AND THENCE TO LAGOS, ON THE SEA COAST,
CHURCH MISSIONARY HOUSE,
SEELEYS, JACKSON & HALLIDAY, FLEET STREET.
THE Niger Mission of the Church Missionary Society must be regarded with peculiar interest by all the friends of Missions, especially those of the Church of England, inasmuch as it is an offshoot of the West African Mission, entirely conducted by native teachers, catechists, deacons, and priests, with a native bishop at their head.
The principal station is at Onitsha, on the banks of the Niger, 150 miles from that commenced in the year 1857. Another station is at the confluence of the two rivers, the Tshadda and the Niger, called Lokoja, 260 miles from the sea. A third station is at Akassa, on the sea coast, and on the River Nun, which forms one branch of the delta of the Niger.
Bishop Crowther resides for a part of the year at Lagos, and annually visits the Niger when the depth of water for a few months allows trading ships or Her Majesty's gunboats to ascend the river. Accounts have been given from time to time in the Church Missionary Record and Intelligencer of these visitations.
At Lokoja a British Consul resided for several years, Dr. Baikie, who zealously promoted the objects of the Mission, as well as the commercial interests of the British traders. But in the year 1869 the Consul was withdrawn, and the community were therefore cast upon their own resources for their preservation. They elected a manager of the settlement, and applied to the Mahometan Nupe king, called Masaba, who is a powerful sovereign and whose dominions surround Lokoja, to protect them and to recognize the manager whom they had appointed. For the negociation of this affair Bishop Crowther and the commander of Her Majesty's gunboats, then in the river, together with a deputation from the settlement, visited King Masaba at Bida, and received from him the assurance of his protection and friendly assistance. The Bishop then prepared to return with the trading vessels to the coast, and so on to Lagos. But the two best vessels o which he depended for his return were both [3/4] grounded, owing to the fall of the river, the one above Lokoja, and the other below it, near Onitsha, and there were no means of again floating the vessels till the rise of the river six months later. In the meantime Lokoja was exposed to new dangers from the lawless conduct of the troops of King Masaba, who had been commissioned to defend the settlements; and it was determined to send another party to King Masaba to remonstrate against the injurious conduct of his soldiers, and also to obtain his assistance for the safe passage of Bishop Crowther and several of the officers of the grounded vessels overland to Lagos.
Bishop Crowther has sent home his journal of this second visit to Bida, and of his journey overland to Lagos, which conveys such a graphic account of the country and of the favourable disposition of King Masaba and other Mahometan kings towards the Queen of England, as well as so much evidence of the gradual growth of the native Church, that it is now printed for publication in a separate form
The Committee of the Church Missionary Society trust that this simple narrative may show that there is every prospect of Africa being opened to Christianity and lawful commerce, through the agency of her own converted sons, if only a sufficient supply of well-trained men are sent forth to take advantage of the favourable openings now presented in Western Africa. But for this purpose the funds of the Society need to be enlarged, and the hearts of Christian friends need to be stirred up to more abundant prayer to the Lord, that His Divine blessing may rest upon the enterprise.
CHURCH MISSIONARY HOUSE,
Report of the Overland Journey from Lokoja to Bida on the Niger,
and thence to Lagos on the Sea Coast, from November 10th, 1871, to February 8th, 1872.
I MUST continue my notices of this years visit to the Niger Mission, though my plans of operations have been entirely thwarted by the unfortunate grounding of the "Victoria" up the river. This circumstance having deranged my plans, I was unable to proceed down the river to Onitsha, where I had left orders for the inspection of the land promised for a new station at Ossamare, intended to be taken up this year; and thence to Brass River, to arrange finally about the occupation of Nembe, for which all preparations had been made; and thence to Bonny, where extensive enlargements were being made for the improvement of the mission work; and my steps were directed to the overland route back to Bida in Nupe, and through the Yoruba country to Lagos, leaving the "Victoria" on the sand, in the bed of the river, till the next season.
Nov. 8th,--A few days after the destruction of Shintakun by the Basas, as had been already noticed, Akaia returned to Gbebe, from the lower parts of the river, wherein he had stationed himself for self-defence against the attack of his opponent elder brother Abaje, both of whom, however, it has been reported, have been reconciled to each other by the newly crowned Atta. Akaia appeared to have put the Basas on their guard against the young traitor who was crossing Masaba's troops over to subdue them, to check his progress in time before they became too strong to be removed; by promptly acting up to this Instruction, the Basas were successful in destroying Shintakun in time, before the main body of the troops arrived from the inland camp.
To-day, under a pretence of friendship to Lokoja, and of being a dependent of King Masaba, Akaia came off the settlement with fourteen armed canoes, and halted on a sand-bank opposite the town, to demand the refugees from Shintakun to be delivered to him. He also pretended that he had been [5/6] instructed by King Masalia to receive a certain amount of goods from the merchants at Lokoja, and had come to receive these two demands. But he was told by the sub-manager that none of these demands could be executed unless by direct positive instructions from the King. These messages were delivered by special messengers, going to and fro in a canoe between the town and, sand-bank. When he failed in carrying out his deceit, he left and promised to return the next day.
Nov. 9th--Accordingly, before noon Akaia returned with his fleet of fourteen canoes with a declared hostile intention, and openly demanded the refugees to be delivered, which of course was refused. Instead, however, of going away, his people were observed making preparations to encamp on the sand-bank, to collect as many as sympathized with him, to steal away the canoes from the water-side, and annoy the settlement: but Seriki, Masaba's chief messenger, being aware of Akaia's intention,--his plans having been reported from the opposite side of the river, with the advice from Chief Majiko, not to allow him to encamp there that day, lest he should prove troublesome,--he and the sub-manager soon gave orders to drive him away from the sand-bank, which was done with a few shots from shore, chiefly from the refugees from Shintakun, who were the chief object aimed at to be taken prisoners. Akaia seeing his position untenable, very soon cleared off with his fleet.
This was the chief who applied to me in 1870, when he was harassed by his opponent brother Abaje, to beg the favour of the commanding officer to support him as the chief of Gbebe, by doing him honours, but which request was not complied with. Akaia's situation is now very precarious; he is loyal to the Atta (of Idda), who is unable to support him; he has proved faithless to Masaba, who had been his supporter and defender; and it is to be feared, the destruction of Shintakun aiud slaughter of so many of Masaba's war men will involve Akaia in greater troubles than he had had with his brother Abaje, This conflicting state of things will influence the Lokoja station in a great measure, either to improve the progress of the work or to retard it. I must leave the mission in this state to the care and preservation of Him whose is the work.
Nov. 10th.--In consequence of the "Victoria" remaining fast on a sandbank, our downward course was prevented. The land route must be taken, the portion of the river between Magajia, where the "Victoria" is aground, and Gori, not being safe for unarmed canoes; as Muye, a town on an island between, was hostile to King Masaba, we feared to come in contact with such a people in boats or canoes, lest they might detain us; therefore preparations were made for a journey to Bida from Lokoja, by the hilly country, till we got to Gori, on the river-side above Muye; to effect this, a selection of necessary articles was made into portable loads for the carriers' heads. About 8 a.m. we started for the journey, some on horseback; others on foot, because horses could not be got for all; we travelled about three miles along the river; other three miles led us through the valleys till we came to the foot of the mountain, known by the natives as Pati Abá, famous for its difficult ascent, over which we [6/7] must go. From the foot of Pati Abá, on looking to the opposite table mountain of Lokoja, it is much higher here westward than eastward on the back of the settlement, while the height eastward is calculated to be about 500 ft. above the level of the river; it could not be less than 800 ft. on the west, especially at certain points, where it stood almost perpendicular from the valley, like ruined fortifications. The sister mountain we had to ascend is about the same height. The valley between them is extensive and tolerably wooded; uncultivated, as the inhabitants are unsettled, because not safe.
After going up and down two or three abrupt small hills and valleys, we came to the foot of the great mountain, where there was a spring of water: here all rested and took refreshments preparatory to the great ascent; this done, we betook ourselves to climb; stiff indeed it was, a hard labour for the horses to pull themselves upwards with their riders struggling to maintain their footing on the loose stones, on the crooked windings, and then on straight ascent; finding it impossible for the rider to keep himself on his seat, every one dismounted and took to his feet. This was the time to know how much weight the knees have to support and carry; on a level road the motion is uniform, the labour is not soon felt, but on an ascent they have not only to support, but to lift up the weight of the whole body moved onward. It was amusing when overtaking our fellow traveller, a sailor, sitting by the wayside on a rock, panting for breath, his horse held by his side, to hear him wishing he was on board his ship instead of there, and the young inexperienced traveller wondering when we should get to the top; there was no offer of assistance one to another, every one for himself, he must get up the best way he could in this way; about an hour's climbing, all got to the top of the table mountain, where there was water in hollows of rocks.
Though to us this ascent seemed formidable, yet the carriers, both males and females, with loads of from 56 to 60 lbs. on their heads, ascended it patiently with their burdens; it was a hard labour for them, though they had been accustomed to travel on it; there was no other way to get to these hilly countries.
Here one fully sees and feels the great advantage of even, good foot-roads, the use of the beasts of burden, and means of conveyance, as carts or waggons, in their rudest construction; in these things Africa is far behind all other nations. This short description of the difficulties of travelling iii this country shows how much is wanting to improve this country; and this want will continue to be felt, unless some civilizing influence rise to give her a lift from this state of degradation and wretchedness, where the inhabitants are worn out, being in appearance of the age of o before they are 40, on account of extra wear and tear of bodily labour, for want of the help of machines. We had the satisfaction to think that the inhabitants of Lokoja, being regarded as the King's warriors, were paid for carrying our loads over this great mountain, and were not compelled to do it gratuitously to serve the King.
All our party having got to the top of the mountain, we rested awhile before we started afresh on the level rocky plateau--for miles--the rest of the day till we arrived at the town of Agbaja, fortified with weak walls [7/8] in front, as the town is situated at the edge of a deep valley, in shape like an oval dish-cove; which was well cultivated; this unexpectedly bursting into view was very attractive to the sight. Native plants of every description were growing in it; besides which, it was adorned with a. forest of stately palm trees, and other trees of full, green foliage, which gives one the idea of a gentleman's plantations in a civilized country. At the bottom of this valley was a spring of water issuing out from the bowels of the rocky mountain; nothing could surpass it for clearness, and a most refreshing cool drink. Two similar valleys were passed by, near which were small villages, but were not cultivated like that of the town of Agbaja. The top of the table-land is sandstone, partially covered to a great extent with shallow earth, from about six inches to two feet deep, for miles. In many parts the rock is quite bare on the surface to a great distance--where the soil can be scraped together into hillocks cultivation may be seen. In consequence of the stony character of this part of the mountain, and scarcity of water, except in the valleys, it is very thinly inhabited; besides this, the country being in possession of King Masaba, to whom it is tributary, his soldiers are very oppressive; many are therefore glad to get out of their way to other parts of the country to escape frequent exactions. The inhabitants are poor and miserable, We made about twenty miles to-day from Lokoja to the town of Agbaja.
Nov. 11th.--We had to wait here all day for Seriki, our guide, who had not left Lokoja till this morning, because yesterday was Friday, an unlucky day to undertake an important business, or to start on a journey, among the Mohammedans. He arrived here towards evening.
Nov. 12th.--Here the people were demanded to carry our loads free of expense on the King's service, according to custom, because we were the King's strangers. All arrangements were made last night--early this morning the carriers took our luggage. As we were perfect strangers in this part of the country, and having no control over circumstances, we had to follow till we came to the next town, called Ikushemi, about mid-day, where the carriers left the loads to their neighbours to carry in their turn, and returned to Agbaja. We travelled on a parallel line with the river on the plateau for about eight miles, when we descended the mountain on the north-east side and travelled about four miles on the lowland plain to Ikushemi: total about twelve miles. Here we remained the rest of the day, and in the evening I read the evening Prayers among ourselves.
Nov. 13th--Started early with a portion of the carriers, the rest were sent for from neighbouring villages. Our way lay north.east towards the river, Halted for a while at a palm village to procure eatables, and then proceeded in very bad, swampy grass-fields. In some places we had to dismount anti cross the swamps and streams on foot to the middle, because not safe riding. The horses' feet often sank in the soft mud, they had sufficient to do to extricate themselves. About 3 p.m. we halted at [8/9] the market-place of Ikereje, at the foot of a table mountain, and slept under trees in the market-place under the village.
Here, the people, being near Muye, showed a little independent spirit, and would throw off Masaba's yoke at the least opportunity; they occupy several villages on the top of the table mountain for security; however, through the persevering efforts of Seriki, our leader, they were prevailed upon to carry our loads to Con the next morning.
Nov. 14th,--Seriki cautioned us to keep together, as we were nearing the river opposite Muye island, which is hostile to King Masaba, whose inhabitants disturb the road at times: all the guides got their weapons ready for self-defence in case of sudden attack. In this way we went on till we arrived at the Con creek, where the carriers put down their loads at the ferry, and simultaneously ran away to avoid crossing the creek, and being compelled to resume the carriage of the loads to the town, three miles further on from the ferry; however, as Seriki was still behind, he secured fifteen of them by threat with a drawn sword, and forced them to cross the creek and convey their loads to Got!. The horses were sent back to Lokoja from this creek. After all the loads were crossed over, we followed. From the ferry to Gori town was the worst of the road we had yet walked. The soil between the creek and the main river, on which the town of Gori is situated, being alluvial, as it is always overflooded at the rise of the river every year--at this season of the fall the whole extent is mud and puddle in many places knee-deep--we did not know this before, and even had we known it, it could not have been avoided; there was no alternative but to wade through, and this we all did and got safely to Gori town about three miles from the ferry. The first object of attention was to cast off our travelling garb, wash ourselves, and change our clothes. The people of Gori were very indifferent, they hid their canoes, and would not render helps to convey us to Budon; they seemed to sympathize with their friends at Muye, who are Kakandas like themselves, though they pretended to be at war with them on the part of Masaba, to whom they are reluctantly subject: I think their war is more of a mock fight than anything else.
Nov. 15th.--We were obliged to remain quiet to-day, because no canoes to take us to Budon; however, some were promised to he brought from Budon that evening to take us away early next morning.
Nov. 16th.--Early this morning the canoes were announced, but they were not sufficient to cross our party and a large number o f other passengers which had joined us from Lokoja; this made the number so unusua1y large, which did not a little inconvenience us; but as they, like ourselves, took the advantage of travelling under the wing of Seriki, the King's messenger, we had to yield to circumstances. As all the passengers could not get canoes to cross to Budon to-day the rest had to remain till the next morning, when Seriki brought up the rear.
 Nov. 17th.--Here we had to encounter new difficulties least expected. A young man, son of Ndamaraki, the war chief of King Masaba in the camp, was secretly entrusted with a message from the Galadima, at Lokoja, to the chiefs of Gori and Budon to this purport, "That we, being merchants, having plenty of property, they, the chiefs of Budon should make us pay heavily for any service they may render to us." This we least expected, as we were prepossessed in favour of the young man, who seemed to have interested himself much in us, which we misconstrued to good feelings towards us, and loyalty to his sovereign, and had already talked among ourselves of giving him a handsome present for his services and seeming good conduct; but we were quite surprised to hear the nature of his message to the chiefs of Budon.
But the fault was not in the messenger, he did as he was instructed; however, Seriki was indignant at this message from the Galadima, who would have been murdered by his fellow soldiers lately at Lokoja--because he was discovered in secret communication with Akaia, and was strongly suspected of being at the bottom of the late defeat of the King's allies by the Basas at Shintakun--had not the sub-manager concealed this Galadima from the violence of his fellow war-men.
Here is the Galadima again. An enemy in the camp is the most dangerous to guard against, especially when such an one professed friendship, as the Galadima did, at Lokoja, from whom we had hired two horses for this journey, I began to see the hand of Providence in the disappointment we had experienced in the efforts to get canoes at Lokoja to take us direct by water to Bida; had we succeeded, such as the Galadima would have been in secret league with the hostile people of Muye, and would have suggested our being detained to extort property from us, or even to plunder us, there being no floating steamer to frighten them this season.
Seriki, our guide, very strongly opposed the message of the Galadima, and showed the evil consequences of the chiefs of Budon determining to carry it out. But they argued as an excuse for not readily conveying us to Egga, in the King's service, that these many years steamers had passed them unnoticed; now that the steamers were aground, they did not think that the King has placed them there to render them assistance when in distress, when otherwise they were not taken notice of by them. After a long talk, Seriki overruled this, and a few presents were made to them. They then proposed that we might first be taken to Egga, and our luggage after us; but this proposal was refused, our luggage must go together with us. This required another consultation on their part during the evening.
The Kakandas are proverbial for stealing. In this part of the river my canoe was robbed of two packages in this very place some years ago, when I halted here for the night. Should we leave our luggage to them, to be conveyed after us, we might fairly calculate that half their contents would never reach us; this plan being knocked at the head, at a late hour a canoe was brought, which Mr. Renner took and loaded with as much as it could carry, and left for the steamer "Rio Formoso," aground at Bakinku Creek, nearer to Egga; soon after another canoe was brought [10/11] which was offered to Mr. Campbell, who filled it with as much as it could carry, and followed after Mr. Renner.
Nov. 19th, Sunday.--Other canoes were very reluctantly brought, till we all embarked, but no paddlers were given, till Seriki actually seized two female hostages, to be taken to the King if they would give no paddlers; then they produced them, and the women were liberated. Thus we cleared away from Budon, after much talk and some anxiety, on account of the treacherous tricks of this people. We were glad to find ourselves on board the "Rio Formoso" in the evening, though quite dry on one side on the sand-bank. Every one seemed to be cheered up in clearing the Kakandas, and at the prospect of getting to Egga and Bida with less difficulty; we, at the same time, indulged the hope that our letters of the 3rd must by this time have been near Lagos, to inform our friends of the situation of the "Victoria" and of our safety.
Nov. 20th,--We were disappointed on our arrival on board the hulk, this afternoon, to find those letters returned by King Masaba, saying he thought better not to send them till he had seen us. This was nothing else but sheer ignorance of the importance of letters and their immediate despatch, which was particularly requested; thus our friends would be put in three weeks' painful suspense as to what had become of us.
Having command of hastening business on board the hulk, arrangements were set on foot for canoes to take us to Bida the next day, which were promised to be alongside on the evening of the 21st. This evening I baptized the infant daughter of Mr. Bright, local agent of Holland, Jaques and Co., at Egga Factory.
Nov. 22nd.--We left the hulk for Bida about noon, leaving our extra luggage for the land route on board, tilt we should hear the definite arrangements of the King as to by what route he would send us. We arrived at Wunangi on the 25th, and remained quiet on the 26th, as the King did not send us horses; had he done so, we should have been obliged to start, though the distance was not much over seven miles to Bida; however, I was glad to be quiet all day. After breakfast I read the morning prayers with our party.
Nov. 27th.--Six horses were sent, but ten were required; however, as the distance was short, it was arranged that those who walked should be relieved at times by those who rode, We were thankful to accomplish this first part of our journey back to Bida without any mishap. How little do we know what is before us! I even doubted whether I should Visit Bida next season, when I was leaving it in September last, but here we are back to it, How often is this truth verified, though very little heeded by many, "It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps"! The people of whom we had taken leave two months ago greatly sympathised with us on seeing us back to Bida, on account of the grounding of the "Victoria." The King was very uneasy about this [11/12] unfortunate drawback to the ship's progress to the coast; but he assured us of their safety in his jurisdiction. He was told of our great disappointment at the letters not being sent on to Lagos to inform our friends of the grounding of the ships in time, as they would be very anxious about our safety. He replied that he did not send the letters till he saw us because he imagined we had written in an unsettled state of mind, and might have written unfavourable reports of the river, which might tend to discourage the company, by supposing matters were worse than they really were. When he was told that the contrary was the case, that the letters were written to suggest to them the necessity of building an auxiliary steamer to the "Victoria" to supply the factories next season, he brightened up; he said that he had detained the Governor's messengers purposely, to take our letters down to the coast. The King having promised us every possible assistance in his power, while within his influence, we retired to our lodgings.
Nov. 28th.--Another interview with the King about our journey to Lagos. He stated that there had been threatening messages exchanged between him and the king of Ilorin, on account of opening the way to the coast, through the Yoruba country, which they had intended to block up against traders from the Niger countries; that if they should carry out their intentions, he also would prevent the Hausas from crossing the Niger with horses, donkeys, bullocks, &c., in retaliation, and no Yoruba would be permitted to cross the Niger to the Hausa country for the purpose of trade, and they would see who should he the losers; that when he had sent this threatening message to them he added that if they should kill his messenger, Ali, the bearer of the message, he would, in return, revenge his death on all the Yorubas in his dominion; that thus they had been dealing with each other, but that since thou tone has been very much softened down, and their policy changed He wanted nothing but an open intercourse between this and the coast. He hoped that we saw fully the reason of the caution he was using for our safety; that the Queen has delivered her subjects doing business on the Niger under his protection, and it would be a great neglect in him not to take every precaution to make the way good before we leave for the coast; so a messenger was despatched to inform them at Ilorin that we should be passing through their town to the coast. He was to return back with answer in the course of fourteen days.
Nov. 29th.--The King sent for me early this morning to deliver our letters to the Governor's messengers with mine own hand, which I did. As we could not push our departure faster than the King could arrange, we thought it better to leave the whole arrangements with him; this being the Ramadan fast month, one could not push business very rapidly at this season.
Dec. 10th, Sunday,--After the morning prayer, we went to answer the King's call; his messenger from Ilorin had arrived with good tidings that the King of that place had promised to facilitate our travel down to the [12/13] coast, and that we were to make preparations for our departure after the fast, which would be over at the sight of the new moon on the 13th. He moreover promised to give each of us a horse for himself, for the journey, as an acknowledgment of the Queen's kindness to him since the last nine years. 12th.--A special messenger arrived from Lagos, by the overland route this afternoon, with letters from Mr. Simmonds, agent for the. W. A. Co., Limited, dated November 24th, to ascertain the correctness of the flying news which had reached them, that the "Victoria" was ashore, and we would return to Lagos by the overland route. Our letters of the 3rd November would have set their minds at ease, but, however, so it was. We were glad to hear coast and English news, and that all were well at home.
Dec. 13th.--The new moon was seen this evening, which terminated the Ramadan fast. The King ordered his eight big guns, about six-pounders, to be mounted in the open space outside the palace gate, which were fired to announce the appearance of the new moon to his subjects, and that the fast was over. The unusually loud report which they gave this time was very much admired by the community. Some of the gentlemen connected with our party had taught the gunners how to load them properly to give loud reports, which is the chief thing the natives notice in firing a cannon. There was a general rejoicing throughout the town--a relief felt that the long fast was over. "Now we shall eat both day and night" was gladly expressed by many. We, being at Bida a great portion of the time of fasting, were not neglected. Though the King himself was under the fast as well as his subjects, we were supplied with abundance of provisions, both cooked and uncooked, to be prepared in our own way--yams, rice, plantains, goats, sheep, poultry of all kinds, turkeys, ducks, fowls, pigeons, milk, oil for the lamps and firewood for cooking, besides large bowls of cooked meat every evening. This was a plain proof that the King did not despise us for nonconformity with their creed. During our Sunday services at our lodgings, great deference was paid by every visitor whenever they met us so occupied.
Dec. 14th.--Today was the great festival; about noon every one appeared in his best for the praying ground which was prepared outside the town walls. The King took the lead of his division of attendants, Umoru Shiaba of another of his quarter of the town; the King's retinue preceded, and Umoru's followed at a due distance. Upwards of 300 horses were mounted on this occasion; this small number was said to be owing to many having been sent out to war on the back of Lokoja, near the confluence. The King said he could number 2,000 horses strong.
The procession went out at the north side of the palace, and after prayers returned from the south side, so that the palace was paraded round. There is an extensive space before the palace, which was full of people making a display of horsemanship, excited by drums and other instruments of music, in a most discordant manner, the efforts being not at harmony, but which would excel the other in making the loudest noise. [13/14] We stood under a shady locust tree in the marketplace to witness the sight; when the King saw us, he spurred his horse at a full gallop towards us, but which he suddenly pulled to a standstill, and shook his spear towards us to pay us the compliments of the season. He being accompanied to the palace by his officials of rank, Umoru proceeded home with his party to his quarter of the town with joy and great merriment.
Dec. 16th--The excitement of the festival being over, the King also having received all the information he wanted, to-day he called and presented each of us with a horse for the journey, seven to the members of the S.S. "Victoria," and five to those of the "Rio Formoso," twelve in number, assigning this as his reason for doing so, because Saraonla (the Queen) has been showing him special kindness since the last nine years, and he had not been able to make any suitable returns: now this was an opportunity for showing his appreciation of the Queen's kindness to him. The estimate of King Masaba's liberality to the travelling party on this occasion may be seen in the printed report of entertainment enclosed. (See Appendix.)
Dec. 21st--All preparations having been made, we left Bida to-day about noon. According to arrangements, met the King in his farm, outside the west gate of the town, where we had the last interview with and took our leave of him. At this interview he reassured us of his sincere friendship with the English nation, his desire for an extensive trade in his dominions, his promised protection of the ships aground as well as of the trading establishments at Egga and Lokoja, and his determination to open the Igara country and make it accessible to all. Here he reassured us of our safety in our journey as far as to Ogbomosho, where his messenger would finally leave us to ourselves. Here he made arrangements with his messenger, our guide, for a gratuitous conveyance of our loads to Ilorin, and our liberal entertainment by way of supplying us with all necessaries by his subjects all the way to that place: having done this, he took a final leave of us, mounted his horse and returned to the city, and we turned our backs to Bida, on our long journey to the coast. There was none of us who did not feel that King Masaba did really care for our safety. The careful inquiries he made to sound the feelings of his rival kings and chiefs towards us, before he entrusted us into their midst and power; the care and anxiety he showed and expressed as regards those among us whom he suspected were not strong enough to bear the journey; the judicious advice which he gave for their convenience, as well as his watchful ears, to hear of our progress and comforts during the journey, by special messengers despatched from every place of our halt to give him information, convinced us fully that King Masaba is a real friend and well-wisher, a grateful, worthy, and useful sovereign, who ought to be supported and encouraged in his wishes to establish and protect lawful commerce in the interior of this country. We must now take leave of Bida and the King.
Having travelled about thirteen miles, we halted for the day at the [14/15] group of Wuyagi villages; next day we rode about three miles and crossed the river Kaduna to Wuyako town, about the same place where the "Dayspring" anchored in October, t857, when Lieut. Clover was surveying this stream, which is tributary to the Niger. We had to halt at Wuyako for the day to wait the arrival of Da-Isa, the messenger who was to take us to Ilorin. Both at Wuyagi and Wuyako we were hospitably entertained according to the King's instructions.
Dec. 23rd.--We started early and travelled till about 1 p.m., and halted for the day at one of the groups of Etsu villages, situated in a valley hemmed in on all sides by table mountains about 400 feet high, which we had to ascend on foot the next morning; accordingly on the morning of the 24th the horses were sent before and we followed on the ascent: this was much easier than Pati Abá, near Lokoja; when we got to the plateau, where the horses were waiting, we mounted and rode for about five miles, when we dismounted at the descent of this mountain, which was steep, till we came to the bottom. A few miles' ride in the valley brought us to another group of villages, called Shape, where we halted for the day. The stages are short, but advantageous, as the carriers of loads must be relieved by their neighbouring villagers in their turn; this took some time to arrange on our arrival at any village.
Dec. 25th.--From Shapè we made a good day's push to Keso, on the bank of the Kowara; here we had to wait the arrival of the canoes from Ega with the remainder of our supplies for the journey. Our party missed the Christmas festival; the plum-pudding was remembered and much talked of.
Dec. 26th--The canoes arrived from Egga and were sent on to Shonga.
Dec. 27th.--The horses having been crossed towards Lafiaji on the opposite shore, we followed and mounted for Lafiaji, about nine miles' ride inland from the bank of the Kowara; here we halted for the day. This fortified, walled town, with a dependent village, is governed by an independent Filani chieftain named Alilù, as a favour conferred on him by the Sultan of Gbondu, Alilù being of the royal family. He was a little shy of us at first, but as he learned more of us he became more familiar; however, as our stay here was but over the night, there was but little time to know more of each other: when we were about to take leave of him at our departure the next morning he was more free, and showed a liberal disposition; he gave us 6,000 conies and twenty kola-nuts, instead of 500 cowries and two kolanuts which he presented us with on our arrival the afternoon before; certainly he felt he had not done us justice, though we made no remarks and refused nothing; but Da-Isa, Masaba's messenger, was dissatisfied with the chief's hospitality. During conversation he sent for a cotton umbrella which was never used, but much injured for long keeping, rotten and patched, which he presented me for use, stating it as his reason, because he was not entitled to use one: I received it, and promised to send him a rug or carpet, through King [14/15] Masaba, to spread on his mat to sit upon, at my return next season. From Lafiaji we travelled about five hours, and halted at a small village called Baganko, to break the distance of the next day, from whence we started for Shonga the next day. From Lafiaji we travelled parallel with the river for about thirty-five miles to Shonga, to which ferry our canoes had just arrived before. This is the present starting-point from the Kowara for Ilorin and the Yoruba country; since the revolution in Nupe some six years ago, which gave King Masaba much trouble to subdue, the ferry by way of Rabba has been stopped to caravans; all must now cross from Poto by way of Lafiaji or Shonga, nearer the eye of King Masaba.
Alihu, the chief of Shonga, like that of Lafiaji, holds this place by sufferance from the Sultan with a few dependent farm villages, whereas Masaba is the master of the river and the ferry; although he exercises no authority over Lafiaji and Shonga, yet both acknowledge his superiority over them, and they may be said to be under his protection in case of invasion by a superior enemy. Alihu received Masaba's message with due deference as from his superior; he acceded to all the King's wishes respecting us; our entertainment was prompt and liberal, accompanied with a bullock; and the free carriage of our loads to Saregi was speedily carried out.
Dec. 31st, Sunday.--A portion of our loads was sent away before us yesterday to Sarcgi; the European members of our party, eight in number, feeling that they must make the best of the time while they have health to travel, it was decided that we start to-day after the carriers to Saregi, to which place we arrived about 3 p.m., a distance of about twenty-seven miles. At the gate of Saregi we came to the point of the road from Rabba, the way by which I came from Rabba in 1859. Shonga is about twenty miles below Rabba; travellers starting from either of the lower points of the two angles, Rabba or Shonga, will meet at the upper sharp point of the triangle at the gate of Saregi town, which is the highway from the Niger to the Yoruba country. Saregi was deserted some years ago, from a suspicion that Masaba was going to invade it and carry the inhabitants away captives; they fled to form farms for refuge; however, the King has been making efforts through Da-Isa, his faithful messenger, to induce them to return and rebuild their houses, with all assurance of their being sale; he is succeeding. Saregi is very necessary to he kept as a centre town between Shonga and Ilorin; if deserted, the whole district of country between the Kowara and Ilorin farms, a distance of some fifty miles, will be a solitary wilderness and a convenient haunt for thieves and kidnappers; travellers between Ilorin and the Niger will not be safe.
Jan. 1st, 1872.--Spent the time in arranging fresh carriers to Ilorin, and on the 2nd started early and halted for the night at Iponrin, an Ilorin town about half way between that place and Saregi; the distance we travelled to-day was some twenty-eight miles; the next morning we travelled about eighteen miles, when we halted at Oke Oyi, that we might [16/17] not enter the city of form late in the night. We rose at an early hour in the morning of the 4th; after crossing the stream Asà, we halted outside the walls of the town about 7 a.m., where we waited till arrangements were made to escort us into the city. After a detention of nearly two hours, we entered Ilorin gate with an escort of horse and footmen, which increased in number as we rode through this extensive place to the front of the palace, where was gathered a large concourse of people.
After some delay outside to make necessary arrangements, according to custom, we were invited into the palace, where the King received us most warmly, which was shown by endless salutations of Sanu and Saluborka, scores of times, welcoming and wishing us all prosperity. After a little pause he asked the names of each of us, and his particular office, which were told him. I told him my office, as a Christian Lemamu, who teaches people the Christian religion; he was very anxious that I should read something to him out of the Bible, which I promised I would do next Sunday, after the morning service among ourselves at our lodging. After some friendly chats he wished us to go to our lodging and rest, which we were glad to do; so we were lodged with a chief, Magaji Okaka, a Yoruba official, who was very attentive to us in everything. We were most handsomely entertained at this place by the King and the war-chief. The list of our entertainment may be seen in the printed report enclosed.
Jan. 5th.--Our lodging was filled with visitors; there were never so many white men together at Ilorin as at that time, together with a large party of educated natives; here also we met a great many persons from Lagos going overland to the Niger, some having freighted their goods in some of the steamers to Egga; such a meeting of both parties from the coast and Niger, in the city of Ilorin, as a centre, brought Lagos and Egga into such a connection, which made one feel as if near home; the route from Lagos to the Niger, through this interior city, is becoming now very much frequented by native traders from the coast; hence an intense desire of the interior population to have a road free to them to the coast trade. There is no restriction to anybody from any town south of the Niger to cross over and go as far north as he wishes for the purpose of trade. On the 6th, visited Sumonu, the head war-chief, whom we had not visited on the day of our arrival, as he appeared not well; though he invited us in to-day, yet he was not seen by us, he spoke with us from behind a screen. He particularly welcomed me as an old friend; I was lodged by him on my first travel through Ilorin in 1859.
Jan. 7th, Sunday--As we had not a very convenient room to hold all our party, at my request a shed was erected yesterday by our landlord, adjoining the verandah, which afforded shade.
At 9 a.m. I read the morning prayer, by which time a large group of people had collected in the compound, and sat with profound silence to witness the Christian mode of worship, which they had never seen before; unlike their Mohammedan practice of kneeling, bowing, and repeating the same form of prayer ever so many times, while at the same time some [17/18] persons may be talking, and others laughing or transacting business close by them while saying their prayer. On this occasion there was serious silence, and devout attention was observed among the worshippers, which gave solemnity to the scene, as if the place was sanctified by those acts of worship. As many as had their prayer-books heartily joined in the responses in the reading of the Psalms, and in the Litany; the reading of the lessons, and a variety of prayers appointed for the Church service, showed the spectators that Christians have more edification in their acts of worship than mere repetition of forms of prayers. In the afternoon I got my horse saddled to answer the King's request; I took only one of the clerks with me to carry my bag of books. On my arrival outside the gate of the palace I halted, while the King sent to call several of his principal officers, the Lemamu, or chief priest, and other mallams to be present. In a short Lime the palace was filled with a large assembly of people of all descriptions. The King having got all ready, I was invited in, and at his request, to tell them something of the Christian religion. I opened my bag and took out my English Bible and the Yoruba translations, the English prayer-book and the Yoruba translation, and my pocket English Dictionary (Johnson's), and the Yoruba Vocabulary; having classed these six books side by side, I explained to the audience that the Yoruba translations of the Scriptures will always interpret the English by my reading the same passages in both; that the nine prayers in the English language have been translated into Yoruba, which we have been using in all our mission stations in the Yoruba country.
The subject I first broached was the sonship of Christ, as declared by the Angel Gabriel; I opened St. Luke i. 28-35, which I first read in English, after which I turned to the same passage in the Yoruba translations and read it, and told them that so it had been before the era of Mahomet. The second subject I brought before their notice was the doctrine which Christ taught of Himself, John xiv. 6, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father, but by Me." Having read that in English, I turned to the same passage in the Yoruba translations, which I distinctly read to them. The third subject was His commission to His disciples, Matt, xxviii. 18-20, which I read in like manner.
This passage elicited the question from the King, whether Anabi Isa (Jesus the Prophet) was not to be the Judge of the world?
I replied that I would not answer the question off-hand, but read it to them from the word of Christ Himself; so I turned to Matt xxv. 31-34, which I first read in English, and then from the Yoruba translations, to which profound attention was paid. This again elicited the question, How soon will He come? the reply was given by turning to Acts i, "It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in His own power." Also Luke XII. 39, 40, "And this know, that if the good man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through. Be ye therefore ready also; for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not" I supported this by reading the Rev. xxii. 10, ii, 12, "For the time is at hand. He that is unjust, let [18/19] him be unjust still; and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still; and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. And behold, I come quickly, and my reward is with me, to give to every man according as his work shall be." Having read this portion from the Yoruba translations, there was a long silence, when some one near the King suggested the question: What does your (Litafi) Bible say of Mahomet? I replied that as it was not till 622 years after Christ that Mahomet established his doctrine, our Bible is quite silent about him I was then asked which was the fuller, our (Litafi) Bible or the Koran? I replied that our Bible was very full, containing the Taureta, the Pentateuch; the Sabura, the Psalms of David, with the Prophets; and the Lanjil, the Gospel; showing each division from my English Bible; from which books certain subjects were picked out or alluded to in the Koran when it was composed. I told them that Christian missionaries are now in Stamboul (Constantinople), and in Mizra (Egypt), and Smyrna, where the truths of Christianity are being examined and inquired into by many Mussulmans, who desire to know them. I told them also that we have established schools at Lagos, Abeokuta, and Ibadan, as also at Bonny, Brass, Nun, Onitsha, and Lokoja, with a view of carrying out Christ's commission; "Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations."
Then I was requested to read a prayer to them out of the Prayer Book, so I read the one for the Queen's Majesty, first in English; when I was reading it in Yoruba I told them that the name of the sovereign in whose dominions we reside may be substituted as occasion might require. They admired the prayer as being very suitable.
I then explained to them the use of the dictionaries, to illustrate difficult words which may be met with in either language, without the aid of a teacher, who may not be at hand. The King asked to see my Yoniba Testament, which I handed to him; he opened and looked at it; the type, of course, was quite different from Arabic characters. After it was examined by the Lemamu, it was returned to me by saying, that I was truly a learned Lemamu! and then the query, how I came to know so much of book knowledge? The readiness with which I turned to passages in the Bible to answer any question put tome, without hesitation, rather astonished them. There was no argument, no dispute, no objection made, but questions asked and answered direct from the Word of God. After a general conversation about other matters, it was getting dark, the King expressed regret that I had not been earlier at the palace. On leaving I promised to send him a copy of an Arabic Bible, in which they would find those passages which we had referred to on this occasion in my English and Yoruba Testaments.
Aliyu, the present king, is the third from Shita his father, His elder brother, Suberu, who succeeded Shita, died after a short reign, when Aliyu succeeded on the throne. He has to rule with a strong hand, by severely punishing offenders, robbers, burglars, incendiaries, &c., with which characters Ilorin abounds: three public executions took place while we were there, guilty of one or other of these crimes; the criminal was first stunned with a heavy blow on the nape of the neck with a [19/20] wooden club armed with iron rings, and the head hacked off from the body with a sword, and the body left exposed on the spot in the market-place, near the palace, to be devoured by the Turkey buzzards, with which these great cities abound as public scavengers. From Monday to Thursday, while arrangements were being made with carriers for our loads to Ogbomosho, as we have to bear the expenses ourselves from here, the interval was spent by me in receiving visitors, who came, some to make my acquaintance, others to hold religious conversation. In these private visits the feelings of the professors of Mohammedanism were much made known: the confession from their own lips was voluntary, that our religion was superior to their own, that its teaching was sound, and our Bible was full of matters; they voluntarily confessed that the system of polygamy has been the ruin of many of their best men, while their young men do not fare much better, from the effect of this state of life.
The reply which I made to this was, that while men would not abide by the wise ordinance of God instituted for their good, they must abide the consequences. Applications for medicines to relieve sufferers from various complaints were made, but which I regretted could not be granted, as we had no stock of such medicines with us. Upon the whole, the favourable impression which our short stay of nine days made upon the authorities and people of this place will not soon be forgotten.
In the afternoon of the 12th, having taken our leave of the King and the War Chief, we left the city, with an escort of a company of six horsemen to the village Obaninsunwa, about two hours' ride from the city, where we halted for the evening, so as to give a fair start the next morning for our journey to Oghomosho.
Here Da-Isa, King Masaba's faithful servant, our guide, left us, with feelings of affection and regret for the separation; but he sent his attendant, Saba, to accompany us with Ilorin messengers to Ogbomosho. We had to leave two Europeans here sick, belonging to the steamer "Rio Formoso," under the care of Mr. J. G. Hughes, the supercargo, to follow us when better and fit to travel.
This is my second visit to this place, from the Niger, coastward; the first was on the occasion of the wreck of the "Dayspring," on the rock at Jeba, in 1859, and now on the grounding of the "Victoria," at Magajia; under such circumstances the visit must be a passing one; but could a deliberate visit be planned from the coast, more tame might be taken to know what good might be done in this immense city, settled in by a mixed population of Filani, Yoruba, Hausa, and Nupe. Ilorin is four days' journey to Rabba or Shonga, the ferry on the Niger northward, and eleven days' to Lagos southward, making fifteen travelling days from Lagos to Shonga, a distance of about 300 miles, roundabout way as it is walked, thus Lagos, Abeokuta, Ibadan, Oyo, or through Iwo, Ogbomosho, Ilorin, Shonga--principal places on the route.
Jan. 13th.--Started from Obaninsunwa village early this morning; arrived at a second farm market-place to take refreshment, when [20/21] we met our messenger returning from Lagos; he had been there and back with fresh letters and small supplies of provisions from my family. How eagerly did we receive the letters and read them, to hear news from home and the coast! We halted towards the evening at a farm market-place belonging to Ogbomosho, and Sunday 14th, we arrived in good time at the gate of the town, from which place we were conducted into the town without much ceremony and direct to our lodging. Special messengers from the old Yoruba friends met us here, who were sent to ascertain our whereabouts. We begin to feel the influence of Lagos, and their anxiety about us, as shown by their letters and messages.
The Baptist missionaries (American) had a station here some ten years ago, but which they could not keep up for want of funds on account of the war between the North and the South, and it was subsequently given up on account of the outbreak at Abeokuta, which excluded European missionaries out of the country. The Church Missionary Society had also stationed a catechist here, but he died, since which event no Christian teacher was sent to Ogbomosho.
As soon as we were lodged, one of our party, who had visited this place some years ago, and was acquainted with the American missionaries, was anxious to see what had become of their station, that he might be able to say from actual knowledge, at his return to the coast; so he went to see, He soon returned to our lodging with surprise at what he had seen and observed: the station in total ruins, but in a corner of the premises a hut was erected, and screened with mats, in the verandah of which he observed a small group of people with books in hand as if they were holding Divine worship; as he could not speak with them, so he returned to tell me what he had discovered. He was followed by a few of the men at prayers to our lodging, who told me that they were converts of the American Baptist Missionary Society; that since they had been left to themselves they have been in the habit of meeting together on the Lord's day to keep prayers, as they were met that morning; so I promised to be with them in the afternoon if they would send some one to conduct me to the mined station, which they did; when the gentleman who was there in the morning accompanied me. On my arrival, I found the dwelling-house and chapel gone to ruins; but some of the doors and window-shutters, and such other building materials as might be of use, were collected together under a shed, together with such household utensils as tables, chairs, pots, saucepans, &c., which stood the weather, were carefully packed up under the shed, with as many benches as were not in use. In the meantime, a large group of spectators gathered while the converts were placing the benches in order to sit on.
Having taken my seat, I asked for any book they were possessed of, when the first edition of St. Luke, with Acts and Romans, in Yoruba, was handed to me, so I addressed them from Rom. i. 9-13, as expressing the wishes of their missionaries and Christian friends at large on their behalf that they were not forgotten, but hoped that God would remove the obstacles in the way of fresh access to them in due time.
There were some young persons among them, who had been taught to [21/22] read, who always read portions of God's Word to them, when in turn the elder ones engaged in prayer. Wishing to know how many they were, I took their names in my pocket-book, 15 males and 7 females; of all, only three females had been baptized; but all determined to adhere to the religion which they have found to be the truth, which they would not change for any other. Having given them some word of counsel and advice, I encouraged them to be steadfast in their Christian profession; I provided them with some cloth, to enable them to make a better shed for a safer keeping of those building materials saved from the ruins, hoping in some future days we may be able to make some use of them. Here we began to meet traces of Christian missionaries in the interior among heathen population; it is now some ten years since the missionaries had visited this town; their houses and chapel have gone to ruins, but their spiritual work survives the wreck; here they are, like good plants struggling to recover their vitality in the midst of choking thorns and bramble-bushes, yet they are not overgrown--twenty native Christians among a large population of about10,000 maintain their stand in the very ruins of their missionary's station. Is it credible? Come and see; they were discovered this Sunday morning, by one of our fellow-travellers, himself a sceptic in the results of missionary work among the heathen; he first brought me the news of having seen a praying people; he accompanied me back to the place, and was a witness when I addressed and prayed with them; when these solitary converts resolved to hold fast their Christian profession in the midst of all disadvantages. I should like objectors to Christian missions to the African heathen to say what could have been the worldly inducements held out to these converts, since left by their missionaries for a period of ten years, which made them stand steadfast to the doctrine they bad been taught? They had weathered the shock of persecution from relatives and former associates in idolatry, from whom they had separated themselves; no missionaries to comfort, encourage and support them in those trying hours; no superior buildings to boast of, but instead of which they struggle to maintain their new faith, in an humble shed among the very ruins. Can all these be? The fact speaks for itself; the member of the sceptic school, who has witnessed the sight in the interior, must set his seal to the truthfulness of these results of the missionaries' operations, which he has seen in the course of his travels.
It is no worldly inducements, but the power of the Spirit by the preached word. "My Word shall not return unto Me void; it shall accomplish that which I please, it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it."
Jan. 16th.--Left Ogbomosho early, and in the afternoon of the 17th, arrived at Iwo; this, town, like Ogbomosho is one of the Yoruba towns which had survived the ravages of slave wars; we were led to the open space in front of the palace, where we were soon surrounded by an immense gathering of people to see the travellers, in all amounting to twenty-one horsemen, a novel sight for Iwo; such a number of Europeans and educated natives never entered it before; the people [22/23] congratulated their Bale (Chief) on this occasion, by an incongruous assembly of musicians: all kinds of drums, pipers, trumpeters, and dancers were performing their laborious antics, the bards singing out to the top of their voices the praises of their Chief and his ancestors; every one tried who could excel each other--in short the whole was a scene of confused merriment which defied description. My European friends could not understand what all these could mean, as we were still on horseback, impatient to dismount and rest; the only explanation I could give them was that it was a sign of our kind reception by their Chief. After a considerable delay--the Chief having dressed himself ready to receive us--we were requested to dismount and come to the entrance of the palace, where we had a short interview with some of the elders, and thence were invited into the spacious compound within, where we were received by the Chief himself, all his courtiers around him. At first we stood at a great distance, while the Ogbomosho messenger was going through the ceremony of salutation by prostration, rising to go outside to throw dust upon his head, at every repetition of which he was commanded to draw nearer, and we advanced after him; at the third time he was commanded to stop and deliver his message, which he did, still prostrating. After this the Chief invited us nearer, and me foremost, as the spokesman of the party. After a long repetition of salutation; he asked a variety of questions, which I answered in the name of the party. He was very inquisitive to know which was my town in the Yoruba country? That being told him, I named my grandfather on the mother's side, who was Alawo, of the royal family, and the eldest councillor of the Chief of my town Oshôgùn. "Well; well," said he, "that is enough, you are one of us; I knew not that there was such a person among the party, or else you should not have been kept so long waiting." It was not long before the Bale opened his mind to us, in regard to his appreciation of Lagos Government and earnestly begged us to do all in our power to induce that Government, and if possible the Home Government, to open a trade intercourse between his country and Lagos, by opening the River Oshun, not far from his town, which he thought was navigable for Lagos canoes. I told him that there was no unwillingness on the part of the British Government to facilitate trade to any people who wish it, but that the people through whose countries the river runs might object to its being opened.
He said, "Tell your Government to beg them, it is they only who can do it." We promised to convey his message to Her Majesty's Government--a copy of which, No. 2, I enclosed to the Rev. H. Venn. The sun was setting, so he ordered his servants to lead us to our lodging, with a promise to give a messenger to go, with us to Ibadan, as soon as we were ready; after which he gave us supplies of cowries and goats for our entertainment.
Jan. 19.--Left Iwo early this morning; in about two hours we crossed the Obà, a tributary stream to the Oshun, the stream which the Chief is very anxious should be explored from the coast. The Obà is crossed on calabashes when full in the rainy season, but at this time of the [23/24] year it is fordable, there being only about eighteen inches of water where we crossed it; the bed is very rocky, and the granite being smooth and slippery, it was difficult for the horses to cross, though without their riders; now and then they slipped and plunged into the water, and many foot passengers did not fare much better, to the great amusement of the spectators on the banks. Just before mounting we received a message from the Chief of Ibadan, to ask how flit we had come, and to assure us of our being welcomed thither. Halted for the night at Lalupon, an Ibadan village being between it and Iwo: next morning, the 20th, started early, and halted for refreshment at a firm market-place called Olodo; on leaving which, we were met by some of the mission agents, the elders of the church, and others from the chiefs who had come thus far on horseback to meet and escort us into the town, which we entered about noon. We had just entered the town when one of our party, a European, was taken so ill with fever and nausea that he was obliged to take shelter in a native house till better, before he could proceed to the mission-house, whew we were lodged; just about the same time the horse of another was disabled from carrying his rider, so he had to lead him through the town to the mission premises. I was thankful these incidents did not happen at a distance on the road where there was neither shelter nor help. The rest of the party proceeded with the Iwo messenger to the house of the Are-Kakanfo (the general of the army) to deliver the message of his chief: this being done, according to previous arrangements between the Rev. D. Olubi, the native pastor, and the Are-Kakanfo, we proceeded to the mission-house at Ikudeti station, where we had the luxury of being in a floored storey-house, furnished with chairs, sofas, tables, and beds, and the comforts of sitting on chairs and taking our meals on a table, after a posture of squatting on mats for nearly three months. The agreeable sight of a neat church, the orderly-kept state of the green Bahamas grass which matted the mission-yard, and the warm reception of the Christians, showed plainly that we had now come within the influence of Christian civilization, and we felt that we were among friends. Mr. Olubi having prepared dinner ready for us, we heartily enjoyed it. In the meantime the Are has given us four sheep and three bags of cowries for our immediate use.
Jan. 21st, Sunday.--Last night we enjoyed the comforts of a night's rest in beds; early this morning were greeted with the long-missed sound of the call of the church bell to the early morning prayers as usual; some while after, the bell for the Sabbath-school was rung, to which many approached, cleanly apparelled, with steady and cheerful steps. As it was not known how long we might have to stay here, I told Mr. Olubi to get the congregations of the three stations together at the morning service, that all might have the benefit of mutual encouragements, and join in a song of thanksgiving for many mercies vouchsafed to us individually, and collectively as a church. I preached to them from St. Luke xii., verse 32--"Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom."
It is almost useless to say the church was full, and the attention of [24/25] every one was rivetted during the sermon. fn the afternoon I proceeded to the next station at Aremo, about two miles from Ikudeti, where I preached to a congregation of about 100 people, after which I inspected the station. Mr. Allen, catechist, is stationed here. As it was likely we would remain at Ibadan at least for four days, while messengers had to go to Abeokuta and return to us, to improve the interval I gave notice for a Confirmation service on Tuesday, the 23rd.
Jan. 22nd--Visited Ogunpa station, accompanied by Mr. Olubi. The converts had been waiting for me at the house of Mr. Okusehinde, the catechist. I gave them a short address in words of encouragement and counsel, which every convert needs in the midst of an idolatrous population, for which they were very thankful. After this we made short visits on the way as we returned home to receive visitors waiting.
Jan. 23rd.--This day, at 11 a.m., a Confirmation service was held at Ikudeti station, when ninety-four candidates were confirmed; after which one hundred and seven partook of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. This being a special week-day service, it was not expected that it would be well attended, but it appeared that the novelty of the occasion drew many to church, which was filled as on a Sunday, at which due order was observed both by heathen and Mohammedan visitors throughout the service. My text was Heb. xii. x--"Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses," &c. Hearing the heartfelt gratitude of many for the opportunity they had had by our passage through the country, I began to think the hand of the God of missions must be in this thing. The mishap which took place with our steamer has brought me hither, which has proved a source of spiritual blessings to the stations; which otherwise might not have been for some time yet to come: God's ways are mysterious, He leads in paths we know not.
Jan. 24-28.--The interval between this and Saturday was spent in waiting to hear from Abeokuta and Ijebu Ode, to both which places the Are had despatched messengers to ask a pass for us through their countries to the coast; he did this because both tribes have shut up their countries against the white men, and he would not send his party among them without first asking their consent. The King of Ijebu very bluntly refused us a passage to the twist through his country; but the reply of the Egbas, which was received on Saturday night, was favourable; so Monday was fixed upon for our departure from Ibadan; this gave us the opportunity of another Sunday at this place, which was well employed. After the morning service, leaving Mr. Olubi to conduct that of the afternoon, we went to take our leave of the Are-Kakanfo, and the Balogun, his head war-chief, who both were very kiwi, and showed great interest in our welfare. The care which the Are-Kakanfo is taking of the mission agents, though himself a Mohammedan, should not be passed unnoticed; he respected and consulted them on any matter of [25/26] doubt between them and the white men: he is very anxious for the return of Mr. Hindener to Ibadan, and he would receive and give land to as many white men as the Society would send with him. He greatly lamented the impediment put in the way of direct intercourse with Lagos, through the Ijebu country, which he said was the shortest between them and Lagos. He actually begged that every lawful and pacific means should be used to induce the Awujale, King of Ijebu, to throw a road open between them and Lagos for legitimate trade--that the old system of the Ijebus acting as slave-brokers between the people of the interior and the slave-dealers at Lagos had passed--and that now every industrious person should have a road open to him to sell the produce of his industry at any market most remunerative to him without restriction. The liberal entertainment received from this place is mentioned in the printed paper accompanying this.
Jan. 29th.--Left Ibadan about 7 a.m., accompanied by the Are's messengers. We halted at Arawo, an Abeokuta town, at 6 p.m. for the night; next morning, the 30th, started early we halted at Atadi at 9 a.m. for breakfast. Here we were told that eight days ago, a large number of our friends, expecting us then, had come thus far from the town, about four miles' walk, to met and welcome us, but were disappointed at being told that we should not start from Ibadan till after Sunday. We had scarcely rested an hour when some of these friends made their appearance on horseback to meet and welcome us into the town. The Alake sent his official staff to meet and receive us; Chief Ogudipe sent his head war-chief to escort us into the town. The converts and mercantile agents were overjoyed at seeing us, and did everything in their power to assist us. Having allowed the horses to have a good feed, at noon we mounted, and were just leaving Atadi for Abeokuta, when a large envelope addressed to me, on service of the Egba United Board of Management, by the secretary of this being newly-formed Government, was handed to me, on opening which I found a permit enclosed from that Government for our safe entrance into Abeokuta, where we were permitted to stay from five to ten days; it also pointed out our lodging at the Wesleyan Mission-house at Ogbe. From this I anticipated some difficulties from opposition of party feelings as to our lodging, the Church Missionary-house at Ake having been previously fixed upon for our lodging; however, I thought it was my judicious plan to follow, as we were led by the messengers of the chiefs. Nearer the gate of the town we were met by Mr. H. Robbin, who informed us that it had been agreed upon by King Ademola, Ogudipe, Mr. J. George, and himself, from policy, to forego their claim, and that we should he lodged at the Wesleyan Mission-house, according to the wishes of their rival chiefs; this being understood, we followed as were led, so that there might be no quarrel about us. The escort to the town consisted of fifteen horsemen from the chiefs, the converts, and native mercantile agents: these, with our own party, made an imposing cavalcade of upwards of thirty horsemen entering Abeokuta in a long file, headed with beating of drums and blowing of horns and pipes, besides a large [26/27] number of persons on toot. On approaching the gate of the town, we met a number of school children, cleanly apparelled, placed in a row by their teachers on the side of the road, who greeted us with a hymn of thanksgiving as we entered Abeokuta. I was moved at the sight, halted for a few seconds to acknowledge their good wishes, and so entered the city to give way to horses coming in the rear.
From the gate we were paraded through the town, to exhibit to the inhabitants the long-expected party from the Niger. Arrived at the Ake station, where we halted for awhile, and then proceeded to the house of Solanke, the head war-chief at Igbei, who sent for Akodu and another of his second war-chiefs, and delivered us to them, to be lodged at the Wesleyan Mission-house, according to arrangements.
The house was soon filled with visitors from all parts of the town, the converts in particular; the Sierra Leone friends, and many others 1mm among the heathen population, who came to see me and my sons, as we had been absent from Abeokuta some ten years since; and they had no expectation of seeing us there again so soon, but for the circumstance which brought us thither on our way to the coast.
We retired to rest with feelings of heartfelt gratitude to God for His overruling providence, that there was no dispute among the chiefs on our account as to who should have the right to receive and lodge us in the town. I made no demur in lodging at the Wesleyan Mission-house, instead of our own at Ake; when they saw this, all those who might have urged the claim were satisfied.
Mr. H. Robbin was particularly kind and attentive in supplying our wants, although he had to go from Ake to Ogbe, a distance of two miles, several times a day, to a late hour of the night, to attend to our wants.
Jan. 31st.--Early this morning I was visited by Mr. J. George, now entitled the Lisa of Oba, an important position among the elders; he was accompanied by a Mr. Williams, also a Sierra Leone immigrant, who both expressed their great joy on our safe arrival among them. Mr. George very kindly sent supplies of a variety of eatables and drinkables, which tended very much to strengthen the spent health of the travelling party, the list of which I handed round among the party, for which they were grateful; Mr. Williams also contributed to them.
It was not long after, when Chief Ogudipe sent us a bullock and two bags of cowries for our breakfast, a leg of which bullock he desired should be sent to him when killed, that he might partake of the same meat with us; the animal was accordingly killed, and a leg sent to him. The whole of this day was spent in receiving flocking visitors from all parts of the town, who brought with them variety of presents of cowries, sheep, ducks, yams, rice, and honey, for our use; in fact, everyone tried to do their best to show us kindness.
Feb. 1st--Some of our party being anxious to catch the steamer of the 6th, for England, made arrangements to leave as early as possible. Today was spent in paying an official visit to the chiefs, [27/28] according to custom, to thank them for their kindness; this occupied nearly the whole day, as their houses are far apart in this extensive town. The visit did good, as it tended to show that we paid honour to whom it was due, and we paid no attention to their differences of persons and parties. Presents of ten heads of cowries were made to us by each of two leading chiefs. We rode round to Ikigu station, which I inspected, and thence to Mr. Robbin's house at Ake, where we took our dinner--which was intended for breakfast; after this we visited Ademola the Make, and then inspected the Ake mission premises; this done, we returned to our lodging at Ogbe late in the evening.
Feb. 2nd.--Two of our party left for Lagos about mid-day, to catch the mail-steamer of the 6th, for England. In course of the day I met the converts of Igbore in their new church, which I admired, and addressed them to persevere in their good work, the fruit of faith, and to hold fast their Christian profession without wavering. In the afternoon the authorities of the Egba community sent us handsome presents of twenty bags of cowries, six sheep, and two baskets of oranges, for our entertainment, and requested that we should attend a meeting which they would convene on the morrow.
Feb. 3rd.--Waited to be called to this meeting till after breakfast, in consequence of which none of our party had gone out to visit their friends, that they might be present; but as there was no appearance of a messenger to summon us to it, and it was noon, I sent to know whether there was to be any meeting and when, that we might spend our time more profitably; on hearing that there was no meeting that day, everyone was at liberty to go out m town and spend the time with his friends. I went out to visit the ruins of Igbein station, the newly-built small chapel there, as well that of Kemta, both of which did credit to the catechists, Messrs. King of Igbein and George of Kemta, with their small body of converts.
Paid a visit to the Rev. W. Allen, who had been laid up with acute rheumatism for several weeks, since the week of prayers in January. Arrangements were made for me to preach at Ake on Sunday morning, and administer the Lord's Supper to the communicants of that church, and to return to Igbore for the afternoon service.
Feb. 4th, Sunday.--Preached in Ake church at the morning service, to a large and attentive congregation, from i Thess. ii. 3-6, "For our exhortation was not of deceit, nor of uncleanness, nor in guile; but as we were allowed of God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, which trieth our hearts. For neither at any time used we flattering words, as ye know, nor a cloke of covetousness; God is witness nor of men sought we glory, neither of you, nor yet of others, when we might have been burdensome, as the apostles of Christ." It was very necessary to bring to their recollection the quality of our preaching among them, because false professors have entered, corrupting the Church.
 Ten years have made a great change to me in this congregation: I missed many old faces of faithful converts who were first led to Christ at the commencement of our missionary work in Abeokuta, many of whom have entered into their eternal rest; others have been compelled since the outbreak to withdraw into their farms or to Lagos for an undisturbed privilege of Christian religious worship; but others who have stood the storm, have kept their places in the midst of many trials and difficulties with which they have had to contend: new converts from heathenism, aid young persons who were brought up in the mission schools, have kept up the congregation in the midst of many trials since the absence of the European missionaries.
Their young pastor is doing all in his power to keep up the Church in the unity of the Spirit and in the bond of peace. May the Lord keep them steadfast iii the faith. Alter the sermon, I administered the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, assisted by the Rev. D. Williams, the native pastor, to one hundred arid sixty-six communicants, forty-seven males and one hundred and nineteen females. I was rather satisfied with the small proportion of the male communicants, as they were for the most part old, steady, and experienced Christians, who, I trust, continue to adorn their Christian profession by their consistent walk and conversation.
In the afternoon I preached to the Igbore congregation from 1st Thess. i. 5-7--"For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance," &c.
This was the congregation among which I had laboured for years at Igbein station, from the ruins of which church the present neat building has sprung. The Sunday was spent, in both churches, with mutual benefits. It did my heart good to have the opportunity of seeing and speaking a few words of encouragement to these persevering Christians, whilst they in their turn were thankful to receive words of sympathy and comfort from their old friend and teacher after many years' separation. This church, which was built, after the outbreak, through the exertions of the converts, superintended by the Rev. W. Allen, their pastor, is much better finished than the old Igbein church, which was destroyed by the mob. The nearness of this church to the sacred superstitious grove, away from which they have always scrupulously kept any building, seems to me to be a sign that in course of time the grove must ultimately yield place to the church as a holy spot devoted to the service of the living God; the time will come when the idols shall be utterly abolished. The new Ikija church, which was first planned by Mr. Maser before the outbreak, has also been completed; it is much better built than the former, and very well finished. This station has been kept up by Mr. W. Goodwill, the oldest agent connected with the church, from the colony of Sierra Leone. He, being a carpenter, bestowed great attention in directing the woodwork, the pulpit in particular.
One could not but remark a great contrast between the mission-house and the church of Ikijia station. The mission premises presented sad spectacles of dilapidated buildings, the roofs of the dwe1Iinghouses going to ruins, and those of outhouses starting from their uprightness, [29/30] the floors rotted or eaten through by the bugs, the yards overgrown with high grass, Mr. Goodwill having to sell cocoa-nut from the trees to the amount of £20 to keep it down, before the plan of using them for plantations as gardens was adopted by him. But the contrast was very great when leaving the yards of the dwelling-houses for the church outside close by. On entering the church, it was found new, neat, clean, and orderly, the roof water-tight, and the Street outside well trodden. I could not help calling the attention of my fellow travellers to this marked difference between the dwelling-houses and the church1 especially as some of our party were sceptics in the effects of missionary work beyond British influence. Another Sunday would have given me an opportunity to preach to this congregation, but we were all thankful for this passing visit.
Feb. 5th.--To-day was fixed upon for the meeting of the chiefs, after which we were to leave for Lagos. Packages were made up, horses fed and watered ready for a start, as soon as the meeting should be over, In the meantime, at the request of the Wesleyan converts, we had a quiet hour of religious edification and prayer; gave them religious information, and raised their expectation of a better state of the Church in Abeokuta, when the Lord will be pleased to interpose on behalf of His own cause.
The remainder of the day was spent in preparing for the journey, and in expectation to be called to the intended meeting; but it was not till about four o'clock that the chiefs could he assembled, and they had to go over some other matters before we could be called; this employed them till late in the evening, so the next morning was again fixed upon for this meeting.
Feb. 6th.--About 9 a.m. we were invited to attend the meeting, which was convened at the house of Solanke, the head war-chief at Igbein, which was well represented by the authorities of the four states of the Egba nation, viz., the Egba Alake, Egba Osile, Egba Olowu, and Egba Agura, as well by messengers from Awujale, the King of Ijebu Ode, The substance of this meeting, in short, was to open their minds to me as to an old friend who used to deal with their deceased predecessors; they would not let me pass without asking my aid to represent their matters to the Home Government, that a good understanding might be restored between the two Governments for the future, As there was an opportunity for them to open a way for an amicable understanding in matters, when hostile feelings had been suspected by the one or the other of the two Governments, I promised to convey their message upon the condition of their promising to abstain from molesting the trade between them and Lagos for three months, while the subjects will be under communication, which they promised to observe. This being done, Chief Ogudipe gave his messenger, with his staff, to accompany us to Lagos; soon after which we mounted and left Abeokuta at 2 p.m. We travelled for four hours till sunset, and halted for the night at the market-place of Awowo. Started early on the morning of the 7th, travelled hard, and [30/31] got to Otta about 5 p.m., where we were comfortably lodged by the Rev. J. White in the new brick mission-house, built here about three years ago, neat, tidy, and comfortable--a nice halting place for weary travellers. The rooms and verandahs were all occupied, in which we all felt comfortable. This was the first time I saw it since its erection.
Feb. 8th.--Started early this morning; seven hours' travel brought us to Ebute Meta Lagos ferry, to which place Captain Glover, the Administrator, had already kindly sent his boat to cross us, and canoes for our horses. I need not describe home meeting and reception; everyone who had been absent for a time, and perhaps under similar circumstances, well knew the feelings. Here we must pause, and look back to God's providential dealings with us since the last three months, when the course of our travel has been otherwise directed, contrary to our own wishes and well-laid plans. He has led us in ways that we knew not, and never expected to travel; He has disposed the hearts of native authorities to assist us in our travels, to provide our wants, and to consult for our safety while passing among them--all these, without any plan of our own, the Lord has conducted us through many tribes unmolested, to show that "the King's heart is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water; He turneth it whithersoever He will."
"O Lord, I know that the way of man is not in himself; it is not in man that walketh to direct his steps!"
S. A. CROWTHER.
Lagos, March 5th, 1872.
 APPENDIX. ACTS OF LIBERALITY OF KING MASABA OF NUPE TO BRITISH SUBJECTS, AS A TOKEN OF GRATITUDE TO HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY THE QUEEN, FOR KINDNESS SHEWN HIM BY HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT DURING A PERIOD OF NINE YEARS.
THE land route party, consisting of eight white men and several natives of position, from the steamers Victoria and Rio Formoso, now aground in the River Niger, desire most gratefully to acknowledge the kindness; liberality, and ready helps of King Masaba, whose noble example was readily followed by the kings and chiefs of other countries and towns we had passed through, down to Lagos, in a roundabout route over four hundred miles of roads.
All our loads were carried free of expense by order of King Masaba to his subjects, either by canoes or by land from the neighbourhood of Lokoja to Bids, and thence to norm, a distance of about two hundred miles, which, If we had had to pay for, could not have cost us less than one hundred and eighty pounds sterling.
During a period of forty days, we partly stayed at Bida, and partly travelled, past many towns and villages in his territory to Ilorin: we were liberally provided for by the King and his subjects, in cooked and uncooked supplies of provisions of rice, yams, sheep, goats, turkeys, ducks, fowls, pigeons, milk, honey, oil for the lamp, firewood to cook with, and guinea corn for the horses in great abundance, all which, if we had had to pay for, would not have coat us less than one hundred and fifty pounds sterling.
On our departure from Bida, King Masaba gave to each of us a horse for the journey, twelve in number, out of a due regard for Her Majesty the Queen, which, if valued at the average rate often pounds per horse, will amount to one hundred and twenty pounds sterling.
King Masaba's liberality may be summed up as follows
Twelve horses at £10 each £120 0 0
Free carriage of loads to Ilorin, a distance of 200 miles £180 0 0
Supplies of provisions for 40 days £150 0 0
Total amount £450 0 0
Ilorin.--Here we remained nine days, when we were entertained with four bullocks, six bags of cowries, one thousand six hundred yams, four pots of palm oil, and forty loads of guinea corn for the horses.
Ogbomosho.--Here we remained two days, and were entertained with one goat, two bags of cowries, fifty yams, and six loads of guinea corn for the horses.
Iwo.--Here we rested one day, and were entertained with two goats, four bags of cowries, fifty yams, and six loads of guinea corn for the horses.
Ibadan.--Here we remained nine days, and were entertained with twelve bags of cowries, twenty sheep, fifty-nine loads of yams, and thirty-five loads of guinea corn for the horses.
 Abeokuta.--Here we remained eight days, and were entertained with twenty bags of cowries, six sheets, and two baskets of oranges by all the authorities of the Egba community.
By Chief Ogudipe, two bullocks and four bags of cowries.
Also by King Ademola, Madam Tinubu, the Sierra Leone friends and mercantile agents, headed by Mr. J. George, and the Church and Wesleyan converts, ten bags of Cowries, ten sheep, five ducks, twenty-three fowls, two hundred and, sixty-two yams, and two loads of guinea corn for the horses.
No toll paid at any gate throughout.
To the Rev. D. Olubi, Native Pastor at Ibadan, to Mr. Franklin, of the Wesleyan Mission of Abeoluta, and to Mr. and Mrs. Robbin, of Ake, many thanks are due; not only had these gentleman thrown their houses open for our accommodation, but for several days Mrs. Robbin undertook to superintend the cooking department, to change our diet, to which was very kindly added by Mr. J. George and Mr. J. Robbin refreshing drinkables, such as beer, lemonade, soda water, tea, coffee, and chocolate, at their expense, which greatly conduced to restore the declining health of the travelling party, and strengthen them for their remaining journey.
These acts of kindness deserve to be thus noticed, as the example was set by King Masaba, in gratitude to the Queen whose subjects we are, and had nothing in hand during our journey to make adequate returns.
S. A. CROWTHER, Bishop, Niger Territory,
A Member of the Travelling Party.
February 20th, 1872.
 WEST-AFRICAN NATIVE BISHOPRIC FUND. APPEAL FIRST ISSUED IN 1864.
The appointment of the Rev. Samuel Crowther, D.D., as Bishop of those parts of West Africa which lie beyond the limits of the diocese of Sierra Leone, marked an era which is full of hope for the extension of Christianity by a Native Church under a Native Episcopacy.
As Native Bishop, he has large opportunities of stimulating Native zeal, if he have the means of making grants out of a fund at his own disposal, as a commencement and encouragement of local missionary efforts. For example, he will be able to encourage heathen kings and chiefs to receive and support Native teachers and schoolmasters by grants-in-aid. He will be able to receive messengers from distant kings and tribes who occasionally visit a mission station, and whom it is desirable to entertain as guests. He can engage interpreters and copyists in reducing new languages. In such, and many similar cases, if the funds of the Society were employed, there would be danger of checking that spirit of self-reliance and independent action which it is most desirable to cherish in the Native Church.
The Bishop's fund may be applied with advantage in occasionally redeeming Christian converts who have been carried into captivity in promoting native industry by the gift of cotton-gins or mechanical tools, and for other presents to chiefs; for which purposes the funds of the Church Missionary Society cannot property be employed.
There are also many extra personal expenses, such as an outfit, and journeys and voyages, for which the fund will be available.
It is the Bishop's wish that all contributions to this fund should be paid into the hands of the Treasurers in London, with whom he proposes to communicate from time to time as to the appropriation of the fund, and to whom he will transmit an annual account of the expenditure, and notices of the missionary operations which it has helped to sustain.
Treasurers of the Fund, J. Gurney Hoare, Esq., T. Fowell Buxton, Esq., and the Rev. Henry Venn. Contributions to be paid to the "West-African Native Bishopric Fund," Messrs. Barnett, Hoare, and Co., Bankers, Lombard Street, E.C.
 Statement by Bishop Crowther of the Expenditure of the West-African
Native Bishopric Fund, May, 1870.
After my consecration in 1864, some Christian friends were kind enough to contribute a certain sum of money, placed at my disposal, to be used as needs might require, in helping forward the cause of the Mission, by helping the native chiefs to build preaching-places in their countries, by encouraging industry, or relieving any aggravated cases of distress in slavery.
The money thus contributed was deposited in the hands of trustees in London; to distinguish it from other funds, it was called the West-African Native Bishopric Fund, to be drawn from as occasion required.
From this fund the Bonny Mission, in the Oil River, in the Bight of Biafra, was established in 1865, at which place a temporary mud-wall school chapel, a native mud-wall dwelling-house for the schoolmasters and boarders, and a house for the catechist, in which I have a room for my lodging during my periodical visit, have been put up. The number of school children is thirty-one, and the congregation at Divine worship on the Lord's day is eighty. Three native teachers are employed here.
In 1867 a similar Mission was established at Brass River, supplied with accommodations for school and teachers, as at Bonny, but of boards instead of mud. The number of school children at this station is forty-three, and attendants at Divine worship on the Lord's day are 106. Three native teachers are employed here also.
From the fund the Igbessa Station has been taken up, where two native teachers are now stationed. About twelve converts have been taught the art of brick-making and sawing of boards and scantlings, preparatory to the building of the Otta mud-wall church. The brickmakers have already produced 36,000 well-made and hard-burnt bricks, with which the pastor's house has been built by way of experiment; they are busy making bricks for the church, to be rebuilt at the next dry season.
Among the acts of relieving the unfortunate oppressed from slavery may be mentioned that of Mr. Doherty, from the cruel hand of the King of Dahomey, through the exertions of our Administrator Captain Glover, who sent Mr. Thomas Tickle to Abomey, and effectually obtained Mr. Doherty's ransom, who has since been restored to his family and his Mission-work at Lagos. To effect this the value of £50 was laid out in cotton-gins and other presents to the King of Dahomey.
 The expenditures of these Missions during the last five years amounts to £3298 15 2
Contributed to as follows:--
The King and Chiefs of Bonny £339 11 11
Ditto ditto Brass £167 0 0
Supercargoes, Bonny River, £26 12 8
Ditto Brass River £34 2 0
Christians at Fernando Po £25 0 0
A Friend at Old Calabar River £5 0 0
Contributions at Lagos £69 11 5
Contributions and Sale of Fancy Articles, being Proceeds of Missionary Leaves, Reading £125 14 8
Contributions from Canada and Sydney, in Autralasia £54 10 0
Contributions in England £2451 12 6
Applications are made by other chiefs to establish similar Mission Stations among their people, but the fund is exhausted.
S. A. CROWTHER,
Bishop, Niger Territory.
May 30th, 1870.
Statement by the Treasurers, August, 1872.
In answer to this second appeal a sum of above £1,300 has been contributed to the fund: this has all been expended upon the support of the Bonny and Brass Stations and upon other objects originally contemplated as dependent upon the fund. The fund is now wholly exhausted, and the friends of Bishop Crowther's Mission are earnestly invited to contribute to the sustentation of the work in which he is engaged. A further account of receipts and expenditure will be shortly issued to the subscribers.
Contributions to be paid to the "West-African Native Bishopric Fund," Messrs. Barnett, Hoare, & Co., Bankers, Lombard Street, E.C.