steep and stony pitch, in ascending the Zuurberg range. Even after unloading the cart it required much exertion and flogging to get them up it. I took my usual post at the head of the leaders, but when we got well off, could not keep up with them, and was trod upon. By our joint efforts we afterwards brought the luggage up. On these occasions I am sometimes much amused at thinking how people would stare in England at seeing a bishop in his shirt sleeves, with a box or bag on his back, ascending an African mountain. We arrived about ten o'clock, by a very difficult road, at the first convict station. The religious teacher, or late missionary of the Berlin Society, kindly provided refreshment for myself and horses. After breakfast I inspected the station. In the three stations on this mountain there are 350 convicts. Of these about 40 are English, 60 are Kafirs; the remainder are chiefly Hottentots and people of Dutch extraction. The Kafirs all work in irons in the chain-gang. This is said to be necessary in consequence of their determined efforts to escape, and their proximity to their own country. There were several in hospital, chiefly with chicken-pox. I spoke for about half-an-hour on religious subjects with several Englishmen whom I found in confinement. The road, when finished, will be a fine piece of workmanship. It is one of Mr. Montague's great roads, which are of such vast importance to this colony. It is well engineered through a very difficult country. The southern side is nearly finished, the northern hardly begun, but it will be finished, I believe, in less than a year. The object of this road is to open out the interior to the sea. It will be the direct route to the sovereignty, and the whole of the north, through Cradock, and perhaps Somerset. The descent is very fine. It commands most extensive views, and the mountains on each side are both precipitous and clothed with forest. The afternoon was delightfully cool. I do not know when I have enjoyed a drive so much. We slept at Commando Kraal, Sunday's Hirer, having accomplished about fifty miles.

November 8th.--Arrived about two o'clock at Uitenhage. I am, during my stay here, the guest of Mr. Chase, the Civil Commissioner. Received a few visitors, and inspected a site which has been bought for the church, and which is not approved of by many. Unhappily I fear the state of the church in this parish is no better than when I was here two years since.

November 9th.--Visitors, correspondence, business with the churchwardens, &c., occupied the greater part of the day.

November 10th.--Our services this day were held in the court-house. I preached both morning and evening. There were twenty communicants in the morning, and I confirmed nine candidates in the evening.

November 11th.--Returned calls, and prepared for a public meeting of the parishioners, of which I had given notice for this evening.

In the evening we had our meeting, which lasted two hours. It was decided almost unanimously that the church should be erected on the site originally granted by Government, and not upon that which the Church Building Committee had purchased a short lime since for 80l. It was also decided that the church should contain 150 sittings; and I undertook to have plans prepared. There appeared to be about 500l. to be depended upon, and it was arranged that the new Building Committee, which was appointed at this meeting, should canvass tin; parish for additional subscriptions. A memorial was addressed to Government for an extension of the site formerly granted, and for sites for school and parsonage. I trust that the dissensions upon these points, which have now lasted for a period of three years, will at length be brought to a close, and that the church will be proceeded with.

November 12th.--Business and correspondence in the morning. The accounts from the frontier are somewhat more encouraging. The governor has left King William's. Town, and is in Grahamstown. He has had another meeting of the Gaika chiefs. He allows Sandilli to live with his mother, Sutu, who is to be responsible for his conduct. But he is no longer to be a chief. Time only will show whether the Governor's word alone can induce the 14,000 followers of this chief to withdraw their allegiance from him, and to transfer it to the commissioner. The frontier people do not seem satisfied; but I think they are unreasonable, and will not be satisfied without the deposition of all the chiefs, which would be most unjust upon principle, and undoubtedly lead to another war. A note from my dear brother, the archdeacon, informed me that he had started on foot for Bloemfontein, being anxious to visit it, and to return home by Christmas. His route will be by Cradock, Colesberg, Bloemfontein, Caledon River, Aliwal, Burghersdorp, Whittlesea, Shiloh, Tort Beaufort, and so home. If he is able to accomplish this he will have traversed at least about 800 miles in about six weeks. This journey will not be accomplished without much difficulty, and I fear some danger. The Boers not unfrequently shut their doors in his face, telling him he is a "bandit" or convict. Sometimes he has had, in consequence, but mean fare, and has, I fear, at times been in actual want; but nothing can damp his indomitable energy, or break his heroic spirit. He is cheerful in the midst of every trial and hardship that he is called to endure. Well may all love him, and admire his great self-denial and zeal.

Left Uitenhage (Nov. 12) about two o'clock for Port Elizabeth, and arrived at Mr. McCleland's about half-past five.

November 16th--On Wednesday evening we had service in church. I preached to a very respectable congregation. On that day also I met the committee for the collection of subscriptions towards a new church. It appeared that upwards of 500l. had been pledged, and that, when the whole town shall have been canvassed, 600l. may be depended upon. We were not able to fix upon a plan. On Thursday I held a confirmation, when twenty-one young persons were received into full communion with the Church. On Friday evening we had service also in the church, when I preached again, to a large congregation for a weekday, though I was so hoarse from a severe cold as almost to be unable to speak.
On Saturday I attended another meeting of the Church Building Committee, when we decided upon the outline of a plan, for which I was to furnish a design and working drawings. Called on several of the parishioners.

Sunday, 17th.--The congregations to-day were very large; indeed some were obliged to go away for want of room; I was sorry to see some of the soldiers leaving on this account. As the congregation consisted almost exclusively of church people, it shows how much an additional church is required. There were about fifty communicants. The collection to-day was appropriated to the support of the ministry. In the afternoon I attended the funeral of one of the most respectable members of the church in this town. In the evening I confirmed eight additional candidates, who had not been able to present themselves at the previous confirmation. I have been very unwell all day, and have got through the services with difficulty.

November 18th.--It is with much satisfaction that I turn my face homewards again. I have still a journey of about 700 miles before me, but I shall be shortening the distance daily. My energies, after nearly eight months' incessant labour, are beginning to flag. The Governor is expected at Port Elizabeth, I believe, to-day, on his way back by sea to Capetown. I regret that, I cannot remain to see him; but a day's delay would disturb all my arrangements. I slept this evening on the banks of the Gamtoos River. Part of our journey lay along the sea-coast. The sight of the sea always gives me pleasure, though in this land it is not unmixed with sadness, for it recals recollections of the past. There is a satisfaction, however, in merely watching the anhriqmon gelmasma kumatwn, and this satisfaction I have enjoyed to-day. In the evening I had a good deal of conversation with my host, who was an Englishman, about the Missionary Institution at Hankey, which I was anxious to have visited, but I could not do so without interfering with my engagements.

Tuesday, 19th.--Slept at the house of Mr. Mackintosh, who is living upon the farm of his relative, Captain Boys. I spent a few hours two years ago with these pleasing families, who are members of the Church. As they did not lie in the direct road, I had not intended to visit them this time, having a very heavy week's journey before me. Mrs. Mackintosh, however, wrote to express her regret that I did not, and I therefore changed my plan. In the evening I held Divine Service, preaching extempore. I baptized also three children. I had a good deal of conversation with Captain Boys about Hankey, which, he told me, Mr. Phillip, the Missionary, was very anxious that I should visit. I was very glad to hear a very different account of the Institution from what Mr.------had given me. Captain Boys informed me that it was in a highly satisfactory condition; that, so far as the improvement and civilization of the people were concerned, there was a real work going on; that, as a magistrate, he could affirm that the amount of crime for so large a population, upwards of 3,000, was very small; that bad characters were dismissed; and that the Institution was, in his judgment, doing as much good as any that he had seen. There is no doubt that Captain Boys' opinion, as a man of education, a gentleman, and a magistrate, and living in the immediate neighbourhood, ought to have very great weight.

November 20th.--Started early. The weather is singularly cold for this season of the year; I have been sitting all day in the cart with my great-coat on, and a horse-cloth round my legs. Outspanned at a Dutch farmer's, where I slept two years ago. I found his children all talking English, having an English tutor. There was another Englishman there, who expressed great disappointment at finding I had left Uitenhage and the Bay without his knowing of my being there. He told me a Dutch farmer in the neighbourhood had promised to let him know. He had meant to ride in from a distance of seventy miles, and to present himself for confirmation. I would have confirmed him on the spot if I had had time, as he seemed much in earnest. He did not, however, open his heart to me till I was going away, and I could not then, without breaking engagements, remain to examine and confirm him. I could only therefore tell him to put himself in communication with Mr. McCleland at Port Elizabeth. I find there are a good many English scattered amongst the farms in this district. It would be very desirable if I could appoint a clergyman to itinerate through the Lange Kloof, between George and Uitenhage, a rich and flourishing district, 200 miles in m length, but without any minister for the white population. The new village of Human's-dorp, where the Dutch are just finishing a church, but for which they can find no minister, though Government have, I believe, promised a stipend, might form an excellent station for a monthly service. The whole country is looking quite green and fresh after the late rains. Arrived somewhat late at the house of Dr. Buchan.

November 21st.--Off again a little after six o'clock. It rained in torrents the whole day, and the tops of the mountains were covered with snow. Just before arriving at a house where I slept on my last visitation, my cart and horses sunk in a complete bog of mud in the very middle of the road. In a minute four horses were floundering, and totally incapable of extricating themselves. After getting almost bogged myself in endeavouring to relieve them, I left the cart and horses with the men, and ran to the farm, for assistance. This was most cheerfully rendered; nearly a dozen men, including some travellers, returned with me. They speedily released the horses from their comfortless bed, and drew the cart out of its difficulties, taking it all the way to the house. I found that this family instantly recollected me; I had given them all Prayer-books on my last visitation, and heard them read. They received me very kindly. Mr. Welby sometimes comes down as far as this, and Dr. Andrews, who can officiate in Dutch, has occasionally held services here. The people are anxious to know when he will come again, and ask if he cannot come oftener.

November 22d.--Another very cold and wet day. I had calculated upon enjoying much my drive up the Lange Kloof, which is a part of the colony that I like; but the substitution of an English winter for an African summer is enough to mar all enjoyment. We slept at Van Roy's, a farmer who, on my first visitation, supplied me very kindly with horses free of all expense. I found that since that time he had considerably altered, and Anglicised his house. The great hall, which occupies so considerable a portion of a Dutch farm-house, was divided into two good rooms. There was a third sitting-room, with round table and 'fire-place, the first, I think, that I have seen in any farm in the country, and in which we had a good fire of wood. I found here an Englishman, formerly a Roman Catholic, but whom I confirmed in my first visitation, keeping school at this place, and as zealous as ever. I thanked him for an erf which he had given since I last saw him to the Church at Blanco. He told me that the Dutch show a great unwillingness to have their children taught English; that they say there will be no need of it now that they are to have a representative government, that henceforth all will be Dutch.

Saturday, 23d.--A fine day, and a delightful drive of three hours to Mr. Richardson's. As usual, I arrived before I was expected, and before Mr. Welby from George, who had been detained by the river. He came about eleven o'clock, and we had much interesting and important conversation. Mr. and Mrs. Henery were both far from well. They are, I hope, doing much good here. In the evening I examined the night school, and found it in a satisfactory state. Sat up late writing letters.

Schoonberg, November 24th.--The services of this day have been full of interest. There was Sunday-school in the morning; it consisted chiefly of coloured people. At the morning service eighty-five were present; there were fifteen communicants; I preached extempore. In the afternoon there was a large congregation; eight were confirmed, five of whom were people of colour. I both addressed the candidates and preached. This may be considered at present as one of our most direct missionary posts in the diocese. It shows, I trust, some signs of future promise; already several who were heathens have been baptized and confirmed, and have become communicants. I grieve to say there is much difficulty in keeping up the work, from lack of means. Mr. Richardson is anxious to proceed as soon as possible with the erection of the church. He has given four acres of land, and offers 100l. towards the building. There will be some difficulty, I fear, in raising the necessary funds. Money is not plentiful, and almost every village in the colony is exerting itself in behalf of its own church.

November 25.--Rode over the Devil's Kop this morning in company with Mr. Welby, my cart proceeding by the direct road to George, to wait my arrival there next week. A thick cloud was on the top of the mountain, which effectually prevented my enjoying the very fine views which, I am told, present themselves on every side. As we descended the mountain, however, and got under the cloud, we were enabled to get a view of the sea, tin lakes, the forest, and the nearer mountains, and gradually the weather cleared up so as to allow us fully to appreciate the beauty of the prospect before us. We did not reach Mr. Dumbleton's till past ten o'clock, though we started a quarter before six, the road over the mountain being very rocky and precipitous. Wagons still continue to pass over this mountain with loads of wood from the forests beneath. How they manage I know not. I am sure it would have been pronounced impossible by any one who had not seen what a South African ox-wagon can do, and where it can go. After resting an hour for breakfast at Mr. Dumbleton's, I rode on with him through the beautiful Knysna country, which I have so often before admired, to Meding's, he having provided me with fresh horses, and leading one which carried my saddle-bags. At Medina's we found that our relays had not arrived. After off-saddling, therefore, for a time, we proceeded towards Mr. Carrey's; but just as we had mounted the hill, we met Mr. Duthie, Mr. B. Rex, and Mr. Andrews, with fresh horses. We therefore returned, and, having removed our bags, proceeded rapidly to Belvidere, where we arrived a little after sunset, having had a most delightful ride of about ten hours. After having seen nearly all South Africa, I am still of opinion that the Knysna district is, perhaps, the most lovely of the whole. The only country to be compared with it is that in the immediate neighbourhood of D'Urban, Port Natal; but I do not think it, beautiful as it is with its tropical plants, &c., quite equal to this. I remained for the night at Mr. Cathie's.

November 26th.--This morning I rode after breakfast to call upon Mr. and Mrs. Barrington, at Portland. I knew that if I did not go this morning I should probably not see them at all. On our way back to Melville I was met by a large party of gentlemen on horseback from that village. My arrival in the village was honoured with a salute of one gun, and with flying of flags. I rode up immediately to the church, which is about half built. I am happy to say that a very fine stone has been found close at hand in time to use it for the quoins, buttresses, and windows, for which the stone of which the walls are built would not have done. The church is a decorated building, copied from an ancient English church, and is intended to be the chancel of a larger edifice. I slept at Mr. Andrews', and passed a quiet evening, a portion of which was spent in talking over with the mason the working drawings of the plans of a proposed plain Norman Church at Belvidere; and in endeavouring to convince an earnest and respectable Irvingite that he ought to conform to the Church. He thought so, too; his only scruple was about a double confirmation, having been already confirmed by "the Apostles." He determined to refer the matter to them.

November 27th.--Started at seven o'clock this morning for Plettenburg Bay. We called in our way at several houses, and readied Mr. Bull's, the catechist here, after a ride of about twenty-seven miles, at one o'clock. Just as we arrived at the Residency, a party of twenty newly baptized coloured people, quite of their own accord, came out to meet me. They sang a hymn, and then welcomed me to the Bay. I was the more pleased with this, because neither Mr. nor Mrs. Bull knew of their intention. After a few minutes' rest, I began an examination, first of the candidates for confirmation, and next of the catechumens, Mr. Andrews assisting in the Dutch parts. Some seemed to feel a good deal; but I had not sufficient time to carry on individual examinations to any great extent, for our service began a little after three o'clock; when eighteen adults were baptized and nineteen infants, and twelve persons were confirmed; the congregation consisting of nearly eighty. The whole were coloured people except two emigrant girls, who were confirmed, and these have all been instructed in the faith, and prepared for admission into the fold of Christ, and to full communion, by Mr. Bull, who has laboured very diligently and earnestly amongst them. It is only a few months since nine adults and ten infants, from amongst the heathen, were baptized in the same place by Mr. Welby, the Rural Dean. A portion of the service was conducted in Dutch by Mr. Andrews. Several of the candidates for confirmation were deeply impressed, and all seemed to feel the solemnity of the occasion. I addressed them as simply and plainly as I could in English, and most of them, if I may judge from their countenances, understood at least the greater part of what I said to them. The service lasted so long that I did not preach as I had intended, fearing that I should weary them. One old woman of ninety years of age, who was confirmed, told Mr. Andrews how she came first to know some of the great truths of religion. Her first conception of the being of a God arose from the following circumstances. She was a slave; when, walking out with her mistress one fine night, the latter asked her if she knew who made the stars and the moon. She replied, "Yes, the white man." Upon her mistress telling her that it was a far greater Being than man, who lived in the heavens, and who was called God, she was deeply impressed, and from that hour believed in God. Some time after, her instructor had great difficulty in making her understand the nature of the Crucifixion, and the doctrine of the Atonement. She understood, however, and realized the whole, on being shown a picture of the Saviour on the Cross. This happened some years ago. Upon these two great truths of natural and revealed religion, she had fed, until she had an opportunity of being further instructed in the Christian faith. She was one of those baptized a few months since. Her case serves to show that pictures, carefully and cautiously used, may be of much service in the instruction of the Heathen.

Mr. Bull had several of the parishioners to meet me in the evening.

November 28th.--I left the Residency this morning early, on foot, with Mr. Bull. We walked by the coast, and enjoyed much the view of this beautiful bay, with its fine range of mountains in the rear. We took an early breakfast with Mr. Sinclair, and then rode to Redbourne, where I held service at ten o'clock. Here the congregation, which was between thirty and forty, consisted entirely of English emigrants. I preached to them extempore. Several of their children were baptized. This village has been much increased since I was here two years ago. The population, however, will probably never be very large. As the funds for the erection of a stone church are not yet sufficient, Mr. Newdigate is building, at his sole cost, a wooden church, which will serve for a few years; and, when the church shall be built, can be afterwards used for a school. He has agreed to transfer it immediately to the See. Unfortunately it came on to rain heavily while we were here, and, in spite of a thick coat which Mr. Newdigate lent me, I had a cold and wet ride to Melville. I slept this evening at Mr. Sutherland's, who had invited several of the parishioners to meet me.

November 29th.--We had a meeting this morning at eleven o'clock at the schoolroom at Melville, to take into consideration the affairs of the church. It appeared that at least 1501. were still wanting to complete the building now in the course of erection. Six gentlemen undertook to raise the money by loan. On examining the parish accounts, I found that the weekly offerings fell far short of what they ought to be, and what they are in other places. This, I think, can only be accounted for by the majority of the people, who are recent emigrants, not understanding that our whole church work very materially depends upon the free-will offerings of the people. I pressed upon the gentlemen present the importance of making this fact generally known. An address was presented to me at this meeting by the parishioners, congratulating me on my safe arrival at this place after the difficulties and dangers of so long a visitation, expressing their interest in the countries beyond the frontier, their hope that the church might be able to undertake a work there, and the gratification they felt in hearing that a mission was about to be commenced in British Kaffraria. In the afternoon I examined the children in the school, which has only lately been commenced. In the evening, Mr. Andrews had the churchwardens and sidesmen to dinner. It was not till late that four wagons full of coloured people arrived for the services of to-morrow and Sunday. Had they come earlier I was to have examined the candidates for baptism and confirmation. They outspanned on the green in front of Mr. Andrews' house, and soon lighted their fires and made themselves comfortable. I understand there are seventy souls in all.

November 30th.--I began this day with au examination of the candidates for baptism, which lasted about two hours. With several of these I was very much pleased. They seemed quite in earnest, and were well instructed in the faith. They appeared fully to understand the nature of the step they were about to take, the privileges of which they were to be made partakers, and the increased responsibilities they were about to incur. One only did I think insufficiently prepared, and requiring to have his baptism postponed. At eleven o'clock our service began. I understood there were upwards of one hundred present, a large proportion of whom were coloured people. I baptized fifteen Hottentot, Fingo, and Mozambique adults. I confirmed seven, three of whom were Europeans. I addressed the candidates as simply and plainly as I could for half an hour. The services were partly in Dutch and partly in English. After service I called upon a few of the parishioners, and then rode out to tiffin at "The New Place," where were assembled the chief members of the Rex family.

Sunday, December 1st.--We had very large congregations this day in our temporary place of worship. Indeed, there was not room for them all. There could not be less than 150 persons at each service. In the morning the communicants were forty-six. In the afternoon about twenty children, chiefly belonging to the recently baptized converts, were admitted into the fold of Christ. I preached at both services. In the evening I returned with Mr. Duthie in his boat to Belvidere. The tide, however, being low, and the night dark, we grounded several times, and were between three and four hours crossing the lake. We did not get shelter till ten o'clock. Next morning I started on horseback with Mr. and Mrs. Andrews for George. We were accompanied part of the way by Mr. Duthie and Mr. Newdigate. The day being fine we enjoyed much this beautiful ride. We reached George before seven o'clock. At the Zwart River, Mr. Welby, accompanied by the Rev. H. Badnall, my chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Baker, and Mr. Dreyer, the churchwarden, met us. I have been much, interested with my visit to the Knysna; great progress has been made during the past year, especially with the coloured people. The churches are rising up and the congregations are good. Up to this time no other body of Christians has been at work in this field. The church is at present in undisturbed possession of the ground, and is, I trust, doing her work faithfully. All that is required to give permanence and solidity to our system there is a somewhat increased scale of contributions towards the support of the ministry. I am not sorry to find myself once more under the hospitable roof of Mr. Welby.

December 3d.--I spent the morning in writing letters and receiving visitors. Before breakfast I went out with Mr. Welby to inspect the new church, which is to be consecrated on Saturday. It is a well-built English structure. The cost has been 1,200 l., and it has been with great difficulty that the necessary funds have been raised. Considering the poverty of our people, the inferiority of colonial workmen, and the scarcity of good stone, this church is, I think, a credit to the diocese. It is delightful to see our old English churches repeated in this land. I am glad to find that it is generally admired and appreciated; for this encourages me to persevere in my efforts to get correct churches built. It requires, indeed, much patience to combat the prejudices, and to endeavour to elevate the tastes of church builders in South Africa. Very many have not a conception beyond the ordinary shapeless brick building, plastered and whitewashed. As yet, however, I am happy to say, no incorrect building has been commenced, though the inferiority of our materials and workmanship would make one shrink from seeing them subjected to a very critical eye.

December 4th.--Examination of candidates for Orders, letter writing, receiving visitors, and returning visits. We have evening service with sermon in the Dutch Church every day this week. The Clergy take it in turn to preach.

December 5th.--Letter writing; examination of candidates. Since I have been here I have had an application from Mr. Niepoth, voor-lezer of the Dutch Church, and missionary to the heathen, to be received into the communion of the English Church. Mr. Niepoth informs me that he has been for eleven years teacher of the coloured people, that he has a congregation of 300 souls, that he has long been dissatisfied with his own Church, believes in episcopacy, and approves highly of our services. He states his ground of dissatisfaction with the Dutch Church to be their neglect of the coloured people, and their unwillingness to admit them to Church privileges. They are not allowed to communicate with the white people, or to be confirmed at the same time; many of their children remain unbaptized, and they are refused burial in the Dutch Church ground. This application has been totally unexpected both by Mr. Welby and myself. Upon Mr. Niepoth's first announcement of his desire I declined giving any answer, and informed him that I must take time to consider the course which I might feel it right to pursue. Before seeing him again I have made full inquiries, both of Mr. Welby and others, as to Mr. Niepoth's character and usefulness, and hare had such satisfactory replies to my queries, and such willing testimony to his zeal and piety, from various quarters, that I have informed Mr. Niepoth that, if he seeks communion with the Church, I shall not feel at liberty to repel him, and that I shall be prepared to sanction his continuance in the office of Instructor to the Heathen. It appears that Mr. Niepoth has had doubts in his mind for some time, and resolved not to allow me to leave the place without stating his views and wishes to me. His congregation, he tells me, are equally desirous with himself to be received into the communion of the Church, and have been urging the matter upon him. [Within a few days of Mr. Niepoth's reception into the communion of the Church 100 of his congregation, already baptized, applied to be allowed to sign our Declaration of Membership: "I do declare that I am a member of the Church in the Diocese of Capetown, in communion with the United Church of England and Ireland, and that I will conform to the doctrine and discipline of the said Church." Besides these, there are about 200 catechumens and children under instruction. Our new church is already nearly full, and the set-vices of the coloured people are in Dutch. I have authorized the use of a selection from the Liturgy. There is no authority for this. Convocation alone could sanction it. As our missions extend, the question of religious services becomes important. The uneducated natives would be quite incapable of appreciating our whole service. A selection like that which the Methodists use in their missions in this diocese is best suited to new converts.]

December 6th.--The greater part of the day has been occupied with a viva voce examination of the candidates for Orders. I have been able to accept of them all. The Rev. W. Andrews and the Rev. J. Baker will be admitted to the order of priests, and Mr. Henery to that of deacon. The latter will have no licence to preach, but will read homilies. It is my intention to have a non-preaching body of deacons in this diocese, and to keep the order as much as possible to the duties prescribed for it in the Ordinal. The examination for deacons' orders is consequently a very different one from that required for priests. There is nothing to prevent a deacon being advanced to the priesthood if his qualification should prove sufficient; but in many cases men admitted to the diaconate, will, in all probability, not be able to pass the examination for the higher degree in the ministry of Christ. This evening we had a very large congregation in the Dutch Church. Being the last time that the building will be used by us, many of the Dutch came to the service. Mr. Welby preached a very impressive sermon, and expressed for himself and his congregation, very feelingly, the obligations they had been under to the Dutch community.

Saturday, Dec. 7th.--This morning our new church was consecrated. It was crowded to excess, there being 250 present in a building calculated to contain only 200. The whole service was a highly devotional one, a great portion of the congregation kneeling, and making the responses very audibly. The singing, too, was very good, the congregation joining in it. The churchyard, which in this instance is around the church, was also consecrated. In the afternoon we had prayers at three o'clock, after which I instituted Mr. Welby to the Archdeaconry of George. This Archdeaconry will consist of the districts of George Swellendam, and Beaufort; and include the parishes of the Knysna, Plettenburg Bay, Beaufort, Biversdale, Swellendam, Mossel Bay, Schoonberg, &c.; but work is opening out so rapidly here, that I felt it right to erect this central part of the colony into an Archdeaconry, and I am very fortunate in being able to appoint one so qualified in every way for the office as Mr. Welby has proved himself to be. The archdeaconry still is, in point of extent, equal to several European dioceses. Mr. Welby hopes to be able to make arrangements with a clergyman who is coming out from England to act as his assistant, and to take charge of the parish while he is absent on visitation, which in his case will probably be several times a-year.

In the evening I had a meeting of the parishioners in the public offices, Mr. Welby having expressed a desire that I should meet the lay members of the Church, in this the only possible way, during my stay. I readily consented to do so, being anxious that the Church at large should regard the Bishop as having a direct relation to them, and not merely as the overseer of the clergy, and being desirous of interesting all in the work of the Church throughout the diocese. I therefore gave them some account of the state and progress of our work from St. Helena to Natal.

On this occasion the parishioners presented the following address, which I insert here, because it was got up entirely by the laity without the knowledge of their pastor, and is, I think, full of promise, as showing that there exists a deeper interest in things spiritual than would probably have been felt a year ago, and proving that the parishioners here at least are beginning to feel, with relation to other portions of the diocese, that they are members of the same body,--if one member suffer, all suffering with it, or, if one be honoured, all rejoicing with it. It contains also, which to me is the most cheering part of the whole, the recognition of our duty as a Church towards the heathen, and expresses a desire to see the work begun.


"We, the undersigned members of the English Church, beg to congratulate your Lordship on your safe arrival at George, after a very toilsome journey to the most distant parts of this extensive diocese. We are thankful to be enabled to state that, since your Lordship's last visitation, a goodly edifice has been erected for Divine worship, in which we, and our posterity for ages to come, may hear the joyful sounds of the Gospel; and, while we duly appreciate the inestimable privilege thus afforded to us, we think it our duty to tender to your Lordship the sincere expression of our gratitude for the great interest you have shown in our spiritual welfare, and for the seasonable assistance you have afforded us towards completing the House of God.

"In whatever direction we turn, we see churches in the course of erection, and pious ministers dispensing the ordinances of religion,--signs which lead us to hope that the branch of the Church of Christ to which we belong is taking deep root in the land, and that our hitherto neglected brethren and countrymen, who have been so long scattered throughout this wide-spread territory, as sheep without a shepherd, are now, blessed be God, being gathered within the fold. For them, and for ourselves, we see a lively interest, and an earnest zeal, manifested by your Lordship, in a degree which we could hardly expect in a diocese so remote from our father-land; and which prompts us to hope and pray that your Lordship may be long spared to labour in this portion of the vineyard, to extend the Redeemer's kingdom far and wide over the dark continent, that 'Ethiopia may soon stretch out her hands unto God.'

"We trust that your Lordship may be blessed with health and strength of body, with vigour of mind, and with a large measure of the Divine grace to support you, comfort you, and direct you, in the discharge of the duties of your high office, to the honour and glory of God, and the good of souls."

The address was signed by upwards of fifty members of the congregation.

Sunday, Dec. 8th.--This day I ordained two priests and a deacon, the Archdeacon and the Rev. H. Badnall assisting. I preached on the occasion; the congregation was very large; the communicants were about thirty-five in number: the offerings on this day and yesterday amounted to about 34l. After evening prayer, I confirmed eighteen candidates, who were all very serious in their deportment. The Archdeacon said they were the most satisfactory set of candidates he had ever presented. Amongst them, as amongst the communicants, there were several coloured people. One poor black boy had walked from Mossel Bay, near forty miles, to be confirmed. When residing about fifteen miles from this town, he had walked in every Sunday morning to attend the Archdeacon's Sunday-school, and had, after long preparation, been baptized by him. Another of our candidates was a convert from Romanism. I addressed them for some time in a plain manner. The congregation was again very large. I preached on the subject of missions. In the course of the day I looked into the Sunday-school, and was glad to find it much increased, and the white and coloured children taught in the same class. There were nearly sixty present.

December 9th.--We had morning prayer at 7 o'clock; and a congregation of between sixty and seventy. We had full service in the evening, when Mr. Badnall preached. There was again an excellent congregation. The news from the frontier becomes more alarming. Sir H. Smith, who had returned to Capetown, having terrified, as he had imagined, the Kafirs, has again sailed for East London in H. M. Steamer, Hermes, accompanied by 400 men of the 73d regiment from Capetown, and some artillery. God grant that we may yet be spared another war. This land, however, has of late done much to provoke, and is apparently now enduring, His judgments. In the Eastern Province during this year there has been almost a plague of locusts. Farmers have told me that for very many years there Lave not been seen so many. Then there has been a drought more severe than has been known for years, so that the cattle have perished, and the fruits of the earth been destroyed. In the west, during the same period, there has been almost a deluge of rain; and now the fearful scourge of rust is threatening the crops of wheat throughout the country. The depredations on the part of servants and others on the sheep farmers have been on a larger scale, and under more irritating circumstances than ever; and now there is every prospect of another fearful war with a savage people, who, if permitted to burst into the colony, will probably in a few days sweep off the herds and flocks of the colonists, and lay waste the whole country, burning the houses, and destroying the defenceless people. Would that the people of the land did but recognise God's chastening hand, and humble themselves before him for their sins.

In the afternoon I drove out to the new and rising village of Blanco, to inspect some pieces of land which have been, given by private individuals to the Church. The Archdeacon has held a monthly service here, and has a congregation of about forty. He contemplates erecting a little oratory, or chancel of a future church, towards which about 100 have been already contributed.

Tuesday, 10.--My visitation at George has been full of interest. Great progress has been made in many ways during the past year. The parishioners take an increasing interest in the Church's work; and there is, I trust, a gradual growth in grace and holiness, at least in some. I was much pleased with the demeanour of all who on this occasion publicly confessed Christ before men, and with the interest taken in them, and especially in the coloured candidates, by the older members of the Church. There is evidently a good work going on in this parish in the souls of the people, and, indeed, it could scarce be otherwise under the ministry of such a man as the Archdeacon, who is singularly endowed with gifts and graces for the work to which he is called.

We left after breakfast for Riversdale. Mr. Badnall accompanied me in my cart, and I was glad once more, after so long a separation, to have free and unrestrained intercourse with him. We slept at Jan Meyer's, one of the most wealthy and intelligent Dutch farmers in the country. He had twice before invited me to come and stay with him. Next morning he furnished me with a fresh span of horses for an hour or two, while mine were driven forward. After a long day's journey through a country I have passed over several times and have described before, we reached Riversdale. I took up my quarters with Mr. Hudson, but dined with my excellent friend, Captain Rainer, the magistrate of the place, who holds service twice every Sunday for the English congregation, of whom there are upwards of sixty.

Thursday, 12th.--Visited some of the villagers in the morning, and examined three candidates, whom Captain Rainer had been preparing for confirmation. I found them all well instructed, and apparently much in earnest. After an early dinner we went with Mr. Boreherds, the amiable Dutch minister, to inspect a site which he has offered to give for an English church. We had service at seven o'clock in the evening. There was one child for baptism; three were confirmed. I addressed the candidates, and also preached. Our service lasted till past nine o'clock; and there were upwards of fifty present. We ought to have a clergyman here, but, unless my funds become greatly increased, I see no prospect of my being able to appoint one.

Friday, 13th.--A long and warm day's journey to Swellendam, through a country which I now travel over for the fifth time since my arrival in the diocese. We intended to have slept at a farm about three hours short of Swellendam; but the farmer could not accommodate us; we therefore pushed on, and arrived at Mr. Baker's about ten o'clock, having accomplished a journey of upwards of sixty miles, My horses did not seem at all tired. Mr. Baker was still out in the parish, preparing the candidates for confirmation. The next day was spent almost exclusively in receiving visitors and writing letters.

On Sunday I preached in the morning in the schoolroom, and afterwards administered the Holy Communion to twenty-five persons. The congregation was good, and filled the room. In the evening I confirmed eight candidates, of whom three had been Wesleyans, and one a Romanist. Mr. Badnall preached. There was a very full congregation, and the candidates, as is almost always the case, seemed to feel deeply.

On Monday we held a meeting of the Church Building Committee, which, after a long conversation, was adjourned till the next day. We had some difficulty in fixing upon a suitable site, and it was found that the funds were far from sufficient to complete the church, there not being more than 600l. in hand; and a very simple building costing not less than 1,000l. At our meeting on Tuesday the site was determined upon, and it was decided that the plans I had furnished should be adopted, and the building be proceeded with. On the evening of this day, being the last of my stay in the village, I met the parishioners in the schoolroom, and announced to them the course which had been decided upon. I took this opportunity of explaining my views and plans with reference to the future missionary operations of our Church, and endeavouring to excite an interest in them. I gave, at the same time, a general view of the state and progress of the Church throughout the diocese.

I think that a decided improvement has taken place in this parish since my visitation last year. The congregations have increased. Mr. and Mrs. Baker are evidently both much respected by the parishioners, and there is a determination on the part of some to meet difficulties, and to bring the church to its completion. There are, however, some peculiar circumstances connected with this parish, that have, in some degree, impeded the progress of our work. Efforts have been made, by those who are not of us, to weaken the hold of the Church upon the minds of her members. Though some have been disturbed and distressed thereby, none have been led astray, and it will, I trust, be seen here, as elsewhere, that unkind and unjust attempts to mar the Church's work tend only in the end to strengthen it. A Romish priest has arrived in this village since my last visitation. He has no congregation. There are now, besides him, a Dutch and English minister, to a population of about 2,000 souls.

Wednesday.--Started at sis o'clock this morning. I sent my own horses on four hours last night, Mr. Barry having kindly lent me his for the first stage. By this means I was enabled to reach Captain Haulier's in good time. We stopped at several houses in the way for a short time. At Lindis I examined three candidates for confirmation from amongst the heathen. They had been baptized a short time before, by Mr. Sandberg, Minister of Caledon, who has since prepared them for confirmation. Mr. Sand-berg met me on the road at Mr. Vigne's, who has several children to be confirmed. As this is the fifth time of my passing through this country, I attempt no description of it. The mountains looked, however, more beautiful than ever; and the country, which is somewhat parched, notwithstanding the late rains, more dreary than usual, with its unbroken, monotonous rhinoster bush.

Just before leaving Swellendam, my letters from home brought me word that my old friend Mr. Jackson, Bishop Designate of Lyttelton, in New Zealand, had touched at the Cape on his way out, and was a guest of my wife's at Protea. He will have sailed again, I fear, before I can return home. It is a great disappointment to me to have missed him.

On Thursday, I left Captain Kainier's, and made a short day's journey to Colonel Dutton's, near Caledon. The next day I proceeded to Major Shaw's, stopping a few hours at Caledon in my way to see the clergyman and churchwardens, inspect the church, which is now remaining in an unfinished state from want of funds, and examine into the proceedings of the Church Building Committee, £c. I find that a good deal of money has been wasted on the building, which might have been completed, or nearly so, with the funds in hand, had they been judiciously expended. Some little irritation had arisen in consequence of my declining to draw for the grant of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, until I saw a prospect of the church being completed.

Saturday, Dee, 21st.--Major Shaw drove me into Caledon this morning for our meeting. There were assembled in the Court-house most of the neighbouring gentlemen. I received from them an address, signed by 121 parishioners, congratulating me on my safe return, regretting the stoppage of the church, and thanking me for the appointment of their minister, of whom they spoke in warm terms. After replying to the address, I laid before them the real state of the affairs of the parish, and pointed out to them the necessity of doing more towards the erection of the church, and the maintenance of the ministry. A very good and kindly spirit prevailed. The gentlemen present guaranteed the advancement of 20(W. on loan without security, and a fresh subscription was entered into. Upwards of 80l. was subscribed in the room, and several gentlemen undertook to collect throughout the district. I wrote a letter, after the meeting, to the minister and churchwardens, which is to be circulated throughout the parish, and the object of which is to make the English inhabitants feel, that if they desire to have a church and clergyman, they must all contribute largely towards both objects.

Sunday, 22d.--As a considerable number of the parishioners were expected to attend the services this day, I accepted of the offer of the loan of the Dutch church, in lieu of the public offices, which are not large. There was a very considerable congregation, both in the morning and afternoon. I preached on both occasions; we had thirty-two communicants in the rooming, and twenty-five candidates for confirmation in the afternoon. In the evening I returned to Major Shaw's. This will, I believe, be the last public service which I shall hold during the present visitation. God be praised that I have been enabled to go through every duty to which I have been called from the hour I left home, without having ever been hindered by sickness! Would that they had been more efficiently performed! No one is more deeply conscious than myself of my many deficiencies in the services of the sanctuary.

Monday, I'M.--Left Major Shaw's at five o'clock this morning; called at several English farms during the day. I had intended to have slept at the beautiful little village of Somerset; but, on arriving there at four o'clock, I determined to proceed to Eerste Rivier, which is a distance of nearly sixty miles from where I slept last night. Here I found my dearest wife, who had ridden thus far to meet me, and was on the point of starting again for Somerset.

Thursday, 24th.--We were in the saddle at six o'clock this morning, and, after an agreeable ride across the flats, reached home by ten o'clock. Here I was permitted to meet again my dearest children in health and strength. How shall I be sufficiently thankful to Almighty God for His many mercies towards me! He has most graciously protected me during an anxious and laborious visitation, which has lasted nearly nine months, and during which I have travelled in my cart, on horseback, or on foot, upwards of 4,000 miles; and enabled me to return to my home to find those nearest and dearest to me in perfect health and safety!

Sursum corda! May each renewed mercy be regarded as a fresh call to dedicate my whole self to Him and His service! "Let all that is within me praise His holy name!"

It may not be amiss if I record, at the close of this visitation, my views and impressions upon several points which have engaged much of my thoughts, and will be to many matters of some interest.

Though I have expressed myself freely, in several places in this Journal, upon passing events, which at the moment aroused my feelings, I have nevertheless upon principle abstained from touching upon many points, which, in my peculiar position, it seemed wise not to discuss. Had I been free to express opinions as a private individual, I should have wished to touch upon topics which, circumstanced as I am, cannot well be noticed. I propose, therefore, in the observations which I am about to make, to confine myself almost exclusively to the present stale and future prospects of the Church of this diocese, and only to allude to other extraneous matter as it seems to bear more or less directly upon the object which I have in view.


The Diocese of Capetown consists of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope; the Sovereignty; Natal; Kaffraria; and the island of St. Helena. St. Helena lies at a distance of 1,000 miles from Capetown on one side; Natal at 1,000 miles on the other; and the whole intervening country is included in the diocese. The Cape Colony alone is as large as England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Sovereignty is equal in extent to England and Wales; Natal, to the whole of Greece; and British Kaffraria, with the country beyond it, to Ireland. In point of extent of territory the diocese is, I believe, larger than any other in the world, except Calcutta, containing not less than 250,000 square miles.


The population within the diocese cannot be stated with any accuracy; but, so far as I have been able to ascertain, from inquiries on the spot, of those who are best informed on the subject, and from official documents, it amounts to about 700,000, and, perhaps, 800,000. It may be divided amongst the different countries or districts, perhaps, in the following proportions.

In the colony of the Cape of Good Hope there are upwards of 220,000. Of these, rather more than half are coloured. By far the larger portion of the remaining population is of Dutch extraction.

In the Sovereignty the population is estimated at nearly 100,000; of whom perhaps 85,000 are coloured.

In Natal the population is said to be 125,000; of whom 115,000 are Zulus.

The population of British Kaffraria is ascertained to be about 80,000. The Tambookies are rated, and probably over-rated, at 90,000; Kreli's tribe at 00,000; and the tribes between him and Natal, including Faku's, at 100,000. In point of population this exceeds any of our colonial dioceses, with the exception of the Indian, amongst which I include Ceylon. It has occupied nine months to travel over only a portion of the diocese. It would take a year to visit the whole; and in order to do so thoroughly, 6,000 miles must be travelled by land or by water. These facts, surely, are sufficient to show the absolute necessity of a speedy subdivision, of the diocese.


The languages chiefly spoken in this diocese are English, Dutch, and Kafir. But, besides these, the Bechuana, Hottentot, Bushman, and others of less note, prevail in some parts. Dutch is of much importance to clergymen ministering within the colony, especially in the western district, as nearly the whole of the coloured people speak that language in a corrupt form. A knowledge of the Kafir language will be essential to successful missionary operations among that people. The whole Kafir race up to Delagoa Bay speak the same language with slight variations. Mr. Appleyard, in his recent grammar, thus characterises it: "The Kafir, language, although at present spoken by a race of people just emerging from barbarism, bears strong internal evidence of having been used, at one time, by those who must have constituted a much more cultivated order of society. Time has probably effected a deterioration in some of its parts, considering in whose possession we find it; yet even now it does not seem to be the legitimate property of an uncivilized people." In sound, the language, especially in Natal, reminded me much of the Italian.


There can be no doubt that it has pleased God, during the last three years, to bless in a very remarkable manner the work of the Church in this land. The increase of life within our communion has been observed by all. The addresses presented to me in the course of this visitation are evidences of this. Unhappily our efforts to provide for the spiritual wants of our people, and to do the work God has given us to do, have not always been regarded in a Christian spirit by those who are not of us. We have been met not unfrequently with misrepresentation, and bitter opposition; and efforts have been made through the press, and in other ways, to excite the prejudices of the ignorant against the Church. From this wrong spirit most of the foreign missionaries, and, I think I may add, the Wesleyans generally, have been exempt. From some of the ministers of the Dutch Church much kindness and cooperation have been experienced. Independents, Baptists, Romanists, and some other self-constituted societies and sects, have been the most bitter. I am thankful to say that the great body of the clergy have both felt and acted with real charity towards those who differ from us. They have ever sought and desired to live on terms of amity with all who are round about them, and have, I believe, been uniformly courteous to all. Still, I repeat, amidst the jealousy and opposition of others the work has prospered, it is not yet three years since I landed in the colony. There were then sixteen clergy in the diocese. At this moment there are fifty, notwithstanding that three have withdrawn. Several more are expected. It is impossible not to feel anxious about the future maintenance of the extensive work which has been undertaken in this land. There are circumstances peculiar to this colony which render the establishment of the Church upon a secure foundation singularly difficult. Amongst these we must reckon the distinction of race and class, with all its prejudices and antipathies. There are three distinct races at least in each village or parish, and there is no drawing towards one another on the part of any. Of these the English are the fewest in number, and they are again broken up by religious divisions. The Churchmen are indeed in most places of the colony more numerous than the dissenters, and many of these latter have already joined our communion. But we are in most places the last in the field, are regarded as intruders, and have lost, through our previous neglect, many valuable members. The scattered nature of our population offers another great difficulty. Our people, few in number as they are, are distributed over a vast extent of country, which, for the most part, is incapable of supporting a dense population. The critical question for us is, How are we to maintain our ministry for the next few years, until our numbers are increased by immigration, by converts from the heathen, or the return to our communion of such of our members as at present are separate from us? Our people are generally doing as much as, or more than, I could have expected. Notwithstanding the efforts required to erect their churches., they are coming forward to maintain a standing ministry; but the amount thus raised is wholly inadequate, and will be so for some years to come. The colonial government renders some assistance; but support from this quarter is likely to be diminished rather than increased in years to come. Under these circumstances we must continue to look to the mother land and mother Church to aid us. That she disregarded her responsibilities towards this colony for well nigh half a century, and thereby made the work more difficult when entered upon in earnest, is an additional reason for pushing it forward with unremitting zeal and vigour during the first few years. There, is good reason to hope, I think, that from year to year each parish will do more and more towards maintaining its own work. But Churchmen, who at home have had their spiritual wants supplied through the bounty of our forefathers, are slow to learn the lesson that their own offerings are the only endowment to be depended upon here, and many are really not capable of doing much, for the colony is after all a very poor one. The average expenditure of the Wesleyan Society in this land has been 10,000l. a-year for the last ten years. The London Society (Independents) expends, I believe, 6,000l. And other Protestant denominations, exclusive of the English Church, make up the total to something little short of 30,000l. a-year.


There are in South Africa altogether upwards of 200 ministers of religion. Many of these are engaged in missionary operations far beyond the countries which I have visited. Some, indeed, are not far distant from the great lake discovered by Mr. Oswell, an Indian gentleman, and Mr. Livingstone, of the London Society.

The number, indeed, of those who are engaged in endeavouring to plant the Gospel amongst the tribes beyond the colony, and to civilize them, is considerable. Unhappily, there is no unity o£ design in their efforts, nor is there any adequate system of supervision established. They act independently of each other, without much mutual consultation or intercourse. The field, however, is so wide, that it is very rarely that one Society interferes with another There is ample room for all; and, so far as I have been able to judge, a kind and brotherly spirit prevails amongst those Christians who dwell in the very midst of the kingdom of darkness. But the fact that there are not less than twenty I different religions in South Africa, cannot but be a subject for anxious consideration to the thoughtful mind which looks forward to the future.


It would be presumptuous to speak very decidedly as to the future prospects of the Church. The difficulties arising from race and language, will, at least for years to come, stand greatly in the way of its extension. It yet remains to be seen how far these will be overcome. All that can be said at present is, that the Church appears to be taking deep root in the land, and that a few years more of progress like the three that are past will, under God, establish it firmly. If His Spirit be poured out, as we hope and pray, in enlarged measure on ministers and people, there will be no reason for fear or doubt, and we need be under no anxiety. It is impossible to tell as yet what effect the changes which are about to take place in our political institutions may have upon the Church. Looking at the spirit and temper of the times, and bearing in mind that representative institutions will place great political power in the hands of the majority of the population, which is not of British extraction, and has strong prejudices and antipathies, I own I do not look forward to the future with much comfort or confidence. I shall be agreeably surprised if efforts should not be made to withdraw Ecclesiastical grants from the Church, though it is to be hoped that, under the worst circumstances, vested interests will be respected, and that those who under distinct pledges have come out to labour for Christ's cause and truth in the land, thereby sacrificing preferment and prospects at home, will not be cast adrift without a prospect of support, and incapable, from their sacred profession, of seeking employment and maintenance through worldly business and occupations. Probably the circumstance that the Dutch and English Church must, in this respect, stand or fall together, may save us from injustice. If thrown on their own resources, the former, with all their advantage of numbers, would, I believe, have greater difficulty in maintaining their ministry than we should.

Then, again, it seems quite uncertain what effect the war, which, while I write, has just burst out, may have upon our work. It is certain that the whole eastern province will be thereby impoverished, and vast numbers of our people be ruined. Indeed they are so already, for their houses are destroyed, and their flocks have perished. They will not, therefore, be able to fulfil their engagements towards the support of their ministers. Should the Home Government decline to pay the expenses of this war, which some think it will, as a just punishment for our violence and rebellious spirit during the last two I oars, but which it is hoped the generosity of the British Parliament will not determine upon, as it would well-nigh ruin the colony;--should this unfortunately prove to be the ease, I do not see how the colony, burdened with a heavy debt, would be able to maintain its existing establishments. Looking, therefore, at our present position, I feel satisfied that, if the mother Church were to relax her efforts in behalf of her newly-planted daughter in this land, it would expose our whole work to imminent peril. we cannot as yet stand alone. Our work is, however, founded upon right principles, the principles of our Church and Prayer-book; and I look confidently for increased fruits from year to year.

I have already in the body of my Journal spoken fully on this head, and will, therefore, only here repeat that there is a mighty field before us; that there are myriads of souls within this diocese, who have yet to be won to Christ; and that if we, as a Church, are to go forth in the name of God against the powers of darkness in this land, the means and the men must be furnished from home. Every parish in this diocese will contribute according to its ability; but the amount so raised will be wholly inadequate for the carrying on of any extensive work. I do earnestly hope that we may not plead in vain for men and means for this special work. The Kafir war just broken out delay the formation of our mission in Kaffraria, upon which we were just preparing to enter. But the more important field amongst the Zulus in Natal is still open to us.


It may be well that I should say here a few words on the subject of Education. There are not, perhaps, many countries in the world that devote so large a proportion of their revenue towards providing education for their people. Out of a contemplated revenue of 204,161l. for the year 1851, it was intended to have appropriated no less a sum than 7,478l. to this special purpose, which is about the proportion granted in former years. The violent disruption, however, of the legislative council prevented the estimates from being passed.

The greater portion of this annual grant is expended in the maintenance of free government schools in the towns and villages of the colony. Each of these is supported at an expense to Government of from 150l. to 300l., or even 350l. There are other schools which are aided by Government in villages and in the country; these are supported in part by subscriptions, and payments from the children. The mission schools also throughout the colony receive some assistance; and there is a so-called college in Capetown, to which a grant has been made of 400l. a-year. In the schools which are altogether supported by Government no creeds or catechisms are allowed to be taught, though this rule is not strictly observed.

It is a subject of great regret to many that the liberal intentions of Government have not, from various causes, been of that service to the country, which, had they been more efficiently carried out, they might have been. Though there are several excellent schools in the colony, which have been raised by the exertions and abilities of some very efficient teachers, the Government system of education now in operation cannot be considered as that which is best suited to the existing circumstances of the country.

The South African College, above alluded to, has long, and very generally, been regarded as almost useless. I doubt much, whether for some time past it has had ten pupils within its walls who were paying anything for their education. Not a few of the schools in the villages of the colony have failed to secure the confidence of the inhabitants, and some of them are almost without pupils. Several causes have led to this. The teachers are in some instances most inefficient, and have been, in our late disturbances, amongst the most violent democrats in the colony. The School Commissions possess no powers, and therefore take no interest in the schools. The schools being free, are open to all. Precisely the same education is professedly given in the same school to the children of the chief people in the neighbourhood as is given to the children of Hottentots and Kafirs. This is by many urged as a grave objection against the schools, and there is force in the objection. I do not indeed in the least sympathise with the feeling which leads the white man to think it a degradation for his child to be educated with a coloured child; but surely the education required for the children of merchants, farmers, and magistrates, is not exactly that which you would give to the Hottentots; nor is it altogether unreasonable that Christian parents should object to their children being brought into close; contact either with the moral or physical contamination which the children of heathen parents almost invariably carry with them. Another objection urged against these schools is, that the teachers are allowed to take payments from parents who choose to pay. It is thought that the free children are neglected for these. I have also frequently heard parents complain that their children, instead of receiving a plain solid education, are taught the bare elements of science. I have often myself been struck with this. As an illustration of my meaning I select at random from the Blue Book of last year, some extracts from the official returns of Government schools, to which it will be remembered the children of the coloured people are admitted, and which are entirely free. "The subjects selected for discussion were........the analysis and etymology of words......the properties of matter; the nature and influence of heat,--the first principles of mechanical science......the higher brandies of arithmetic.'

Another discusses "the first principles of statics applied to fluids." Another, "the first principles of physical science, including the properties of matter connected with the subject of motion, the elements of chemistry," &c.

The education of the farmers in the country is in some degree sacrificed to the maintenance of these schools, which are often inferior to schools started in the same place by private individuals, who succeed in maintaining themselves without any Government assistance. It would be a great improvement if, for the present system, were substituted one which merely aided the inhabitants of any village in the maintenance of their own schools, over which the promoters might exercise a control. This would render the existing schools less costly to Government, and place at their disposal additional funds, for the extension of education in the remoter districts, for which, up to this time, very little has been done. I do not think that there would be any objection to this on the part of the inhabitants of the towns and villages. On the contrary, I am persuaded that they would rejoice in the alteration. They no longer require an entirely gratuitous education; and are prepared to contribute something towards their children's instruction. Unless some such arrangement be come to, the country districts cannot be provided for; for the colony cannot, out of its revenue, appropriate a much larger sum for educational purposes. Nor does it seem reasonable that 200l. or 300l. a-year should be given for the education often of a very limited number of pupils, while extensive neighbourhoods are left altogether destitute. At present this is the case. In many parts of the country there is no education at all. The inhabitants are growing up in a sad state of ignorance. The usual custom with those who value education is for a farmer to engage a tutor--say for six mouths, or a year, or longer, to teach his children. They learn to read and write their names, and get up the Catechism of their Church, and there, I fear, their education too often ends. These tutors have been frequently men of bad character,--discharged soldiers, &c. Some of them, however, are very respectable men; and an improved class is being educated for the work, through the efforts of the Dutch ministers in Capetown.

Of course any alteration in the present government system of education would have to be carried out gradually, so as not to interfere with, the engagements made with, existing teachers.

We have not been able as yet to do much in the way of education. Our Collegiate school, which has already cost 2,600l., is, indeed, full; and many more, whom the Principal is obliged to refuse, would avail themselves of the advantages which it offers, if there were funds for the enlargement of the buildings. Grammar schools have also been erected in Capetown and Grahamstown; and there are a few other Church schools here and there throughout the diocese.

There are few things which I am more anxious about, or deem of greater importance, than the erection of suitable college buildings. Till we are able to do this, our most important educational work must be cramped. Had we sufficient room to accommodate double our present number of pupils, the College would, I think, support itself. I subjoin the Appeal which I published some time since in behalf of this undertaking.1

January 10th, 1851.--I have thought it desirable at the present eventful period, to continue from time to time to place on record facts and circumstances of moment to the colony and the Church.

On Christmas-day I was again permitted to celebrate the Holy Communion in the cathedral; 170 communicated. During the course of the week the following Address was presented to me:--



"We, the undersigned members of the Vestry and Churchwardens of the Cathedral Church of St. George, and lay members of the Church of England, resident in Capetown and its neighbourhood, beg to offer our hearty congratulations on your Lordship's safe return to this city after so very long and laborious a visitation throughout the remote divisions of your diocese. We are fully sensible of the deep and earnest devotion with which your Lordship has sought to diffuse the pure spirit of the Gospel amid the destitute portions of South Africa, and of the cheerfulness and zeal with which you encountered the toil and privation to which you have been thus unavoidably exposed; and we confidently trust that, in God's appointed time, they will be productive of good to those on whose behalf they were undertaken; and that, eventually, the services, sacraments, and teaching of our venerable Church, may be brought within the reach of the greater part, if not of the whole of her dispersed members in every part of the diocese.

"Nor are we less sensible of your Lordship's untiring efforts for the diffusion of true religion in the hearts of the people in this more favoured part of the colony, nor of the manifold benefits we have ourselves derived from your Lordship's appointment to the See of Capetown.

"Without a Bishop for the maintenance of order and discipline, the Church of England at the Cape of Good Hope was, for many years, so inadequately provided with a ministry, as to be wholly incompetent to perform the work which lay so widely scattered around her; while many of her members, from the want of Shepherds to lead them, wandered in pursuit of pasture into other folds.

"But, blessed be God, under whose providential care your Lordship has at length been sent to oversee the gathering in of the flocks, brighter hopes have now dawned upon the Church of South Africa; and we heartily pray that you may long be preserved to provide for her growth and maturity; that your Lordship may long continue to be a blessing to all those whose spiritual welfare is within the reach of the influence of your conduct, and example; and that, hereafter, when you shall be called to render account of your sacred and solemn mission, you may receive that rich reward which our Heavenly Father has in store for those, who, under the guidance of His Holy Spirit, have laboured faithfully in the discharge of those apostolical duties for which they have been consecrated in, his Church here on earth."

To this I replied as follows:--



"I beg to acknowledge the receipt of an Address from the Vestry, Churchwardens, and Lay Members of the Church of England, resident in Capetown and its neighbourhood, which you have been good enough to forward to me, and in which they offer their hearty congratulations on my safe return, after a long and laborious visitation throughout the remote divisions of the diocese. I shall feel obliged by your conveying to the subscribers to the Address my sincere thanks for their kind and cordial welcome, after so long an absence. It has pleased God to bring me back in health and safety, after a visitation which has extended over nearly nine months. May the life which He has spared be devoted more entirely to Him and His service!

"The Address expresses a hope that the day is not far distant when the members of the Church throughout the land will be provided with an adequate supply of the means of grace, within their own communion. Such, I trust, will ere long be the case.

"It is, indeed, being gradually accomplished through the zeal of the members of the Church, who in many places have contributed very largely, both towards the erection of churches, and the maintenance of their ministers, and who are beginning very generally to feel that their spiritual wants can only be supplied by much exertion and self-denial on their part.

"Commending our work to the blessing and favour of Almighty God,

"I remain, dear Sir, faithfully yours,


On the following Sunday I preached in the cathedral, from Isaiah xxvi. 9: "When thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world shall learn righteousness." I endeavoured to impress upon the Church my own conviction,--that this land is suffering God's chastisement for its sins, and especially for those of the last two years. I urged particularly the severe drought, which had almost led to a famine in the east;--the plague of locusts, which had visited the country in greater numbers than for the last quarter of a century;--the unceasing rains in the west, followed by the rust;--and the war, which seemed to be impending; as proofs that God was visiting us in His wrath.

On the last day of the year we had full service in the cathedral in the evening, and again on the morning of the new year,--the Feast of the Circumcision, when seventy partook of the Lord's Supper. Mr. Newman preached on both occasions. As we came out of church we were informed that the Kafirs had commenced the war. The probability of this must have occurred to most minds; but men were sanguine to the last, that it would be staved off, at least for the present. The immediate effect was, that our troops, 2,500 in number, were shut up in their forts, and their communication with each other and with the colony was cut off. The Governor himself, with Colonel Mackinnon, was cooped up in Port Cox. He did not, however, remain there long; but, having 250 Cape Corps with him, and but little forage, he cut his way through the enemy to King William's Town, distant about twenty-four miles. Col. Somerset, who attempted to open a communication with the Governor, was obliged to retreat with the loss of about thirty men. the Kafir Hermanns, located at the Blinkwater, within the colony, has taken part with the enemy, and is now ravaging the Winterberg, carrying fire and sword throughout the country. Even the Hottentots of the Kat River settlement are said to be disaffected; and there is some reason to fear that Kreli, and the Tambookie chief's, are preparing to ravage the frontier. Should this be the case, the odds against us will be fearful.

Fort Beaufort and Alice have each been attacked, but the enemy has been repulsed from both by the inhabitants aided by a few soldiers. The military villages of Auckland, Woburn, and Joannasburg, have been destroyed, and the male inhabitants massacred. At Grahamstown there are no troops. The inhabitants, who are expecting to be attacked, are constantly under arms. Straggling bodies of Kafirs wander over the whole open country. Houses and individuals have been attacked in various directions; the houses have been burnt, and the inmates, in some instances, murdered. Great efforts are being made to raise levies. These consist almost exclusively of Hottentots from the Missionary Institutions (chiefly Moravian) in the west, and of Fingoes from the frontier. The English do not appear to volunteer in great numbers, and the Dutch scarce at all.

On Thursday, the 2d of January, a synodical meeting of the Clergy of the Rural Deanery of Capetown was held at Protea; nineteen clergy were present, a larger number than had ever met before in the diocese. I gave them some account of my visitation, and of the state of the diocese; laid before them the Zulu Mission scheme, which met with their entire approbation; and consulted them about the division of the diocese, which they appeared to think as necessary as their more distant brethren do. I also informed them of the circumstances which seemed to require my return to England, and invited their opinion. They concurred with me; in the necessity of the step, and expressed themselves very kindly on. the subject. They unanimously agreed to the proposal that, under our present chastisement, a day should be appointed for special humiliation before God, with prayer and fasting, and that we should seek the co-operation of the Dutch Church in the matter. A Service has since been prepared, and the Governor has recommended the day to be observed by all Christians in the Colony.

January 20th.--The Archdeacon of Grahamstown has had a very merciful escape. He walked into Grahamstown the very day the war broke out, which was also the day of my return home. He had been out on visitation six weeks, during which he had accomplished 800 miles on foot. For the last three weeks, in his way down from Bloemfontein, he had been in the part of the country most exposed to invasion. Had he been a week later he would have been in imminent peril. A merciful Providence, however, watched over him. Several of the clergy are, I grieve to say, in much danger. Mr. and Mrs. Beaver have sustained two severe attacks in Alice from the Kafirs; Fort Beaufort, where Mr. and Mrs. Wilshere reside, has been also twice attacked; on the second occasion the chief Hermanns was killed, fighting in the streets. Mr. Willson, at Post Retief, is, perhaps, in the most perilous situation. The place has been repeatedly attacked by the Hottentots, who have now, throughout the whole of the east, joined in the rebellion; it has only a few farmers to defend it, and all communication with it has been cut off. Mr. Waters and Mr. Henchman are both in laagers in their respective parishes. Not one clergyman, however, has yet abandoned his post. Mr. Boon, catechist at the Mancazana, has indeed been compelled to fly, and his residence, and his church, the latter only just freed from debt, have, I believe, been burnt.

March 20th.--The war still drags on, without much prospect of a speedy conclusion. Through Mr. Montagu's indefatigable exertions, 3,000 newly raised levies, chiefly Hottentots, have been sent up to the Governor. These have been employed on frequent patrols; but no great blow has yet been struck. The Kafirs fight boldly, hand to hand with the troops, and the Hottentots, in their present undisciplined state, seem hardly a match for them. The Fingoes, on all occasions, fight with great courage. Having been formerly slaves to the Kafirs they hate their ancient masters with a deadly hatred. The addition to the Governor's force has enabled him to send 400 European levies to Major-General Somerset, who proceeded with these to the Kat River settlement, where he was joined by bodies of Dutch and English volunteers. A combined attack was made upon the Hottentots, who had taken possession of Fort Armstrong, a very strong post. The post was taken after a severe fight, and in the course of the next few days the rebellion was apparently put down. Several hundred prisoners have been taken, many thousand sheep and oxen, and seventy wagons of goods of all kinds,--the spoils of the neighbouring farms, watches, jewellery, books, dresses, scientific instruments. This is the state of things up to the present time. The Gaika Kafirs in the Amatola, not less than 40,000 in number, still remain to be conquered, and such of the Tambookies as have engaged in the war.

The inhabitants of the eastern province are crying out for a commission to inquire into the causes of the Hottentot rebellion. It is laid by them very freely at the door of the Missionaries of the London and Glasgow Societies. The whole subject is at present involved in much mystery; but I cannot for an instant believe that any Missionaries would deliberately encourage rebellion, though I can easily understand their whole system and teaching might lead to it. There is certainly a very great contrast in the conduct of the coloured races who are under the training of Moravians and Wesleyans, when compared with those who are under the London and Scotch Societies, This is so remarkable, that it has been observed by all who are acquainted with the state of things in the country.

I feel it right to express here my firm conviction that neither the present Kafir war, nor the rebellion of the Hottentots, has been brought about by any oppression on the part of the Government of this country. There are features in our border policy of which I cannot approve; but our Government of British Kaffraria has been wise, just, and humane. We have, it is true, held military possession of the country; it was essential to our own safety that we should; but we have not interfered with the government of the chief's more than was absolutely necessary; and, when we have interfered, it has been to protect the oppressed. The real causes which have led to the present war with the Kafirs are,--1st, that under the system that is established, the chiefs' power was gradually fading away;--3d, cattle stealing was put a stop to by a very efficient police;--3d, the distress consequent upon the severe drought of last year;--and 4th, A knowledge of our internal divisions, and the alienation of feelings between the white and coloured races, and between the English and the Dutch.

For the Hottentot rebellion there is no excuse whatever. The rebels of Kat River had had one of the finest parts of the country given them to live on; Government dealt most liberally with them. Sobriety and industry would have enabled them to take their place among the landed proprietors of the country. That the white man has failed in his duty to the coloured races in South Africa,--the Christian to the heathen, I do not deny; I feel it to be a great reproach. But whatever may be the amount of his short-coming in this respect, it would be a grievous wrong to assign it as a justification of the rebellion which has spread over so large a portion of the eastern province.

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